US20050147788A1 - Spinneret plate for producing a bulked continuous filament having a three-sided exterior cross-section and a convex six-sided central void - Google Patents

Spinneret plate for producing a bulked continuous filament having a three-sided exterior cross-section and a convex six-sided central void Download PDF

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US20050147788A1
US20050147788A1 US10991469 US99146904A US20050147788A1 US 20050147788 A1 US20050147788 A1 US 20050147788A1 US 10991469 US10991469 US 10991469 US 99146904 A US99146904 A US 99146904A US 20050147788 A1 US20050147788 A1 US 20050147788A1
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void
side
filament
extending
shaped
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US10991469
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Wae-Hai Tung
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Invista North America Sarl
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Invista North America Sarl
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    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01DMECHANICAL METHODS OR APPARATUS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS
    • D01D5/00Formation of filaments, threads, or the like
    • D01D5/24Formation of filaments, threads, or the like with a hollow structure; Spinnerette packs therefor
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01DMECHANICAL METHODS OR APPARATUS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS
    • D01D5/00Formation of filaments, threads, or the like
    • D01D5/253Formation of filaments, threads, or the like with a non-circular cross section; Spinnerette packs therefor
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D01NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL THREADS OR FIBRES; SPINNING
    • D01FCHEMICAL FEATURES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL FILAMENTS, THREADS, FIBRES, BRISTLES OR RIBBONS; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CARBON FILAMENTS
    • D01F6/00Monocomponent artificial filaments or the like of synthetic polymers; Manufacture thereof
    • D01F6/58Monocomponent artificial filaments or the like of synthetic polymers; Manufacture thereof from homopolycondensation products
    • D01F6/60Monocomponent artificial filaments or the like of synthetic polymers; Manufacture thereof from homopolycondensation products from polyamides
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24008Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.] including fastener for attaching to external surface
    • Y10T428/24017Hook or barb

Abstract

A spinneret plate for producing a thermoplastic synthetic polymer filament having an exterior configuration with three sides and a generally delta-shaped void extending centrally and axially therethrough, each side of the filament defining a smoothly curved contour extending between a first with a second tip with an inwardly extending depressed region being disposed adjacent to each tip, the void having a geometric center and three major apices, each side of the void being convex in shape and having a first and a second end, each side of the void being formed from two facets that meet to define a minor apex intermediate the first and second end of each side. The spinneret is characterized by a cluster of three Y-shaped orifices centered about a central point. Each Y-shaped orifice has three linear legs joined at a junction point corresponding to a major apex of the void. Each leg has an axis therethrough. One leg of each orifice extends radially outwardly from the junction point with the axis of the outwardly extending leg aligning with a radius extending outwardly from the central point. The axes of each of the other two legs of each orifice project toward a point disposed intermediate adjacent orifices, each intermediate point corresponding to a minor apex of the void. Each radially outwardly extending leg is wider than the other legs of the Y-shaped orifice.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • This application is a U.S. Utility patent application claiming priority to provisional application no. 60/523,870, filed Nov. 19, 2003 and provisional application no. 60/523,871, filed Nov. 19, 2003.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention
  • The present invention relates to a spinneret plate for producing a bulked continuous filament having an exterior configuration of three smoothly contoured sides with an inwardly extending depressed region located adjacent each tip of each side and with a convex, generally delta-shaped, six-sided central void extending therethrough.
  • 2. Description of the Prior Art
  • While carpet yarns having relatively high levels of “glitter” have become fashionable there nevertheless remains a substantial demand for yarns which provide a lower glitter, more wool-like appearance with superior soil hiding, and which cover more surface area with lower face weights.
  • “Glitter” is the property of the yarn relating to the yarn's ability to reflect incident light. The amount of glitter exhibited by a yarn is a measure of the relative fraction of light that is reflected by the yarn. “Bulk” is the property of the yarn, which most closely correlates to surface coverage ability of a given yarn.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 3,329,553 (Sims et al.) discloses a trilobal filament having a void fraction in the range from ten to sixty-five percent (10-65%). This reference teaches that void ratio is correlated with bulk in that the higher the void ratio the greater the bulk.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 6,048,615 (Lin, RD-7395), assigned to the assignee of the present invention, discloses a trilobal filament with concave-sided voids formed from a thermoplastic synthetic polymer. This yarn exhibits excellent durability and good soiling resistance, but has relatively high glitter.
  • U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,108,838 and 5,176,926 (both to Tung), both assigned to the assignee of the present invention, disclose a solid trilobal filament formed from a thermoplastic synthetic polymer material which exhibits low glitter. The structure of this yarn provides less bulk and is somewhat less effective in hiding soil than the current invention.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 5,380,592 (Tung), assigned to the assignee of the present invention, discloses a trilobal cross-section with three voids which improve bulk and soil hiding compared to the solid cross-section trilobal filament discussed immediately above. However, this yarn is still somewhat vulnerable to soiling owing to the channels or “cusps” in the sides. Filaments of this yarn are also more subject to discontinuity in the spinning process owing to the complexity of the spinneret used to form the yarn. Open voids may occur in individual filaments, resulting in severe dyeability differences from filament to filament.
  • In view of the foregoing it is believed advantageous to provide a spinneret for forming synthetic filaments which is conducive to a stable spinning process that is consistent along the length of the filament and that produces filaments that are easily bulked, exhibit a relatively low glitter, and are contoured to resist soil accumulation.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention is directed to a spinneret plate for producing a thermoplastic synthetic polymer filament having a three-sided exterior configuration wherein each side exhibits a smoothly curved contour having an inwardly extending depressed region disposed adjacent to each tip of each side. The filament has a generally delta-shaped void with a geometric center and three major apices extending centrally and axially therethrough. Each side of the void is convex in shape and has a first and a second end. Each side of the void is formed from two facets that meet to define a minor apex intermediate the first and second end of each side.
  • The spinneret plate has a cluster of three Y-shaped orifices centered about a central point. Each Y-shaped orifice has three linear legs meeting at a junction point corresponding to a major apex of the void. One leg of each orifice extends radially outwardly from the junction point, the axis of that one leg aligning with a radius extending outwardly from the central point. The axes of each of the other two legs of each orifice project toward an apex point disposed intermediate adjacent orifices, each intermediate point corresponding to a minor apex of the void. The radially outwardly extending leg of each Y-shaped orifice is wider than the other legs of the Y-shaped orifice.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The invention will be more fully understood from the following detailed description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this application and in which:
  • FIG. 1 is a cross sectional view of a bulked continuous filament in accordance with the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 is a view of the bottom surface of a spinneret plate having a cluster of orifices formed therein for producing the filament shown in FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 3 is a view of the bottom surface of a spinneret plate used for spinning the filaments of Comparative Example 1; and
  • FIG. 4 is a view of the bottom surface of a spinneret plate used for spinning the filaments of Comparative Example 2.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • Throughout the following detailed description similar reference numerals refer to similar elements in all Figures of the drawings.
  • FIG. 1 is a cross section view of a bulked continuous filament generally indicated by reference character 10 in accordance with the present invention. A longitudinal axis 12 extending through the filament 10 serves its geometric center. The distance from the axis 12 to the point(s) on the exterior contour of the filament 10 closest to the axis defines the minor radius (R1) of the filament. A major radius (R2) is defines the distance from the axis 12 to the point(s) on the exterior contour of the filament that lie farthest therefrom.
  • Each filament 10 has a generally three-sided exterior configuration formed from sides 14A, 14B and 14C. The side 14 A is defined by a smoothly curved contour extending between a first rounded tip 16A and a second rounded tip 16B. The side 14B is defined by a smoothly curved contour extending between the second rounded tip 16B and a third rounded tip 16C. The side 14C is defined by a smoothly curved contour extending between the third rounded tip 16B and the rounded first tip 16A. The distance from a respective center of generation 18A, 18B, 18C to each rounded tip 16A, 16B, 16C is indicated by a tip radius R3 (only one of which is illustrated in FIG. 1 for clarity of illustration).
  • Each exterior side 14A, 14B, 14C has a first inwardly extending depressed region 22 disposed near one tip and a second inwardly extending depressed region 24 disposed near the other tip. By “depressed region” it is meant that the contour of the filament in that region extends inwardly toward the axis 12 of the filament. The intermediate region 26 of each side 14A, 14B, 14C (i.e., the region between the depressed regions 22, 24 on that side) is bowed slightly outwardly from the axis 12. Each exterior side 14A, 14B, 14C of the filament 10 thus exhibits a generally “wavy” configuration having two concave regions (i.e., the depressed regions 22, 24) and three convex regions (i.e., the bowed intermediate region 26 and the rounded regions 28 disposed near each rounded tip of each side).
  • In general a filament 10 in accordance with the present invention has an exterior modification ratio (R2/R1) in the range from about 1.4 to about 2.0, and more particularly in the range from about 1.6 to about 1.8. In addition, the ratio of the major radius (R2) to the tip radius (R3) defines a tip ratio (R2/R3) in the range from about 2.0 to about 4.0, and more particularly in the range from about 2.0 to about 3.0.
  • The filament 10 has a void 30 extending centrally and axially therethrough. The axis 12 defines the geometric center of the void. The central void 30 is a generally “delta-shaped” opening having three generally convex major sides 32A, 32B, 32C. Adjacent pairs of major sides 32A, 32B, 32C join at adjacent ends to define three major apices 34A, 34B, 34C. In accordance with the present invention each side 32A, 32B, 32C is itself configured from a pair of discernable facets 38A, 38B. The facets 38A, 38B may be planar in contour or may be gently curving to approximate a planar contour. The facets 38A, 38B meet to define a minor apex 40A, 40B, 40C located intermediate the ends of each respective major side 32A, 32B, 32C. The major apices 34A, 34B, 34C lie a distance RM from the geometric center 12 of the void 30 while the minor apices 40A, 40B, 40C are spaced a distance Rm from the same point. The ratio of the distance (RM) to the distance (Rm) defines an apex ratio (RM/Rm) in the range from about 1.0 to about 1.55, and more particularly in the range 1.05 to 1.50.
  • The void 30 may occupy from about four percent (4%) to about twenty-five percent (25%), and more particularly from about four percent (4%) to about fifteen percent (15%), of the cross sectional area of the filament 10.
  • In accordance with the present invention the central void 30 is oriented within the filament 10 such that each major apex 34A, 34B, 34C of the void 30 extends toward the approximate midpoint of the respective proximal side 14A, 14B, 14C of the filament 10, while each minor apex 40A, 40B, 40C extends toward the respective proximal rounded tip 16A, 16B, 16C.
  • These relationships are exemplified in FIG. 1 by the radial reference line 42 extending from the axis 12 of the filament 10 through the major apex 34C and a point 44 disposed substantially midway along the intermediate region 26 of the side 14C. Similar reference lines, omitted for clarity, may be drawn through the other major apices 34A, 34B and a substantial midpoint of the intermediate region on the respective proximal sides 14A, 14B of the exterior of the filament 10. The alignment of the minor apices and the rounded tip of the filament is exemplified in FIG. 1 by a radial reference line 46 extending from the axis 12 of the filament 10 through the minor apex 40C and the rounded tip 16C of the filament. Similar reference lines, again omitted for clarity, may be drawn through the minor apices 40A, 40B and the respective rounded tips 16A, 16B of the filament.
  • A filament in accordance with the present invention is a bulked continuous filament prepared using a synthetic, thermoplastic melt-spinnable polymer. Suitable polymers include polyamides, polyesters, and polyolefins. The polymer is first melted and then is extruded (“spun”) through a spinneret plate 50 having appropriately sized orifices therein (to be described hereinafter) under conditions which vary depending upon the individual polymer thereby to produce a filament 10 having the desired denier, exterior modification ratio, tip ratio, apex ratio and void percentage. The filaments are subsequently quenched by air flowing across them at a flow rate of between 1.2-1.8 ft/sec (0.36 to 0.55 m/sec). Void percentage can be increased by more rapid quenching and increasing the melt viscosity of thermoplastic melt polymers, which can slow the flow allowing sturdy pronounced molding to occur.
  • A plurality of filaments 10 are gathered together to form a yarn. Drawing and bulking of the combined filaments is performed by any method known in the art, with the preferred operating condition described below in the examples provided.
  • Owing to the particular desired properties of the filaments 10 a yarn formed therefrom is believed to be particularly advantageous for tufting [with other types of yarn(s), if desired] into carpet having especially desirable properties. If desired, the yarn could include other forms of filament(s).
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a spinneret plate 50 useful for producing a filament 10 in accordance with the invention.
  • The spinneret plate 50 is a relatively massive member having an upper surface (not shown) and a bottom surface 52. As is well appreciated by those skilled in the art a portion of the upper surface of the spinneret plate is provided with a bore recess (not shown) whereby the plate 50 is connected to a source of polymer. Depending upon the rheology of the polymer being extruded the lower margins of the bore recess may be inclined to facilitate flow of polymer from the supply to the spinneret plate.
  • A plurality of capillary openings each generally indicated by the reference character 54 extends through the plate 50 from the recessed upper surface to the bottom surface 52. Each capillary opening 54 serves to form one filament. Only one such capillary opening 54 is illustrated in FIG. 2. The number of capillary openings provided in a given plate thus corresponds to the number of filaments being gathered to form a predetermined number of yarn(s). As noted, additional filaments (if used) may be incorporated into the yarn in any convenient manner.
  • As best seen in FIG. 2, in the present invention each capillary opening 54 is itself defined by a cluster of three orifices 56-1, 56-2 and 56-3 centered symmetrically about a central point 58.
  • Each orifice 56-1, 56-2 and 56-3 is a generally “Y”-shaped opening comprising three linear legs 62A, 62B and 62C. Each leg 62A, 62B and 62C has a respective longitudinal axis 64A, 64B, 64C extending therethrough. The axes 64A, 64B, 64C are angularly spaced from each other by one hundred twenty degrees (120°). The axes 64A, 64B, 64C of the legs 62A, 62B and 62C of each orifice intersect at a junction point 68. The junction points 68 are spaced a distance 70 from the center point 58 of the cluster.
  • The orifices 56-1, 56-2 and 56-3 are arranged with respect to each other such that one leg of each orifice 56-1, 56-2 and 56-3, e.g., the leg 62A, extends from the junction point 68 in a radially outward direction relative to the central point 58. Stated alternatively, the radially outwardly extending leg 62A of each orifice 56-1, 56-2 and 56-3 is oriented such that its axis 64A aligns with a radius 70 extending outwardly from the central point 58. Each junction point 68 of the orifices 56-1, 56-2, 56-3 respectively corresponds to a major apex 34A, 34B, 34C of the void 30 of the filament being spun.
  • The other two legs 62B, 62C of each orifice 56-1, 56-2 and 56-3 are arranged such that the axes 64B, 64C thereof project toward an apex point 72 disposed intermediate adjacent orifices. Extensions of each of the axes 64B, 64C of these legs 62B, 62C intersect at an apex point 72. Each apex point 72 corresponds to a respective minor apex 40A, 40B, 40C of the void 30 of the filament being spun. The ends of the confronting legs 62B, 62C are spaced from each other by a gap 74A, 74B, 74C. The dimension of the gaps 74A, 74B, 74C is indicated by the reference character C. The legs 62A, 62B, 62C of each of Y-shaped orifice 56-1, 56-2 and 56-3, when measured along their respective axes, are equal in length. The length dimensions of the legs 62A, 62B, 62C are indicated by the respective reference character A1, A2, A3.
  • The width dimensions of the legs 62A, 62B, 62C are indicated by the respective reference character B1, B2, B3. The width dimension of the radially extending leg 62A (indicated by the reference character B1) is wider than the width dimensions (indicated by the reference characters B2, B3) of the other legs 62B, 62C.
  • The spinneret plate may be fabricated in any appropriate manner, as by using the laser technique disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,168,143, (Kobsa et al., QP-4171-A), assigned to the assignee of the present invention.
  • The following Table presents the magnitudes of the various dimensions Al, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, and C used to fabricate filaments having the cross section illustrated in FIG. 1 used in invention Example 1 and Invention Example 2. The dimensions are in inches, with the corresponding metric measurement given parenthetically in centimeters.
    TABLE 1
    A1, A2, A3 B1 B2, B3 C
    0.0153 0.0073 0.0061 0.0186
    (Invention Example 1) (0.0389) (0.019) (0.015) (0.047)
    0.0214 0.0052 0.0044 0.0247
    (Invention Example 2) (0.054) (0.013) (0.011) (0.062)
  • Trilobal cross sections with voids (hollow filament) have been practiced in the past [e.g., U.S. Pat. 6,048,615 (Lin)]. However, hollow filament yarns are difficult to make because of cross section shape control. Void percent and exterior modification ratio are both sensitive to polymer viscosity and quench air flow. As is well understood by one skilled in the art, without tight control of these parameters, lack of cross section shape uniformity can result in streaks when the yarns are finally tufted into a carpet.
  • The combination of the three orifices taken together with the enlarged width dimension (B1) of the radially outwardly extending leg of each orifice causes polymer streams emanating from each orifice to converge, thus producing surprisingly stable polymer flow that is less prone to filament breakage and process interruption than the more complicated spinnerets of the prior art.
  • The stable polymer flow provided by the use of the spinneret in accordance also results in surprising robustness of cross section formation in the spinning process. The fiber cross section shape is measurably less sensitive to quench airflow, and thus provides a distinct advantage versus the prior art as a result of the greater consistency of shape provided along the length of the formed filaments and yarns made therefrom.
  • In addition, the disclosed spinneret plate is especially useful in the manner of producing the disclosed filament cross-section because it is simpler and less expensive to produce than previous hollow filament spinnerets.
  • EXAMPLES
  • Spinning Process:
  • Nylon 6,6 filaments having various cross-sections were produced for Comparative Examples A and B and for Invention Examples 1 and 2 from appropriately configured spinnerets, each with one hundred thirty-six (136) capillaries.
  • The nylon 6,6 polymer used for all of the examples was a bright polymer. The polymer spin dope did not contain any delusterant and had a relative viscosity (RV) of sixty-eight plus/minus approximately three units (68, +/−˜3 units). The polymer temperature before the spinning pack was controlled at about two hundred ninety plus/minus one degree Centigrade (290, +/−1° C.). The spinning throughput was seventy pounds (70 lbs; 31.8 kg) per hour.
  • The relative viscosity (RV) was measured by dissolving 5.5 grams of nylon 6,6 polymer in fifty cubic centimeters (50 cc) of formic acid. The RV is the ratio of the absolute viscosity of the nylon 66/formic acid solution to the absolute viscosity of the formic acid. Both absolute viscosities were measured at twenty-five degrees Centigrade (25° C.).
  • The polymer was extruded through the different spinnerets and divided into two (2) sixty-eight filament (68) segments. The capillary dimensions for the spinnerets are described below. The molten fibers were then rapidly quenched in a chimney, where cooling air at about nine degrees Centigrade (−9° C.) was blown past the filaments at three hundred cubic feet per minute [300 cfm (732 m/min)] through the quench zone. The filaments were then coated with a lubricant for drawing and crimping. The coated yarns were drawn at 2197 yards per minute (2.75 x draw ratio) using a pair of heated draw rolls. The draw roll temperature was one hundred ninety degrees Centigrade (190° C.). The filaments were then forwarded into a dual-impingement hot air bulking jet similar to that described in Coon, U.S. Pat. No. 3,525,134 (Coon, assigned to the assignee of the present invention) to form two (2) twelve hundred five denier (1205 denier, 1340 decitex), 17.7 denier per filament (dpf) yarns (19 decitex per filament). The temperature of the air in the bulking jet was two hundred twenty degrees Centigrade (220° C.).
  • The spun, drawn, and crimped bulked continuous filament (BCF) yarns were cable-twisted to 3.2 turns per inch (tpi) on a cable twister and heat-set on a Superba heat-setting machine at setting temperature of two hundred sixty degrees Farenheit (265° F.; 129.4° C.).
  • The yarns were then tufted into twenty-eight ounce per square yard (28 oz/sq. yd; 949 g/sq. meter) having 0.21875 inch [{fraction (7/32)}″, 0.56 cm] pile height loop pile carpets on a {fraction (1/10)} inch gauge (0.254 cm) loop pile tufting machine. The tufted carpets were dyed on a continuous range dyer into medium yellow carpets.
  • Test Methods:
  • Each carpet sample produced from the yarns of Comparative Examples A and B and Invention Examples 1 and 2 was subjected to the following tests.
  • Carpet Glitter and Bulk Ratings. The degrees of bulk and glitter for different cut-pile carpet samples were visually compared in a side-by side comparison without knowledge of which carpets were made with which yarns. The carpets were examined by a panel of five (5) experienced examiners each familiar with carpet construction and surface texture. The glitter value was measured by the examiners on a scale of “1” to “5”, with “5” being the most glitter. The glitter rating for each sample was averaged and the samples given a rating of low, medium or high glitter based on the average rating. Carpet bulk was rated in the same manner. The glitter and bulk results are reported in Table 2.
  • Soiling Test:
  • The soiling test was conducted on each carpet sample using a Vetterman drum.
  • The base color of the sample was measured using the hand held color measurement instrument sold by Minolta Corporation as “Chromameter” model CR-210. This measurement was the control value.
  • The carpet sample was placed in Vetterman drum. Two hundred grams (200 g) of clean nylon 101 Zytel nylon beads and fifty grams (50 g) of dirty beads (by DuPont Canada, Mississauga, Ontario) were placed on the sample. The dirty beads were prepared by mixing ten grams (10 g) of AATCC TM-122 synthetic carpet soil (by Manufacturer Textile Innovators Corp. Windsor, N.C.) with one thousand grams (1000 g) of new Nylon 101 Zytel beads. Sixteen to seventeen hundred grams (1600-1700 g) of ceramic cylindrical shaped beads [110 to 130 ½″ diameter x ½″ length small beads and twenty-five to thirty-five (25 to 35) ¾″ diameter, ¾″ length (1.91 cm diameter, 1.91 cm length) large beads were added into the Vetterman drum. The Vetterman drum was run for five hundred (500) cycles and the sample removed.
  • The color of the sample was again measured and the color change versus the control value (delta E) owing to soiling was recorded as an “As Soiled” value [note: This interim result is not reported in Table 2]. The sample was vacuumed four (4) times in both the length and width directions and the color was again measured and the color change versus control value (delta E) after vacuuming was recorded as an “As Cleaned” value [note: This interim result is not reported in Table 2].
  • The sample was placed back in the drum, fifty grams (50 g) of soiled bead mixture was discarded and fifty grams (50 g) of new dirty beads were added into the drum.
  • The procedure described above was repeated for three additional five hundred (500) cycle runs.
  • After a total of two thousand (2000) cycles, the color of the sample versus the control value (delta E) “As Soiled” was measured and reported. The color change versus the control value after vacuuming (the “As Cleaned” value) was measured and recorded. These measurements (i.e., the “As Soiled” and the “As Cleaned” values taken after two thousand cycles) are reported in Table 2 in the columns “As Soiled” and “As Cleaned”, respectively. Samples with a high value of delta E perform worse than samples with low delta E value.
  • Comparative Example A
  • Filaments having a trilobal cross-section as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,492,731 (Bankar et al.), assigned to the assignee of the present invention, were made using the above-described spinning process. The filaments were spun through a spinneret capillary as shown in FIG. 3 having three tapered arms (lobes) which were essentially symmetrical.
  • Comparative Example B
  • Filaments having a hollow trilobal cross section as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,048,615 (Lin), assigned to the assignee of the present invention, were made using the above-described spinning process. The filaments were spun through a spinneret capillary as shown in FIG. 4.
  • Invention Example 1
  • Filaments having a hollow trilobal cross section as described by this invention, as shown in FIG. 1B, were made using the above-described process. The filaments were spun through a spinneret capillary as shown in FIG. 2. The dimensions A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C used to produce Invention Example 1 are as set forth in Table 1.
  • The filament had an exterior modification ratio of 1.66, a tip ratio of 2.6, an apex ratio of 1.08. The central void occupied about 5.3 percent of the cross sectional area of the filament.
  • Invention Example 2
  • Filaments having a hollow trilobal cross section as described by this invention, as shown in FIG. 1 C were made using the above-described process. The filaments were spun through a spinneret capillary as shown in FIG. 2. The dimensions A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C used to produce Invention Example 2 are as set forth in Table 1.
  • The filament had an exterior modification ratio of 1.88, a tip ratio of 3.5, an apex ratio of 1.33. The central void occupied about ten percent (10%) of the cross sectional area of the filament.
  • The test results are summarized below in Table 2.
    TABLE 2
    Soiling
    Cross-section (ΔE) Soiling (ΔE)
    Example (exterior MR) As Soiled Cleaned Glitter Bulk
    Comp. A Solid trilobal 23.25 21.14 High High
    (2.6 MR)
    Comp. B Hollow trilobal N/A N/A High Medium
    (-.- MR)
    Inv. 1 1.66 17.94 16.71 Low Medium
    Inv. 2 1.88 21.17 19.86 Low High
  • As can be appreciated from Table 2, Examples 1 and 2 (having relatively “wavy” sides including two concave and three convex surfaces and a void shaped and oriented in the manner shown in FIG. 1) demonstrate distinctly different and lower “Glitter” in the final carpet than do Comparative Examples A and B. The filament and yarn of the present invention is useful as a carpet yarn having more “wool-like” appearance when made into carpet than yarns of the prior art having similar bulk, soiling and cleaning characteristics.
  • The filament of the invention is also smoother (i.e., with rounded tips and without sharply defined cusps) and therefore less prone to soiling than other known high bulk trilobal fibers that can otherwise impart similar aesthetics to a carpet made therefrom, as is clearly supported by the soiling data in Table 2. A carpet constructed from yarn of the present invention therefore retains its appearance longer in service than carpets made from yarn of the prior art.
  • To achieve high bulk with low glitter is generally believed to be difficult. The invention provides a surprisingly low glitter yarn that can produce carpets of comparable bulk to carpets made from such high glitter yarns as the solid trilobal cross section filaments(Comparative Example A).
  • As a result of the configuration filaments in accordance with this invention and yarns formed therefrom are easily bulked and exhibit a relatively low glitter while the exterior contour resists soil accumulation.

Claims (2)

  1. 1. A spinneret plate for producing a synthetic polymer filament having an exterior configuration with three sides with each side of the filament defining a smoothly curved contour extending between a first and a second end, each side of the filament having an inwardly extending depressed region being disposed adjacent to each end of each side,
    the filament having a generally delta-shaped void extending centrally and axially therethrough, the void having a geometric center and three major apices, each side of the void being convex in shape and having a first and a second end, each side of the void being formed from two facets that meet to define a minor apex intermediate the first and second end of each side,
    the spinneret plate having a cluster of three Y-shaped orifices centered about a central point, each Y-shaped orifice having a three linear legs joined at a junction point corresponding to a major apex of the void,
    each leg having an axis therethrough, one leg of each orifice extending radially outwardly from the junction point, the axis of the radially outwardly extending leg aligning with a radius extending outwardly from the central point,
    the axes of each of the other two legs of each orifice projecting toward a point disposed intermediate adjacent orifices, each intermediate point corresponding to a minor apex of the void.
  2. 2. The spinneret plate of claim 1 wherein the radially outwardly extending leg of each of the Y-shaped orifices is wider than the other legs of the Y-shaped orifice.
US10991469 2003-11-19 2004-11-19 Spinneret plate for producing a bulked continuous filament having a three-sided exterior cross-section and a convex six-sided central void Abandoned US20050147788A1 (en)

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US52387103 true 2003-11-19 2003-11-19
US52387003 true 2003-11-19 2003-11-19
US10991469 US20050147788A1 (en) 2003-11-19 2004-11-19 Spinneret plate for producing a bulked continuous filament having a three-sided exterior cross-section and a convex six-sided central void

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US10991469 US20050147788A1 (en) 2003-11-19 2004-11-19 Spinneret plate for producing a bulked continuous filament having a three-sided exterior cross-section and a convex six-sided central void
US11173267 US20060008548A1 (en) 2003-11-19 2005-07-01 Spinneret plate for producing a bulked continuous filament having a three-sided exterior cross-section and a convex six-sided central void

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070128404A1 (en) * 2005-12-06 2007-06-07 Invista North America S.Ar.L. Hexalobal cross-section filaments with three major lobes and three minor lobes
US20100159184A1 (en) * 2008-12-18 2010-06-24 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Poly-trimethylene terephthalate solid core fibrillation-resistant filament having a substantially triangular cross section, a spinneret for producing the filament, and a carpet made therefrom
US20100159186A1 (en) * 2008-12-18 2010-06-24 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Poly-trimethylene terephthalate solid core fibrillation-resistant filament having a substantially triangular cross section, a spinneret for producing the filament, and a carpet made therefrom
US20110287210A1 (en) * 2008-08-22 2011-11-24 Invista North America S.Ar.L Bulked continuous filaments with trilobal cross-section and round central void and spinneret plates for producing filament
US20120231207A1 (en) * 2011-03-07 2012-09-13 Moshe Rock Textile fabric with high insulation to weight ratio

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US3109195A (en) * 1961-02-13 1963-11-05 Du Pont Spinneret plate
US3323168A (en) * 1962-05-24 1967-06-06 American Enka Corp Spinneret for spinning hollow filaments
US3329553A (en) * 1963-12-30 1967-07-04 Monsanto Co Flocked hollow filaments
US3405424A (en) * 1966-10-27 1968-10-15 Inventa Ag Device and process for the manufacture of hollow synthetic fibers
US3493459A (en) * 1966-12-23 1970-02-03 Monsanto Co Complex multilobal textile filament
US3728428A (en) * 1969-12-03 1973-04-17 Allied Chem Process for producing hollow filaments
US3745061A (en) * 1969-02-26 1973-07-10 Du Pont Synthetic filaments having at least three continuous nonround voids
US3814561A (en) * 1970-04-07 1974-06-04 Kanagafuchi Boseki Kk Spinnerets for producing multi-segment filaments
US3924988A (en) * 1972-05-24 1975-12-09 Du Pont Hollow filament spinneret
US3981948A (en) * 1975-01-02 1976-09-21 Eastman Kodak Company Arrangements in spinnerets of spinning orifices having significant kneeing potential
US4279053A (en) * 1979-09-24 1981-07-21 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Tri- or tetra-locular paint brush bristles
US4332585A (en) * 1979-03-26 1982-06-01 Teijin Limited Synthetic fur and process for preparation thereof
US4364996A (en) * 1980-05-29 1982-12-21 Toyo Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha Synthetic fibers having down/feather-like characteristics and suitable for wadding
US4385886A (en) * 1982-01-21 1983-05-31 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Spinneret plate
US4408977A (en) * 1982-06-21 1983-10-11 Eastman Kodak Company Spinneret orifice cross-sections
US4648830A (en) * 1985-05-13 1987-03-10 Allied Corporation Spinnerette for producing hollow trilobal cross-section filament
US4770938A (en) * 1985-05-13 1988-09-13 Allied Corporation Hollow trilobal cross-section filament
US4861660A (en) * 1986-01-20 1989-08-29 Teijin Limited Stretchable synthetic polymer composite filament
US5108838A (en) * 1991-08-27 1992-04-28 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Trilobal and tetralobal filaments exhibiting low glitter and high bulk
US5125818A (en) * 1991-02-05 1992-06-30 Basf Corporation Spinnerette for producing bi-component trilobal filaments
US5176926A (en) * 1991-08-27 1993-01-05 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Spinnerets for producing trilobal and tetralobal filaments exhibiting low glitter and high bulk
US5208107A (en) * 1991-05-31 1993-05-04 Basf Corporation Hollow trilobal cross-section filament
US5322736A (en) * 1993-06-24 1994-06-21 Alliedsignal Inc. Hollow-trilobal cross-section filaments
US5380592A (en) * 1993-12-28 1995-01-10 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Trilobal and tetralobal cross-section filaments containing voids
US5462802A (en) * 1991-12-02 1995-10-31 Teijin Limited Polyamide hollow and/or non-circular fiber and process for making same
US5466410A (en) * 1987-10-02 1995-11-14 Basf Corporation Process of making multiple mono-component fiber
US5523155A (en) * 1995-05-11 1996-06-04 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Filament having a triangular cross-section and 3 or 6 axially extending voids
US5540994A (en) * 1993-02-16 1996-07-30 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Fiber identification
US5540993A (en) * 1993-02-16 1996-07-30 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Relating to fiber identification
US5723159A (en) * 1989-04-04 1998-03-03 Eastman Chemical Company Spinnerets for making fibers capable of spontaneously transporting fluids
US5882794A (en) * 1994-09-30 1999-03-16 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Synthetic fiber cross-section
US5933908A (en) * 1997-10-07 1999-08-10 Specialty Filaments, Inc. Honeycomb bristles with radiating spokes and applicator brushes employing said bristles
US6048615A (en) * 1998-01-30 2000-04-11 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Filament having a trilobal cross-section and a trilobal void
US6148615A (en) * 1998-03-24 2000-11-21 Robert Bosch Gmbh Method for boost pressure control of an internal combustion engine
US6447903B1 (en) * 1998-08-27 2002-09-10 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Multilobal hollow filaments having stiffening ribs and stiffening webs
US6610903B1 (en) * 1998-12-18 2003-08-26 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Materials for fluid management in personal care products
US6838402B2 (en) * 1999-09-21 2005-01-04 Fiber Innovation Technology, Inc. Splittable multicomponent elastomeric fibers

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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US3109195A (en) * 1961-02-13 1963-11-05 Du Pont Spinneret plate
US3323168A (en) * 1962-05-24 1967-06-06 American Enka Corp Spinneret for spinning hollow filaments
US3329553A (en) * 1963-12-30 1967-07-04 Monsanto Co Flocked hollow filaments
US3405424A (en) * 1966-10-27 1968-10-15 Inventa Ag Device and process for the manufacture of hollow synthetic fibers
US3493459A (en) * 1966-12-23 1970-02-03 Monsanto Co Complex multilobal textile filament
US3745061A (en) * 1969-02-26 1973-07-10 Du Pont Synthetic filaments having at least three continuous nonround voids
US3728428A (en) * 1969-12-03 1973-04-17 Allied Chem Process for producing hollow filaments
US3814561A (en) * 1970-04-07 1974-06-04 Kanagafuchi Boseki Kk Spinnerets for producing multi-segment filaments
US3924988A (en) * 1972-05-24 1975-12-09 Du Pont Hollow filament spinneret
US3981948A (en) * 1975-01-02 1976-09-21 Eastman Kodak Company Arrangements in spinnerets of spinning orifices having significant kneeing potential
US4332585A (en) * 1979-03-26 1982-06-01 Teijin Limited Synthetic fur and process for preparation thereof
US4279053A (en) * 1979-09-24 1981-07-21 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Tri- or tetra-locular paint brush bristles
US4364996A (en) * 1980-05-29 1982-12-21 Toyo Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha Synthetic fibers having down/feather-like characteristics and suitable for wadding
US4385886A (en) * 1982-01-21 1983-05-31 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Spinneret plate
US4408977A (en) * 1982-06-21 1983-10-11 Eastman Kodak Company Spinneret orifice cross-sections
US4648830A (en) * 1985-05-13 1987-03-10 Allied Corporation Spinnerette for producing hollow trilobal cross-section filament
US4770938A (en) * 1985-05-13 1988-09-13 Allied Corporation Hollow trilobal cross-section filament
US4861660A (en) * 1986-01-20 1989-08-29 Teijin Limited Stretchable synthetic polymer composite filament
US5466410A (en) * 1987-10-02 1995-11-14 Basf Corporation Process of making multiple mono-component fiber
US5723159A (en) * 1989-04-04 1998-03-03 Eastman Chemical Company Spinnerets for making fibers capable of spontaneously transporting fluids
US5125818A (en) * 1991-02-05 1992-06-30 Basf Corporation Spinnerette for producing bi-component trilobal filaments
US5208107A (en) * 1991-05-31 1993-05-04 Basf Corporation Hollow trilobal cross-section filament
US5176926A (en) * 1991-08-27 1993-01-05 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Spinnerets for producing trilobal and tetralobal filaments exhibiting low glitter and high bulk
US5108838A (en) * 1991-08-27 1992-04-28 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Trilobal and tetralobal filaments exhibiting low glitter and high bulk
US5462802A (en) * 1991-12-02 1995-10-31 Teijin Limited Polyamide hollow and/or non-circular fiber and process for making same
US5540994A (en) * 1993-02-16 1996-07-30 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Fiber identification
US5540993A (en) * 1993-02-16 1996-07-30 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Relating to fiber identification
US5322736A (en) * 1993-06-24 1994-06-21 Alliedsignal Inc. Hollow-trilobal cross-section filaments
US5380592A (en) * 1993-12-28 1995-01-10 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Trilobal and tetralobal cross-section filaments containing voids
US5882794A (en) * 1994-09-30 1999-03-16 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Synthetic fiber cross-section
US5686121A (en) * 1995-05-11 1997-11-11 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Spinneret for producing a filament having a triangular cross-section and 3 or 6 axially extending voids
US5523155A (en) * 1995-05-11 1996-06-04 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Filament having a triangular cross-section and 3 or 6 axially extending voids
US5933908A (en) * 1997-10-07 1999-08-10 Specialty Filaments, Inc. Honeycomb bristles with radiating spokes and applicator brushes employing said bristles
US6048615A (en) * 1998-01-30 2000-04-11 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Filament having a trilobal cross-section and a trilobal void
US6148615A (en) * 1998-03-24 2000-11-21 Robert Bosch Gmbh Method for boost pressure control of an internal combustion engine
US6447903B1 (en) * 1998-08-27 2002-09-10 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Multilobal hollow filaments having stiffening ribs and stiffening webs
US6660377B2 (en) * 1998-08-27 2003-12-09 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Multilobal hollow filament carpet yarn having stiffening ribs and stiffening webs and spinneret for producing the same
US6610903B1 (en) * 1998-12-18 2003-08-26 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Materials for fluid management in personal care products
US6838402B2 (en) * 1999-09-21 2005-01-04 Fiber Innovation Technology, Inc. Splittable multicomponent elastomeric fibers

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070128404A1 (en) * 2005-12-06 2007-06-07 Invista North America S.Ar.L. Hexalobal cross-section filaments with three major lobes and three minor lobes
US20110287210A1 (en) * 2008-08-22 2011-11-24 Invista North America S.Ar.L Bulked continuous filaments with trilobal cross-section and round central void and spinneret plates for producing filament
US20100159184A1 (en) * 2008-12-18 2010-06-24 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Poly-trimethylene terephthalate solid core fibrillation-resistant filament having a substantially triangular cross section, a spinneret for producing the filament, and a carpet made therefrom
US20100159186A1 (en) * 2008-12-18 2010-06-24 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Poly-trimethylene terephthalate solid core fibrillation-resistant filament having a substantially triangular cross section, a spinneret for producing the filament, and a carpet made therefrom
US20120231207A1 (en) * 2011-03-07 2012-09-13 Moshe Rock Textile fabric with high insulation to weight ratio

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