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US20050131632A1 - Digital map position information transfer method - Google Patents

Digital map position information transfer method Download PDF

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Publication number
US20050131632A1
US20050131632A1 US11007895 US789504A US2005131632A1 US 20050131632 A1 US20050131632 A1 US 20050131632A1 US 11007895 US11007895 US 11007895 US 789504 A US789504 A US 789504A US 2005131632 A1 US2005131632 A1 US 2005131632A1
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Prior art keywords
position
shape
road
data
map
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Abandoned
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US11007895
Inventor
Shinya Adachi
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Panasonic Corp
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Panasonic Corp
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09BEDUCATIONAL OR DEMONSTRATION APPLIANCES; APPLIANCES FOR TEACHING, OR COMMUNICATING WITH, THE BLIND, DEAF OR MUTE; MODELS; PLANETARIA; GLOBES; MAPS; DIAGRAMS
    • G09B29/00Maps; Plans; Charts; Diagrams, e.g. route diagram
    • G09B29/10Map spot or coordinate position indicators; Map reading aids
    • G09B29/106Map spot or coordinate position indicators; Map reading aids using electronic means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C21/00Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups
    • G01C21/26Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups specially adapted for navigation in a road network
    • G01C21/28Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups specially adapted for navigation in a road network with correlation of data from several navigational instruments
    • G01C21/30Map- or contour-matching

Abstract

An encoder and a decoder are utilized for a location reference system in which different digital maps are installed in a transmitting side and a receiving side. The encoder comprises a selecting section for selecting supplemental points located around an endpoint of a target shape points set and a data creating section for preparing a transmitting data including both the target shape points set and the supplemental points to the receiving side. The decoder comprises a data acquiring section for acquiring data including supplemental points located around an endpoint of a target shape points set, a defining section for defining a shape points set on the digital map of the receiving side with reference to the supplemental points, and an output section for outputting a road section on the digital map of the receiving side in accordance with the defined shape points set.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to a method of transmitting position information of a digital map, and more particularly to a method in which date to be transmitted are devised to accurately transfer a position on a digital map to the receiving side.
  • BACKGROUND ART
  • [0002]
    In recent years, a vehicle mounting a navigation onboard machine has rapidly been increased. The navigation is onboard machine holds a digital map data base and displays a traffic jam or an accident position on a map based on traffic jam information or accident information which is provided from a traffic information center, and furthermore, executes a path search by adding their information to conditions.
  • [0003]
    The data base of the digital map is created by several companies in our country, and the map data include an error because of a difference in a basic view and a digitization technique and the error differs depending on a digital map created by each company. For this reason, in the case in which an accident position is to be transmitted through traffic information, for example, there is a possibility that a position on a different road might be identified as the accident position depending on the type of the digital map data base held in the onboard machine if longitude and latitude data on the position are singly presented.
  • [0004]
    In order to improve the inaccuracy of the information transmission, conventionally, a node number is defined to a node such as an intersection present in a road system and a link number is defined to a link representing a road between nodes, each intersection and a road are stored corresponding to a node number and a link number in a digital map data base created by each company, a road is specified based on a link number in traffic information, and a point on a road is displayed by an expression method, for example, a distance from a head. However, the node number and the link number which are defined in the road system are to be newly changed according to the new construction or alteration of a road. Moreover, if the node number or the link number is changed, digital map data created by each company are to be updated. For this reason, a method of transmitting the position information of a digital map by using a node number and a link number requires a great social cost for maintenance.
  • [0005]
    In order to improve such a respect, the inventors of the invention have proposed the following method in JP-A-11-214068 and JP-A-11-242166.
  • [0006]
    In this method, when transmitting the position of a road on which an event such as a traffic jam or an accident occurs, the information providing side transmits, to the receiving side, “road shape data” comprising a coordinate string having a node in which the road shape of a road section having a predetermined length including the event position is arranged on the road and an interpolation point (the vertex of a polygonal line approximating the curved line of the road, which will be referred to as a “node” including the interpolation point if there is no notice in this specification) and “event position data” indicative of an event position based on a relative position in the road section represented by the road shape data, and the side receiving these information carries out map matching by using the road shape data, specifies a road section on a self-digital map, and specifies an event generation position in the road section by using the event position data.
  • [0007]
    Moreover, the inventors of the invention have also proposed a method in which a procedure for the map matching is executed efficiently. This method employs a sequential matching technique, and the receiving side calculates the coordinates of an event position by using the received road shape data and event position data and adds the event position as a node in the node string of the road shape data. Then, the map matching is executed in order from a node on the start edge of the node string and a point which is most greatly matched with a node indicative of the event position is specified as the event position on the road of a self-digital map.
  • [0008]
    In the case in which the position information of the digital map is to be transmitted by these methods, there is an important problem in that matching precision on the receiving side is to be enhanced. In the sequential matching method, particularly, when the start point of the map matching is wrong, the error tends to be taken over by the subsequent map matching so that mismatching is apt to be caused. Moreover, there is a problem in that the mismatching is easily generated in an intersection having a small intersecting angle.
  • [0009]
    The invention solves these problems and has an object to provide a method of transmitting the position information of a digital map which can enhance matching precision on the receiving side.
  • DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
  • [0010]
    The invention provides a method of transmitting position information of a digital map in which a transmitting side transmits a vector shape on the digital map and a receiving side specifies the vector shape on a self-digital map by map matching, wherein the transmitting side selects a portion in which a plurality of candidate points are generated with difficulty during the map matching as an endpoint of the vector shape and transmits the vector shape having the endpoint in the portion to the receiving side.
  • [0011]
    Moreover, the transmitting side shifts an endpoing of the vector shape to a portion in which a plurality of candidate points are generated with difficulty during the map matching, and transmits, to the receiving side, the vector shape having an endpoint position deformed.
  • [0012]
    Furthermore, the transmitting side deforms an azimuth of the vector shape at an intersection in the middle of the vector shape in such a direction as to increase an angle formed by the vector shape and a connecting vector to be connected to the vector shape when the angle is small at the intersection, and transmits, to the receiving side, the vector shape having the azimuth deformed.
  • [0013]
    Consequently, mismatching on the receiving side can be prevented and the position information on the digital map can be transmitted accurately.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0014]
    FIG. 1 is a view illustrating a processing on the transmitting side according to a first embodiment,
  • [0015]
    FIG. 2 is a flow chart showing a processing procedure on the transmitting side in a position information transmitting method according to the first embodiment,
  • [0016]
    FIG. 3 is a view illustrating a processing on the transmitting side according to a second embodiment,
  • [0017]
    FIG. 4 is a flow chart showing a processing procedure on the transmitting side in a position information transmitting method according to the second embodiment,
  • [0018]
    FIG. 5 is a view illustrating the deformation of shape vector data in the position information transmitting method according to the second embodiment,
  • [0019]
    FIG. 6 is a view illustrating a processing on the transmitting side according to a third embodiment,
  • [0020]
    FIG. 7 is a flow chart showing a processing procedure on the transmitting side in a position information transmitting method according to the third embodiment,
  • [0021]
    FIG. 8 is a block diagram showing the structure of a device for executing the position information transmitting method according to an embodiment,
  • [0022]
    FIGS. 9(a) and 9(b) are diagrams showing data to be transmitted in the position information transmitting method according to the embodiment, and
  • [0023]
    FIG. 10 is a flow chart showing a map matching procedure in the position information transmitting method according to the embodiment.
  • [0024]
    In the drawings, the reference numerals 10 and 20 denote a position information transmitting/receiving device, the reference numerals 11 and 21 denote a position information transmitting portion, the reference numerals 12 and 22 denote a position information receiving portion, the reference numeral 13 denotes a map matching portion, the reference numeral 14 denotes a digital map display portion, the reference numeral 15 denotes a digital map data base, the reference numeral 16 denotes an event information input portion, the reference numeral 17 denotes a position information converting portion, and the reference numeral 18 denotes a shape vector data deforming portion.
  • BEST MODE OF CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
  • [0025]
    In a method of transmitting position information of a digital map according to the invention, the transmitting side selects the node of a start point and deforms the position of the node such that mismatching is not generated on the receiving side.
  • [0026]
    FIG. 8 shows a position information transmitting receiving device 10 for exchanging event generation information on a road together with another device 20 as an example of a device for executing the position information transmitting method according to the invention.
  • [0027]
    The device 10 comprises a position information receiving portion 12 for receiving information including road shape data and event position data from a position information transmitting portion 21 of the device 20, a digital map data base 15 for storing digital map data, a map matching portion 13 for carrying out map matching by using the road shape data and the event position data to specify an event position on a digital map, a digital map display portion 14 for superposing and displaying the event position on the map, an event input portion 16 for inputting generated event information, a position information converting portion 17 for generating road shape data and event position data for transmitting the event information, a shape vector data deforming portion 18 for deforming the road shape data such that the mismatching is not generated on the receiving side, and a position information transmitting portion 11 for transmitting position information including the generated road shape data and event position data to a position information receiving portion 22 of the device 20.
  • [0028]
    FIGS. 9(a) and 9(b) show an example of the position information transmitted from the position information transmitting portion 11, and FIG. 9(a) shows shape vector data string information for specifying a road section which includes the road shape data and FIG. 9(b) shows traffic information including relative distance data from a reference point provided in the road section to the event position.
  • [0029]
    The position information converting portion 17 acquires coordinates (longitude/latitude) of nodes p1 to pn in the road section including the event generation position from the digital map data base 15 based on the event information input from the event input portion 16, generates road shape data (a shape vector data string), and furthermore, sets a reference point in the road section represented by the shape vector data string and generates traffic information including relative distance data from the reference point to the event generation position.
  • [0030]
    The position information converting portion 17 selects the node p1 to be the start point for the map matching on the receiving side such that mismatching is not caused when generating the shape vector data string. This processing will be described in a first embodiment.
  • First Embodiment
  • [0031]
    FIG. 2 shows a procedure for selecting the node p1 by the position information converting portion 17. This procedure is executed in accordance with a program by a computer for implementing the function of the position information converting portion 17 based on the program. With reference to a view of FIG. 1, the procedure will be described.
  • [0032]
    In FIG. 1, a solid line indicates a road on a digital map, and a white circle and a black circle indicate a node included in the shape of the road. In the case in which a traffic jam event is generated in a position on the road which is shown in an arrow, a node to be a start point for map matching on the outside of an event generation section (that is, a node to be the first node p1 in a shape vector data string) is shown in the black circle. The position information converting portion 17 selects a node in which mismatching is not generated on the receiving side from the black circle based on the procedure shown in FIG. 2.
      • Step 1: Select an object section included in the shape vector data string,
      • Step 2: Pick up some nodes positioned in the vicinity of the outside of an endpoint in the object section,
      • Step 3: Give a number (p1 to pm) to each node,
      • Step 4: In order from a first node pj with j=1,
      • Step 5: Calculate a distance. Lj between pj and an adjacent road and an intercept azimuth angle difference Δθj, and
      • Step 6: Decide a decision value εj of the node pj by the following (Equation 1). ɛ j = α · Lj + β · Δ θ j = α · Lj + β · θ j - θ j ( Equation 1 )
      • α and β represent predetermined coefficients.
      • Step 7, Step 8: Carry out the processings of the Step 5 and the Step 6 for all the nodes p1 to pm,
      • Step 9: Select a node pr having the greatest decision value ε, and
      • Step 10: Select a path from the node pr to an endpoint in an original object section through a path search and add the path to the object section.
  • [0043]
    By the execution of such a processing, a point in which the receiving side makes an error with difficulty can be selected as the first node p1 in the shape vector data string to be the start point for the map matching.
  • Second Embodiment
  • [0044]
    In a second embodiment, description will be given to a method of deforming the endpoint position of an object section to prevent mismatching on the receiving side when a road running in parallel with an object road in the object section is present.
  • [0045]
    As shown in FIG. 3, in the case in which an object road in an object section is present between a parallel track 1 and a parallel track 2, the shape vector data deforming portion 18 shifts an endpoing P in the object section to the position of P′, thereby preventing the endpoint P from being mismatched as a point on the parallel track 1. If P′ is too close to the parallel track 2, there is a possibility that the endpoint P might be mismatched as a point on the parallel track 2. The shape vector data deforming portion 18 selects the position of P′ such that there is not such a possibility.
  • [0046]
    FIG. 4 shows a processing procedure for the shape vector data deforming portion 18. This procedure is executed in accordance with a program by a computer for implementing the function of the shape vector data deforming portion 18 based on the program.
      • Step 11: Select the object section of an object road by the position information converting portion 17,
      • Step 12: Pick up the endpoint node P of the object section,
      • Step 13: Draw a perpendicular on each of peripheral adjacent roads from P and calculate the coordinates of m intersecting points Pj,
      • Step 14: Calculate a decision value εj of each Pj from a distance Lj between P and Pj and an intercept-azimuth Δθj based on the (Equation 1),
      • Step 15: Select a node Pr taking a minimum decision value εr in all εj,
      • Step 16: Decide whether the node Pr is present on the left or right side in the direction of progress of a shape vector data string, and
      • Step 17: Put P′ on a point provided apart by L′={κLr, L0} from the endpoint P in the direction of the perpendicular of the object road on the opposite side of the node Pr.
  • [0054]
    Herein, κ represents a predetermined coefficient of 0<κ<1 and L0 represents a predetermined decision value of approximately 120 m. L′=κLr is obtained if κLr is equal to or smaller than L0, and L′=L0 is obtained if κLr is greater than L0.
  • [0055]
    Next, it is decided whether or not the endpoint is too close to another road by the shift of the endpoint P to P′. If the endpoint is too close to another road, L′ is reduced every {fraction (1/10)}. The processing is repeated until the state of the endpoint is eliminated. More specifically,
      • Step 18: Set a reduction coefficient k=10,
      • Step 19: Carry out the same processing as that of each of the Step 13 and the Step 14 from P′ to obtain a distance L′j between P′ and P′j and an intercept azimuth Δθ′j, and calculate a decision value ε′j of each P′j to select minimum ε′s,
      • Step 20: Decide whether or not ε′s>μ·εr is satisfied. μ represents a predetermined value of approximately 1.2 to 2,
  • [0059]
    At the Step 20, if ε′s>μεr is not satisfied,
      • Step 21: Set the reduction coefficient k to k=k−1,
      • Step 22: Reduce L′ every {fraction (1/10)} based on L′=(k/10)·L′ and repeat the procedure from the Step 19.
  • [0062]
    In the case in which L′ is reduced or ε′S>μεr is satisfied even if the L′ is not reduced,
      • Step 23: Modify the coordinates of the start point P to P′,
      • Step 24: Connect a point provided apart from P over the object section by a distance L1 (a predetermined distance) and P′, thereby deforming a shape (a dotted line in FIG. 3),
      • Step 25: Set the position error of the node P′ to be the position error of transmitted data (FIG. 9(a)). In this case, P′ is shifted so that the shape itself of the object section is deformed and the direction does not always need to be changed as shown in FIG. 5.
  • [0066]
    By deforming the endpoint of the object section, thus, the mismatching on the receiving side can be prevented.
  • [0067]
    In the case in which the parallel tracks 1 and 2 running in parallel with the object section are present as shown in FIG. 3, there can also be proposed a method for displacing the whole object section in parallel. In this case, it is preferable that all the nodes should be shifted in the same direction by a distance L′ between P and P′ (a left and right offset distance).
  • Third Embodiment
  • [0068]
    In a third embodiment, description will be given to a method of deforming a node position in an object section to prevent mismatching on the receiving side in the case in which there is a branch path that an object road in the object section intersects at a small angle.
  • [0069]
    The entry and exit paths of an interchange intersect a main track at a small angle as shown in FIG. 6. Therefore, in the case in which sequential matching is carried out by using a shape vector data string representing an object section by the receiving side, mismatching is apt to be caused. The shape vector data deforming portion 18 shifts the position of a node in the object section to Pj+1′, thereby preventing the mismatching. Also in this case, if a point of Pj+1′ is too close to another connecting road, there is a possibility that the mismatching might be caused. Therefore, the shape vector data deforming portion 18 selects the position of Pj+1′ such that there is not such a possibility.
  • [0070]
    FIG. 7 shows the processing procedure of the shape vector data deforming portion 18 in this case. This procedure is executed in accordance with a program by a computer for implementing the function of the shape vector data deforming portion 18 based on the program.
      • Step 31: Select the object section of an object road by the position information converting portion 17,
      • Step 32: Extract an intersection node in the object section and give a number to each node (p1 to pm),
      • Step 33: In order from a first node pj with j=1,
      • Step 34: Calculate Δθjk for all connecting roads (intersecting roads) k on a vicinal intersection present in a range of ±L0m (L0 represents a predetermined distance of approximately 120 m) around the intersection node pj. Δθjk is obtained by Δθjk=θj−θjk when
      • θj: a turning angle at the node pj on the object road, and
      • θjk: a turning angle for the object road of the intersecting road k as shown in FIG. 6.
      • Step 35: Calculate an evaluation value εjk for each connecting road by (Equation 2).
        εjk=α|Δθjk|+β·Lji  (Equation 2)
  • [0078]
    Herein, Lji represents a distance from the node pj to an intersection in which the object connecting road k is present.
      • Step 36: If all εjk are equal to or greater than a specified value ε0, the processing proceeds to Step 46. If no so, that is, a connecting road to intersect at a small angle is present,
      • Step 37: Extract k=r with a minimum evaluation value ε.
  • [0081]
    Subsequently, the shape of the object road is deformed such that the connecting angle of the object road and the connecting road r is increased, and furthermore, a space with an intersection having the connecting road r is increased if the same intersection is shifted longitudinally. Moreover, the evaluation value is obtained after the deformation. If the object road is too close to another connecting road due to the deformation, the amount of deformation is decreased every {fraction (1/10)} and the decrease is repeated until such a state is eliminated. More specifically,
      • Step 38: m=10 is set,
      • Step 39: the connecting angle is increased as follows: when Δθj≈0 is not satisfied, and:
        • Δθjr is positive, θj′=θj−m·δθ
        • Δθjr is negative, θj′=θj+m·δθ
        • δθ represents a predetermined value of approximately 1.5 degrees.
      • Step 40: Increase the intersection space to Lji′=Lji+m·δL when Lji≈0 is satisfied. δL represents a predetermined distance of approximately 10 m.
      • Step 41: Calculate an evaluation value εjk′ of each connecting road after the deformation and decide whether or not all εjk′ are greater than μεjr in order to obtain the result of the deformation. When εjk′ are not greater than μεjr,
      • Step 42: m=m−1 is set and the procedure of the Steps 39 and 40 is repeated,
  • [0090]
    At the Step 41, in the case in which the amount of deformation is decreased or εjk′>μεjr is satisfied even if the same amount is not decreased,
      • Step 43: Modify the position of the node pj by Lji′ and set pj+1 to a position placed apart by a distance L (a predetermined distance) in a θj′ direction,
      • Step 44: Set pj+2 to a place positioned at a distance 2L along the object road,
      • Step 45: Calculate the direction errors of the nodes pj to pj+2 and the position errors of the nodes pj+1 and pj and set them to the transmitted data (FIG. 9(a)), and
      • Step 46, Step 47: Repeat the procedure from the Step 34 for all the intersection nodes p1 to pm.
  • [0095]
    By deforming the object section, thus, it is possible to prevent mismatching on the receiving side.
  • [0096]
    While the positions of pj+1 and pj+2 are modified at the Steps 43 and 44 with the direction deformation of pj, this processing is not always required. In the case in which the modification of the position is not carried out, the direction error of the node pj and the position error of the node p are set at the Step 45.
  • [0097]
    At the Step 39, moreover, the direction deformation is not carried out if Δθjr≈0 is satisfied. In the case of a lattice-shaped road system, there is a possibility that running might be carried out on the outside of the road if the angle is forcedly changed.
  • [0098]
    FIG. 10 shows a processing procedure to be carried out by the map matching portion 13 on the receiving side when receiving the position information shown in FIG. 9(a) in which the shape vector data are deformed.
      • Step 51: Receive the position information,
      • Step 52: Determine a candidate point for a map matching start point,
      • Step 53: Carry out map matching,
      • Step 54: Calculate a position error and a direction error between the coordinates of each node in the received shape vector data and the nearest point on the is road section of a digital map which is defined by the map matching, respectively,
      • Step 55: Decide whether or not the position errors and direction errors of all the nodes are proper as compared with error information included in the received position information. If the errors are proper,
      • Step 56: Decide that the matching is successful and define the road section.
  • [0105]
    If the errors are not proper in the Step 55,
      • Step 57: Retrieve and determine a candidate point other than the matching starting candidate point in consideration of the position errors and the direction errors.
  • [0107]
    By such a processing, it is possible to accurately specify a position on a digital map which is transmitted. When the transmitting side selects the matching start point and deforms the shape vector data as described in each embodiment, the receiving side can prevent the generation of the mismatching even if a sequential matching method or a shape matching method is to be employed.
  • [0108]
    While the description has been given, as an example, to the case in which the position on the road of the digital map is transmitted, the invention can be applied to the case in which positions on various shape vectors represented on a digital map such as rivers or a contour line in addition to the road are to be transmitted.
  • [0109]
    While the invention has been described in detail with reference to the specific embodiments, it is apparent to the skilled in the art that various changes and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
  • [0110]
    The application is based on Japanese Patent Application (2001-132610) filed on Apr. 27, 2001 and the contents thereof are incorporated by reference.
  • Industrial Applicability
  • [0111]
    As is apparent from the above description, in the position information transmitting method according to the invention, mismatching on the receiving side can be prevented so that matching precision can be enhanced. Accordingly, position information on a digital map can be transmitted accurately.

Claims (4)

  1. 1. An encoder utilized for a location reference system wherein different digital maps are installed in a transmitting side and a receiving side of said system, said encoder comprising:
    a selecting section for selecting supplemental points located around an endpoint of a target shape points set, wherein said supplemental points are referred by said receiving side in order to define a corresponding shape points set of said target shape points set during map matching; and
    a data creating section for preparing a transmitting data including both said target shape points set and said supplemental points to said receiving side.
  2. 2. A decoder utilized for a location reference system wherein different digital maps are installed in a transmitting side and a receiving side of said system, said decoder comprising:
    a data acquiring section for acquiring data including supplemental points located around an endpoint of a target shape points set;
    a map matching section for defining a shape points set, which is corresponding to the transmitter target shape points set, on the digital map of the receiving side by map matching with reference to the supplemental points; and
    an output section for outputting a road section on the digital map of the receiving side in accordance with the defined shape points set.
  3. 3. An encoder utilized for a location reference system wherein different digital maps are installed in a transmitting side and a receiving side of said system, said encoder comprising:
    a selecting section for selecting supplemental points located around an endpoint of a target shape points set, wherein said supplemental points are referred by said receiving side in order to define a corresponding shape points set of said target shape points set; and
    a data creating section for preparing a transmitting data including both said target shape points set and said supplemental points to said receiving side.
  4. 4. A decoder utilized for a location reference system wherein different digital maps are installed in a transmitting side and a receiving side of said system, said decoder comprising:
    a data acquiring section for acquiring data including supplemental points located around an endpoint of a target shape points set;
    a defining section for defining a shape points set, which is corresponding to the transmitter target shape points set, on the digital map of the receiving side with reference to the supplemental points; and
    an output section for outputting a road section on the digital map of the receiving side in accordance with the defined shape points set.
US11007895 2001-04-27 2004-12-08 Digital map position information transfer method Abandoned US20050131632A1 (en)

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JP2001-132610 2001-04-27
JP2001132610A JP4749594B2 (en) 2001-04-27 2001-04-27 Position information transmission method for a digital map
PCT/JP2002/004168 WO2002088634A1 (en) 2001-04-27 2002-04-25 Digital map position information transfer method
US10169704 US6920392B2 (en) 2001-04-27 2002-04-25 Digital map position transfer method
US11007895 US20050131632A1 (en) 2001-04-27 2004-12-08 Digital map position information transfer method

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