US20050154261A1 - Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion - Google Patents

Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20050154261A1
US20050154261A1 US11019963 US1996304A US2005154261A1 US 20050154261 A1 US20050154261 A1 US 20050154261A1 US 11019963 US11019963 US 11019963 US 1996304 A US1996304 A US 1996304A US 2005154261 A1 US2005154261 A1 US 2005154261A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
endoscope
tendons
segment
tendon
segments
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11019963
Inventor
Robert Ohline
Joseph Tartaglia
Amir Belson
Alex Roth
Wade Keller
Scott Anderson
Chris Julian
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Intuitive Surgical Inc
Original Assignee
Neoguide Systems Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/00112Connection or coupling means
    • A61B1/00121Connectors, fasteners and adapters, e.g. on the endoscope handle
    • A61B1/00128Connectors, fasteners and adapters, e.g. on the endoscope handle mechanical, e.g. for tubes or pipes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/00002Operational features of endoscopes
    • A61B1/00004Operational features of endoscopes characterised by electronic signal processing
    • A61B1/00006Operational features of endoscopes characterised by electronic signal processing of control signals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/00002Operational features of endoscopes
    • A61B1/00057Operational features of endoscopes provided with means for testing or calibration
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/00147Holding or positioning arrangements
    • A61B1/0016Holding or positioning arrangements using motor drive units
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/005Flexible endoscopes
    • A61B1/0051Flexible endoscopes with controlled bending of insertion part
    • A61B1/0052Constructional details of control elements, e.g. handles
    • A61B1/0053Constructional details of control elements, e.g. handles using distributed actuators, e.g. artificial muscles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/005Flexible endoscopes
    • A61B1/0051Flexible endoscopes with controlled bending of insertion part
    • A61B1/0057Constructional details of force transmission elements, e.g. control wires
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/005Flexible endoscopes
    • A61B1/01Guiding arrangements therefore
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/31Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor for the rectum, e.g. proctoscopes, sigmoidoscopes, colonoscopes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/06Devices, other than using radiation, for detecting or locating foreign bodies ; determining position of probes within or on the body of the patient
    • A61B5/065Determining position of the probe employing exclusively positioning means located on or in the probe, e.g. using position sensors arranged on the probe
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/005Flexible endoscopes
    • A61B1/0058Flexible endoscopes using shape-memory elements
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/30Surgical robots
    • A61B2034/301Surgical robots for introducing or steering flexible instruments inserted into the body, e.g. catheters or endoscopes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/70Manipulators specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/74Manipulators with manual electric input means
    • A61B2034/741Glove like input devices, e.g. "data gloves"
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/70Manipulators specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/74Manipulators with manual electric input means
    • A61B2034/742Joysticks

Abstract

A steerable, tendon-driven endoscope is described herein. The endoscope has an elongated body with a manually or selectively steerable distal portion and an automatically controlled, segmented proximal portion. The steerable distal portion and the segment of the controllable portion are actuated by at least two tendons. As the endoscope is advanced, the user maneuvers the distal portion, and a motion controller actuates tendons in the segmented proximal portion so that the proximal portion assumes the selected curve of the selectively steerable distal portion. By this method the selected curves are propagated along the endoscope body so that the endoscope largely conforms to the pathway selected. When the endoscope is withdrawn proximally, the selected curves can propagate distally along the endoscope body. This allows the endoscope to negotiate tortuous curves along a desired path through or around and between organs within the body.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/790,204 entitled “Steerable Endoscope and Improved Method of Insertion” filed Feb. 20, 2001, which claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/194,140 entitled the same and filed Apr. 3, 2000, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates generally to endoscopes and endoscopic procedures. More particularly, it relates to a method and apparatus to facilitate insertion of a flexible endoscope along a tortuous path, such as for colonoscopic examination and treatment.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • An endoscope is a medical instrument for visualizing the interior of a patient's body. Endoscopes can be used for a variety of different diagnostic and interventional procedures, including colonoscopy, bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy, laparoscopy and video endoscopy.
  • Colonoscopy is a medical procedure in which a flexible endoscope, or colonoscope, is inserted into a patient's colon for diagnostic examination and/or surgical treatment of the colon. A standard colonoscope is typically 135-185 cm in length and 12-19 mm in diameter, and includes a fiberoptic imaging bundle or a miniature camera located at the instrument's tip, illumination fibers, one or two instrument channels that may also be used for insufflation or irrigation, air and water channels, and vacuum channels. The colonoscope is inserted via the patient's anus and is advanced through the colon, allowing direct visual examination of the colon, the ileocecal valve and portions of the terminal ileum.
  • Insertion of the colonoscope is complicated by the fact that the colon represents a tortuous and convoluted path. Considerable manipulation of the colonoscope is often necessary to advance the colonoscope through the colon, making the procedure more difficult and time consuming and adding to the potential for complications, such as intestinal perforation. Steerable colonoscopes have been devised to facilitate selection of the correct path though the curves of the colon. However, as the colonoscope is inserted farther into the colon, it becomes more difficult to advance the colonoscope along the selected path. At each turn, the wall of the colon must maintain the curve in the colonoscope. The colonoscope rubs against the mucosal surface of the colon along the outside of each turn. Friction and slack in the colonoscope build up at each turn, making it more and more difficult to advance and withdraw, and can result in looping of the colonoscope. In addition, the force against the wall of the colon increases with the buildup of friction. In cases of extreme tortuosity, it may become impossible to advance the colonoscope all of the way through the colon.
  • Steerable endoscopes, catheters and insertion devices for medical examination or treatment of internal body structures are described in the following U.S. patents, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety: U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,054,128; 4,543,090; 4,753,223; 4,873,965; 5,174,277; 5,337,732; 5,383,852; 5,487,757; 5,624,380; and 5,662,587.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The following is a description of steerable endoscopes for the examination of a patient's colon, other internal bodily cavities, or other internal body spaces with minimal impingement upon the walls of those organs. One variation of the steerable endoscope described herein has a segmented, elongated body with a manually or selectively steerable distal portion (at least one segment) and an automatically controlled proximal portion. The selectively steerable distal portion can be flexed in any direction by controlling the tension on tendons, e.g., cables, wires, etc., from their proximal ends; these tendons are routed selectively throughout the length of the endoscope. The controllable proximal portion of the endoscope contains at least one independently articulatable segment that can also be bent in any direction via the tendons, and can be made to assume the shape of the distal segment as the endoscope is advanced distally.
  • The selectively steerable distal portion can be selectively steered (or bent) up to, e.g., a full 180 degrees, in any direction. A fiberoptic imaging bundle and one or more illumination fibers may extend through the body from the proximal portion to the distal portion. The illumination fibers are preferably in communication with a light source, i.e., conventional light sources, which may be positioned at some external location, or other sources such as LEDs. Alternatively, the endoscope may be configured as a video endoscope with a miniature video camera, such as a CCD camera, positioned at the distal portion of the endoscope body. The video camera may be used in combination with the illumination fibers. Optionally, the body of the endoscope may also include one or two access lumens that may be used, for example, for: insufflation or irrigation, air and water channels, and vacuum channels, etc. Generally, the body of the endoscope is highly flexible so that it is able to bend around small diameter curves without buckling or kinking while maintaining the various channels intact. The endoscope can be made in a variety of sizes and configurations for other medical and industrial applications.
  • In operation, the steerable distal portion of the endoscope may be first advanced into the patient's rectum via the anus. The endoscope may be simply advanced, either manually or automatically by a motor, until the first curvature is reached. At this point, the user (e.g., a physician or surgeon) can actively control the steerable distal portion to attain an optimal curvature or shape for advancement of the endoscope. The optimal curvature or shape is the path that presents the least amount of contact or interference from the walls of the colon. In one variation, once the desired curvature has been determined, the endoscope may be advanced further into the colon such that the automatically controlled segments of the controllable portion follow the distal portion while transmitting the optimal curvature or shape proximally down the remaining segments of the controllable portion. Thus, as the instrument is advanced, it follows the path that the distal portion has defined. The operation of the controllable segments will be described in further detail below.
  • Tendons, also called tensioning members, may be used to articulate the controllable segments of the endoscope, including the distal steerable portion. Examples of appropriate tendons are push-pull cables that are flexible but minimally compressible or extensible. In one variation, this tendon is a Bowden cable where an internal cable is typically coaxially surrounded by a housing or sleeve through which the cable is free to move. Bowden cables can be used to apply either tensile or compressive forces in order to articulate the endoscope and can be actuated remotely to deliver forces as desired at locations on the endoscope.
  • In one variation using Bowden push-pull cables for the tendons, three tendons may be attached at sites equally spaced around the circumference of the controllable endoscope segment. Another variation may alternatively use two tendons, as described further below. The sleeves of the Bowden cables may be affixed at the proximal end of the segment, and the internal cables may be attached to the distal end of the same segment. Applying a tensile or compressive force to one of these internal cables causes the segment to bend in the direction of the cable being pushed or pulled. The bending is continuous and proportional to the displacement of the cable. Thus, a segment can be bent in virtually any direction using tendons by applying tension or compression on one or a combination of tendons attached to the distal end of the segment. Other variations of this invention using Bowden cables may use four or more Bowden cables spaced either equally or in specified positions around the circumference of the segment to be bent depending upon the desired articulation. A further variation may even use two Bowden cables in combination with biasing elements, e.g., springs, elastic elements, pistons, etc., to articulate the segments.
  • Another variation of the tendon uses a non-compressible, non-extensible push-pull cable in compression rather than in tension in order to bend a segment. Alternatively, a combination of tendons under both compression and tension could also be used.
  • The controllable proximal portion of the endoscope is comprised of at least one segment and preferably many segments that are each articulatable relative to one another via a controller and/or a computer located at a distance from the endoscope. In one variation, the majority of the insertable length of the endoscope comprises controllable segments. Segments are preferably non-compressible and non-expansible, and therefore maintain a constant length along their centerline when bending. An example describing such a variation may be found in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/790,204 entitled “Steerable Endoscope and Improved Method of Insertion”, which is commonly owned and incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Each of the segments may have tendons to allow for controlled motion of the segments in space. Thus, coordinating the articulation of individual tendons can bend each segment across a wide range of motion. Individual tendons can be actuated by, for example, an electromechanical motor operably connected to the proximal end of the tendon. Alternatively, pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders, pneumatic or hydraulic motors, solenoids, shape memory alloy wires, or electronic rotary actuators could be utilized to actuate the segments using the tendons.
  • Another variation of the endoscope uses ring-shaped support pieces, or vertebrae, as control rings to achieve bendable segments. A segment is comprised of a plurality of adjacent or stacked vertebrae where the vertebrae are connected to each other by jointed sections, e.g., hinged joints, giving the segment flexibility in any direction. Thus, vertebra-type control rings can be hinged to adjacent vertebrae by flanges with through holes. In one variation, pairs of hinge joints project perpendicularly from the face of each vertebra and can connect to the hinge joints of adjacent vertebrae both proximally and distally. Each pair of hinge joints allows limited motion in one axis. The hinge joints projecting from the opposite face of the vertebra are preferably located 90 degrees in rotation from the pair on the other face of the vertebra. This creates a second axis of motion in a plane perpendicular to the first. Adding additional vertebrae in this way result in a segment that could be bent in any direction. For example, approximately ten vertebrae could be linked to create one such segment. Other variations can have more or fewer vertebrae per segment.
  • In addition to hinged joints; there are other features that could be included in the control ring. Thus, the inner surface of the vertebra could have channels forming a common lumen in the endoscope, such as for the working channels, the air and water channels, the optical fiber channels, tendons, and so forth. The vertebra could also include attachment sites for the tendons, including the sleeve and inner cable of the Bowden cable embodiments. Further, the outer edge of the control ring could include channels for holding tendons that control more distal segments. These channels could provide methods of arranging and organizing such tendons. For example, in another variation, the tendons controlling more distal segments are helically wound around the outer surface of more proximal segments as the tendons project proximally to the controller. Such helical winding could prevent unintended tension on tendons controlling more distal segments when proximal segments are bent. Alternatively, the tendons can include excess “slack.” Such excess slack could also help prevent proximal segments from being constrained by bypassing tendons controlling more distal segments.
  • Another variation of the control ring omits hinged vertebrae, but instead relies on a flexible backbone throughout the endoscope, to which control rings (also called support rings) are attached at intervals. In one variation using a Bowden cable, the tendon inner cables are attached at the most distal control ring in a segment, and the tendon sleeve is attached at the most proximal control ring. The control rings may have spaces allowing components to pass through the segments, and most of the same features described for the vertebra-type control rings.
  • A proximal handle may be attached to the proximal end of the endoscope and may include imaging devices connected to the fiberoptic imaging bundle for direct viewing and/or for connection to a video camera or a recording device. The handle may be connected to other devices, e.g., illumination sources and one or several luer lock fittings for connection to various instrument channels. The handle may also be connected to a steering control mechanism for controlling the steerable distal portion. The handle may optionally have the steering controller integrated directly into the handle, e.g., in the form of a joystick, conventional disk controller using dials or wheels, etc.
  • As the endoscope is advanced or withdrawn axially, a depth referencing device, or axial transducer, may be used to measure the relative current depth (axial position) of the endoscope. This axial motion transducer can be made in many possible configurations, such as devices that work by contacting, signaling, or communicating to the endoscope. For example, as the body of the endoscope slides through the transducer, it produces a signal indicating the axial position of the endoscope body with respect to the fixed point of reference. This measure corresponds to the depth of the endoscope within the body cavity. The transducer may also use non-contact methods for measuring the axial position of the endoscope body, such as optical, capacitive, resistive, radio frequency or magnetic detection.
  • Another variation of the endoscope is fully articulatable over its entire length. Thus, for example, if the endoscope is a standard length of 180 cm, a total of 18 segments (including the steerable distal end), each 10 cm long, could be combined to create a fully articulating, controllable endoscope. In an alternative variation, a passive region proximal to the automatically controlled proximal region could be made of a flexible tubing member that can conform to an infinite variety of shapes.
  • In this variation, the entire assembly, i.e. segments, tendons, etc., may be encased in a sheath or covering of a biocompatible material, e.g. a polymer, that is also preferably lubricious to allow for minimal friction resistance during endoscope insertion and advancement into a patient. Because the endoscope is used medically, it may be desirable that this covering being removable, replaceable and/or sterilizable.
  • Similarly, it is desirable that the endoscope be easily disconnected from the controller. The tendons projecting proximally from the segments of the endoscope are collectable in a umbilicus that has an interface which couples with a controller unit containing the actuators, e.g., motors, that apply force to the tendons. This interface may be a quick-disconnect mechanism between the tendons and the controller. One variation of the quick-disconnect mechanism is a “nail head” positionable in a slot design in which the terminus of each tendon cable is configured into, e.g., a flattened protrusion. An array of such tendons at the end of the umbilicus mates with an interface on the controller. The flattened tendon ends may be fitted into corresponding slots defined in the controller housing. The corresponding fit enables the tendon ends to be removably secured within their respective slots and thereby allows the actuators to apply force to specific tendons. Further, the controller can determine the shape of a segment based on the tension being applied by its controlling tendons. The controller can also be adapted to determine segment configuration based upon the position of the cable relative to the cable housing. Moreover, the controller may be further adapted to sense the amount of rotation or linear movement of the controlling tendons and can determine segment configuration based upon this data.
  • Many alternatives of the quick-disconnect mechanism are contemplated by this invention. Another variation has a mating connector with pins that couple to dimpled receptors; motions of the pins against the receptor are translated into motion of the tendons, e.g. using levers, gears or gear racks, or threaded couplings.
  • A typical endoscope has a diameter less than 20 mm, although various industrial applications may utilize endoscopes having a diameter greater than 20 mm. Likewise, one variation of this invention also has a radial dimension of less than 20 mm. In another variation of the invention, the radius of more distal segments decreases in a telescope-like fashion. This allows the steerable distal portion to have a much smaller radius, e.g., 12.5 mm, than the more proximal segments. In this variation, the larger radius of more proximal segments provides increased space for tendons from distal segments.
  • Another alternative variation of this invention uses fewer segments by having segments of different lengths. Thus, more distally located segments can be made shorter, e.g., the most distal segment can have a length of 6 cm, and more proximally located segments increasingly longer, e.g., up to 20 cm length for the most proximal segment. This variation modifies the way selected curves are propagated by the advancement of the endoscope, resulting in an “averaging” or smoothing of the curve as it propagates down the scope. In this variation, a special algorithm can be used to coordinate the automation of the differently sized segments.
  • One method of propagating the selected turns of the steerable tip along the body of the endoscope involves having the endoscope follow the pathway selected by the user as it is advanced or withdrawn from the body. This method begins by inserting the distal end of the endoscope into a patient, either through a natural orifice or through an incision, and steering the selectively steerable distal portion to select a desired path. When the endoscope body is advanced or inserted further into the patient's body, the electronic controller registers the motion and controls the proximal portion of the endoscope to assume the curve selected by the user when the steerable distal tip was in approximately the same position within the body. Similarly, when the endoscope is withdrawn proximally, the selected curves are propagated distally along the endoscope body, either automatically or passively.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 shows a representation of a conventional endoscope in use.
  • FIG. 2 shows a variation of the tendon driven endoscope of the present invention
  • FIG. 3A shows the range of motion of a controllable segment of the present invention actuated by three tendons.
  • FIGS. 3B to 3F show the use of three tendons to actuate a controllable segment used in the endoscope of the present invention.
  • FIG. 4A and 4B show the use of two tendons to actuate a controllable segment in the endoscope of the present invention.
  • FIG. 4C and 4D show the use of four tendons to actuate a controllable segment in the endoscope of the present invention.
  • FIG. 5 shows a partial schematic representation of a single tendon bending a segment.
  • FIGS. 6A and 6B show an end view and a side view, respectively, of a vertebra-type control ring which may be used to form the controllable segments of the endoscope of the present invention.
  • FIG. 6C shows a side view of interconnected vertebra-type control rings used to form the controllable segments of the endoscope of the present invention.
  • FIG. 6D and 6E show a side view and a perspective view, respectively, of another embodiment of a vertebra-type control ring.
  • FIG. 7A shows a perspective view of an endoscope device variation with the outer layers removed to reveal the control rings and backbone.
  • FIG. 7B shows an end view of a variation of the control ring for an endoscope of the present invention.
  • FIGS. 8A to 8C illustrate advancing the tendon driven endoscope of the present invention through a tortuous path.
  • FIG. 9 shows a variation of the tendon driven endoscope of the present invention that has segments of differing diameters.
  • FIG. 10 shows a variation of the tendon-driven endoscope of the present invention that has segments of different length.
  • FIG. 11A shows a variation of a quick-release mechanism for attaching and detaching the tendon driven endoscope from the actuators that relies on pins to actuate the tendons.
  • FIG. 11B shows a second variation of a quick-release mechanism for attaching and detaching the tendon driven endoscope from the actuators that relies on a nail-head configuration to actuate the tendons.
  • FIGS. 12A to 12E illustrate a representative example of advancing an endoscope through a patient's colon using a tendon driven endoscope of the present invention.
  • FIG. 12F illustrates a variation on withdrawing the tendon driven endoscope of the present invention.
  • FIG. 13 shows a flow diagram for initializing or re-initializing an endoscopic device during a procedure.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • FIG. 1 shows a prior art colonoscope 10 being employed for a colonoscopic examination of a patient's colon C. The colonoscope 10 has a proximal handle 16 and an elongate body 12 with a steerable distal portion 14. The body 12 of the colonoscope 10 has been lubricated and inserted into the colon C via the patient's anus A. Utilizing the steerable distal portion 14 for guidance, the body 12 of the colonoscope 10 has been maneuvered through several turns in the patient's colon C to the ascending colon G. Typically, this involves a considerable amount of manipulation by pushing, pulling and rotating the colonoscope 10 from the proximal end to advance it through the turns of the colon C. After the steerable distal portion 14 has passed, the walls of the colon C maintains the curve in the flexible body 12 of the colonoscope 10 as it is advanced. Friction develops along the body 12 of the colonoscope 10 as it is inserted, particularly at each turn in the colon C. Because of the friction, when the user attempts to advance the colonoscope 10, the body 12′ tends to move outward at each curve, pushing against the wall of the colon C, which exacerbates the problem by increasing the friction and making it more difficult to advance the colonoscope 10. On the other hand, when the colonoscope 10 is withdrawn, the body 12″ tends to move inward at each curve taking up the slack that developed when the colonoscope 10 was advanced. When the patient's colon C is extremely tortuous, the distal end of the body 12 becomes unresponsive to the user's manipulations, and eventually it may become impossible to advance the colonoscope 10 any farther. In addition to the difficulty that it presents to the user, tortuosity of the patient's colon also increases the risk of complications, such as intestinal perforation.
  • FIG. 2 shows a variation of the tendon driven endoscope 20 of the present invention. The endoscope 20 has an elongate body 21 with a manually or selectively steerable distal portion 24, an automatically controlled portion 28, and a flexible and passively manipulated proximal portion 22, which may be optionally omitted from the device. The steerable distal portion 24 can be articulated by hand or with mechanical assistance from actuators. The automatically controlled portion 28 is segmented, and each segment is capable of bending through a full range of steerable motion. The distal portion 24 is also a controllable segment.
  • The selectively steerable distal portion 24 can be selectively steered or bent up to, e.g., a full 18020 bend in any direction 26, as shown. A fiberoptic imaging bundle 40 and one or more illumination fibers 42 may extend through the body 21 from the proximal portion 22 to the distal portion 24. Alternatively, the endoscope 20 may be configured as a video endoscope with a miniaturized video camera, such as a CCD or CMOS camera, positioned at the distal portion 24 of the endoscope body 21. The images from the video camera can be transmitted to a video monitor by a transmission cable or by wireless transmission where images may be viewed in real-time and/or recorded by a recording device onto analog recording medium, e.g., magnetic tape, or digital recording medium, e.g., compact disc, digital tape, etc. LEDs or other light sources could also be used for illumination at the distal tip of the endoscope.
  • The body 21 of the endoscope 20 may also include one or more access lumens 38 that may optionally be used for illumination fibers for providing a light source, insufflation or irrigation, air and water channels, and vacuum channels. Generally, the body 21 of the endoscope 20 is highly flexible so that it is able to bend around small diameter curves without buckling or kinking while maintaining the various channels intact. When configured for use as a colonoscope, the body 21 of the endoscope 20 may range typically from 135 to 185 cm in length and about 13-19 mm in diameter. The endoscope 20 can be made in a variety of other sizes and configurations for other medical and industrial applications.
  • The controllable portion 28 is composed of at least one segment 30, and preferably several segments 30, which are controllable via a computer and/or electronic controller (controller) 45 located at a distance from the endoscope 20. Each of the segments 30 has tendons mechanically connected to actuators to allow for the controlled motion of the segments 30 in space. The actuators driving the tendons may include a variety of different types of mechanisms capable of applying a force to a tendon, e.g., electromechanical motors, pneumatic and hydraulic cylinders, pneumatic and hydraulic motors, solenoids, shape memory alloy wires, electronic rotary actuators or other devices or methods as known in the art. If shape memory alloy wires are used, they are preferably configured into several wire bundles attached at a proximal end of each of the tendons within the controller. Segment articulation may be accomplished by applying energy, e.g., electrical current, heat, etc., to each of the bundles to actuate a linear motion in the wire bundles which in turn actuate the tendon movement. The linear translation of the actuators within the controller may be configured to move over a relatively short distance, e.g., within a few inches or less such as ±1 inch, to accomplish effective articulation depending upon the desired degree of segment movement and articulation.
  • It is preferable that the length of the insertable portion of the endoscope comprises controllable segments 30, although a passive proximal portion 22 can also be used. This proximal portion 22 is preferably a flexible tubing member that may conform to an infinite variety of shapes, and may be made from a variety of materials such as thermoset and thermoplastic polymers which are used for fabricating the tubing of conventional endoscopes.
  • Each segment 30 preferably defines at least one lumen running throughout to provide an access channel through which wires, optical fibers, air and/or water channels, various endoscopic tools, or any variety of devices and wires may be routed. A polymeric covering, or sheath, 39 may also extend over the body of the endoscope 21 including the controllable portion 28 and steerable distal portion 24. This sheath 39 can preferably provide a smooth transition between the controllable segments 30, the steerable distal portion 24, and the flexible tubing of proximal portion 22.
  • A handle 32 may be attached to the proximal end of the endoscope. The handle 32 may include an ocular connected to the fiberoptic imaging bundle 42 for direct viewing. The handle 32 may otherwise have a connector 54 for connection to a video monitor, camera, e.g., a CCD or CMOS camera, or a recording device 52. The handle 32 may be connected to an illumination source 43 by an illumination cable 44 that is connected to or continuous with the illumination fibers 42. Alternatively, some or all of these connections could be made at the controller 45. Luer lock fittings 34 may be located on the handle 32 and connected to the various instrument channels.
  • The handle 32 may be connected to a motion controller 45 by way of a controller cable 46. A steering controller 47 may be connected to the motion controller 45 by way of a second cable 48 or it may optionally be connected directly to the handle 32. Alternatively, the handle may have the steering control mechanism integrated directly into the handle, e.g., in the form of a joystick, conventional disk controllers such as dials, pulleys or wheels, etc. The steering controller 47 allows the user to selectively steer or bend the selectively steerable distal portion 24 of the body 21 in the desired direction 26. The steering controller 47 may be a joystick controller as shown, or other steering control mechanism, e.g., dual dials or rotary knobs as in conventional endoscopes, track balls, touchpads, mouse, or sensory gloves. The motion controller 45 controls the movement of the segmented automatically controlled proximal portion 28 of the body 21. This controller 45 may be implemented using a motion control program running on a microcomputer or using an application-specific motion controller. Alternatively, the controller 45 may be implemented using, e.g., a neural network controller.
  • The actuators applying force to the tendons may be included in the motion controller unit 45, as shown, or may be located separately and connected by a control cable. The tendons controlling the steerable distal portion 24 and the controllable segments 30 extend down the length of the endoscope body 21 and connect to the actuators. FIG. 2 shows a variation in which the tendons pass through the handle 32 and connect directly to the motion controller 45 via a quick-release connector 60. In this variation, the tendons are part of the control cable 46, although they could independently connect to the actuators, so long as the actuators are in communication with the controller 45.
  • An axial motion transducer (also called a depth referencing device or datum) 49 may be provided for measuring the axial motion, i.e., the depth change, of the endoscope body 21 as it is advanced and withdrawn. The depth referencing device 49 can be made in many possible configurations. For example, the axial motion transducer 49 in FIG. 2 is configured as a ring 49 that may surround the body 21 of the endoscope 20. The axial motion transducer 49 is preferably attached to a fixed point of reference, such as the surgical table or the insertion point for the endoscope 20 on the patient's body. As the body 21 of the endoscope 20 slides through the axial motion transducer 49, it indicates the axial position of the endoscope body 21 with respect to the fixed point of reference and sends a signal to the electronic controller 45 by telemetry or by a cable. The axial motion transducer 49 may use optical, electronic, magnetic, radio frequency or mechanical methods to measure the axial position of the endoscope body 21.
  • When the endoscope body 21 is advanced or withdrawn, the axial motion transducer 49 detects the change in position and signals the motion controller 45. The controller can use this information to propagate the selected curves proximally or distally along the controllable portion 28 of the endoscope body 21 to keep the endoscope actively following the pathway selected by the user steering the distal portion 24. The axial motion transducer 49 also allows for the incrementing of a current depth within the colon C by the measured change in depth. This allows the endoscope body 21 to be guided through tortuous curves without putting unnecessary force on the wall of the colon C.
  • A more detailed description on the construction and operation of a variation of the segments may be found in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/969,927 entitled “Steerable Segmented Endoscope and Method of Insertion” filed Oct. 2, 2001, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • FIG. 3A shows an example of the resulting segment articulation which may be possible through the use of two or three tendons to articulate the controllable segments, including the steerable distal section. FIG. 3A shows one example of a possible range of motion of a controllable segment of the present invention actuated, in this example, by three tendons. A segment in the relaxed, upright position 301 can be bent in virtually any direction relative to the x-y plane. The figure, as an illustrative example, shows a segment 302 that has been bent down and at an angle relative to its original position 301. The angles α and β describe the bend assumed by the segment. Angle β gives the angle in the x-y plane, while α is the angle describing the motion in the x-z plane. In one variation, the controllable segments of the endoscope can bend through all 360 degrees in the β angle and up to 90 degrees in the α angle. An angle α greater than 90 degrees would result in looping of the endoscope. In FIG. 3A, the segment is shown bent approximately 45 degrees along angle α. The freedom of movement of a segment is, in part, determined by the articulation method, the size of the segment, the materials from which it is constructed, and the manner in which it is constructed, among others. Some of these factors are discussed herein.
  • The steerable distal portion, as well as the endoscope and the controllable segments are bendable but preferably not compressible or expansible. Thus, in FIG. 3A, the centerline 304 of the relaxed segment 301 is approximately the same length as the centerline 306 of the segment after bending 302.
  • FIGS. 3B to 3F show the use of three tendons to actuate a controllable segment used in an endoscope of the present invention. The tendons shown in this example are all Bowden type cables 310 that have an internal cable 312 coaxially surrounded by a housing or sleeve 314 in which the cable is free to move. Bowden cables can be used to apply either tensile or compressive forces, i.e., they may be pushed or pulled, to articulate the endoscope and can be actuated remotely to deliver forces as desired at locations along the endoscope. Force from a tendon is exerted across or through the segment by attaching the tendon cable at the distal end of the segment 320 and the tendon housing 314 at the proximal end of the segment 322. FIG. 3B shows a view of the top of the segment with three attachment sites for the tendon cables indicated 320.
  • In one variation, three tendons are used to actuate each segment, including the steerable distal portion, although four or more tendons could be used. Three tendons can reliably articulate a segment in any direction without having to rotate the segment or endoscope about its longitudinal axis. The three cable tendons 312 are preferably attached at the distal end of the segment 320 close to the segment's edge, spaced equally apart. In FIG. 3B, tendons are attached at the two o'clock, six o'clock and 10 o'clock positions. It is desirable to use fewer tendons, because of space concerns, since the tendons controlling each segment project proximally to the actuators. Thus, two tendons could be used to control a segment. It may also be desirable to include one or more biasing element, e.g., a spring, to assist in articulating a segment in three dimensions. In another variation, two tendons may be used to articulate a segment in three dimensional space by controlling motion in two directions while rotating the segment about its longitudinal axis.
  • FIG. 3C shows a relaxed segment with three tendons attached. The tendon sleeves 314 are shown attached to the proximal end of the segment 322 directly below the corresponding cable attachment sites. FIGS. 3D to 3F show this segment bent by each of the controlling tendons 310 separately.
  • As shown in FIG. 3D, applying tension by pulling on the first tendon 330 results in a bending in the direction of the first tendon 330. That is, looking down on the top of the unbent segment (as in FIG. 3B), if the first tendon is attached at the six o'clock position, then pulling on just this tendon results in bending the segment towards the six o'clock position. Likewise, in FIG. 3E, putting tension only on a second tendon 332 attached at the two o'clock position results in bending the segment towards the two o'clock direction. Finally, pulling on the tendon in the ten o'clock position 334 bends the segment towards the ten o'clock direction. In all cases, the bending is continuous; the greater the tension applied, the further the bending (the α angle, in the x-z plane of FIG. 3A). A segment can be bent in any direction by pulling on individual tendons or a combination of two tendons. Thus, to bend the segment in the twelve o'clock direction, both the second 332 and the third 334 tendon could be pulled with equal force. Alternatively, first tendon 330 in the six o'clock position may be pushed either alone or in combination with second 332 and third tendons 334 being pulled to result in the same configuration.
  • FIG. 4A and 4B show a variation in which a segment is articulated by two tendons and one biasing element. FIG. 4A shows a planar top view of the segment. The attachment sites for the biasing element 340 and the two tendons 320 are spaced around the perimeter of the distal end of the segment as shown. The tendons 320 may be attached at the two o'clock and ten o'clock positions, looking down on the top of the section, and the biasing element 340 is attached at the six o'clock position. FIG. 4B shows a perspective view of the segment in the unbent configuration. In this variation, the biasing element is configured to apply tension to the side of the segment such that it will bend towards the six o'clock position. The biasing element can be any element that can apply compressive or tensile forces across the segment, e.g. a spring, elastic element, a piston, etc. The segment is held in the neutral or unbent position shown in FIG. 4B by applying tension from both tendons 312. Controlling the amount of tension applied by the tendons results in bending of the segment in three dimensional space. More than one biasing element could also be used with two or more tendons. For example, a biasing element could be located opposite each tendon.
  • Alternatively, if the tendon is a push-pull cable, and each tendon can apply compression as well as tension, then two tendons can control the motion of segment without any biasing element at all.
  • More than three tendons can also be used to control the bending of a segment. FIG. 4C shows a top planar view of a segment that is controlled by four tendons attached in the eleven o'clock, two o'clock, five o'clock and eight o'clock positions. As with the three-tendon embodiment, tension applied on one or a combination of the tendons results in shortening the side of the segment. Thus, if tension is applied only on the tendon attached distally at the eleven o'clock position 355, the corresponding side of the tendon will shorten, and the segment will bend in the eleven o'clock direction.
  • In all these variations, the circumferential locations of the tendons and/or biasing elements are illustrative and are not intended to be limited to the examples described herein. Rather, they may be varied according to the desired effects as understood by one of skill in the art.
  • FIG. 5 shows a partial schematic representation of a single tendon bending a segment. For clarity, the other parts of a complete endoscope, including other tendons and segments, have been omitted from FIG. 5. Tension applied to a tendon cable is transferred across the entire segment, resulting in bending. By using a Bowden cable 310 whose sleeve 314 is attached to the base 322 of the segment and also fixed at the proximal actuator end 403, only the intended segment 401 is bent by applying tension to the tendon 312, and more proximal segments are unaffected. The tendon is placed in tension by the actuator 410, which is shown, in this variation, as a motor pulling on the tendon cable 312.
  • Linked control rings may provide the flexible structure needed to construct the steerable distal portion and the controllable segments. Two examples of the types of control rings that may be utilized are shown. The first is shown in FIG. 6A which shows a vertebra-type control ring that forms the controllable segments of the present invention. FIG. 6A shows an end view of a single vertebra. Each ring-shaped vertebra 501 can define a central channel or aperture 504 or apertures that can collectively form the internal lumen of the device as previously described. The vertebrae may have two pairs of hinges; the first pair 506 projecting perpendicularly from a first face of the vertebra and a second pair 508, located 90 degrees around the circumference from the first pair, projecting perpendicularly away from the face of the vertebra on a second face of the vertebra opposite to the first face. The hinges shown in FIGS. 6A and 6B are tab-shaped, however other shapes may also be used.
  • The vertebra control ring in FIG. 6A is shown with three holes 510 through the edge of the vertebra that may act, e.g., as attachment sites for the tendon cable 312 if the vertebra is the most distal vertebra in a segment, or as a throughway for a tendon cable that can actuate the segment in which the vertebra is used. These holes 510 can also be used to attach the sleeve of the Bowden-type tendon cable 314 when the vertebra is the most proximal control disk in a segment. Alternatively, rather than a hole 510, the attachment sites could be a recess or other specialized shape. Although FIG. 6A shows three holes 510, the number of holes may depend upon the number of tendons used to control the segment to which the vertebra belongs. Since the holes 510 may be used as attachment sites for the tendons, there are as many holes as there are tendons controlling the segment.
  • The outer edge of the vertebra in FIG. 6A may be scalloped to provide spaces 512 for tendon housings of tendons that control more distal segments and bypass the vertebra. These tendon bypass spaces preferably conform to the outer diameter of the tendons used. The number of tendon bypass spaces 512 may vary depending on the number of tendons. Also, the orientation of the tendon bypass spaces may be varied if it is desirable to vary the way in which the bypassing tendons are wound around the endoscope. For example, the spaces 512′ in FIG. 6C are oriented at an angle relative to the longitudinal axis of the vertebra, allowing the tendons to wind around the body of the endoscope as they project proximally. Furthermore, the tendon bypass spaces could be lubricated or composed of a lubricious material in order to facilitate free movement of the bypassing tendons across the segment, and prevent interference between the bending of the segment and the bypassing tendons.
  • FIG. 6B and 6C show side views of the same vertebra as FIG. 6A. The two pairs of hinge joints 508, 506 are shown. Hinge joints 508, 506 are preferably located 90 degrees apart and extend axially so that the hinge joints can pivotally mate with hinge joints from adjacent vertebrae. This mating 520 with adjacent vertebrae is more clearly seen in FIG. 6C. These hinges can be joined, pinned, or connected through the holes 525 as shown 522. Alternatively, hinges may also be made from materials utilizing, e.g., thermoplastics, shape memory alloys, etc. Once hinged, each vertebra can rotate relative to an adjoining vertebra in one axis. However, because vertebrae are hinged to each other in directions alternating by 90 degrees, an assembly of multiple vertebrae is able to move in virtually any direction. The greater the number of vertebrae joined in this manner, the greater the range of motion. In one embodiment, two to ten vertebrae are used to comprise one segment, achieving a length of around 4 cm to 10 cm per segment. The dimensions of both the vertebrae and the hinge joints can be varied, e.g., longer hinge joints will have a greater bending radius when joined to another vertebra. Furthermore, the number of vertebrae per segment can vary, e.g. more than ten vertebrae could be used.
  • FIG. 6D and 6E show another variation of a vertebra in sectional and perspective views, respectively. In FIG. 6D and 6E, the tendons that bypass the segment may be contained within the body of the vertebra in a tendon bypassing space 550 rather than along the outer edge of the vertebra as shown in FIG. 6A. The vertebra of FIG. 6D and 6E show four tendon bypassing spaces 550, and each space can hold approximately fifteen bypassing tendon sleeves. The number, shape and sizes of the tendon bypassing spaces can be varied. For example, a vertebra could have two tendon bypassing spaces that could hold more than thirty-five tendon sleeves. Moreover, the tendon bypassing space could also be located on the inside of the central aperture or lumen of the vertebra 504.
  • Although FIG. 6D shows tendon sleeves holding only a single tendon cable 560, more than one tendon cable could be contained in a tendon housing or sleeve. For example, if three tendons articulate a segment, all three tendons could be contained in a single tendon housing. Such a combined tendon housing could further utilize lubrication to accommodate independent movement by individual tendon cables and/or could be divided into compartments that isolate the tendons within the housing.
  • FIG. 6E also shows a perspective view of the hinge joints 506, 508 that can pivotally mate with pairs of hinge joints from adjacent vertebrae. Although FIGS. 6A and 6B shows two pairs of hinge joints projecting axially, a single hinge joint on each face of the vertebra could also be used. Moreover, as long as the hinge joints can pivotally mate with adjacent vertebrae, the hinge joints can be located at different radial locations from the center of the vertebra. For example, the pairs of hinge joints shown in FIGS. 6A to 6C are located closer to the center of the vertebra than the hinge joints in FIG. 6D and 6E.
  • FIG. 7 shows a second variation of control ring. The variation shown in the figure utilizes a flexible backbone 601 preferably made of a material that is relatively non-compressible and non-extensible, to which control rings 602 are attached at intervals. This structure allows bending in a continuous curve in any desired direction. FIG. 7A shows a side view of one controllable segment of this variation with the outer layers removed to show the control rings and backbone. Multiple control rings 602 may be attached to the flexible backbone at regular intervals. Fewer or more control rings could be used to comprise a single segment depending upon the desired degree of articulation. The tendon cable 312 attaches to the most distal control ring of the segment 604. As with the vertebra-type variation, this central backbone embodiment is shown actuated by three tendons 310 attached at sites equally spaced around the edge of the most distal control ring of the segment 604. The tendon cables controlling the segment 312 pass through spaces or holes 610 defined in the control rings 602 through which they are free to move. These holes 610 could be lubricated, lined with a lubricious material or the control rings 602 may be composed of some lubricious material to facilitate cable motion through the holes 610. The tendon sleeve preferably attaches at a location 614 to the most proximal control ring in the segment 612. When a tendon 312 is placed under tension, this force is distributed along the entire segment. Because the inner tendon cable 312 is freely slidable within the tendon sleeve 314, and the tendon sleeve is fixed at both ends of the tendon 614, pulling on the tendon cable causes bending only in the selected segment.
  • FIG. 7A also shows the first control ring of a more proximal segment 604′. The tendons controlling the more distal segment may pass over the outside of the more proximal segments as they project proximally to the actuators. The outer edge of the control rings for the flexible backbone embodiment are shown with channels or tendon bypassing spaces 616 for bypassing tendons, as seen in FIG. 7B. As with the vertebra-type control rings, these tendon bypassing spaces could also be located within the control ring, for example, in an enclosed tendon bypassing space.
  • FIG. 7B shows an end view of control ring 602 which may be used with the flexible backbone embodiment of the endoscope. The center of the control ring contains a channel through which the flexible backbone 601 can be attached. A number of additional channels through the control ring 618 are also shown. These channels can be aligned with channels in neighboring control rings to form an internal lumen or channel for a fiber optic imaging bundle, illumination fibers, etc. as discussed above. Moreover, adjacent control rings may be spaced adjacently to one another at uniform or various distances depending upon the desired degree of bending or control. FIG. 7B shows three equally spaced holes 610 through which the tendon cable can pass; these holes 610 could also be used as attachment sites for the tendon cable, e.g., when the control ring is the most distal control ring in the segment 604, or for the tendon cable sleeve, e.g. when the control ring is the most proximal control ring in the segment 612. These holes 610 could be shaped specifically to receive either the tendon end or the tendon sleeve. Control rings of other designs could be used for different regions of the segment, or for different segments.
  • FIGS. 8A to 8C illustrate a variation of the tendon driven endoscope navigating a tortuous path. The path 701 is shown in FIG. 8A. This pathway may represent a portion of colon, for example. In FIG. 8A, the distal tip of the device 704 approaches the designated bend. FIG. 8B shows the distal tip being steered 705 to assume the appropriate curve. This steering could be performed manually by the user, e.g. a doctor, or automatically using an automatic detection method that could determine the proximity of the walls of the pathway. As described, the bending of the steerable tip is performed by placing tension on the tendon, or combination of tendons that results in the appropriate bending.
  • The device is then advanced again in FIG. 8C; as it is advanced, the selected curve is propagated down the proximal length of the endoscope, so that the bend of the endoscope remains in relatively the same position with respect to the pathway 701. This prevents excessive contact with the walls, and allows the endoscope to move more easily along the tortuous pathway 701. The endoscope is in continuous communication with the motion controller, and the motion controller can monitor the location of the endoscope within the pathway, e.g., depth of insertion, as well as the selected bends or curves that define the pathway of the endoscope. Depth can be determined by, e.g., the axial motion transducer 49 previously described, or by more direct measurement techniques. Likewise, the shape of each segment could be determined by the tension applied to the tendons, or by direct measurement, such as direct measurement of displacement of the tendon cables. The motion controller can propagate the selected shape of a segment at a specified location, or depth, within the body, e.g., by setting the lengths of the sides of more proximal segments equal to the corresponding lengths of the sides of more distal segments as the device is moved distally. The controller can also use this information to automatically steer the body of the endoscope, or for other purposes, e.g. creating a virtual map of the endoscope pathway for analytic use.
  • In addition to measuring tendon displacement, the motion controller can also adjust for tendon stretch or compression. For example, the motion controller can control the “slack” in the tendons, particularly in tendons that are not actively under tension or compression. Allowing slack in inactive tendons reduces the amount of force that is required to articulate more proximal segments. In one variation, the umbilicus at the distal end of the endoscope may contain space to allow slack in individual tendons.
  • The bending and advancing process can be done in a stepwise or continuous manner. If stepwise, e.g., as the tendon is advanced by a segment length, the next proximal segment 706 is bent to the same shape as the previous segment or distal steerable portion. A more continuous process could also result by bending the segment incrementally as the tendon is advanced. This could be accomplished by the computer control, for example when the segments are smaller than the navigated curve.
  • Controllable segments, including the steerable distal portion, can be selected to have different dimensions, e.g., different diameters or lengths, even within the same endoscope. Segments of different dimensions may be desirable because of considerations of space, flexibility and method of bending. For example, the more segments in an endoscope, the further it can be steered within a body cavity; however, more segments require more tendons to control the segments. FIGS. 9 and 10 illustrate two variations on tendon driven endoscopes.
  • FIG. 9 shows a tendon driven endoscope variation that has segments 800 of differing diameters. More distal segments may have a smaller diameter 803 than more proximal segments, e.g., 802, 801. The diameter of a typical endoscope could decrease from, e.g., 20 mm, down to, e.g., 12.5 mm. The endoscope shown in FIG. 9 appears telescoped, as the diameter decreases distally in a stepwise manner. This design would be responsive, e.g., to internal body structures that become increasingly narrow. This design would also help accommodate bypassing tendons from more distal segments as they proceed towards the proximal actuators because of the larger diameter of the more proximal segments. FIG. 9 shows four differently sized segments; however, virtually any number of differently sized segments could be used. Moreover, although the segments appear stepped in this variation, the outer surface may be gently tapered to present a smooth outer surface decreasing in diameter towards the distal end.
  • FIG. 10 shows another variation of the tendon driven endoscope that has segments of different lengths. Using segments of different lengths may require fewer overall segments 900 to construct an equivalent length of articulatable endoscope. As shown in FIG. 10, more proximal segments 901 are increasingly longer than more distal, e.g., 902, 903, segments. For example, segment length could be decreased from 20 cm at a proximal segment down to 6 cm at a distal most segment. The lengths may be decreased incrementally segment to segment by a constant factor; alternatively, lengths may be decreased geometrically, exponentially, or arbitrarily depending upon the desired articulation. In practice this results in an “averaging” of curves by more distal segments as bends and turns are propagated proximally. In order to accomplish this, the motion controller may be configured to accommodate the differently sized segments accordingly. Alternatively, endoscopes could be comprised of a combination of segments of different length and thickness, depending upon the application.
  • The tendons that articulate the segments are in mechanical communication with the actuators. However, it may be desirable to have the insertable distal portion of the endoscope be removable from the actuators and controller, e.g., for cleaning or disinfecting. A quick-release mechanism between the proximal end of the endoscope and the actuators is an efficient way to achieve an endoscope that is easily removable, replaceable or interchangeable. For example, the proximal ends of the tendons can be organized to allow predictable attachment to corresponding actuators. The tendons may be organized into a bundle, array, or rack. This organization could also provide other advantages to the endoscope, such as allowing active or passive control of the tendon slack. Furthermore, the proximal ends of each tendon can be modified to allow attachment and manipulation, e.g., the ends of the tendons may be held in a specially configured sheath or casing.
  • FIGS. 11A and 11B show two variations on quick-release mechanisms for attaching and detaching the tendon driven endoscope from the actuators. FIG. 11A shows one variation of this quick-release mechanism. The proximal end of the tendons is bundled in an umbilicus 950, and the individual tendons terminate in dimpled connectors 962 that are held in an organized array in a connector interface 952. The connector interface 952 mates to a complementary receiving interface 956 on the structure that houses the actuators 970, e.g. as part of the controller box. The actuators may project “pins” 960 which can mate with the dimpled connectors and convey force from the actuators to the tendons. Thus, for example, an actuator may cause a pin 960 to apply pressure to a corresponding dimpled receiver 962. The dimpled receiver translates the pushing of the pin into a tensile or compressive force applied to the affiliated tendon. This could be achieved using levers to reverse the direction of the force, for example. Since every pin preferably mates to a corresponding receiver, it is desirable to maintain the register of the connectors from the endoscope and the actuators. An orientation notch 954 on the connector that fits into a receiving orientation mate 958 on the actuator could be used to align both interfaces. Alternatively, the arrangement of the pins and receptacles could be orientation specific.
  • This feature is not limited to pins and receptacles, since virtually any convenient mechanism for transferring force from the actuator to the tendons would work. FIG. 11B shows a second variation of a quick-release mechanism for attaching and detaching the tendon driven endoscope from the actuators that relies on a nail-head configuration to actuate the tendons. The tendons preferably terminate in a flattened out protrusion resembling a nail-head 972. The array of nail-heads project from the connector interface 952 at the end of the umbilicus holding the endoscope tendons 950, and can mate with slotted holes 974 on the interface 956 of the actuator mechanism 970. Thus the slotted holes 974 of the actuators can be individually retracted by the actuators to apply tension to individual tendons. The quick-release mechanism could also be designed allow users to use different tendon driven endoscopes, even of different configurations, from the same actuator and/or controller unit.
  • FIGS. 12A to 12F show the endoscope 100 of the present invention being employed for a colonoscopic examination of a patient's colon. In FIG. 12A, the endoscope body 102 has been lubricated and inserted into the patient's colon C through the anus A. The distal end 108 of the endoscope body 102 is advanced through the rectum R until the first turn in the colon C is reached, as observed through the ocular or on a video monitor. To negotiate the turn, the selectively steerable distal portion 104 of the endoscope body 102 is manually steered toward the sigmoid colon S by the user through the steering control. The control signals from the steering control to the selectively steerable distal portion 104 are monitored by the electronic motion controller 49. When the correct curve of the selectively steerable distal portion 104 for advancing the distal end 108 of the endoscope body 102 into the sigmoid colon S has been selected, the curve is logged into the memory of the controller 45 as a reference. This step can be performed in a manual mode, in which the user gives a command to the controller 45 to record the selected curve, using keyboard commands or voice commands. Alternatively, this step can be performed in an automatic mode, in which the user signals to the controller that the desired curve has been selected by advancing the endoscope body 102 distally. In this way, a three dimensional map of the colon or path may be generated and maintained for future applications.
  • In one variation, the curve is entered into the controller's memory by recording the change in lengths of the sides of the steerable distal portion after the distal portion has been articulated into the selected shape. In variations where the tendons are Bowden-type cables, the change in the length of the distal portion may be determined from the distance traveled by the tendon cable after steering the distal portion from the neutral, unbent, position. This distance traveled by the tendon cable may be determined relative to the cable housing or to another point located within the controller. Likewise, the change in lengths of the sides of any controllable segment can be determined in the same way.
  • As the endoscope is advanced distally, a curve is propagated proximally down the endoscope by setting the lengths of the sides of the more proximal segment equal to the lengths of the same sides of the steerable distal tip when the distal tip was in approximately the same axial position. In one variation the lengths of the sides are equal to the lengths of the non-extensible, non-compressible tendons. The tendons in the more proximal segment are tensioned or compressed so that the sides of the proximal segment are approximately equal in length to the recorded lengths of the sides of the distal region when it was in the same position. Alternatively, if the controllable segments are of different lengths from each other and/or the steerable distal tip, ratios of the lengths of the sides of the steerable distal tip can be used to propagate the selected curve down the endoscope rather than absolute lengths. In variations where the endoscope is withdrawn, or moved proximally, the lengths of tendons controlling more proximal segments can be used to set the lengths of the tendons controlling more distal segments.
  • Whether operated in manual mode or automatic mode, once the desired curve has been selected with the selectively steerable distal portion 104, the endoscope body 102 is advanced distally. The axial motion is detected by the axial motion transducer, or datum, and the selected curve is propagated proximally along the automatically controlled proximal portion 106 of the endoscope body 102 by the controller 45, as described above. The curve remains fixed in space while the endoscope body 102 is advanced distally through the sigmoid colon S. In a particularly tortuous colon, the selectively steerable distal portion 104 may have to be steered through multiple curves to traverse the sigmoid colon S.
  • As illustrated in FIG. 12B, the user may stop the endoscope 100 at any point for examination or treatment of the mucosal surface or any other features within the colon C. The selectively steerable distal portion 104 may be steered in any direction to examine the inside of the colon C. When the user has completed the examination of the sigmoid colon S, the selectively steerable distal portion 104 is steered in a superior direction toward the descending colon D. Once the desired curve has been selected with the selectively steerable distal portion 104, the endoscope body 102 is advanced distally into the descending colon D, and the second curve as well as the first curve are propagated proximally along the automatically controlled proximal portion 106 of the endoscope body 102, as shown in FIG. 12C.
  • If, at any time, the user decides that the path taken by the endoscope body 102 needs to be revised or corrected, the endoscope 100 may be withdrawn proximally and the controller 45 commanded to erase the previously selected curve. This can be done manually using keyboard commands or voice commands or automatically by programming the controller 45 to go into a revise mode when the endoscope body 102 is withdrawn a certain distance. The revised or corrected curve is selected using the selectively steerable distal portion 104, and the endoscope body 102 is advanced as described before. Alternatively, the user can select a “relaxed” or “reset” mode from the motion controller, allowing the automatically controllable proximal portion of the endoscope, possibly including the steerable distal tip, to be passively advanced or withdrawn.
  • The endoscope body 102 is advanced through the descending colon D until it reaches the left (splenic) flexure Fl of the colon. Here, in many cases, the endoscope body 102 must negotiate an almost 180 degree hairpin turn. As before, the desired curve is selected using the selectively steerable distal portion 104, and the endoscope body 102 is advanced distally through the transverse colon T, as shown in FIG. 12D. Each of the previously selected curves is propagated proximally along the automatically controlled proximal portion 106 of the endoscope body 102. The same procedure is followed at the right (hepatic) flexure Fr of the colon and the distal end 108 of the endoscope body 102 is advanced through the ascending colon G to the cecum E, as shown in FIG. 12E. The cecum E, the ileocecal valve V and the terminal portion of the ileum I can be examined from this point using the selectively steerable distal portion 104 of the endoscope body 102.
  • FIG. 12F shows the endoscope 100 being withdrawn through the colon C. As the endoscope 100 is withdrawn, the endoscope body 102 follows the previously selected curves by propagating the curves distally along the automatically controlled proximal portion 106, as described above. At any point, the user may stop the endoscope 100 for examination or treatment of the mucosal surface or any other features within the colon C using the selectively steerable distal portion 104 of the endoscope body 102. At any given time, the endoscope 100 may be withdrawn or back-driven by a desired distance.
  • Thus, when the endoscope 100 is withdrawn proximally, each time it is moved proximally, the automatically controlled proximal portion 106 is signaled to assume the shape that previously occupied the space that it is now in. The curve propagates distally along the length of the automatically controlled proximal portion 106 of the endoscope body 102, and the shaped curve appears to be fixed in space as the endoscope body 102 withdraws proximally. Alternatively, the segments of controlled portion 28 could be made to become flaccid and the withdrawal would then be passive.
  • To initialize or calibrate the endoscope 100, the entire system may be calibrated prior to use and even during use. During endoscope procedures, such as those described above, various errors may accumulate in the controller and/or computer. These errors may arise from a variety of factors, e.g., errors in detecting cable motion, software errors in the controller and/or computer, positioning inaccuracies, etc.
  • To account for such possible errors, the position of endoscope 100 at any arbitrary position and/or depth of insertion relative to a fixed reference point, as described above, may be utilized as an additional reference for executing the advancement and withdrawal by re-initializing the endoscope 100 and the system while endoscope 100 is in use within the body of the patient. This newly-created additional reference point may be used for advancing the endoscope 100 further past this new reference. In this case, selectably steerable distal portion 104 may be used to define new, advancing conditions, as described above.
  • In the case of withdrawing endoscope 100 relative to the re-initialized reference point, the distal portion 104 can remain under the surgeon's control. Proximal portion 106 are placed under the control of the computer and are made to conform to the positions of the more-proximal segments at each depth of insertion as endoscope 100 is withdrawn similarly to the method described above.
  • Initialization or re-initialization may be performed manually if so desired. To accomplish this, once the surgeon or technician detects excessive error accumulation in the operation of endoscope 100, or if the computer detects an error level beyond a predetermined level, the controller may be programmed to re-initialize periodically, e.g., every several seconds, several minutes, or three minutes, etc., based upon the degree of error accumulation. Alternatively, this re-initializing process may be performed at least once during an exploratory or treatment procedure or it may be performed an arbitrary number of times, again depending upon the error accumulation.
  • The controller may be configured to continuously compare the optimal position of each or several segments against achievable segment position and actuation effort. When detected discrepancies are larger than a predetermined value, a reinitialization may be performed.
  • FIG. 13 shows a flow diagram 1000 of one variation for initializing or re-initializing an endoscope device 100 during use in, e.g., a patient. Once it has been determined to initialize, e.g., prior to use, or re-initialize the device and system, an initialization or re-initialization command may be issued, as in step 1002. The endoscopic device may then be allowed to relax, i.e., no force is applied to the tendons to actuate movement of the segments, and assume a shape of the lumen or passageway in which the device is positioned, as in step 1004.
  • After the device has assumed the new positions, the new position information of the segments (and/or axes of the segments) may be logged into the computer to replace and/or supplement prior logged information with this newly logged information, as shown in step 1006. The depth of insertion may also be newly logged, as in step 1008.
  • Following logging the new positional information, it may be determined in step 1010 whether the endoscope 100 is advancing or withdrawing by sensing the motion, as described above. If the endoscope 100 is advanced, normal operations may continue as in step 1014 utilizing the newly logged information. If endoscope 100 is withdrawn, as in step 1012, the newly logged information may be used to control segments proximally located from the re-initialization reference point and normal operations may be continued, as in step 1014.
  • Although the endoscope of the present invention has been described for use as a colonoscope, the endoscope can be configured for a number of other medical and industrial applications. In addition, the present invention can also be configured as a catheter, cannula, surgical instrument or introducer sheath that uses the principles of the invention for navigating through tortuous body channels. The present invention may also be used for industrial applications such as inspection and exploratory applications within tortuous regions, e.g., machinery, pipes, etc.
  • In a variation of the method that is particularly applicable to laparoscopy or thoracoscopy procedures, the steerable endoscope can be selectively maneuvered along a desired path around and between organs in a patient's body cavity. The distal end of the endoscope may be inserted into the patient's body cavity through a natural opening, through a surgical incision or through a surgical cannula, introducer, or trocar. The selectively steerable distal portion can be used to explore and examine the patient's body cavity and to select a path around and between the patient's organs. The motion controller can be used to control the automatically controlled proximal portion to follow the selected path and, if necessary, to return to a desired location using the three-dimensional model in the electronic memory of the motion controller. Modification of the above-described assemblies and methods for carrying out the invention, and variations of aspects of the invention that are obvious to those of skill in the art are intended to be within the scope of the claims.

Claims (2)

  1. 1. An apparatus for insertion into a body cavity comprising:
    an elongated body comprising a plurality of articulatable segments and a steerable distal portion;
    a plurality of tensioning members attached to at least a majority of said segments;
    each of said segments being configurable to assume a selected shape along an arbitrary path by actuation of the tensioning members attached thereto, wherein each of said segments is articulatable by at least one of said tensioning members;
    said tensioning members extending from said segments to the priximal end of said elongated body and being coupled to an external control unit; and
    wherein said segments adjacent to one another are adapted to assume a selected shape of the adjacent segment by actuation of said tensioning members when the elongated body is advanced distally or proximally.
  2. 2-48. (canceled)
US11019963 2000-04-03 2004-12-20 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion Abandoned US20050154261A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US19414000 true 2000-04-03 2000-04-03
US09790204 US6468203B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2001-02-20 Steerable endoscope and improved method of insertion
US10229577 US6858005B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2002-08-27 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion
US11019963 US20050154261A1 (en) 2000-04-03 2004-12-20 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11019963 US20050154261A1 (en) 2000-04-03 2004-12-20 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion
US12425272 US20100094088A1 (en) 2002-08-27 2009-04-16 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of use
US13180501 US8721530B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2011-07-11 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of use

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10229577 Continuation US6858005B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2002-08-27 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12425272 Continuation US20100094088A1 (en) 2000-04-03 2009-04-16 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of use

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20050154261A1 true true US20050154261A1 (en) 2005-07-14

Family

ID=31976259

Family Applications (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10229577 Active 2021-05-03 US6858005B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2002-08-27 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion
US11019963 Abandoned US20050154261A1 (en) 2000-04-03 2004-12-20 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion
US12425272 Abandoned US20100094088A1 (en) 2000-04-03 2009-04-16 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of use
US13180501 Active 2022-01-18 US8721530B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2011-07-11 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of use

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10229577 Active 2021-05-03 US6858005B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2002-08-27 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion

Family Applications After (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12425272 Abandoned US20100094088A1 (en) 2000-04-03 2009-04-16 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of use
US13180501 Active 2022-01-18 US8721530B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2011-07-11 Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of use

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (4) US6858005B2 (en)
EP (2) EP1534118B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4758646B2 (en)
CN (1) CN1684625A (en)
CA (1) CA2496574A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2004019769A1 (en)

Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070010801A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2007-01-11 Anna Chen Medical device control system
US20080221592A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2008-09-11 Olympus Medical Systems Corp. Medical control apparatus
US20090044799A1 (en) * 2007-08-15 2009-02-19 Chunyuan Qiu Systems and methods for intubation
US20090099420A1 (en) * 2007-10-11 2009-04-16 Neoguide Systems, Inc. System for managing bowden cables in articulating instruments
EP2072002A1 (en) * 2007-12-20 2009-06-24 Nederlandse Centrale Organisatie Voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek TNO A bendable structure and a method for bending a structure
US20090240109A1 (en) * 2008-03-24 2009-09-24 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Flexible endoscope with core member
US20090324160A1 (en) * 2008-06-30 2009-12-31 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Fixture for shape-sensing optical fiber in a kinematic chain
US7846087B2 (en) * 2006-05-01 2010-12-07 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Endoscopic rotation
US20110275892A1 (en) * 2009-08-26 2011-11-10 Olympus Medical Systems Corp. Endoscope apparatus
US8062212B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2011-11-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Steerable endoscope and improved method of insertion
US8083879B2 (en) 2005-11-23 2011-12-27 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Non-metallic, multi-strand control cable for steerable instruments
US8182418B2 (en) 2008-02-25 2012-05-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Systems and methods for articulating an elongate body
US8361090B2 (en) 2002-01-09 2013-01-29 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Apparatus and method for endoscopic colectomy
US8517923B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2013-08-27 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Apparatus and methods for facilitating treatment of tissue via improved delivery of energy based and non-energy based modalities
US8568299B2 (en) 2006-05-19 2013-10-29 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Methods and apparatus for displaying three-dimensional orientation of a steerable distal tip of an endoscope
US20140039259A1 (en) * 2012-05-14 2014-02-06 Olympus Medical Systems Corp. Endoscope system
US20140257333A1 (en) * 2013-03-07 2014-09-11 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Hybrid manual and robotic interventional instruments and methods of use
US8845524B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2014-09-30 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Steerable segmented endoscope and method of insertion
US8882657B2 (en) 2003-03-07 2014-11-11 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Instrument having radio frequency identification systems and methods for use
US8888688B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2014-11-18 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Connector device for a controllable instrument
US8894569B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2014-11-25 Chunyuan Qiu Intubation systems and methods based on airway pattern identification
US9198561B2 (en) 2011-01-31 2015-12-01 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Articulation section with locking
EP2979610A4 (en) * 2013-03-28 2016-12-21 Olympus Corp Endoscope system and method for operating endoscope system
US9795753B2 (en) 2012-03-07 2017-10-24 Chunyuan Qiu Intubation delivery systems and methods
US9913573B2 (en) 2003-04-01 2018-03-13 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoscopic imaging system

Families Citing this family (438)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6786896B1 (en) * 1997-09-19 2004-09-07 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Robotic apparatus
US20030135204A1 (en) 2001-02-15 2003-07-17 Endo Via Medical, Inc. Robotically controlled medical instrument with a flexible section
US20040044350A1 (en) * 1999-04-09 2004-03-04 Evalve, Inc. Steerable access sheath and methods of use
US7955340B2 (en) * 1999-06-25 2011-06-07 Usgi Medical, Inc. Apparatus and methods for forming and securing gastrointestinal tissue folds
US20040249367A1 (en) * 2003-01-15 2004-12-09 Usgi Medical Corp. Endoluminal tool deployment system
US8574243B2 (en) 1999-06-25 2013-11-05 Usgi Medical, Inc. Apparatus and methods for forming and securing gastrointestinal tissue folds
US7744613B2 (en) * 1999-06-25 2010-06-29 Usgi Medical, Inc. Apparatus and methods for forming and securing gastrointestinal tissue folds
US6858005B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2005-02-22 Neo Guide Systems, Inc. Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion
WO2005018428A3 (en) * 2000-04-03 2006-02-16 Neoguide Systems Inc Activated polymer articulated instruments and methods of insertion
US6837846B2 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-01-04 Neo Guide Systems, Inc. Endoscope having a guide tube
US6984203B2 (en) * 2000-04-03 2006-01-10 Neoguide Systems, Inc. Endoscope with adjacently positioned guiding apparatus
US7555333B2 (en) * 2000-06-19 2009-06-30 University Of Washington Integrated optical scanning image acquisition and display
US7274876B2 (en) * 2002-06-06 2007-09-25 At&T Corp. Integrated electrical/optical hybrid communication system with revertive hitless switch
US20060058582A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2006-03-16 Usgi Medical Inc. Disposable shapelocking system
US20050137455A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2005-06-23 Usgi Medical Corp. Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US7041052B2 (en) 2002-06-13 2006-05-09 Usgi Medical Inc. Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US6783491B2 (en) 2002-06-13 2004-08-31 Vahid Saadat Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US7214183B2 (en) * 2002-09-13 2007-05-08 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope apparatus having an insertion channel
GB0222106D0 (en) * 2002-09-24 2002-10-30 Univ Dundee Body cavity inspection
US6872178B2 (en) * 2002-11-18 2005-03-29 Andrew Mark Weinberg Colonoscope apparatus and method
US7942898B2 (en) * 2002-12-11 2011-05-17 Usgi Medical, Inc. Delivery systems and methods for gastric reduction
US20040122456A1 (en) * 2002-12-11 2004-06-24 Saadat Vahid C. Methods and apparatus for gastric reduction
US7416554B2 (en) 2002-12-11 2008-08-26 Usgi Medical Inc Apparatus and methods for forming and securing gastrointestinal tissue folds
US7942884B2 (en) * 2002-12-11 2011-05-17 Usgi Medical, Inc. Methods for reduction of a gastric lumen
US20040186350A1 (en) * 2003-01-13 2004-09-23 Usgi Medical Corp. Apparatus and methods for guiding an endoscope via a rigidizable wire guide
US7637905B2 (en) 2003-01-15 2009-12-29 Usgi Medical, Inc. Endoluminal tool deployment system
US20040176683A1 (en) * 2003-03-07 2004-09-09 Katherine Whitin Method and apparatus for tracking insertion depth
US7578786B2 (en) * 2003-04-01 2009-08-25 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Video endoscope
US7591783B2 (en) 2003-04-01 2009-09-22 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Articulation joint for video endoscope
US8118732B2 (en) 2003-04-01 2012-02-21 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Force feedback control system for video endoscope
US20050245789A1 (en) 2003-04-01 2005-11-03 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Fluid manifold for endoscope system
US9060770B2 (en) 2003-05-20 2015-06-23 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Robotically-driven surgical instrument with E-beam driver
EP1628632B1 (en) 2003-05-21 2013-10-09 The Johns Hopkins University Devices and systems for minimally invasive surgery of the throat and other portions of mammalian body
US9561045B2 (en) 2006-06-13 2017-02-07 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Tool with rotation lock
US8100824B2 (en) 2003-05-23 2012-01-24 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Tool with articulation lock
US7410483B2 (en) 2003-05-23 2008-08-12 Novare Surgical Systems, Inc. Hand-actuated device for remote manipulation of a grasping tool
US7090637B2 (en) * 2003-05-23 2006-08-15 Novare Surgical Systems, Inc. Articulating mechanism for remote manipulation of a surgical or diagnostic tool
US20050027163A1 (en) * 2003-07-29 2005-02-03 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Vision catheter
JP4540328B2 (en) * 2003-11-19 2010-09-08 カール事務器株式会社 Multi-function drilling equipment
EP1691666B1 (en) 2003-12-12 2012-05-30 University of Washington Catheterscope 3d guidance and interface system
NL1025274C2 (en) * 2004-01-16 2005-07-19 Univ Delft Tech Instrument for high-precision or surgical applications.
DE102004003166B4 (en) * 2004-01-21 2011-09-15 Siemens Ag catheter
US20050171467A1 (en) * 2004-01-30 2005-08-04 Jaime Landman Multiple function surgical device
US7273452B2 (en) * 2004-03-04 2007-09-25 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Vision catheter system including movable scanning plate
US20050203488A1 (en) * 2004-03-09 2005-09-15 Usgi Medical Inc. Apparatus and methods for mapping out endoluminal gastrointestinal surgery
US7703459B2 (en) * 2004-03-09 2010-04-27 Usgi Medical, Inc. Apparatus and methods for mapping out endoluminal gastrointestinal surgery
US7918869B2 (en) 2004-05-07 2011-04-05 Usgi Medical, Inc. Methods and apparatus for performing endoluminal gastroplasty
JP2005334050A (en) * 2004-05-24 2005-12-08 Fujinon Corp Angle section of endoscope
US7828808B2 (en) 2004-06-07 2010-11-09 Novare Surgical Systems, Inc. Link systems and articulation mechanisms for remote manipulation of surgical or diagnostic tools
US7678117B2 (en) 2004-06-07 2010-03-16 Novare Surgical Systems, Inc. Articulating mechanism with flex-hinged links
EP3123922A1 (en) 2004-06-25 2017-02-01 Carnegie Mellon University Steerable, follow the leader device
JP2006014960A (en) * 2004-07-01 2006-01-19 Olympus Corp Endoscope
US20060020276A1 (en) * 2004-07-23 2006-01-26 Usgi Medical Inc. Apparatus and methods for achieving prolonged maintenance of gastrointestinal tissue folds
US20060025653A1 (en) * 2004-07-28 2006-02-02 Phonak Ag Structure for probe insertion
DE602004000831T2 (en) * 2004-07-28 2006-11-23 Phonak Ag Structure for introducing a measuring probe
US8215531B2 (en) 2004-07-28 2012-07-10 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling instrument having a medical substance dispenser
US8905977B2 (en) 2004-07-28 2014-12-09 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling instrument having an electroactive polymer actuated medical substance dispenser
US20060106288A1 (en) * 2004-11-17 2006-05-18 Roth Alex T Remote tissue retraction device
US9700334B2 (en) * 2004-11-23 2017-07-11 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Articulating mechanisms and link systems with torque transmission in remote manipulation of instruments and tools
US7785252B2 (en) * 2004-11-23 2010-08-31 Novare Surgical Systems, Inc. Articulating sheath for flexible instruments
US8182417B2 (en) * 2004-11-24 2012-05-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Articulating mechanism components and system for easy assembly and disassembly
US8289381B2 (en) * 2005-01-05 2012-10-16 Avantis Medical Systems, Inc. Endoscope with an imaging catheter assembly and method of configuring an endoscope
US8872906B2 (en) * 2005-01-05 2014-10-28 Avantis Medical Systems, Inc. Endoscope assembly with a polarizing filter
US20060149129A1 (en) * 2005-01-05 2006-07-06 Watts H D Catheter with multiple visual elements
US8797392B2 (en) * 2005-01-05 2014-08-05 Avantis Medical Sytems, Inc. Endoscope assembly with a polarizing filter
US20090231419A1 (en) * 2007-02-06 2009-09-17 Avantis Medical Systems, Inc. Endoscope Assembly and Method of Performing a Medical Procedure
US20060201130A1 (en) * 2005-01-31 2006-09-14 Danitz David J Articulating mechanisms with joint assembly and manual handle for remote manipulation of instruments and tools
US10064540B2 (en) * 2005-02-02 2018-09-04 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Visualization apparatus for transseptal access
US9510732B2 (en) * 2005-10-25 2016-12-06 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Methods and apparatus for efficient purging
US7860555B2 (en) * 2005-02-02 2010-12-28 Voyage Medical, Inc. Tissue visualization and manipulation system
US8050746B2 (en) * 2005-02-02 2011-11-01 Voyage Medical, Inc. Tissue visualization device and method variations
US7860556B2 (en) * 2005-02-02 2010-12-28 Voyage Medical, Inc. Tissue imaging and extraction systems
US20080015569A1 (en) * 2005-02-02 2008-01-17 Voyage Medical, Inc. Methods and apparatus for treatment of atrial fibrillation
US9055906B2 (en) * 2006-06-14 2015-06-16 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. In-vivo visualization systems
US7918787B2 (en) * 2005-02-02 2011-04-05 Voyage Medical, Inc. Tissue visualization and manipulation systems
US8137333B2 (en) * 2005-10-25 2012-03-20 Voyage Medical, Inc. Delivery of biological compounds to ischemic and/or infarcted tissue
US8078266B2 (en) 2005-10-25 2011-12-13 Voyage Medical, Inc. Flow reduction hood systems
US20080009747A1 (en) * 2005-02-02 2008-01-10 Voyage Medical, Inc. Transmural subsurface interrogation and ablation
US8221310B2 (en) 2005-10-25 2012-07-17 Voyage Medical, Inc. Tissue visualization device and method variations
US7930016B1 (en) 2005-02-02 2011-04-19 Voyage Medical, Inc. Tissue closure system
US20060178562A1 (en) * 2005-02-10 2006-08-10 Usgi Medical Inc. Apparatus and methods for obtaining endoluminal access with a steerable guide having a variable pivot
US7530948B2 (en) * 2005-02-28 2009-05-12 University Of Washington Tethered capsule endoscope for Barrett's Esophagus screening
US20060235457A1 (en) * 2005-04-15 2006-10-19 Amir Belson Instruments having a rigidizable external working channel
JP2008540041A (en) * 2005-05-16 2008-11-20 ビンモエラー,ケネス System and method for facilitating therapeutic treatment endoscopic
US7934630B2 (en) 2005-08-31 2011-05-03 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Staple cartridges for forming staples having differing formed staple heights
US20130334284A1 (en) 2005-08-31 2013-12-19 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Fastener cartridge assembly comprising a fixed anvil and different staple heights
US8800838B2 (en) 2005-08-31 2014-08-12 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Robotically-controlled cable-based surgical end effectors
US20070194082A1 (en) 2005-08-31 2007-08-23 Morgan Jerome R Surgical stapling device with anvil having staple forming pockets of varying depths
US9237891B2 (en) 2005-08-31 2016-01-19 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Robotically-controlled surgical stapling devices that produce formed staples having different lengths
US7669746B2 (en) 2005-08-31 2010-03-02 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Staple cartridges for forming staples having differing formed staple heights
JP2009507617A (en) * 2005-09-14 2009-02-26 ネオガイド システムズ, インコーポレイテッド Method and apparatus for performing transluminal and other operations
US20090137875A1 (en) * 2005-09-22 2009-05-28 Hideya Kitagawa Endoscope insertion portion
US8758375B2 (en) * 2005-09-28 2014-06-24 Olympus Medical Systems Corp Method for suturing perforation
US7758573B2 (en) * 2005-10-27 2010-07-20 Terumo Kabushiki Kaisha Blood vessel treatment method using multi-degree-of-freedom forceps
US20070106317A1 (en) 2005-11-09 2007-05-10 Shelton Frederick E Iv Hydraulically and electrically actuated articulation joints for surgical instruments
EP1954193B1 (en) 2005-11-23 2013-03-06 University of Washington Scanning beam with variable sequential framing using interrupted scanning resonance
US8182422B2 (en) 2005-12-13 2012-05-22 Avantis Medical Systems, Inc. Endoscope having detachable imaging device and method of using
US8235887B2 (en) 2006-01-23 2012-08-07 Avantis Medical Systems, Inc. Endoscope assembly with retroscope
US20070219550A1 (en) * 2006-01-27 2007-09-20 Mark Thompson Device and system for surgical dissection and/or guidance of other medical devices into body
US8726909B2 (en) 2006-01-27 2014-05-20 Usgi Medical, Inc. Methods and apparatus for revision of obesity procedures
US7845537B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2010-12-07 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument having recording capabilities
US8708213B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2014-04-29 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument having a feedback system
US9861359B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2018-01-09 Ethicon Llc Powered surgical instruments with firing system lockout arrangements
US8161977B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2012-04-24 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Accessing data stored in a memory of a surgical instrument
US20120292367A1 (en) 2006-01-31 2012-11-22 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Robotically-controlled end effector
US8186555B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2012-05-29 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Motor-driven surgical cutting and fastening instrument with mechanical closure system
US8763879B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2014-07-01 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Accessing data stored in a memory of surgical instrument
US8820603B2 (en) 2006-01-31 2014-09-02 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Accessing data stored in a memory of a surgical instrument
US20110290856A1 (en) 2006-01-31 2011-12-01 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Robotically-controlled surgical instrument with force-feedback capabilities
US7635288B2 (en) * 2006-02-03 2009-12-22 Folkmanis, Inc. Animated hand puppet & animator therefor
US9155451B2 (en) 2006-03-02 2015-10-13 Syntheon, Llc Variably flexible insertion device and method for variably flexing an insertion device
US10123683B2 (en) 2006-03-02 2018-11-13 Syntheon, Llc Variably flexible insertion device and method for variably flexing an insertion device
US8092374B2 (en) 2006-03-02 2012-01-10 Kevin Smith Variably flexible insertion device and method for variably flexing an insertion device
JP2009528128A (en) * 2006-03-03 2009-08-06 ユニヴァーシティ オブ ワシントン Multi clad optical fiber scanner
US8721630B2 (en) 2006-03-23 2014-05-13 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Methods and devices for controlling articulation
US20070225562A1 (en) 2006-03-23 2007-09-27 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Articulating endoscopic accessory channel
US8992422B2 (en) 2006-03-23 2015-03-31 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Robotically-controlled endoscopic accessory channel
GB0605931D0 (en) * 2006-03-24 2006-05-03 Salem Tarek A Endoscope
US20070244362A1 (en) * 2006-04-12 2007-10-18 Roger El-Hachem Segmented colonoscope
US8287446B2 (en) * 2006-04-18 2012-10-16 Avantis Medical Systems, Inc. Vibratory device, endoscope having such a device, method for configuring an endoscope, and method of reducing looping of an endoscope
US8202265B2 (en) 2006-04-20 2012-06-19 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Multiple lumen assembly for use in endoscopes or other medical devices
US7955255B2 (en) 2006-04-20 2011-06-07 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Imaging assembly with transparent distal cap
US7833156B2 (en) 2006-04-24 2010-11-16 Transenterix, Inc. Procedural cannula and support system for surgical procedures
US8211114B2 (en) 2006-04-24 2012-07-03 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Medical instrument having a medical snare
US9138250B2 (en) * 2006-04-24 2015-09-22 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Medical instrument handle and medical instrument having a handle
US8518024B2 (en) * 2006-04-24 2013-08-27 Transenterix, Inc. System and method for multi-instrument surgical access using a single access port
US7837620B2 (en) * 2006-04-25 2010-11-23 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Medical tubular assembly
US7927327B2 (en) * 2006-04-25 2011-04-19 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Medical instrument having an articulatable end effector
US20070255312A1 (en) * 2006-05-01 2007-11-01 Ifung Lu Medical instrument having an end-effector-associated member
US7758593B2 (en) 2006-05-04 2010-07-20 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Medical instrument handle and medical instrument having same
US7959642B2 (en) * 2006-05-16 2011-06-14 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Medical instrument having a needle knife
US20070270639A1 (en) * 2006-05-17 2007-11-22 Long Gary L Medical instrument having a catheter and having a catheter accessory device and method for using
US7892166B2 (en) * 2006-05-18 2011-02-22 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Medical instrument including a catheter having a catheter stiffener and method for using
US8310530B2 (en) 2006-05-19 2012-11-13 Avantis Medical Systems, Inc. Device and method for reducing effects of video artifacts
US8556804B2 (en) * 2006-05-22 2013-10-15 Syntheon, Llc Torque-transmitting, variably flexible insertion device and method for transmitting torque and variably flexing an insertion device
CN104688349B (en) * 2006-06-13 2017-05-10 直观外科手术操作公司 Minimally invasive surgery system
US8551076B2 (en) 2006-06-13 2013-10-08 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Retrograde instrument
US20080009712A1 (en) * 2006-06-16 2008-01-10 Adams Mark L Apparatus and Methods for Maneuvering a Therapeutic Tool Within a Body Lumen
US8322455B2 (en) 2006-06-27 2012-12-04 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Manually driven surgical cutting and fastening instrument
US7677812B2 (en) * 2006-07-31 2010-03-16 Tyco Electronics Corporation Strain relief boot for cable connector
US20080033241A1 (en) * 2006-08-01 2008-02-07 Ruey-Feng Peh Left atrial appendage closure
US7740159B2 (en) 2006-08-02 2010-06-22 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Pneumatically powered surgical cutting and fastening instrument with a variable control of the actuating rate of firing with mechanical power assist
US7988621B2 (en) * 2006-08-10 2011-08-02 Syntheon, Llc Torque-transmitting, variably-flexible, corrugated insertion device and method for transmitting torque and variably flexing a corrugated insertion device
CN101528111B (en) 2006-08-14 2012-04-04 卡迪欧机器人技术股份有限公司 Steerable multi-linked device having multiple working ports
US20080058629A1 (en) * 2006-08-21 2008-03-06 University Of Washington Optical fiber scope with both non-resonant illumination and resonant collection/imaging for multiple modes of operation
JP2010502313A (en) 2006-09-01 2010-01-28 ボエッジ メディカル, インコーポレイテッド Method and apparatus for the treatment of atrial fibrillation
US20080097476A1 (en) * 2006-09-01 2008-04-24 Voyage Medical, Inc. Precision control systems for tissue visualization and manipulation assemblies
US10004388B2 (en) * 2006-09-01 2018-06-26 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Coronary sinus cannulation
US7665647B2 (en) 2006-09-29 2010-02-23 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical cutting and stapling device with closure apparatus for limiting maximum tissue compression force
US10130359B2 (en) 2006-09-29 2018-11-20 Ethicon Llc Method for forming a staple
US8475453B2 (en) 2006-10-06 2013-07-02 Covidien Lp Endoscopic vessel sealer and divider having a flexible articulating shaft
US20080214889A1 (en) * 2006-10-23 2008-09-04 Voyage Medical, Inc. Methods and apparatus for preventing tissue migration
WO2008052064A3 (en) * 2006-10-24 2008-11-13 Innovention Technologies Llc Steerable multi-linked device having a modular link assembly
US20080132834A1 (en) * 2006-12-04 2008-06-05 University Of Washington Flexible endoscope tip bending mechanism using optical fibers as tension members
US8096943B2 (en) * 2006-12-04 2012-01-17 University Of Washington Through Its Center For Commercialization Flexible endoscope tip bending mechanism using optical fiber as compression member
US7879004B2 (en) * 2006-12-13 2011-02-01 University Of Washington Catheter tip displacement mechanism
US20080183036A1 (en) * 2006-12-18 2008-07-31 Voyage Medical, Inc. Systems and methods for unobstructed visualization and ablation
US8758229B2 (en) * 2006-12-21 2014-06-24 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Axial visualization systems
US8131350B2 (en) * 2006-12-21 2012-03-06 Voyage Medical, Inc. Stabilization of visualization catheters
US8459520B2 (en) 2007-01-10 2013-06-11 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument with wireless communication between control unit and remote sensor
US8652120B2 (en) 2007-01-10 2014-02-18 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument with wireless communication between control unit and sensor transponders
US8684253B2 (en) 2007-01-10 2014-04-01 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument with wireless communication between a control unit of a robotic system and remote sensor
US20080169332A1 (en) 2007-01-11 2008-07-17 Shelton Frederick E Surgical stapling device with a curved cutting member
US8784303B2 (en) * 2007-01-29 2014-07-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. System for controlling an instrument using shape sensors
EP2502552B1 (en) * 2007-02-27 2013-07-31 Carnegie Mellon University A multi-linked device having a reinforcing member
US20080221388A1 (en) * 2007-03-09 2008-09-11 University Of Washington Side viewing optical fiber endoscope
US20080262359A1 (en) * 2007-03-30 2008-10-23 The General Hospital Corporation System and method providing intracoronary laser speckle imaging for the detection of vulnerable plaque
US20080243030A1 (en) * 2007-04-02 2008-10-02 University Of Washington Multifunction cannula tools
US8840566B2 (en) 2007-04-02 2014-09-23 University Of Washington Catheter with imaging capability acts as guidewire for cannula tools
US8064666B2 (en) 2007-04-10 2011-11-22 Avantis Medical Systems, Inc. Method and device for examining or imaging an interior surface of a cavity
US7862554B2 (en) * 2007-04-16 2011-01-04 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Articulating tool with improved tension member system
US8409244B2 (en) * 2007-04-16 2013-04-02 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Tool with end effector force limiter
US8562640B2 (en) * 2007-04-16 2013-10-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Tool with multi-state ratcheted end effector
JP2010524651A (en) * 2007-04-27 2010-07-22 ボエッジ メディカル, インコーポレイテッド Steerable tissue visualization and manipulation the catheter with a complex shape
WO2008137710A1 (en) * 2007-05-03 2008-11-13 University Of Washington High resolution optical coherence tomography based imaging for intraluminal and interstitial use implemented with a reduced form factor
US8657805B2 (en) * 2007-05-08 2014-02-25 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Complex shape steerable tissue visualization and manipulation catheter
EP2155036B1 (en) * 2007-05-11 2016-02-24 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Visual electrode ablation systems
EP2155037B1 (en) 2007-05-18 2017-04-05 Boston Scientific Limited Articulating torqueable hollow device
US8157145B2 (en) 2007-05-31 2012-04-17 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Pneumatically powered surgical cutting and fastening instrument with electrical feedback
US7905380B2 (en) 2007-06-04 2011-03-15 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument having a multiple rate directional switching mechanism
US8534528B2 (en) 2007-06-04 2013-09-17 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument having a multiple rate directional switching mechanism
US7832408B2 (en) 2007-06-04 2010-11-16 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument having a directional switching mechanism
US8931682B2 (en) 2007-06-04 2015-01-13 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Robotically-controlled shaft based rotary drive systems for surgical instruments
US8364312B2 (en) * 2007-06-06 2013-01-29 Cycogs, Llc Modular rotary multi-sensor sensor ring
US9211059B2 (en) 2007-06-19 2015-12-15 Minimally Invasive Devices, Inc. Systems and methods for optimizing and maintaining visualization of a surgical field during the use of surgical scopes
US8408439B2 (en) 2007-06-22 2013-04-02 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling instrument with an articulatable end effector
US7753245B2 (en) 2007-06-22 2010-07-13 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling instruments
US9814372B2 (en) * 2007-06-27 2017-11-14 Syntheon, Llc Torque-transmitting, variably-flexible, locking insertion device and method for operating the insertion device
US7669747B2 (en) 2007-06-29 2010-03-02 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Washer for use with a surgical stapling instrument
US8235985B2 (en) * 2007-08-31 2012-08-07 Voyage Medical, Inc. Visualization and ablation system variations
US8845522B2 (en) * 2007-09-10 2014-09-30 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical instrument with a deflectable distal portion
US20110060183A1 (en) * 2007-09-12 2011-03-10 Salvatore Castro Multi-instrument access devices and systems
US20110184231A1 (en) * 2009-07-28 2011-07-28 Page Brett M Deflectable instrument ports
US20090227843A1 (en) * 2007-09-12 2009-09-10 Smith Jeffrey A Multi-instrument access devices and systems
US9707003B2 (en) * 2007-10-02 2017-07-18 Covidien Lp Articulating surgical instrument
WO2009049324A1 (en) * 2007-10-11 2009-04-16 Avantis Medical Systems, Inc. Method and device for reducing the fixed pattern noise of a digital image
US20090125022A1 (en) * 2007-11-12 2009-05-14 Voyage Medical, Inc. Tissue visualization and ablation systems
US20090143640A1 (en) * 2007-11-26 2009-06-04 Voyage Medical, Inc. Combination imaging and treatment assemblies
US20090137893A1 (en) * 2007-11-27 2009-05-28 University Of Washington Adding imaging capability to distal tips of medical tools, catheters, and conduits
GB2455804A (en) * 2007-12-21 2009-06-24 Oliver Crispin Robotics Ltd A robotic arm for use with a rotary machine
US9462932B2 (en) * 2008-01-24 2016-10-11 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Structure for use as part of a medical device
WO2009094670A1 (en) * 2008-01-25 2009-07-30 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Systems and methods for force sensing in a robot
KR101707924B1 (en) 2008-02-06 2017-02-17 인튜어티브 서지컬 오퍼레이션즈 인코포레이티드 A segmented instrument having braking capabilities
EP2247229B1 (en) * 2008-02-07 2016-02-03 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Remote endoscope handle manipulation
US8858609B2 (en) * 2008-02-07 2014-10-14 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Stent delivery under direct visualization
US9706907B2 (en) 2008-02-07 2017-07-18 Institute For Cancer Research Remote endoscope handle manipulation
US8453908B2 (en) 2008-02-13 2013-06-04 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling instrument with improved firing trigger arrangement
US7766209B2 (en) 2008-02-13 2010-08-03 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling instrument with improved firing trigger arrangement
US8561870B2 (en) 2008-02-13 2013-10-22 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling instrument
US8657174B2 (en) 2008-02-14 2014-02-25 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Motorized surgical cutting and fastening instrument having handle based power source
US8636736B2 (en) 2008-02-14 2014-01-28 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Motorized surgical cutting and fastening instrument
US8622274B2 (en) 2008-02-14 2014-01-07 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Motorized cutting and fastening instrument having control circuit for optimizing battery usage
US8459525B2 (en) 2008-02-14 2013-06-11 Ethicon Endo-Sugery, Inc. Motorized surgical cutting and fastening instrument having a magnetic drive train torque limiting device
US7866527B2 (en) 2008-02-14 2011-01-11 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling apparatus with interlockable firing system
US7819298B2 (en) 2008-02-14 2010-10-26 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling apparatus with control features operable with one hand
US8758391B2 (en) 2008-02-14 2014-06-24 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Interchangeable tools for surgical instruments
US9179912B2 (en) 2008-02-14 2015-11-10 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Robotically-controlled motorized surgical cutting and fastening instrument
US8752749B2 (en) 2008-02-14 2014-06-17 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Robotically-controlled disposable motor-driven loading unit
US8584919B2 (en) 2008-02-14 2013-11-19 Ethicon Endo-Sugery, Inc. Surgical stapling apparatus with load-sensitive firing mechanism
US7793812B2 (en) 2008-02-14 2010-09-14 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Disposable motor-driven loading unit for use with a surgical cutting and stapling apparatus
US8608044B2 (en) 2008-02-15 2013-12-17 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Feedback and lockout mechanism for surgical instrument
US8371491B2 (en) 2008-02-15 2013-02-12 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical end effector having buttress retention features
US20090206131A1 (en) 2008-02-15 2009-08-20 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. End effector coupling arrangements for a surgical cutting and stapling instrument
US9770245B2 (en) 2008-02-15 2017-09-26 Ethicon Llc Layer arrangements for surgical staple cartridges
US20090209888A1 (en) * 2008-02-18 2009-08-20 Seyed Hessam Khatami Spine Wheel
US20090208143A1 (en) * 2008-02-19 2009-08-20 University Of Washington Efficient automated urothelial imaging using an endoscope with tip bending
EP2276392A4 (en) 2008-04-14 2013-03-27 Univ Carnegie Mellon Articulated device with visualization system
US20110125165A1 (en) * 2008-05-16 2011-05-26 The Johns Hopkins University System and method for macro-micro distal dexterity enhancement in micro-surgery of the eye
US8945096B2 (en) * 2008-06-05 2015-02-03 Carnegie Mellon University Extendable articulated probe device
US20090326572A1 (en) * 2008-06-27 2009-12-31 Ruey-Feng Peh Apparatus and methods for rapid tissue crossing
GB0812053D0 (en) 2008-07-02 2008-08-06 Oliver Crispin Robotics Ltd Improvements in or relating to robotic arms
US9101735B2 (en) * 2008-07-07 2015-08-11 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Catheter control systems
US8465475B2 (en) * 2008-08-18 2013-06-18 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Instrument with multiple articulation locks
US9370342B2 (en) 2008-09-05 2016-06-21 Carnegie Mellon University Multi-linked endoscopic device with spherical distal assembly
US8083120B2 (en) 2008-09-18 2011-12-27 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. End effector for use with a surgical cutting and stapling instrument
US8540133B2 (en) 2008-09-19 2013-09-24 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Staple cartridge
US7905381B2 (en) 2008-09-19 2011-03-15 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling instrument with cutting member arrangement
US9386983B2 (en) 2008-09-23 2016-07-12 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Robotically-controlled motorized surgical instrument
US8210411B2 (en) 2008-09-23 2012-07-03 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Motor-driven surgical cutting instrument
US9005230B2 (en) 2008-09-23 2015-04-14 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Motorized surgical instrument
US9050083B2 (en) 2008-09-23 2015-06-09 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Motorized surgical instrument
CA2776320C (en) * 2008-10-07 2017-08-29 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Systems, devices, and method for providing insertable robotic sensory and manipulation platforms for single port surgery
US8608045B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2013-12-17 Ethicon Endo-Sugery, Inc. Powered surgical cutting and stapling apparatus with manually retractable firing system
US8894643B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2014-11-25 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Integral electrode placement and connection systems
US8333012B2 (en) * 2008-10-10 2012-12-18 Voyage Medical, Inc. Method of forming electrode placement and connection systems
US9468364B2 (en) * 2008-11-14 2016-10-18 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Intravascular catheter with hood and image processing systems
US20100160724A1 (en) * 2008-12-23 2010-06-24 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Flexible surgical instrument with links undergoing solid-state transitions
US20110230723A1 (en) * 2008-12-29 2011-09-22 Salvatore Castro Active Instrument Port System for Minimally-Invasive Surgical Procedures
US20100168721A1 (en) * 2008-12-30 2010-07-01 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Lubricating tendons in a tendon-actuated surgical instrument
US8939963B2 (en) * 2008-12-30 2015-01-27 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Surgical instruments with sheathed tendons
US8397971B2 (en) 2009-02-05 2013-03-19 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Sterilizable surgical instrument
US8517239B2 (en) 2009-02-05 2013-08-27 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling instrument comprising a magnetic element driver
US8414577B2 (en) 2009-02-05 2013-04-09 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instruments and components for use in sterile environments
US8485413B2 (en) 2009-02-05 2013-07-16 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling instrument comprising an articulation joint
US20110006101A1 (en) 2009-02-06 2011-01-13 EthiconEndo-Surgery, Inc. Motor driven surgical fastener device with cutting member lockout arrangements
US8444036B2 (en) 2009-02-06 2013-05-21 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Motor driven surgical fastener device with mechanisms for adjusting a tissue gap within the end effector
US20100204561A1 (en) * 2009-02-11 2010-08-12 Voyage Medical, Inc. Imaging catheters having irrigation
US8066167B2 (en) 2009-03-23 2011-11-29 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Circular surgical stapling instrument with anvil locking system
US20100256629A1 (en) * 2009-04-06 2010-10-07 Voyage Medical, Inc. Methods and devices for treatment of the ostium
US20110022078A1 (en) 2009-07-23 2011-01-27 Cameron Dale Hinman Articulating mechanism
US20110087276A1 (en) 2009-10-09 2011-04-14 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Method for forming a staple
JP5624745B2 (en) * 2009-10-23 2014-11-12 オリンパス株式会社 The endoscope system
US8888687B2 (en) * 2009-10-28 2014-11-18 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Method and apparatus related to a flexible assembly at a distal end portion of a medical device
US8353439B2 (en) 2009-11-19 2013-01-15 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Circular stapler introducer with radially-openable distal end portion
US8353438B2 (en) 2009-11-19 2013-01-15 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Circular stapler introducer with rigid cap assembly configured for easy removal
US8622275B2 (en) 2009-11-19 2014-01-07 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Circular stapler introducer with rigid distal end portion
US8899466B2 (en) 2009-11-19 2014-12-02 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Devices and methods for introducing a surgical circular stapling instrument into a patient
US8136712B2 (en) 2009-12-10 2012-03-20 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapler with discrete staple height adjustment and tactile feedback
US8220688B2 (en) 2009-12-24 2012-07-17 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Motor-driven surgical cutting instrument with electric actuator directional control assembly
US8851354B2 (en) 2009-12-24 2014-10-07 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical cutting instrument that analyzes tissue thickness
US8267300B2 (en) 2009-12-30 2012-09-18 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Dampening device for endoscopic surgical stapler
US8608046B2 (en) 2010-01-07 2013-12-17 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Test device for a surgical tool
US8694071B2 (en) 2010-02-12 2014-04-08 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Image stabilization techniques and methods
DE102010008922A1 (en) * 2010-02-23 2011-08-25 Schölly Fiberoptic GmbH, 79211 A device for monitoring and / or manipulating arranged in an accessible through a narrow opening cavity objects
US9814522B2 (en) 2010-04-06 2017-11-14 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Apparatus and methods for ablation efficacy
CN102905608B (en) 2010-05-25 2015-11-25 Arc医药设计有限公司 Covering for medical endoscopic instrument
US8783543B2 (en) 2010-07-30 2014-07-22 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue acquisition arrangements and methods for surgical stapling devices
US8672207B2 (en) 2010-07-30 2014-03-18 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Transwall visualization arrangements and methods for surgical circular staplers
US8789740B2 (en) 2010-07-30 2014-07-29 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Linear cutting and stapling device with selectively disengageable cutting member
CN101889853B (en) * 2010-08-06 2013-01-16 上海交通大学 Three-dimensional endoscope system capable of rotating freely for angles
US8968357B2 (en) 2010-09-07 2015-03-03 Covidien Lp Collet based locking mechanism
US8360296B2 (en) 2010-09-09 2013-01-29 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling head assembly with firing lockout for a surgical stapler
US9289212B2 (en) 2010-09-17 2016-03-22 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instruments and batteries for surgical instruments
US8632525B2 (en) 2010-09-17 2014-01-21 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Power control arrangements for surgical instruments and batteries
US20120071894A1 (en) 2010-09-17 2012-03-22 Tanner Neal A Robotic medical systems and methods
US9877720B2 (en) 2010-09-24 2018-01-30 Ethicon Llc Control features for articulating surgical device
US8733613B2 (en) 2010-09-29 2014-05-27 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Staple cartridge
US9615826B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2017-04-11 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Multiple thickness implantable layers for surgical stapling devices
US9839420B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2017-12-12 Ethicon Llc Tissue thickness compensator comprising at least one medicament
US8893949B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2014-11-25 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapler with floating anvil
US9301753B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2016-04-05 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Expandable tissue thickness compensator
US9517063B2 (en) 2012-03-28 2016-12-13 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Movable member for use with a tissue thickness compensator
US9433419B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2016-09-06 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue thickness compensator comprising a plurality of layers
US8814024B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2014-08-26 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Fastener system comprising a plurality of connected retention matrix elements
US20120080498A1 (en) 2010-09-30 2012-04-05 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Curved end effector for a stapling instrument
US9016542B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2015-04-28 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Staple cartridge comprising compressible distortion resistant components
US9364233B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2016-06-14 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Tissue thickness compensators for circular surgical staplers
US9700317B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2017-07-11 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Fastener cartridge comprising a releasable tissue thickness compensator
US9211120B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2015-12-15 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue thickness compensator comprising a plurality of medicaments
RU2606493C2 (en) 2011-04-29 2017-01-10 Этикон Эндо-Серджери, Инк. Staple cartridge, containing staples, located inside its compressible part
US9386988B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2016-07-12 Ethicon End-Surgery, LLC Retainer assembly including a tissue thickness compensator
US9414838B2 (en) 2012-03-28 2016-08-16 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Tissue thickness compensator comprised of a plurality of materials
US9629814B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2017-04-25 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Tissue thickness compensator configured to redistribute compressive forces
US9314246B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2016-04-19 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Tissue stapler having a thickness compensator incorporating an anti-inflammatory agent
US9220501B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2015-12-29 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue thickness compensators
US9332974B2 (en) 2010-09-30 2016-05-10 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Layered tissue thickness compensator
US9386984B2 (en) 2013-02-08 2016-07-12 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Staple cartridge comprising a releasable cover
USD650074S1 (en) 2010-10-01 2011-12-06 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument
US8695866B2 (en) 2010-10-01 2014-04-15 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument having a power control circuit
WO2012075487A3 (en) 2010-12-03 2012-09-20 Minimally Invasive Devices, Llc Devices, systems, and methods for performing endoscopic surgical procedures
EP2670317A1 (en) 2011-01-31 2013-12-11 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices having releasable coupling
US8632462B2 (en) 2011-03-14 2014-01-21 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Trans-rectum universal ports
US9044229B2 (en) 2011-03-15 2015-06-02 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical fastener instruments
US8926598B2 (en) 2011-03-15 2015-01-06 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instruments with articulatable and rotatable end effector
US8800841B2 (en) 2011-03-15 2014-08-12 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical staple cartridges
US8857693B2 (en) 2011-03-15 2014-10-14 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instruments with lockable articulating end effector
US8540131B2 (en) 2011-03-15 2013-09-24 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical staple cartridges with tissue tethers for manipulating divided tissue and methods of using same
WO2012135339A9 (en) 2011-03-28 2013-03-07 North Carolina State University Active catheter device and associated system and method
US9198662B2 (en) 2012-03-28 2015-12-01 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Tissue thickness compensator having improved visibility
US9259277B2 (en) 2011-05-13 2016-02-16 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Instrument actuation interface
US9161771B2 (en) 2011-05-13 2015-10-20 Intuitive Surgical Operations Inc. Medical instrument with snake wrist structure
US8968187B2 (en) 2011-05-19 2015-03-03 Covidien Lp Articulating laparoscopic surgical access instrument
US9072535B2 (en) 2011-05-27 2015-07-07 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling instruments with rotatable staple deployment arrangements
JP5788239B2 (en) * 2011-06-23 2015-09-30 オリンパス株式会社 Track-forming apparatus
US9107663B2 (en) 2011-09-06 2015-08-18 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Stapling instrument comprising resettable staple drivers
US9050084B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2015-06-09 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Staple cartridge including collapsible deck arrangement
WO2013059821A3 (en) * 2011-10-21 2014-08-21 Viking Systems, Inc. Steerable electronic stereoscopic endoscope
US9504604B2 (en) 2011-12-16 2016-11-29 Auris Surgical Robotics, Inc. Lithotripsy eye treatment
RU2502482C2 (en) 2011-12-19 2013-12-27 Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Национальный исследовательский технологический университет "МИСиС" Method of surgical treatment of intestinal obstruction of small and large intestine and device for its realisation
US8876806B2 (en) * 2012-01-09 2014-11-04 Covidien Lp Surgical instrument with articulating assembly
US9956042B2 (en) 2012-01-13 2018-05-01 Vanderbilt University Systems and methods for robot-assisted transurethral exploration and intervention
US8419720B1 (en) 2012-02-07 2013-04-16 National Advanced Endoscopy Devices, Incorporated Flexible laparoscopic device
US9044230B2 (en) 2012-02-13 2015-06-02 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical cutting and fastening instrument with apparatus for determining cartridge and firing motion status
US9078653B2 (en) 2012-03-26 2015-07-14 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical stapling device with lockout system for preventing actuation in the absence of an installed staple cartridge
RU2014143245A (en) 2012-03-28 2016-05-27 Этикон Эндо-Серджери, Инк. Compensator tissue thickness, comprising a capsule for a medium with a low pressure
US9307989B2 (en) 2012-03-28 2016-04-12 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Tissue stapler having a thickness compensator incorportating a hydrophobic agent
US9211134B2 (en) 2012-04-09 2015-12-15 Carefusion 2200, Inc. Wrist assembly for articulating laparoscopic surgical instruments
US9265514B2 (en) 2012-04-17 2016-02-23 Miteas Ltd. Manipulator for grasping tissue
US9539726B2 (en) * 2012-04-20 2017-01-10 Vanderbilt University Systems and methods for safe compliant insertion and hybrid force/motion telemanipulation of continuum robots
US9687303B2 (en) 2012-04-20 2017-06-27 Vanderbilt University Dexterous wrists for surgical intervention
US9549720B2 (en) 2012-04-20 2017-01-24 Vanderbilt University Robotic device for establishing access channel
FR2991221B1 (en) * 2012-06-01 2015-02-27 Aldebaran Robotics spine for humanoid robot
US9101358B2 (en) 2012-06-15 2015-08-11 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Articulatable surgical instrument comprising a firing drive
US9364230B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2016-06-14 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Surgical stapling instruments with rotary joint assemblies
US9028494B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2015-05-12 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Interchangeable end effector coupling arrangement
US9289256B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2016-03-22 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Surgical end effectors having angled tissue-contacting surfaces
US9561038B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2017-02-07 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Interchangeable clip applier
US9408606B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2016-08-09 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Robotically powered surgical device with manually-actuatable reversing system
US9072536B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2015-07-07 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Differential locking arrangements for rotary powered surgical instruments
US9282974B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2016-03-15 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Empty clip cartridge lockout
US8747238B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2014-06-10 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Rotary drive shaft assemblies for surgical instruments with articulatable end effectors
US9101385B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2015-08-11 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Electrode connections for rotary driven surgical tools
US9119657B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2015-09-01 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Rotary actuatable closure arrangement for surgical end effector
US9204879B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2015-12-08 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Flexible drive member
US9226751B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2016-01-05 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument system including replaceable end effectors
US9125662B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2015-09-08 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Multi-axis articulating and rotating surgical tools
US9386985B2 (en) 2012-10-15 2016-07-12 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Surgical cutting instrument
CN103085083B (en) * 2013-01-07 2015-06-24 汪雯 Flexible continuous body mechanical structure capable of bending and stretching
US9144370B2 (en) 2013-02-28 2015-09-29 Canon Usa Inc. Mechanical structure of articulated sheath
US10092292B2 (en) 2013-02-28 2018-10-09 Ethicon Llc Staple forming features for surgical stapling instrument
US9307986B2 (en) 2013-03-01 2016-04-12 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Surgical instrument soft stop
US10080576B2 (en) 2013-03-08 2018-09-25 Auris Health, Inc. Method, apparatus, and a system for facilitating bending of an instrument in a surgical or medical robotic environment
US9867635B2 (en) 2013-03-08 2018-01-16 Auris Surgical Robotics, Inc. Method, apparatus and system for a water jet
US20140275779A1 (en) * 2013-03-12 2014-09-18 Covidien Lp Flexible Shaft with Multiple Flexible Portions
US20140263552A1 (en) 2013-03-13 2014-09-18 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Staple cartridge tissue thickness sensor system
US9629623B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2017-04-25 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Drive system lockout arrangements for modular surgical instruments
US9629629B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2017-04-25 Ethicon Endo-Surgey, LLC Control systems for surgical instruments
US9687230B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2017-06-27 Ethicon Llc Articulatable surgical instrument comprising a firing drive
US9282993B1 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-03-15 Southern Methodist University Steerable extendable devices
US9498112B1 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-11-22 Brent Stewart Laryngoscope
US9662466B2 (en) * 2013-03-15 2017-05-30 Sanovas, Inc. Imaging stylet for intubation
US9572577B2 (en) 2013-03-27 2017-02-21 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Fastener cartridge comprising a tissue thickness compensator including openings therein
US9795384B2 (en) 2013-03-27 2017-10-24 Ethicon Llc Fastener cartridge comprising a tissue thickness compensator and a gap setting element
US9332984B2 (en) 2013-03-27 2016-05-10 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Fastener cartridge assemblies
US9844368B2 (en) 2013-04-16 2017-12-19 Ethicon Llc Surgical system comprising first and second drive systems
US9801626B2 (en) 2013-04-16 2017-10-31 Ethicon Llc Modular motor driven surgical instruments with alignment features for aligning rotary drive shafts with surgical end effector shafts
US9649110B2 (en) 2013-04-16 2017-05-16 Ethicon Llc Surgical instrument comprising a closing drive and a firing drive operated from the same rotatable output
US9574644B2 (en) 2013-05-30 2017-02-21 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Power module for use with a surgical instrument
US20140360308A1 (en) * 2013-06-10 2014-12-11 Donal Walker Lumsden Mechanical maneuvering system
US9987006B2 (en) 2013-08-23 2018-06-05 Ethicon Llc Shroud retention arrangement for sterilizable surgical instruments
US9295372B2 (en) 2013-09-18 2016-03-29 Cerner Innovation, Inc. Marking and tracking an area of interest during endoscopy
US9993313B2 (en) 2013-10-24 2018-06-12 Auris Health, Inc. Instrument device manipulator with roll mechanism
KR20160105773A (en) 2013-10-24 2016-09-07 아우리스 서지컬 로보틱스, 인크. System for Robotic-Assisted Endolumenal Surgery and Related Methods
US9788910B2 (en) 2014-07-01 2017-10-17 Auris Surgical Robotics, Inc. Instrument-mounted tension sensing mechanism for robotically-driven medical instruments
EP3060288B1 (en) * 2013-10-25 2018-07-04 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Flexible instrument with embedded actuation conduits
WO2015061674A1 (en) * 2013-10-25 2015-04-30 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Flexible instrument with grooved steerable tube
US9681870B2 (en) 2013-12-23 2017-06-20 Ethicon Llc Articulatable surgical instruments with separate and distinct closing and firing systems
US9839428B2 (en) 2013-12-23 2017-12-12 Ethicon Llc Surgical cutting and stapling instruments with independent jaw control features
US20150173749A1 (en) 2013-12-23 2015-06-25 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical staples and staple cartridges
US9642620B2 (en) 2013-12-23 2017-05-09 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Surgical cutting and stapling instruments with articulatable end effectors
US9724092B2 (en) 2013-12-23 2017-08-08 Ethicon Llc Modular surgical instruments
US10130243B2 (en) * 2014-01-30 2018-11-20 Qatar University Al Tarfa Image-based feedback endoscopy system
US9962161B2 (en) 2014-02-12 2018-05-08 Ethicon Llc Deliverable surgical instrument
US9757124B2 (en) 2014-02-24 2017-09-12 Ethicon Llc Implantable layer assemblies
JP6188603B2 (en) * 2014-02-27 2017-08-30 オリンパス株式会社 Medical system
US9913642B2 (en) 2014-03-26 2018-03-13 Ethicon Llc Surgical instrument comprising a sensor system
US20150280384A1 (en) 2014-03-26 2015-10-01 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Surgical instrument comprising a rotatable shaft
US10013049B2 (en) 2014-03-26 2018-07-03 Ethicon Llc Power management through sleep options of segmented circuit and wake up control
US10004497B2 (en) 2014-03-26 2018-06-26 Ethicon Llc Interface systems for use with surgical instruments
JP2017513567A (en) 2014-03-26 2017-06-01 エシコン・エンド−サージェリィ・エルエルシーEthicon Endo−Surgery, LLC Power management with segmentation circuit and variable voltage protection
KR20160140840A (en) * 2014-04-02 2016-12-07 인튜어티브 서지컬 오퍼레이션즈 인코포레이티드 Devices, systems, and methods using a steerable stylet and flexible needle
US20150297229A1 (en) 2014-04-16 2015-10-22 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Fastener cartridge comprising deployable tissue engaging members
US20170049298A1 (en) * 2014-04-28 2017-02-23 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Multi-link modular continuum robotic endoscope system
US20150321343A1 (en) * 2014-05-06 2015-11-12 The Johns Hopkins University Adjustable Stiffness Morphable Manipulator
US10045781B2 (en) 2014-06-13 2018-08-14 Ethicon Llc Closure lockout systems for surgical instruments
US9737301B2 (en) 2014-09-05 2017-08-22 Ethicon Llc Monitoring device degradation based on component evaluation
US9801627B2 (en) 2014-09-26 2017-10-31 Ethicon Llc Fastener cartridge for creating a flexible staple line
US9801628B2 (en) 2014-09-26 2017-10-31 Ethicon Llc Surgical staple and driver arrangements for staple cartridges
US10076325B2 (en) 2014-10-13 2018-09-18 Ethicon Llc Surgical stapling apparatus comprising a tissue stop
US9924944B2 (en) 2014-10-16 2018-03-27 Ethicon Llc Staple cartridge comprising an adjunct material
US9844376B2 (en) 2014-11-06 2017-12-19 Ethicon Llc Staple cartridge comprising a releasable adjunct material
US9987000B2 (en) 2014-12-18 2018-06-05 Ethicon Llc Surgical instrument assembly comprising a flexible articulation system
US10085748B2 (en) 2014-12-18 2018-10-02 Ethicon Llc Locking arrangements for detachable shaft assemblies with articulatable surgical end effectors
US9844374B2 (en) 2014-12-18 2017-12-19 Ethicon Llc Surgical instrument systems comprising an articulatable end effector and means for adjusting the firing stroke of a firing member
US9968355B2 (en) 2014-12-18 2018-05-15 Ethicon Llc Surgical instruments with articulatable end effectors and improved firing beam support arrangements
US10117649B2 (en) 2014-12-18 2018-11-06 Ethicon Llc Surgical instrument assembly comprising a lockable articulation system
US9844375B2 (en) 2014-12-18 2017-12-19 Ethicon Llc Drive arrangements for articulatable surgical instruments
KR101557608B1 (en) 2015-01-23 2015-10-05 주식회사 바우드 Flexible apparatus including photographing module
US20160249927A1 (en) 2015-02-27 2016-09-01 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Modular stapling assembly
US20160249916A1 (en) 2015-02-27 2016-09-01 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc System for monitoring whether a surgical instrument needs to be serviced
US9808246B2 (en) 2015-03-06 2017-11-07 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Method of operating a powered surgical instrument
US9901342B2 (en) 2015-03-06 2018-02-27 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Signal and power communication system positioned on a rotatable shaft
US9993248B2 (en) 2015-03-06 2018-06-12 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Smart sensors with local signal processing
US10052044B2 (en) 2015-03-06 2018-08-21 Ethicon Llc Time dependent evaluation of sensor data to determine stability, creep, and viscoelastic elements of measures
US10045776B2 (en) 2015-03-06 2018-08-14 Ethicon Llc Control techniques and sub-processor contained within modular shaft with select control processing from handle
US9895148B2 (en) 2015-03-06 2018-02-20 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Monitoring speed control and precision incrementing of motor for powered surgical instruments
US9924961B2 (en) 2015-03-06 2018-03-27 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Interactive feedback system for powered surgical instruments
WO2016199476A1 (en) * 2015-06-08 2016-12-15 オリンパス株式会社 Endoscope
US20160367246A1 (en) 2015-06-18 2016-12-22 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Dual articulation drive system arrangements for articulatable surgical instruments
US20170056008A1 (en) 2015-08-26 2017-03-02 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Llc Surgical staples comprising hardness variations for improved fastening of tissue
US10105139B2 (en) 2015-09-23 2018-10-23 Ethicon Llc Surgical stapler having downstream current-based motor control
US10085751B2 (en) 2015-09-23 2018-10-02 Ethicon Llc Surgical stapler having temperature-based motor control
US10076326B2 (en) 2015-09-23 2018-09-18 Ethicon Llc Surgical stapler having current mirror-based motor control
EP3359049A1 (en) * 2015-10-09 2018-08-15 Koninklijke Philips N.V. Advanced control features for steering devices for intravascular devices and associated systems and methods
US10131503B2 (en) * 2016-07-07 2018-11-20 Karen Sue Svejkowsky Rotary to linearly reciprocating motion converter
US9897179B2 (en) 2016-07-07 2018-02-20 Karen Sue Svejkovsky Bearing for supporting a linearly reciprocating structure
US9931025B1 (en) * 2016-09-30 2018-04-03 Auris Surgical Robotics, Inc. Automated calibration of endoscopes with pull wires
US10016900B1 (en) 2017-10-10 2018-07-10 Auris Health, Inc. Surgical robotic arm admittance control

Citations (91)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US475322A (en) * 1892-05-24 knowels
US3071161A (en) * 1960-05-16 1963-01-01 Bausch & Lomb Bidirectionally flexible segmented tube
US3190286A (en) * 1961-10-31 1965-06-22 Bausch & Lomb Flexible viewing probe for endoscopic use
US3266059A (en) * 1963-06-19 1966-08-16 North American Aviation Inc Prestressed flexible joint for mechanical arms and the like
US3497083A (en) * 1968-05-10 1970-02-24 Us Navy Tensor arm manipulator
US3871358A (en) * 1972-08-04 1975-03-18 Olympus Optical Co Guiding tube for the insertion of an admissible medical implement into a human body
US4393728A (en) * 1979-03-16 1983-07-19 Robotgruppen Hb Flexible arm, particularly a robot arm
US4494417A (en) * 1979-03-16 1985-01-22 Robotgruppen Hb Flexible arm, particularly a robot arm
US4566843A (en) * 1982-09-22 1986-01-28 Hitachi, Ltd. Multiarticulated manipulator
US4643184A (en) * 1982-09-29 1987-02-17 Mobin Uddin Kazi Embolus trap
US4683773A (en) * 1985-06-27 1987-08-04 Gary Diamond Robotic device
US4726355A (en) * 1986-02-17 1988-02-23 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Curvable part device for endoscope devices
US4754909A (en) * 1984-08-09 1988-07-05 Barker John M Flexible stapler
US4800890A (en) * 1984-12-28 1989-01-31 Cramer Bernhard M Steerable guide wire for catheters
US4807593A (en) * 1987-05-08 1989-02-28 Olympus Optical Co. Ltd. Endoscope guide tube
US4917114A (en) * 1986-10-17 1990-04-17 United States Surgical Corporation Surgical fastener and surgical stapling apparatus
US4930494A (en) * 1988-03-09 1990-06-05 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Apparatus for bending an insertion section of an endoscope using a shape memory alloy
US5005558A (en) * 1988-05-16 1991-04-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Endoscope
US5005559A (en) * 1989-07-27 1991-04-09 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Video-graphic arthroscopy system
US5014709A (en) * 1989-06-13 1991-05-14 Biologic Systems Corp. Method and apparatus for high resolution holographic imaging of biological tissue
US5025778A (en) * 1990-03-26 1991-06-25 Opielab, Inc. Endoscope with potential channels and method of using the same
US5207695A (en) * 1989-06-19 1993-05-04 Trout Iii Hugh H Aortic graft, implantation device, and method for repairing aortic aneurysm
US5228429A (en) * 1991-01-14 1993-07-20 Tadashi Hatano Position measuring device for endoscope
US5234448A (en) * 1992-02-28 1993-08-10 Shadyside Hospital Method and apparatus for connecting and closing severed blood vessels
US5243967A (en) * 1991-03-26 1993-09-14 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope system providing mutual operative communication between the drive control means and the video signal control means
US5279610A (en) * 1992-11-06 1994-01-18 Cook Incorporated Oroesophageal, instrument introducer assembly and method of use
US5297443A (en) * 1992-07-07 1994-03-29 Wentz John D Flexible positioning appendage
US5343874A (en) * 1991-09-27 1994-09-06 Applied Medical Technology, Inc. Tract measuring device
US5347987A (en) * 1991-04-08 1994-09-20 Feldstein David A Self-centering endoscope system
US5383467A (en) * 1992-11-18 1995-01-24 Spectrascience, Inc. Guidewire catheter and apparatus for diagnostic imaging
US5411508A (en) * 1991-10-29 1995-05-02 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Gastrointestinal approximating and tissue attaching device
US5413108A (en) * 1993-04-21 1995-05-09 The Research Foundation Of City College Of New York Method and apparatus for mapping a tissue sample for and distinguishing different regions thereof based on luminescence measurements of cancer-indicative native fluorophor
US5421337A (en) * 1989-04-14 1995-06-06 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Spectral diagnosis of diseased tissue
US5425738A (en) * 1992-04-08 1995-06-20 American Cyanamid Company Endoscopic anastomosis ring insertion device and method of use thereof
US5439000A (en) * 1992-11-18 1995-08-08 Spectrascience, Inc. Method of diagnosing tissue with guidewire
US5507287A (en) * 1991-05-08 1996-04-16 Xillix Technologies Corporation Endoscopic imaging system for diseased tissue
US5590660A (en) * 1994-03-28 1997-01-07 Xillix Technologies Corp. Apparatus and method for imaging diseased tissue using integrated autofluorescence
US5602449A (en) * 1992-04-13 1997-02-11 Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Inc. Motor controlled surgical system and method having positional control
US5647368A (en) * 1996-02-28 1997-07-15 Xillix Technologies Corp. Imaging system for detecting diseased tissue using native fluorsecence in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract
US5651769A (en) * 1995-10-16 1997-07-29 The Beth Israel Hospital Association Method for retrieving pancreatic juice utilizing and endoscopically wire-guided catheter
US5762613A (en) * 1996-05-07 1998-06-09 Spectrascience, Inc. Optical biopsy forceps
US5769792A (en) * 1991-07-03 1998-06-23 Xillix Technologies Corp. Endoscopic imaging system for diseased tissue
US5772597A (en) * 1992-09-14 1998-06-30 Sextant Medical Corporation Surgical tool end effector
US5773835A (en) * 1996-06-07 1998-06-30 Rare Earth Medical, Inc. Fiber optic spectroscopy
US5810716A (en) * 1996-11-15 1998-09-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Articulated manipulator for minimally invasive surgery (AMMIS)
US5810717A (en) * 1995-09-22 1998-09-22 Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd. Bending mechanism and stereoscope using same
US5813976A (en) * 1996-04-02 1998-09-29 Filipi; Charles J. Stabilizing instrumentation for the performing of endoscopic surgical procedures
US5860581A (en) * 1994-03-24 1999-01-19 United States Surgical Corporation Anvil for circular stapler
US5912147A (en) * 1996-10-22 1999-06-15 Health Research, Inc. Rapid means of quantitating genomic instability
US5941908A (en) * 1997-04-23 1999-08-24 Vascular Science, Inc. Artificial medical graft with a releasable retainer
US6016440A (en) * 1996-07-29 2000-01-18 Bruker Analytik Gmbh Device for infrared (IR) spectroscopic investigations of internal surfaces of a body
US6033359A (en) * 1997-10-28 2000-03-07 Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Endoscopic length-measuring tool
US6066102A (en) * 1998-03-09 2000-05-23 Spectrascience, Inc. Optical biopsy forceps system and method of diagnosing tissue
US6096289A (en) * 1992-05-06 2000-08-01 Immunomedics, Inc. Intraoperative, intravascular, and endoscopic tumor and lesion detection, biopsy and therapy
US6119913A (en) * 1996-06-14 2000-09-19 Boston Scientific Corporation Endoscopic stapler
US6174291B1 (en) * 1998-03-09 2001-01-16 Spectrascience, Inc. Optical biopsy system and methods for tissue diagnosis
US6201989B1 (en) * 1997-03-13 2001-03-13 Biomax Technologies Inc. Methods and apparatus for detecting the rejection of transplanted tissue
US6203493B1 (en) * 1996-02-15 2001-03-20 Biosense, Inc. Attachment with one or more sensors for precise position determination of endoscopes
US6203494B1 (en) * 1999-03-02 2001-03-20 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope capable of varying hardness of flexible part of insertion unit thereof
US6241657B1 (en) * 1995-07-24 2001-06-05 Medical Media Systems Anatomical visualization system
US6348058B1 (en) * 1997-12-12 2002-02-19 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Image guided spinal surgery guide, system, and method for use thereof
US6352503B1 (en) * 1998-07-17 2002-03-05 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscopic surgery apparatus
US6366799B1 (en) * 1996-02-15 2002-04-02 Biosense, Inc. Movable transmit or receive coils for location system
US20020045778A1 (en) * 2000-07-19 2002-04-18 Shun-Ichi Murahashi Method for oxidizing alkanes and cycloalkanes with aldehydes in the presence of copper-based catalysts and nitrogen-containing compounds
US6428203B1 (en) * 2000-03-23 2002-08-06 Ta Instruments, Inc. Power compensation differential scanning calorimeter
US20020120254A1 (en) * 1998-12-08 2002-08-29 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Vivo accessories for minimally invasive robotic surgery
US6511418B2 (en) * 2000-03-30 2003-01-28 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Apparatus and method for calibrating and endoscope
US6511417B1 (en) * 1998-09-03 2003-01-28 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. System for detecting the shape of an endoscope using source coils and sense coils
US6517477B1 (en) * 2000-01-27 2003-02-11 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Catheter introducer system for exploration of body cavities
US20030032859A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2003-02-13 Amir Belson Endoscope with single step guiding apparatus
US6537211B1 (en) * 1998-01-26 2003-03-25 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Flourescence imaging endoscope
US6544215B1 (en) * 1998-10-02 2003-04-08 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Steerable device for introducing diagnostic and therapeutic apparatus into the body
US6569173B1 (en) * 1999-12-14 2003-05-27 Integrated Vascular Interventional Technologies, L.C. Compression plate anastomosis apparatus
US20040019254A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2004-01-29 Amir Belson Steerable segmented endoscope and method of insertion
US6837847B2 (en) * 2002-06-13 2005-01-04 Usgi Medical, Inc. Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US6837846B2 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-01-04 Neo Guide Systems, Inc. Endoscope having a guide tube
US6843793B2 (en) * 1998-02-24 2005-01-18 Endovia Medical, Inc. Surgical instrument
US20050020901A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-01-27 Neoguide Systems, Inc., A Delaware Corporation Apparatus and methods for facilitating treatment of tissue via improved delivery of energy based and non-energy based modalities
US6858005B2 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-02-22 Neo Guide Systems, Inc. Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion
US6869396B2 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-03-22 Neoguide Systems, Inc. Steerable endoscope and improved method of insertion
US6875170B2 (en) * 2000-04-21 2005-04-05 Universite Pierre Et Marie Curie Positioning, exploration, and/or intervention device, in particular in the field of endoscopy and/or mini-invasive surgery
US6902528B1 (en) * 1999-04-14 2005-06-07 Stereotaxis, Inc. Method and apparatus for magnetically controlling endoscopes in body lumens and cavities
US20050137455A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2005-06-23 Usgi Medical Corp. Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US20050137456A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2005-06-23 Usgi Medical Corp. Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US20050154258A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-07-14 Tartaglia Joseph M. Endoscope with adjacently positioned guiding apparatus
US20050165276A1 (en) * 2004-01-28 2005-07-28 Amir Belson Methods and apparatus for accessing and treating regions of the body
US20060052664A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2006-03-09 Julian Christopher A Connector device for a controllable instrument
US20070093858A1 (en) * 2000-03-03 2007-04-26 C. R. Bard, Inc. Suture clips, delivery devices and methods
US20070135803A1 (en) * 2005-09-14 2007-06-14 Amir Belson Methods and apparatus for performing transluminal and other procedures
US20070161857A1 (en) * 2005-11-22 2007-07-12 Neoguide Systems, Inc. Method of determining the shape of a bendable instrument
US20070161291A1 (en) * 2005-11-23 2007-07-12 Neoguide Systems, Inc. Non-metallic, multi-strand control cable for steerable instruments

Family Cites Families (269)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US616672A (en) 1898-12-27 kelling
US1590919A (en) 1926-06-29 of brooklyn
US2241576A (en) 1940-03-20 1941-05-13 Charles L Barton Figure toy
US2510198A (en) 1947-10-17 1950-06-06 Earl B Tesmer Flexible positioner
US2533494A (en) 1949-02-18 1950-12-12 Jr Iverson O Mitchell Adjustable article support
US2767705A (en) 1954-10-08 1956-10-23 Technical Oil Tool Corp Sigmoidoscope with suction attachment for immobilizing adjacent tissue
US3060972A (en) 1957-08-22 1962-10-30 Bausch & Lomb Flexible tube structures
NL106631C (en) 1960-02-04 1963-11-15 Pieter Johannes Meijs Support and locking device, in particular for a dial gauge
GB983560A (en) 1962-09-18 1965-02-17 Polymathic Engineering Company Supporting stand for instruments, tools and the like
US3162214A (en) 1963-01-16 1964-12-22 American Optical Corp Flexible tubular structures
US3430662A (en) 1964-09-21 1969-03-04 Stephen Guarnaschelli Flexible segmented tube
US3610231A (en) 1967-07-21 1971-10-05 Olympus Optical Co Endoscope
US3546961A (en) 1967-12-22 1970-12-15 Gen Electric Variable flexibility tether
JPS4831554B1 (en) 1968-12-24 1973-09-29
US3625084A (en) 1970-09-21 1971-12-07 Nasa Flexible/rigidifiable cable assembly
US3739770A (en) 1970-10-09 1973-06-19 Olympus Optical Co Bendable tube of an endoscope
US3946727A (en) 1971-06-15 1976-03-30 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Flexible tube assembly for an endoscope
US3773034A (en) 1971-11-24 1973-11-20 Itt Research Institute Steerable catheter
US3897775A (en) 1973-09-07 1975-08-05 Olympus Optical Co Endoscope with facile bending operation
US3780740A (en) 1972-11-01 1973-12-25 J Rhea Intubation device and method of advancing a tube past the pylorus
JPS506192A (en) 1973-05-18 1975-01-22
US3858578A (en) 1974-01-21 1975-01-07 Pravel Wilson & Matthews Surgical retaining device
US3990434A (en) 1975-02-18 1976-11-09 The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health, Education And Welfare Reversible intravasal occlusive device
US4054128A (en) 1976-09-28 1977-10-18 Universite De Sherbrooke Device for carrying observation and/or manipulation instruments
DE2657255A1 (en) 1976-12-17 1978-06-29 P H Dr Schomacher A device for closing of severed koerpergefaessen
JPS5940002Y2 (en) 1976-12-28 1984-11-12
US4176662A (en) 1977-06-17 1979-12-04 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Apparatus for endoscopic examination
DE2823025C2 (en) 1978-05-26 1986-02-06 H.-Hartwig 2300 Kiel De Euler
JPS5754724Y2 (en) * 1978-10-03 1982-11-26
JPS6137926B2 (en) 1978-12-22 1986-08-26 Olympus Optical Co
JPS6041203Y2 (en) 1979-04-03 1985-12-14
JPS606652B2 (en) 1979-11-16 1985-02-19 Olympus Optical Co
US4366810A (en) 1980-08-28 1983-01-04 Slanetz Jr Charles A Tactile control device for a remote sensing device
US4601283A (en) 1981-12-07 1986-07-22 Machida Endoscope Co., Ltd. Endoscope with a memory shape alloy to control tube bending
DE3214615C2 (en) 1981-04-21 1985-04-25 Kabushiki Kaisha Medos Kenkyusho, Tokio/Tokyo, Jp
DE3277287D1 (en) 1981-10-15 1987-10-22 Olympus Optical Co Endoscope system with an electric bending mechanism
DE3278275D1 (en) 1981-10-22 1988-05-05 Olympus Optical Co Endoscope apparatus with motor-driven bending mechanism
JPH0131895B2 (en) 1981-11-04 1989-06-28 Olympus Optical Co
US4489826A (en) 1982-02-05 1984-12-25 Philip Dubson Adjustable apparatus
US4551061A (en) 1983-04-18 1985-11-05 Olenick Ralph W Flexible, extensible robot arm
US4651718A (en) 1984-06-29 1987-03-24 Warner-Lambert Technologies Inc. Vertebra for articulatable shaft
GB2145691B (en) 1983-08-29 1987-06-03 Toshiba Kk Extendible and contractable arms
US4534339A (en) 1983-10-17 1985-08-13 Warner-Lambert Technologies, Inc. Endoscope
US4543090A (en) 1983-10-31 1985-09-24 Mccoy William C Steerable and aimable catheter
JPS60179713A (en) 1984-02-28 1985-09-13 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Endoscope device
JPH0210491Y2 (en) 1984-05-02 1990-03-15
JPH0335346Y2 (en) 1984-05-23 1991-07-26
DE3426024C2 (en) 1984-07-14 1987-01-02 Robert 5441 Bell De Merkt
US4577621A (en) 1984-12-03 1986-03-25 Patel Jayendrakumar I Endoscope having novel proximate and distal portions
US4646722A (en) 1984-12-10 1987-03-03 Opielab, Inc. Protective endoscope sheath and method of installing same
JPH055529Y2 (en) 1985-03-25 1993-02-15
US4624243A (en) 1985-04-08 1986-11-25 American Hospital Supply Corp. Endoscope having a reusable eyepiece and a disposable distal section
US4601713A (en) 1985-06-11 1986-07-22 Genus Catheter Technologies, Inc. Variable diameter catheter
JPS62113125A (en) 1985-11-13 1987-05-25 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Endoscope
JPH0550288B2 (en) 1985-12-13 1993-07-28 Olympus Optical Co
DE3704247C2 (en) 1986-02-14 1988-10-20 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd., Tokio/Tokyo, Jp
US4686963A (en) 1986-03-05 1987-08-18 Circon Corporation Torsion resistant vertebrated probe of simple construction
US4799474A (en) 1986-03-13 1989-01-24 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Medical tube to be inserted in body cavity
DE3734979C2 (en) 1986-10-16 1990-03-01 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd., Tokio/Tokyo, Jp
US4753223A (en) 1986-11-07 1988-06-28 Bremer Paul W System for controlling shape and direction of a catheter, cannula, electrode, endoscope or similar article
JPS63123011A (en) 1986-11-12 1988-05-26 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Endoscope
US4895431A (en) 1986-11-13 1990-01-23 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Method of processing endoscopic images
US4793326A (en) 1986-12-08 1988-12-27 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope having insertion end guide means
FR2610236B1 (en) 1987-02-04 1991-07-12 Logabex redundant robot modular
US4832473A (en) 1987-02-06 1989-05-23 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope with elastic actuator comprising a synthetic rubber tube with only radial expansion controlled by a mesh-like tube
CA1307177C (en) 1987-02-09 1992-09-08 Ichiro Sogawa Mechanism for bending elongated body
DE3707787A1 (en) * 1987-03-11 1988-09-22 Patrik Dr Med Gruendler Endoscope
US4884557A (en) 1987-05-15 1989-12-05 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope for automatically adjusting an angle with a shape memory alloy
US4796607A (en) 1987-07-28 1989-01-10 Welch Allyn, Inc. Endoscope steering section
US4787369A (en) 1987-08-14 1988-11-29 Welch Allyn, Inc. Force relieving, force limiting self-adjusting steering for borescope or endoscope
US4890602A (en) 1987-11-25 1990-01-02 Hake Lawrence W Endoscope construction with means for controlling rigidity and curvature of flexible endoscope tube
US4815450A (en) 1988-02-01 1989-03-28 Patel Jayendra I Endoscope having variable flexibility
US4834068A (en) 1988-03-18 1989-05-30 Gottesman James E Barrier shield method and apparatus for optical-medical devices
US4987314A (en) 1988-04-21 1991-01-22 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Actuator apparatus utilizing a shape-memory alloy
DE68921623T2 (en) 1988-05-19 1996-02-08 Edwards Motion drive devices.
US4873990A (en) 1988-09-23 1989-10-17 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Circumferential pressure probe
GB2226245A (en) 1988-11-18 1990-06-27 Alan Crockard Endoscope, remote actuator and aneurysm clip applicator.
US4977886A (en) 1989-02-08 1990-12-18 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Position controlling apparatus
US5018509A (en) 1989-02-21 1991-05-28 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope insertion controlling apparatus
JP2981556B2 (en) 1989-02-28 1999-11-22 旭光学工業株式会社 Distal end portion of the endoscope
US4919112B1 (en) * 1989-04-07 1993-12-28 Low-cost semi-disposable endoscope
JPH0651018B2 (en) 1989-05-02 1994-07-06 東芝メディカルエンジニアリング株式会社 Endoscope
DE3921233C2 (en) 1989-06-28 1992-01-16 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co, 7200 Tuttlingen, De
JPH0716478B2 (en) 1989-07-12 1995-03-01 富士写真光機株式会社 Endoscope angle mechanism
DE3943872B4 (en) 1989-08-01 2005-08-25 Stm Medizintechnik Starnberg Gmbh Means for introducing a medical endoscope into a body canal
US5060632A (en) 1989-09-05 1991-10-29 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope apparatus
US4957486A (en) 1989-10-02 1990-09-18 Davis Emsley A Rectal-stomal insert apparatus and method
US4949927A (en) 1989-10-17 1990-08-21 John Madocks Articulable column
DE3935256C1 (en) 1989-10-23 1991-01-03 Bauerfeind, Peter, Dr., 8264 Waldkraiburg, De
US5257617A (en) 1989-12-25 1993-11-02 Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Sheathed endoscope and sheath therefor
JPH03218723A (en) 1990-01-24 1991-09-26 Toshiba Corp Endoscope
DE4102211A1 (en) * 1990-01-26 1991-08-01 Asahi Optical Co Ltd Endoscope bending guide - has coaxial cylindrical components joined by pair of metal spirals
US5253647A (en) 1990-04-13 1993-10-19 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Insertion position and orientation state pickup for endoscope
US5092901A (en) 1990-06-06 1992-03-03 The Royal Institution For The Advancement Of Learning (Mcgill University) Shape memory alloy fibers having rapid twitch response
US5203319A (en) * 1990-06-18 1993-04-20 Welch Allyn, Inc. Fluid controlled biased bending neck
JPH04122233A (en) * 1990-09-11 1992-04-22 Toshiba Corp Endoscope
US5125395A (en) 1990-09-12 1992-06-30 Adair Edwin Lloyd Deflectable sheath for optical catheter
GB9023394D0 (en) 1990-10-26 1990-12-05 Gore W L & Ass Uk Segmented flexible housing
JP2598568B2 (en) 1990-11-20 1997-04-09 オリンパス光学工業株式会社 Electronic endoscope apparatus
US5531664A (en) 1990-12-26 1996-07-02 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Bending actuator having a coil sheath with a fixed distal end and a free proximal end
US5250058A (en) 1991-01-17 1993-10-05 Ethicon, Inc. Absorbable anastomosic fastener means
US5188111A (en) 1991-01-18 1993-02-23 Catheter Research, Inc. Device for seeking an area of interest within a body
US5400769A (en) 1991-02-18 1995-03-28 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Electrically bendable endoscope apparatus having controlled fixed bending speed
JP3065702B2 (en) 1991-04-23 2000-07-17 オリンパス光学工業株式会社 The endoscope system
US6485413B1 (en) 1991-04-29 2002-11-26 The General Hospital Corporation Methods and apparatus for forward-directed optical scanning instruments
US5251611A (en) 1991-05-07 1993-10-12 Zehel Wendell E Method and apparatus for conducting exploratory procedures
US5127393A (en) 1991-05-28 1992-07-07 Medilase, Inc. Flexible endoscope with rigid introducer
US5159446A (en) 1991-06-21 1992-10-27 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Electronic endoscope system provided with a separate camera controlling unit and motor controlling unit
JPH07500023A (en) 1991-07-04 1995-01-05
JPH0523291A (en) 1991-07-24 1993-02-02 Machida Endscope Co Ltd Curved tube of endoscope
JPH05184526A (en) 1991-09-17 1993-07-27 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Bending mechanism for flexible tube
US5370108A (en) 1991-10-02 1994-12-06 Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Endoscope
JP3149219B2 (en) 1991-10-15 2001-03-26 旭光学工業株式会社 Covering structure of the bending portion of the endoscope
US5271381A (en) * 1991-11-18 1993-12-21 Vision Sciences, Inc. Vertebrae for a bending section of an endoscope
US5217001A (en) 1991-12-09 1993-06-08 Nakao Naomi L Endoscope sheath and related method
US5469840A (en) 1991-12-10 1995-11-28 Olympus Optical, Ltd. Electromotive warping type endoscope with velocity control
US5348259A (en) 1992-02-10 1994-09-20 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Flexible, articulable column
US5658238A (en) 1992-02-25 1997-08-19 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope apparatus capable of being switched to a mode in which a curvature operating lever is returned and to a mode in which the curvature operating lever is not returned
US5279559A (en) 1992-03-06 1994-01-18 Aai Corporation Remote steering system for medical catheter
US5624380A (en) * 1992-03-12 1997-04-29 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Multi-degree of freedom manipulator
US5325845A (en) 1992-06-08 1994-07-05 Adair Edwin Lloyd Steerable sheath for use with selected removable optical catheter
US5482029A (en) 1992-06-26 1996-01-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Variable flexibility endoscope system
WO1994005200A1 (en) 1992-09-01 1994-03-17 Adair Edwin Lloyd Sterilizable endoscope with separable disposable tube assembly
US5402768A (en) 1992-09-01 1995-04-04 Adair; Edwin L. Endoscope with reusable core and disposable sheath with passageways
US5662587A (en) 1992-09-16 1997-09-02 Cedars Sinai Medical Center Robotic endoscopy
US5337732A (en) * 1992-09-16 1994-08-16 Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Robotic endoscopy
US5383852A (en) 1992-12-04 1995-01-24 C. R. Bard, Inc. Catheter with independent proximal and distal control
DE4244990C2 (en) 1992-12-15 2002-03-14 Stm Medtech Starnberg Means for moving an endoscope shaft along a canal-shaped cavity
US5460168A (en) 1992-12-25 1995-10-24 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope cover assembly and cover-system endoscope
US5653690A (en) 1992-12-30 1997-08-05 Medtronic, Inc. Catheter having a balloon with retention enhancement
JP3322356B2 (en) 1993-01-29 2002-09-09 オリンパス光学工業株式会社 Flexible tube
US5405337A (en) 1993-02-24 1995-04-11 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Spatially distributed SMA actuator film providing unrestricted movement in three dimensional space
US5460166A (en) 1993-03-11 1995-10-24 Olympus Optical, Ltd. Endoscope of an endoscope cover system wherein, at the time of the maximum curvature, a fluid tube path will be curved as twisted so as to move to the side on which the radius of curvature will become larger
US5551945A (en) 1993-03-16 1996-09-03 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope system including endoscope and protection cover
US5507717A (en) 1993-05-24 1996-04-16 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Device for bending the insertion section of an endoscope
US5487757A (en) 1993-07-20 1996-01-30 Medtronic Cardiorhythm Multicurve deflectable catheter
DE69728257D1 (en) 1996-01-08 2004-04-29 Biosense Inc Device for myocardial vascular neoplasm
US5415633A (en) 1993-07-28 1995-05-16 Active Control Experts, Inc. Remotely steered catheterization device
US5556370A (en) * 1993-07-28 1996-09-17 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Electrically activated multi-jointed manipulator
US5389222A (en) 1993-09-21 1995-02-14 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators
US5577992A (en) 1993-10-05 1996-11-26 Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Bendable portion of endoscope
US5558091A (en) 1993-10-06 1996-09-24 Biosense, Inc. Magnetic determination of position and orientation
US5402793A (en) 1993-11-19 1995-04-04 Advanced Technology Laboratories, Inc. Ultrasonic transesophageal probe for the imaging and diagnosis of multiple scan planes
US5451221A (en) 1993-12-27 1995-09-19 Cynosure, Inc. Endoscopic light delivery system
US5449206A (en) 1994-01-04 1995-09-12 Lockwood Products, Inc. Ball and socket joint with internal stop
US5429118A (en) 1994-04-07 1995-07-04 Cook (Canada) Incorporated Disposable medical scope sheath
US5662585A (en) 1994-05-05 1997-09-02 Imagyn Medical, Inc. Endoscope with protruding member and method of utilizing the same
US5842973A (en) 1994-05-17 1998-12-01 Bullard; James Roger Nasal intubation apparatus
US5558665A (en) 1994-06-24 1996-09-24 Archimedes Surgical, Inc. Surgical instrument and method for intraluminal retraction of an anatomic structure
US5624381A (en) 1994-08-09 1997-04-29 Kieturakis; Maciej J. Surgical instrument and method for retraction of an anatomic structure defining an interior lumen
DE69532139D1 (en) 1994-08-19 2003-12-18 Biosense Inc Medical diagnosis, treatment and presentation system
US5765561A (en) 1994-10-07 1998-06-16 Medical Media Systems Video-based surgical targeting system
US5645520A (en) 1994-10-12 1997-07-08 Computer Motion, Inc. Shape memory alloy actuated rod for endoscopic instruments
US5522788A (en) 1994-10-26 1996-06-04 Kuzmak; Lubomyr I. Finger-like laparoscopic blunt dissector device
US5728044A (en) 1995-03-10 1998-03-17 Shan; Yansong Sensor device for spacial imaging of endoscopes
DE19510962C2 (en) 1995-03-25 1998-02-05 Winter & Ibe Olympus Medical endoscopic device with super-elastic element
FR2732225A1 (en) 1995-03-27 1996-10-04 Mazars Paul Catheter with externally controlled deformation
JP3543027B2 (en) 1995-04-10 2004-07-14 オリンパス株式会社 Bending sheath for a probe
US5620408A (en) 1995-04-14 1997-04-15 Vennes; Jack A. Endoscopic over-tube
US5667476A (en) 1995-06-05 1997-09-16 Vision-Sciences, Inc. Endoscope articulation system to reduce effort during articulation of an endoscope
US5759151A (en) 1995-06-07 1998-06-02 Carnegie Mellon University Flexible steerable device for conducting exploratory procedures
US6210337B1 (en) * 1995-06-07 2001-04-03 Atl Ultrasound Inc. Ultrasonic endoscopic probe
US5752912A (en) 1995-06-26 1998-05-19 Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Manipulator for flexible portion of an endoscope
GB9519194D0 (en) 1995-09-20 1995-11-22 Univ Wales Medicine Anorectal angle measurement
DE19535179A1 (en) 1995-09-22 1997-03-27 Wolf Gmbh Richard Bendable tube and method for its preparation
US5810715A (en) 1995-09-29 1998-09-22 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope provided with function of being locked to flexibility of insertion part which is set by flexibility modifying operation member
JP3221824B2 (en) 1995-12-19 2001-10-22 富士写真光機株式会社 An endoscope having a bending portion protection mechanism
US5749828A (en) 1995-12-22 1998-05-12 Hewlett-Packard Company Bending neck for use with invasive medical devices
US5989230A (en) 1996-01-11 1999-11-23 Essex Technology, Inc. Rotate to advance catheterization system
US5810776A (en) 1996-02-13 1998-09-22 Imagyn Medical, Inc. Method and apparatus for performing laparoscopy
DE69733815T2 (en) 1996-02-15 2006-06-08 Biosense Webster, Inc., Diamond Bar Probe for excavation
CA2246288C (en) 1996-02-15 2005-09-20 Biosense, Inc. Medical probes with field transducers
DE19626433A1 (en) 1996-06-19 1998-01-15 Jan Henrik Dr Wilkens Endoscope head arrangement with integrated image production arrangement
JPH1014860A (en) * 1996-06-28 1998-01-20 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Endoscope
US5902254A (en) 1996-07-29 1999-05-11 The Nemours Foundation Cathether guidewire
US5685822A (en) 1996-08-08 1997-11-11 Vision-Sciences, Inc. Endoscope with sheath retaining device
US5993447A (en) 1996-08-16 1999-11-30 United States Surgical Apparatus for thermal treatment of tissue
US6096009A (en) 1996-09-13 2000-08-01 Boston Scientific Corporation Guidewire and catheter locking device and method
US5971767A (en) 1996-09-16 1999-10-26 The Research Foundation Of State University Of New York System and method for performing a three-dimensional virtual examination
US6058323A (en) * 1996-11-05 2000-05-02 Lemelson; Jerome System and method for treating select tissue in a living being
DE19748795B4 (en) 1996-11-18 2006-08-17 Olympus Corporation endoscope
US6371907B1 (en) 1996-11-18 2002-04-16 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope apparatus driving manipulation wires with drive motor in drum portion
GB9624486D0 (en) 1996-11-26 1997-01-15 Univ Bristol Control means
US5968052A (en) 1996-11-27 1999-10-19 Scimed Life Systems Inc. Pull back stent delivery system with pistol grip retraction handle
JP3615890B2 (en) 1996-12-04 2005-02-02 フジノン株式会社 Electronic endoscope apparatus
US5779624A (en) 1996-12-05 1998-07-14 Boston Scientific Corporation Sigmoid splint device for endoscopy
US5885208A (en) 1996-12-24 1999-03-23 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope system
DE69728142D1 (en) 1997-01-03 2004-04-22 Biosense Inc Catheter with adjustable shape
US5928136A (en) * 1997-02-13 1999-07-27 Karl Storz Gmbh & Co. Articulated vertebra for endoscopes and method to make it
US5893369A (en) 1997-02-24 1999-04-13 Lemole; Gerald M. Procedure for bypassing an occlusion in a blood vessel
US5876373A (en) 1997-04-04 1999-03-02 Eclipse Surgical Technologies, Inc. Steerable catheter
DE19880445D2 (en) 1997-04-16 2002-08-14 Storz Karl Gmbh & Co Kg endoscopic system
US5908381A (en) 1997-04-30 1999-06-01 C. R. Bard Inc. Directional surgical device for use with endoscope, gastroscope, colonoscope or the like
US5921915A (en) 1997-04-30 1999-07-13 C.R. Bard, Inc. Directional surgical device for use with endoscope, gastroscope, colonoscope or the like
US5879297A (en) 1997-05-08 1999-03-09 Lucent Medical Systems, Inc. System and method to determine the location and orientation of an indwelling medical device
US6149581A (en) 1997-06-12 2000-11-21 Klingenstein; Ralph James Device and method for access to the colon and small bowel of a patient
DE19729499A1 (en) 1997-07-10 1999-01-14 Friedrich Schiller Uni Jena Bu Guide for flexible endoscope, with reinforcements
US5921926A (en) 1997-07-28 1999-07-13 University Of Central Florida Three dimensional optical imaging colposcopy
JPH1156754A (en) 1997-08-18 1999-03-02 Asahi Optical Co Ltd Operating part of endoscope
US5916147A (en) * 1997-09-22 1999-06-29 Boury; Harb N. Selectively manipulable catheter
US6685726B2 (en) 1997-09-26 2004-02-03 Cryolife, Inc. Sutureless anastomotic technique using a bioadhesive and device therefor
US6616600B2 (en) * 1998-06-11 2003-09-09 Fritz Pauker Endoscope shaft
US5989182A (en) 1997-12-19 1999-11-23 Vista Medical Technologies, Inc. Device-steering shaft assembly and endoscope
WO1999033392A1 (en) 1997-12-29 1999-07-08 Falko Skrabal Deformable probe with automatic detection of the position of the probe
US6129667A (en) 1998-02-02 2000-10-10 General Electric Company Luminal diagnostics employing spectral analysis
EP1054634A4 (en) 1998-02-10 2006-03-29 Artemis Medical Inc Entrapping apparatus and method for use
US7297142B2 (en) 1998-02-24 2007-11-20 Hansen Medical, Inc. Interchangeable surgical instrument
DE19815598B4 (en) 1998-04-07 2007-01-18 Stm Medizintechnik Starnberg Gmbh Flexible access tube with roll-back tube
US6249076B1 (en) 1998-04-14 2001-06-19 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Conducting polymer actuator
JPH11299725A (en) 1998-04-21 1999-11-02 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Hood for endoscope
US6106510A (en) 1998-05-28 2000-08-22 Medtronic, Inc. Extruded guide catheter shaft with bump extrusion soft distal segment
US6066132A (en) 1998-06-30 2000-05-23 Ethicon, Inc. Articulating endometrial ablation device
JP2003524443A (en) 1998-08-02 2003-08-19 スーパー ディメンション リミテッド Medical body guidance system
DE19840986A1 (en) * 1998-09-08 2000-03-09 Etm Endoskopische Technik Gmbh Quick release for an endoscope
US6185448B1 (en) 1998-09-29 2001-02-06 Simcha Borovsky Apparatus and method for locating and mapping a catheter in intracardiac operations
US6508803B1 (en) 1998-11-06 2003-01-21 Furukawa Techno Material Co., Ltd. Niti-type medical guide wire and method of producing the same
US6174280B1 (en) 1998-11-19 2001-01-16 Vision Sciences, Inc. Sheath for protecting and altering the bending characteristics of a flexible endoscope
JP3448228B2 (en) 1998-11-30 2003-09-22 富士写真光機株式会社 The endoscope insertion guide tube
US6162171A (en) 1998-12-07 2000-12-19 Wan Sing Ng Robotic endoscope and an autonomous pipe robot for performing endoscopic procedures
JP2000193893A (en) * 1998-12-28 2000-07-14 Suzuki Motor Corp Bending device of insertion tube for inspection
US6179776B1 (en) 1999-03-12 2001-01-30 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Controllable endoscopic sheath apparatus and related method of use
US6569084B1 (en) 1999-03-31 2003-05-27 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope holder and endoscope device
JP2000279367A (en) 1999-03-31 2000-10-10 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Endoscope device
US6459481B1 (en) 1999-05-06 2002-10-01 David F. Schaack Simple system for endoscopic non-contact three-dimentional measurement
US6482149B1 (en) * 1999-05-12 2002-11-19 Fuji Photo Optical Co., Ltd. Curved part of endoscope
JP3490932B2 (en) 1999-06-07 2004-01-26 ペンタックス株式会社 Swallowable endoscope apparatus
JP2001149306A (en) * 1999-09-16 2001-06-05 Fuji Photo Optical Co Ltd Endoscope
JP4454078B2 (en) * 1999-10-08 2010-04-21 株式会社町田製作所 Bending tube of the endoscope and the manufacturing method thereof
GB9927358D0 (en) 1999-11-19 2000-01-19 Marconi Electronic Syst Ltd Endoscope suitable for magnetic resonance imaging
US6533752B1 (en) 2000-01-05 2003-03-18 Thomas C Waram Variable shape guide apparatus
JP3765218B2 (en) * 2000-02-03 2006-04-12 フジノン株式会社 Operation wire guide device of the endoscope
US6817973B2 (en) 2000-03-16 2004-11-16 Immersion Medical, Inc. Apparatus for controlling force for manipulation of medical instruments
US6800056B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2004-10-05 Neoguide Systems, Inc. Endoscope with guiding apparatus
WO2005018428A3 (en) 2000-04-03 2006-02-16 Neoguide Systems Inc Activated polymer articulated instruments and methods of insertion
US6309346B1 (en) 2000-06-29 2001-10-30 Ashkan Farhadi Creeping colonoscope
JP2002078674A (en) * 2000-09-08 2002-03-19 Fuji Photo Optical Co Ltd Curved surface structure of endoscope
WO2002024051A3 (en) 2000-09-23 2003-07-10 Univ Leland Stanford Junior Endoscopic targeting method and system
JP2002177198A (en) 2000-10-02 2002-06-25 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Endoscope
JP2002177201A (en) * 2000-10-02 2002-06-25 Olympus Optical Co Ltd Endoscope
US6461294B1 (en) 2000-10-30 2002-10-08 Vision Sciences, Inc. Inflatable member for an endoscope sheath
US20050203339A1 (en) 2001-03-08 2005-09-15 Atropos Limited Colonic overtube
JP2004524903A (en) 2001-03-08 2004-08-19 アトロポス・リミテッド Colon overtube
US6793621B2 (en) 2001-03-08 2004-09-21 Atropos Limited Colonic overtube
JP3720727B2 (en) 2001-05-07 2005-11-30 オリンパス株式会社 The endoscope shape detecting apparatus
FR2825013B1 (en) 2001-05-28 2004-01-09 Univ Paris Curie Active tubular structure orientable endoscope and shape from such a structure
US6569085B2 (en) 2001-08-16 2003-05-27 Syntheon, Llc Methods and apparatus for delivering a medical instrument over an endoscope while the endoscope is in a body lumen
WO2003039354A1 (en) 2001-10-18 2003-05-15 Atropos Limited A device to aid advancement of a colonoscope
JP2003135381A (en) * 2001-10-31 2003-05-13 Machida Endscope Co Ltd Curved tube and its manufacturing method
US7493156B2 (en) 2002-01-07 2009-02-17 Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. Steerable guide catheter with pre-shaped rotatable shaft
US7250027B2 (en) * 2002-05-30 2007-07-31 Karl Storz Endovision, Inc. Articulating vertebrae with asymmetrical and variable radius of curvature
JP4054970B2 (en) 2002-05-31 2008-03-05 ブリヂストンスポーツ株式会社 Golf ball
WO2004006980A3 (en) 2002-07-11 2004-08-12 Yakov Baror Piston-actuated endoscopic steering system
US20040186350A1 (en) 2003-01-13 2004-09-23 Usgi Medical Corp. Apparatus and methods for guiding an endoscope via a rigidizable wire guide
EP1593337B1 (en) 2003-02-11 2008-08-13 Olympus Corporation Overtube
US8882657B2 (en) 2003-03-07 2014-11-11 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Instrument having radio frequency identification systems and methods for use
US20040176683A1 (en) 2003-03-07 2004-09-09 Katherine Whitin Method and apparatus for tracking insertion depth
US8187288B2 (en) 2003-03-10 2012-05-29 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Re-shapeable medical device
US7285088B2 (en) 2003-05-13 2007-10-23 Olympus Corporation Endoscope apparatus
DE10339201B4 (en) 2003-08-22 2005-07-21 Frank Hohmann Double nut for the controlled clamping of a component by means of screw connection
US7837615B2 (en) 2004-05-10 2010-11-23 Usgi Medical, Inc. Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US20060235457A1 (en) 2005-04-15 2006-10-19 Amir Belson Instruments having a rigidizable external working channel
WO2007137208A3 (en) 2006-05-19 2008-04-24 Neoguide Systems Inc Methods and apparatus for displaying three-dimensional orientation of a steerable distal tip of an endoscope
JP3136630U (en) 2007-08-22 2007-11-01 ▲たい▼港科技股▲ふん▼有限公司 Observation case for raising the firefly
US9220398B2 (en) 2007-10-11 2015-12-29 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. System for managing Bowden cables in articulating instruments
JP5011196B2 (en) 2008-04-14 2012-08-29 株式会社東芝 Semiconductor device and manufacturing method thereof
JP5305073B2 (en) 2008-07-16 2013-10-02 富士ゼロックス株式会社 Printing system, an image forming apparatus, the post-processing apparatus, an image forming program, and postprocessor
JP5111458B2 (en) 2009-07-24 2013-01-09 帝人化成株式会社 Method of reducing the pearlescent aromatic polycarbonate resin composition
JP5001999B2 (en) 2009-12-16 2012-08-15 三菱重工業株式会社 Wind turbine generator
JP6007287B1 (en) 2015-05-14 2016-10-12 西芝電機株式会社 Generator with an engine-driven pump

Patent Citations (99)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US475322A (en) * 1892-05-24 knowels
US3071161A (en) * 1960-05-16 1963-01-01 Bausch & Lomb Bidirectionally flexible segmented tube
US3190286A (en) * 1961-10-31 1965-06-22 Bausch & Lomb Flexible viewing probe for endoscopic use
US3266059A (en) * 1963-06-19 1966-08-16 North American Aviation Inc Prestressed flexible joint for mechanical arms and the like
US3497083A (en) * 1968-05-10 1970-02-24 Us Navy Tensor arm manipulator
US3871358A (en) * 1972-08-04 1975-03-18 Olympus Optical Co Guiding tube for the insertion of an admissible medical implement into a human body
US4494417A (en) * 1979-03-16 1985-01-22 Robotgruppen Hb Flexible arm, particularly a robot arm
US4393728A (en) * 1979-03-16 1983-07-19 Robotgruppen Hb Flexible arm, particularly a robot arm
US4566843A (en) * 1982-09-22 1986-01-28 Hitachi, Ltd. Multiarticulated manipulator
US4643184A (en) * 1982-09-29 1987-02-17 Mobin Uddin Kazi Embolus trap
US4754909A (en) * 1984-08-09 1988-07-05 Barker John M Flexible stapler
US4800890A (en) * 1984-12-28 1989-01-31 Cramer Bernhard M Steerable guide wire for catheters
US4683773A (en) * 1985-06-27 1987-08-04 Gary Diamond Robotic device
US4726355A (en) * 1986-02-17 1988-02-23 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Curvable part device for endoscope devices
US4917114A (en) * 1986-10-17 1990-04-17 United States Surgical Corporation Surgical fastener and surgical stapling apparatus
US4807593A (en) * 1987-05-08 1989-02-28 Olympus Optical Co. Ltd. Endoscope guide tube
US4930494A (en) * 1988-03-09 1990-06-05 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Apparatus for bending an insertion section of an endoscope using a shape memory alloy
US5005558A (en) * 1988-05-16 1991-04-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Endoscope
US5421337A (en) * 1989-04-14 1995-06-06 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Spectral diagnosis of diseased tissue
US5014709A (en) * 1989-06-13 1991-05-14 Biologic Systems Corp. Method and apparatus for high resolution holographic imaging of biological tissue
US5207695A (en) * 1989-06-19 1993-05-04 Trout Iii Hugh H Aortic graft, implantation device, and method for repairing aortic aneurysm
US5005559A (en) * 1989-07-27 1991-04-09 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Video-graphic arthroscopy system
US5025778A (en) * 1990-03-26 1991-06-25 Opielab, Inc. Endoscope with potential channels and method of using the same
US5228429A (en) * 1991-01-14 1993-07-20 Tadashi Hatano Position measuring device for endoscope
US5243967A (en) * 1991-03-26 1993-09-14 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope system providing mutual operative communication between the drive control means and the video signal control means
US5347987A (en) * 1991-04-08 1994-09-20 Feldstein David A Self-centering endoscope system
US5507287A (en) * 1991-05-08 1996-04-16 Xillix Technologies Corporation Endoscopic imaging system for diseased tissue
US5769792A (en) * 1991-07-03 1998-06-23 Xillix Technologies Corp. Endoscopic imaging system for diseased tissue
US5343874A (en) * 1991-09-27 1994-09-06 Applied Medical Technology, Inc. Tract measuring device
US5411508A (en) * 1991-10-29 1995-05-02 The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York Gastrointestinal approximating and tissue attaching device
US5234448A (en) * 1992-02-28 1993-08-10 Shadyside Hospital Method and apparatus for connecting and closing severed blood vessels
US5425738A (en) * 1992-04-08 1995-06-20 American Cyanamid Company Endoscopic anastomosis ring insertion device and method of use thereof
US5602449A (en) * 1992-04-13 1997-02-11 Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Inc. Motor controlled surgical system and method having positional control
US6096289A (en) * 1992-05-06 2000-08-01 Immunomedics, Inc. Intraoperative, intravascular, and endoscopic tumor and lesion detection, biopsy and therapy
US5297443A (en) * 1992-07-07 1994-03-29 Wentz John D Flexible positioning appendage
US5772597A (en) * 1992-09-14 1998-06-30 Sextant Medical Corporation Surgical tool end effector
US5279610A (en) * 1992-11-06 1994-01-18 Cook Incorporated Oroesophageal, instrument introducer assembly and method of use
US5439000A (en) * 1992-11-18 1995-08-08 Spectrascience, Inc. Method of diagnosing tissue with guidewire
US5601087A (en) * 1992-11-18 1997-02-11 Spectrascience, Inc. System for diagnosing tissue with guidewire
US5383467A (en) * 1992-11-18 1995-01-24 Spectrascience, Inc. Guidewire catheter and apparatus for diagnostic imaging
US5413108A (en) * 1993-04-21 1995-05-09 The Research Foundation Of City College Of New York Method and apparatus for mapping a tissue sample for and distinguishing different regions thereof based on luminescence measurements of cancer-indicative native fluorophor
US5860581A (en) * 1994-03-24 1999-01-19 United States Surgical Corporation Anvil for circular stapler
US5590660A (en) * 1994-03-28 1997-01-07 Xillix Technologies Corp. Apparatus and method for imaging diseased tissue using integrated autofluorescence
US6241657B1 (en) * 1995-07-24 2001-06-05 Medical Media Systems Anatomical visualization system
US5810717A (en) * 1995-09-22 1998-09-22 Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd. Bending mechanism and stereoscope using same
US5651769A (en) * 1995-10-16 1997-07-29 The Beth Israel Hospital Association Method for retrieving pancreatic juice utilizing and endoscopically wire-guided catheter
US6203493B1 (en) * 1996-02-15 2001-03-20 Biosense, Inc. Attachment with one or more sensors for precise position determination of endoscopes
US6366799B1 (en) * 1996-02-15 2002-04-02 Biosense, Inc. Movable transmit or receive coils for location system
US5647368A (en) * 1996-02-28 1997-07-15 Xillix Technologies Corp. Imaging system for detecting diseased tissue using native fluorsecence in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract
US5813976A (en) * 1996-04-02 1998-09-29 Filipi; Charles J. Stabilizing instrumentation for the performing of endoscopic surgical procedures
US5762613A (en) * 1996-05-07 1998-06-09 Spectrascience, Inc. Optical biopsy forceps
US5773835A (en) * 1996-06-07 1998-06-30 Rare Earth Medical, Inc. Fiber optic spectroscopy
US6119913A (en) * 1996-06-14 2000-09-19 Boston Scientific Corporation Endoscopic stapler
US6016440A (en) * 1996-07-29 2000-01-18 Bruker Analytik Gmbh Device for infrared (IR) spectroscopic investigations of internal surfaces of a body
US5912147A (en) * 1996-10-22 1999-06-15 Health Research, Inc. Rapid means of quantitating genomic instability
US5810716A (en) * 1996-11-15 1998-09-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Articulated manipulator for minimally invasive surgery (AMMIS)
US6201989B1 (en) * 1997-03-13 2001-03-13 Biomax Technologies Inc. Methods and apparatus for detecting the rejection of transplanted tissue
US5941908A (en) * 1997-04-23 1999-08-24 Vascular Science, Inc. Artificial medical graft with a releasable retainer
US6033359A (en) * 1997-10-28 2000-03-07 Asahi Kogaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Endoscopic length-measuring tool
US6348058B1 (en) * 1997-12-12 2002-02-19 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Image guided spinal surgery guide, system, and method for use thereof
US6537211B1 (en) * 1998-01-26 2003-03-25 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Flourescence imaging endoscope
US6843793B2 (en) * 1998-02-24 2005-01-18 Endovia Medical, Inc. Surgical instrument
US6174291B1 (en) * 1998-03-09 2001-01-16 Spectrascience, Inc. Optical biopsy system and methods for tissue diagnosis
US6066102A (en) * 1998-03-09 2000-05-23 Spectrascience, Inc. Optical biopsy forceps system and method of diagnosing tissue
US6352503B1 (en) * 1998-07-17 2002-03-05 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscopic surgery apparatus
US6511417B1 (en) * 1998-09-03 2003-01-28 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. System for detecting the shape of an endoscope using source coils and sense coils
US6544215B1 (en) * 1998-10-02 2003-04-08 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Steerable device for introducing diagnostic and therapeutic apparatus into the body
US20020120254A1 (en) * 1998-12-08 2002-08-29 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Vivo accessories for minimally invasive robotic surgery
US6203494B1 (en) * 1999-03-02 2001-03-20 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Endoscope capable of varying hardness of flexible part of insertion unit thereof
US6902528B1 (en) * 1999-04-14 2005-06-07 Stereotaxis, Inc. Method and apparatus for magnetically controlling endoscopes in body lumens and cavities
US6569173B1 (en) * 1999-12-14 2003-05-27 Integrated Vascular Interventional Technologies, L.C. Compression plate anastomosis apparatus
US6517477B1 (en) * 2000-01-27 2003-02-11 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Catheter introducer system for exploration of body cavities
US20070093858A1 (en) * 2000-03-03 2007-04-26 C. R. Bard, Inc. Suture clips, delivery devices and methods
US6428203B1 (en) * 2000-03-23 2002-08-06 Ta Instruments, Inc. Power compensation differential scanning calorimeter
US6511418B2 (en) * 2000-03-30 2003-01-28 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Apparatus and method for calibrating and endoscope
US20050154258A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-07-14 Tartaglia Joseph M. Endoscope with adjacently positioned guiding apparatus
US6837846B2 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-01-04 Neo Guide Systems, Inc. Endoscope having a guide tube
US20030032859A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2003-02-13 Amir Belson Endoscope with single step guiding apparatus
US20050020901A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-01-27 Neoguide Systems, Inc., A Delaware Corporation Apparatus and methods for facilitating treatment of tissue via improved delivery of energy based and non-energy based modalities
US6858005B2 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-02-22 Neo Guide Systems, Inc. Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of insertion
US6869396B2 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-03-22 Neoguide Systems, Inc. Steerable endoscope and improved method of insertion
US20060009678A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2006-01-12 Ross Jaffe Endoscope having a guide tube
US6890297B2 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-05-10 Neo Guide Systems, Inc. Steerable endoscope and improved method of insertion
US6984203B2 (en) * 2000-04-03 2006-01-10 Neoguide Systems, Inc. Endoscope with adjacently positioned guiding apparatus
US20050124855A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-06-09 Ross Jaffe Endoscope having a guide tube
US20070043259A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2007-02-22 Ross Jaffe Endoscope Having a Guide Tube
US20040019254A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2004-01-29 Amir Belson Steerable segmented endoscope and method of insertion
US7087013B2 (en) * 2000-04-03 2006-08-08 Neoguide Systems, Inc. Steerable segmented endoscope and method of insertion
US20060052664A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2006-03-09 Julian Christopher A Connector device for a controllable instrument
US6875170B2 (en) * 2000-04-21 2005-04-05 Universite Pierre Et Marie Curie Positioning, exploration, and/or intervention device, in particular in the field of endoscopy and/or mini-invasive surgery
US20020045778A1 (en) * 2000-07-19 2002-04-18 Shun-Ichi Murahashi Method for oxidizing alkanes and cycloalkanes with aldehydes in the presence of copper-based catalysts and nitrogen-containing compounds
US20050137456A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2005-06-23 Usgi Medical Corp. Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US20050137455A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2005-06-23 Usgi Medical Corp. Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US20050137454A1 (en) * 2002-06-13 2005-06-23 Usgi Medical Corp. Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US6837847B2 (en) * 2002-06-13 2005-01-04 Usgi Medical, Inc. Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US20050165276A1 (en) * 2004-01-28 2005-07-28 Amir Belson Methods and apparatus for accessing and treating regions of the body
US20070135803A1 (en) * 2005-09-14 2007-06-14 Amir Belson Methods and apparatus for performing transluminal and other procedures
US20070161857A1 (en) * 2005-11-22 2007-07-12 Neoguide Systems, Inc. Method of determining the shape of a bendable instrument
US20070161291A1 (en) * 2005-11-23 2007-07-12 Neoguide Systems, Inc. Non-metallic, multi-strand control cable for steerable instruments

Cited By (59)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9138132B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2015-09-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Steerable endoscope and improved method of insertion
US8641602B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2014-02-04 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Steerable endoscope and improved method of insertion
US9427282B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2016-08-30 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Apparatus and methods for facilitating treatment of tissue via improved delivery of energy based and non-energy based modalities
US9808140B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2017-11-07 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Steerable segmented endoscope and method of insertion
US10105036B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2018-10-23 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Connector device for a controllable instrument
US8834354B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2014-09-16 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Steerable endoscope and improved method of insertion
US8845524B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2014-09-30 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Steerable segmented endoscope and method of insertion
US8062212B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2011-11-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Steerable endoscope and improved method of insertion
US8888688B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2014-11-18 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Connector device for a controllable instrument
US8827894B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2014-09-09 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Steerable endoscope and improved method of insertion
US8517923B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2013-08-27 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Apparatus and methods for facilitating treatment of tissue via improved delivery of energy based and non-energy based modalities
US9421016B2 (en) 2002-01-09 2016-08-23 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Apparatus and method for endoscopic colectomy
US8696694B2 (en) 2002-01-09 2014-04-15 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Apparatus and method for endoscopic colectomy
US8361090B2 (en) 2002-01-09 2013-01-29 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Apparatus and method for endoscopic colectomy
US8882657B2 (en) 2003-03-07 2014-11-11 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Instrument having radio frequency identification systems and methods for use
US9980778B2 (en) 2003-03-07 2018-05-29 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Instrument having radio frequency identification systems and methods for use
US9913573B2 (en) 2003-04-01 2018-03-13 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoscopic imaging system
US9549716B2 (en) 2005-06-22 2017-01-24 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical device control system
US9763650B2 (en) 2005-06-22 2017-09-19 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical device control system
US20100114116A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2010-05-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical Device Control System
US8057462B2 (en) * 2005-06-22 2011-11-15 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical device control system
US9089356B2 (en) 2005-06-22 2015-07-28 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical device control system
US20070010801A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2007-01-11 Anna Chen Medical device control system
US20080221592A1 (en) * 2005-07-25 2008-09-11 Olympus Medical Systems Corp. Medical control apparatus
US8523765B2 (en) * 2005-07-25 2013-09-03 Olympus Medical Systems Corp. Medical control apparatus
US8083879B2 (en) 2005-11-23 2011-12-27 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Non-metallic, multi-strand control cable for steerable instruments
US7846087B2 (en) * 2006-05-01 2010-12-07 Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Endoscopic rotation
US9357901B2 (en) 2006-05-19 2016-06-07 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Methods and apparatus for displaying three-dimensional orientation of a steerable distal tip of an endoscope
US8568299B2 (en) 2006-05-19 2013-10-29 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Methods and apparatus for displaying three-dimensional orientation of a steerable distal tip of an endoscope
US9700693B2 (en) 2007-08-15 2017-07-11 Chunyuan Qiu Systems and methods for intubation
US8166967B2 (en) 2007-08-15 2012-05-01 Chunyuan Qiu Systems and methods for intubation
US20110178369A1 (en) * 2007-08-15 2011-07-21 Chunyuan Qiu Systems and methods for intubation
US8882682B2 (en) 2007-08-15 2014-11-11 Chunyuan Qiu Systems and methods for intubation
US20090044799A1 (en) * 2007-08-15 2009-02-19 Chunyuan Qiu Systems and methods for intubation
US20090099420A1 (en) * 2007-10-11 2009-04-16 Neoguide Systems, Inc. System for managing bowden cables in articulating instruments
US9220398B2 (en) * 2007-10-11 2015-12-29 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. System for managing Bowden cables in articulating instruments
EP2072002A1 (en) * 2007-12-20 2009-06-24 Nederlandse Centrale Organisatie Voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek TNO A bendable structure and a method for bending a structure
WO2009082210A1 (en) * 2007-12-20 2009-07-02 Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Toegepast-Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek Tno A bendable structure and a method for bending a structure
US8608647B2 (en) 2008-02-25 2013-12-17 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Systems and methods for articulating an elongate body
US8182418B2 (en) 2008-02-25 2012-05-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Systems and methods for articulating an elongate body
US20090240109A1 (en) * 2008-03-24 2009-09-24 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Flexible endoscope with core member
US9011021B2 (en) 2008-06-30 2015-04-21 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Fixture for shape-sensing optical fiber in a kinematic chain
US8616782B2 (en) 2008-06-30 2013-12-31 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Fixture for shape-sensing optical fiber in a kinematic chain
US7815376B2 (en) * 2008-06-30 2010-10-19 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Fixture for shape-sensing optical fiber in a kinematic chain
US20090324160A1 (en) * 2008-06-30 2009-12-31 Intuitive Surgical, Inc. Fixture for shape-sensing optical fiber in a kinematic chain
US9523821B2 (en) 2008-06-30 2016-12-20 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Fixture for shape-sensing optical fiber in a kinematic chain
US8182158B2 (en) 2008-06-30 2012-05-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Fixture for shape-sensing optical fiber in a kinematic chain
US20110275892A1 (en) * 2009-08-26 2011-11-10 Olympus Medical Systems Corp. Endoscope apparatus
US8444553B2 (en) * 2009-08-26 2013-05-21 Olympus Medical Systems Corp. Endoscope apparatus having a bending driving control section for controlling a motion of a distal of a bending portion
US10010688B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2018-07-03 Chunyuan Qiu Intubation systems and methods based on airway pattern identification
US8894569B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2014-11-25 Chunyuan Qiu Intubation systems and methods based on airway pattern identification
US9486596B2 (en) 2010-04-21 2016-11-08 Chunyuan Qiu Intubation systems and methods based on airway pattern identification
US9198561B2 (en) 2011-01-31 2015-12-01 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Articulation section with locking
US9974429B2 (en) 2011-01-31 2018-05-22 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Articulation section with locking
US9795753B2 (en) 2012-03-07 2017-10-24 Chunyuan Qiu Intubation delivery systems and methods
US20140039259A1 (en) * 2012-05-14 2014-02-06 Olympus Medical Systems Corp. Endoscope system
US9839481B2 (en) * 2013-03-07 2017-12-12 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Hybrid manual and robotic interventional instruments and methods of use
US20140257333A1 (en) * 2013-03-07 2014-09-11 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Hybrid manual and robotic interventional instruments and methods of use
EP2979610A4 (en) * 2013-03-28 2016-12-21 Olympus Corp Endoscope system and method for operating endoscope system

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
EP1534118B1 (en) 2013-10-02 grant
CN1684625A (en) 2005-10-19 application
EP2401954A1 (en) 2012-01-04 application
EP1534118A1 (en) 2005-06-01 application
WO2004019769A1 (en) 2004-03-11 application
US8721530B2 (en) 2014-05-13 grant
US20030045778A1 (en) 2003-03-06 application
US20100094088A1 (en) 2010-04-15 application
JP2005537063A (en) 2005-12-08 application
US6858005B2 (en) 2005-02-22 grant
US20110306836A1 (en) 2011-12-15 application
EP1534118A4 (en) 2009-04-08 application
CA2496574A1 (en) 2004-03-11 application
JP4758646B2 (en) 2011-08-31 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4676228A (en) Medical apparatus having inflatable cuffs and a middle expandable section
US5759151A (en) Flexible steerable device for conducting exploratory procedures
US6179776B1 (en) Controllable endoscopic sheath apparatus and related method of use
US5551945A (en) Endoscope system including endoscope and protection cover
US5749828A (en) Bending neck for use with invasive medical devices
US4714075A (en) Biopsy channel for endoscope
US20080262480A1 (en) Instrument assembly for robotic instrument system
US20060111614A1 (en) Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US5626553A (en) Endoscope articulation system to reduce effort during articulation of an endoscope
US20060111616A1 (en) Articulating mechanism components and system for easy assembly and disassembly
US20060252993A1 (en) Medical devices and systems
US7725214B2 (en) Minimally invasive surgical system
US6506150B1 (en) Self-retaining endoscope
US8551076B2 (en) Retrograde instrument
US6162171A (en) Robotic endoscope and an autonomous pipe robot for performing endoscopic procedures
US7922650B2 (en) Medical visualization system with endoscope and mounted catheter
US7837615B2 (en) Shape lockable apparatus and method for advancing an instrument through unsupported anatomy
US20060069307A1 (en) Selectively rotatable shaft coupler
US5549542A (en) Deflectable endoscope
US7947000B2 (en) Cannula system for free-space navigation and method of use
US20060111209A1 (en) Articulating mechanisms and link systems with torque transmission in remote manipulation of instruments and tools
US20060199999A1 (en) Cardiac tissue ablation instrument with flexible wrist
US20060235458A1 (en) Instruments having an external working channel
US20070270650A1 (en) Methods and apparatus for displaying three-dimensional orientation of a steerable distal tip of an endoscope
US20060178556A1 (en) Articulate and swapable endoscope for a surgical robot

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: NEOGUIDE SYSTEMS, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:OHLINE, ROBERT M.;TARTAGLIA, JOSEPH M.;BELSON, AMIR;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:016114/0016

Effective date: 20021010

AS Assignment

Owner name: VENTURE LENDING & LEASING IV, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:NEOGUIDE SYSTEMS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:019366/0663

Effective date: 20070515

Owner name: VENTURE LENDING & LEASING V, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:NEOGUIDE SYSTEMS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:019366/0663

Effective date: 20070515

AS Assignment

Owner name: NEOGUIDE SYSTEMS, INC, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: TERMINATION OF SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:VENTURE LENDING AND LEASING IV/V, INC.;REEL/FRAME:022668/0204

Effective date: 20090320

AS Assignment

Owner name: INTUITIVE SURGICAL, INC., CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NEOGUIDE SYSTEMS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:022703/0493

Effective date: 20090320