US20050131265A1 - Treatment of waste products - Google Patents

Treatment of waste products Download PDF

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Publication number
US20050131265A1
US20050131265A1 US10499283 US49928305A US2005131265A1 US 20050131265 A1 US20050131265 A1 US 20050131265A1 US 10499283 US10499283 US 10499283 US 49928305 A US49928305 A US 49928305A US 2005131265 A1 US2005131265 A1 US 2005131265A1
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
method
materials
waste
fine particulate
microfine
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10499283
Inventor
Ian Godfrey
Martin Jowsey
Eric Miller
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
Original Assignee
British Nuclear Fuels PLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G21NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    • G21FPROTECTION AGAINST X-RADIATION, GAMMA RADIATION, CORPUSCULAR RADIATION OR PARTICLE BOMBARDMENT; TREATING RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL; DECONTAMINATION ARRANGEMENTS THEREFOR
    • G21F9/00Treating radioactively contaminated material; Decontamination arrangements therefor
    • G21F9/28Treating solids
    • G21F9/30Processing
    • G21F9/301Processing by fixation in stable solid media
    • G21F9/302Processing by fixation in stable solid media in an inorganic matrix
    • G21F9/304Cement or cement-like matrix

Abstract

A method for the encapsulation of fine particulate materials includes treating these materials with a microfine hydraulic inorganic filler which, typically, includes a cementitious material, such as Portland Cement. The filler is ground to a much smaller particle size than is normally used in the production of a grout and is provided in the form of an aqueous composition for the treatment of the fine particulate materials by pumping under pressure through these materials such that they become intimately encapsulated. The method is particularly applicable to the treatment of waste materials and, most particularly, waste materials, which are encountered in the nuclear industry.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • This invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste by encapsulation. More specifically, it is concerned with the encapsulation of waste products produced in the nuclear industry by treatment of the wastes with microfine inorganic filler materials.
  • BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION
  • Encapsulation has proved to be an especially favoured method for the disposal of certain waste materials; specifically it provides a suitable means for the conversion of these materials into a stable and safe form, which allows for long-term storage and/or ultimate disposal. The technique can find particular application in the nuclear industry, where the highly toxic nature of the materials involved, and the extended timescales over which the toxicity is maintained, are the principal considerations when devising safe disposal methods.
  • Whilst the technique of encapsulation can be of great value in such circumstances, however, it is known from the prior art that many fine particulate sized waste materials, as well as certain filters which contain ion exchange resins, are particularly problematic to encapsulate. This is a problem which becomes especially important in the nuclear industry where, in view of the nature of the waste products, it is vital to ensure that procedures are completed efficiently and successfully before disposal of the waste products.
  • Previously, it has been found necessary to treat these problematic materials by removing them from the containers in which they are stored and mixing them in drums with the encapsulation material, or subjecting them to vibro-grouting techniques. Such procedures, involving removal from containers, are invariably difficult, messy and expensive to carry out, and generally give rise to copious amounts of additional waste. Furthermore, there are obvious implications in terms of extra containment requirements and additional plant capacity.
  • In general, therefore, the situation is unsatisfactory. Indeed, no commercially acceptable means of dealing with such waste materials is yet available which does not rely on the technique of in-drum mixing which, as previously discussed, has several serious practical drawbacks.
  • The use of cement based injection grouting in the construction industry is well known from the prior art. Thus, EP-A-412913 teaches the use of a Portland Cement based grout in the consolidation of concrete structures affected by fine cracks, providing a cost-effective means of infilling both superficial and deeper fissures and cavities in such structures, including such as buildings, bridges and dams. Similarly, ZA-A-9209810 is concerned with a pumpable, spreadable grouting composition incorporating a cementitious and/or pozzolanic or equivalent material, and its application in sealing fissures and cracks, back-filling, providing mass fills in civil and mining works, or lining tunnels.
  • Also disclosed in the prior art are hydraulic setting compositions comprising particles of Portland Cement together with fine particles of silica fume containing amorphous silica, which are the subject of EP-A-534385 and are used in the production of concrete, mortar or grout having improved fluidity, whilst GB-A-2187727 describes a rapid gelling, hydraulic cement composition which comprises an acrylic gelling agent, a fine filler and Portland Cement, this composition being thixotropic and finding particular application in the formation of bulk infills for underground mining, and in the filling of voids and cavities in construction or civil engineering. A composition which also is useful in general building and construction work, and as an insulating material comprises a particulate filler, cellulose fibres and a cementitious binder, and is disclosed in GB-A-2117753.
  • Whilst the majority of these compositions of the prior art have a requirement for the addition of water, EP-A-801124 is concerned with a dry mixture, used for fine soil injection grout preparation, the mixture comprising fillers which do not react with water, cement and deflocculant; on addition of water, an agglomerate-free fine grout is formed, and this is easily injected into fine soil.
  • Thus, the use of such grouting materials in—primarily—civil engineering is well known. Surprisingly, the present inventors have now found that it is possible to make use of these materials in order to overcome many of the problems associated with encapsulation of fine particulate sized wastes which have previously been detailed. Thus, it is now possible to provide a treatment method for wastes of this type which affords much greater efficiency, convenience and safety in handling, and has a consequent beneficial effect both in terms of environmental considerations and cost.
  • STATEMENTS OF INVENTION
  • Thus, according to the present invention there is provided a method for the encapsulation of fine particulate materials which comprises treating said materials with at least one microfine hydraulic inorganic filler.
  • Typically, the microfine hydraulic inorganic filler comprises a cementitious material, preferably Portland Cement.
  • One or more additional inorganic fillers may optionally be added to the cementitious material; suitable fillers include blast furnace slag, pulverised fuel ash, hydrated lime, finely divided silica, limestone flour and organic and inorganic fluidising agents.
  • In each case, the filler is ground to a much smaller particle size than is normally used in the production of a grout. Typically, the filler has a maximum particle size of less than 10 μm.
  • The microfine hydraulic inorganic filler is provided in the form of an aqueous composition for the treatment of the fine particulate materials; the water content of the composition is preferably in the region of 40-50% (w/w). Thus, the filler may be pumped under pressure through the materials in order to ensure that they become intimately encapsulated. In this way, the filler is able to fill the very small interstitial cavities in the waste, thereby achieving intimate encapsulation without the need to remove the materials from their container, with all the attendant disadvantages that would be associated with such a procedure. Hence, the method of the present invention may be distinguished over the prior art, since all the known methods involve the mixing of materials and filler in a container, whereas mixing of the filler into an aqueous composition occurs prior to treatment of the materials in the container in the present case. The intimate encapsulation which is a feature of the present method would not be achievable by using the methods of the prior art.
  • A further advantage of the present method is that the container in which the fine particulate materials are held may be used as part of the waste packaging.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The method of the present invention may be applied to the treatment of a wide range of fine particulate materials. Of particular value, however, is the application of the method to the treatment of waste materials in general and, most particularly, waste materials which are encountered in the nuclear industry which, as previously discussed, provide particular areas of concern in their disposal. Such materials may be treated by this method in order to eliminate many of the practical handling difficulties, and potential contamination hazards, which would be associated with the need to remove the materials from their containers prior to treatment.
  • A particular example of the application of the method in the field of nuclear technology involves the treatment of filters containing ion exchange resins. Said filters may typically be used for both liquids and gases and a particular application is in the removal of caesium from waste ponds. The used filters comprise cartridges of spent ion exchange resin and these may be successfully encapsulated using the technique according to the present invention.

Claims (15)

  1. 1. A method for the encapsulation of fine particulate materials comprising:
    treating said materials with a microfine hydraulic inorganic filler.
  2. 2. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the microfine hydraulic inorganic filler comprises a cementitious material.
  3. 3. A method as claimed in claim 2 wherein the cementitious material comprises Portland Cement.
  4. 4. A method as claimed in claim 2 wherein the microfine hydraulic inorganic filler further comprises at least one inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of blast furnace slag, pulverised fuel ash, hydrated lime, finely divided silica, limestone flour and organic and inorganic fluidising agents.
  5. 5. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the filler is ground to a much smaller particle size than is normally used in the production of a grout.
  6. 6. A method as claimed in claim 4 wherein the filler has a maximum particle size of less than about 10 μm.
  7. 7. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the microfine hydraulic inorganic filler is provided in the form of an aqueous composition.
  8. 8. A method as claimed in claim 7 wherein the water content of the composition is approximately 40-50% (w/w).
  9. 9. A method as claimed in claim 7 wherein said aqueous composition is pumped under pressure through the fine particulate materials in order to achieve intimate encapsulation.
  10. 10. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein the fine particulate materials comprise waste materials.
  11. 11. A method as claimed in claim 10 wherein said waste materials comprise waste materials generated in the nuclear industry.
  12. 12. A method as claimed in claim 10 wherein said waste materials comprise filters containing ion exchange resins.
  13. 13. A method as claimed in claim 12 wherein said filters are utilised in the removal of caesium from waste ponds.
  14. 14. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein said fine particulate materials are treated in containers, without the requirement for removal from said containers prior to treatment.
  15. 15. A method as claimed in claim 14 wherein the container is used as part of the waste packaging.
US10499283 2001-12-21 2002-12-20 Treatment of waste products Abandoned US20050131265A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0130593A GB0130593D0 (en) 2001-12-21 2001-12-21 Treatment of waste products
GB0130593.7 2001-12-21
PCT/GB2002/005861 WO2003056571A3 (en) 2001-12-21 2002-12-20 Treatment of waste products

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11538969 US7445591B2 (en) 2001-12-21 2006-10-05 Treatment of waste products

Related Child Applications (1)

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US11538969 Continuation US7445591B2 (en) 2001-12-21 2006-10-05 Treatment of waste products

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20050131265A1 true true US20050131265A1 (en) 2005-06-16

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US10499283 Abandoned US20050131265A1 (en) 2001-12-21 2002-12-20 Treatment of waste products
US11538969 Expired - Fee Related US7445591B2 (en) 2001-12-21 2006-10-05 Treatment of waste products

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11538969 Expired - Fee Related US7445591B2 (en) 2001-12-21 2006-10-05 Treatment of waste products

Country Status (5)

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US (2) US20050131265A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1459326B1 (en)
DE (1) DE60235405D1 (en)
GB (1) GB0130593D0 (en)
WO (1) WO2003056571A3 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2015503094A (en) * 2011-11-25 2015-01-29 中国広核集団有限公司 Cementation formulation and solidification methods used in a high concentration boron-containing radioactive waste resin of a nuclear power plant
JP2015094608A (en) * 2013-11-09 2015-05-18 恵和興業株式会社 Method of manufacturing granulation/regeneration crushed stone by reducing radioactivity from radioactive waste

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB0419682D0 (en) * 2004-09-04 2004-10-06 British Nuclear Fuels Plc Novel encapsulation medium

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US3988258A (en) * 1975-01-17 1976-10-26 United Nuclear Industries, Inc. Radwaste disposal by incorporation in matrix
US4116705A (en) * 1973-06-01 1978-09-26 Stablex Ag Detoxification
US4249949A (en) * 1978-05-18 1981-02-10 Imperial Chemical Industries Limited Methods for consolidating radioactive waste material using self-setting or water-settable compositions containing an organic polyisocyanate, a non-ionic surface active agent devoid of isocyanate-reactive groups and alkaline filler
US4379081A (en) * 1981-03-12 1983-04-05 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Method of encapsulating waste radioactive material
US4409137A (en) * 1980-04-09 1983-10-11 Belgonucleaire Solidification of radioactive waste effluents
US4432666A (en) * 1979-12-14 1984-02-21 Vfi, Verwertungsgesellschaft Fur Industrieruckstande Mbh Process for the storage and dumping of waste materials
US4518508A (en) * 1983-06-30 1985-05-21 Solidtek Systems, Inc. Method for treating wastes by solidification
US4530723A (en) * 1983-03-07 1985-07-23 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Encapsulation of ion exchange resins
US4600514A (en) * 1983-09-15 1986-07-15 Chem-Technics, Inc. Controlled gel time for solidification of multi-phased wastes
US4741776A (en) * 1980-09-19 1988-05-03 Blue Circle Industries Limited Method of processing waste materials
US4853208A (en) * 1988-03-21 1989-08-01 Chemfix Technologies, Icc. Method of binding wastes in alkaline silicate matrix
US4904416A (en) * 1987-05-21 1990-02-27 Kyushu Electric Power Co., Ltd. Cement solidification treatment of spent ion exchange resins
US5026215A (en) * 1988-12-02 1991-06-25 Geochemical Corporation Method of grouting formations and composition useful therefor
US5143654A (en) * 1989-09-20 1992-09-01 Hitachi, Ltd. Method and apparatus for solidifying radioactive waste
US5143653A (en) * 1987-05-15 1992-09-01 Societe Anonyme: Societe Generale Pour Les Techniques Nouvelles-Sgn Process for immobilizing radioactive ion exchange resins by a hydraulic binder
US5242603A (en) * 1988-04-05 1993-09-07 Solidiwaste Technology, L.P. Process for the disposal of waste
US5256338A (en) * 1990-11-28 1993-10-26 Hitachi, Ltd. Solidifying materials for radioactive waste disposal, structures made of said materials for radioactive waste disposal and process for solidifying of radioactive wastes
US5640704A (en) * 1995-07-24 1997-06-17 Snyder; Thomas S. Process for solidification and immobilization of harmful waste species
US5968257A (en) * 1994-08-29 1999-10-19 Sandia Corporation Ultrafine cementitious grout

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JPH0832575B2 (en) * 1987-07-22 1996-03-29 住友大阪セメント株式会社 Portland cement to adjust the particle size
FR2650837B1 (en) 1989-08-11 1994-08-05 Lafarge Nouveaux Materiaux Injection grout fine cracks
JPH04317444A (en) 1991-02-21 1992-11-09 Nippon Steel Chem Co Ltd Superfine granulated slag power, its production and mortar composition
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JPH08179095A (en) 1994-10-27 1996-07-12 Jgc Corp Solidifying agent for radioactive waste, solidifying method thereof, and solidified object
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4116705A (en) * 1973-06-01 1978-09-26 Stablex Ag Detoxification
US3988258A (en) * 1975-01-17 1976-10-26 United Nuclear Industries, Inc. Radwaste disposal by incorporation in matrix
US4249949A (en) * 1978-05-18 1981-02-10 Imperial Chemical Industries Limited Methods for consolidating radioactive waste material using self-setting or water-settable compositions containing an organic polyisocyanate, a non-ionic surface active agent devoid of isocyanate-reactive groups and alkaline filler
US4432666A (en) * 1979-12-14 1984-02-21 Vfi, Verwertungsgesellschaft Fur Industrieruckstande Mbh Process for the storage and dumping of waste materials
US4409137A (en) * 1980-04-09 1983-10-11 Belgonucleaire Solidification of radioactive waste effluents
US4741776A (en) * 1980-09-19 1988-05-03 Blue Circle Industries Limited Method of processing waste materials
US4379081A (en) * 1981-03-12 1983-04-05 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Method of encapsulating waste radioactive material
US4530723A (en) * 1983-03-07 1985-07-23 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Encapsulation of ion exchange resins
US4518508A (en) * 1983-06-30 1985-05-21 Solidtek Systems, Inc. Method for treating wastes by solidification
US4600514A (en) * 1983-09-15 1986-07-15 Chem-Technics, Inc. Controlled gel time for solidification of multi-phased wastes
US5143653A (en) * 1987-05-15 1992-09-01 Societe Anonyme: Societe Generale Pour Les Techniques Nouvelles-Sgn Process for immobilizing radioactive ion exchange resins by a hydraulic binder
US4904416A (en) * 1987-05-21 1990-02-27 Kyushu Electric Power Co., Ltd. Cement solidification treatment of spent ion exchange resins
US4853208A (en) * 1988-03-21 1989-08-01 Chemfix Technologies, Icc. Method of binding wastes in alkaline silicate matrix
US5242603A (en) * 1988-04-05 1993-09-07 Solidiwaste Technology, L.P. Process for the disposal of waste
US5026215A (en) * 1988-12-02 1991-06-25 Geochemical Corporation Method of grouting formations and composition useful therefor
US5143654A (en) * 1989-09-20 1992-09-01 Hitachi, Ltd. Method and apparatus for solidifying radioactive waste
US5256338A (en) * 1990-11-28 1993-10-26 Hitachi, Ltd. Solidifying materials for radioactive waste disposal, structures made of said materials for radioactive waste disposal and process for solidifying of radioactive wastes
US5968257A (en) * 1994-08-29 1999-10-19 Sandia Corporation Ultrafine cementitious grout
US5640704A (en) * 1995-07-24 1997-06-17 Snyder; Thomas S. Process for solidification and immobilization of harmful waste species

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2015503094A (en) * 2011-11-25 2015-01-29 中国広核集団有限公司 Cementation formulation and solidification methods used in a high concentration boron-containing radioactive waste resin of a nuclear power plant
JP2015094608A (en) * 2013-11-09 2015-05-18 恵和興業株式会社 Method of manufacturing granulation/regeneration crushed stone by reducing radioactivity from radioactive waste

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20070224344A1 (en) 2007-09-27 application
WO2003056571A2 (en) 2003-07-10 application
US7445591B2 (en) 2008-11-04 grant
WO2003056571A3 (en) 2004-06-17 application
DE60235405D1 (en) 2010-04-01 grant
GB0130593D0 (en) 2002-02-06 grant
EP1459326B1 (en) 2010-02-17 grant
EP1459326A2 (en) 2004-09-22 application

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AS Assignment

Owner name: BRITISH NUCLEAR FUELS PLC, GREAT BRITAIN

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GODFREY, IAN HUGH;JOWSEY, MARTIN JOHN;MILLER, ERIC WALTER;REEL/FRAME:015598/0480;SIGNING DATES FROM 20041216 TO 20041220

AS Assignment

Owner name: NUCLEAR DECOMMISSIONING AUTHORITY, UNITED KINGDOM

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BRITISH NUCLEAR FUELS PLC;REEL/FRAME:020482/0750

Effective date: 20071025

Owner name: NUCLEAR DECOMMISSIONING AUTHORITY,UNITED KINGDOM

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BRITISH NUCLEAR FUELS PLC;REEL/FRAME:020482/0750

Effective date: 20071025