Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Integrating fluxgate for magnetostrictive torque sensors

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20050103126A1
US20050103126A1 US11018308 US1830804A US2005103126A1 US 20050103126 A1 US20050103126 A1 US 20050103126A1 US 11018308 US11018308 US 11018308 US 1830804 A US1830804 A US 1830804A US 2005103126 A1 US2005103126 A1 US 2005103126A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
torque
flux
coil
integrating
excitation
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US11018308
Inventor
Malakondaiah Naidu
Joseph Heremans
Thomas Nehl
John Smith
Brian Fuller
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Delphi Technologies Inc
Original Assignee
Delphi Technologies Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L3/00Measuring torque, work, mechanical power, or mechanical efficiency in general
    • G01L3/02Rotary-transmission dynamometers
    • G01L3/04Rotary-transmission dynamometers wherein the torque-transmitting element comprises a torsionally-flexible shaft
    • G01L3/10Rotary-transmission dynamometers wherein the torque-transmitting element comprises a torsionally-flexible shaft involving electrical or magnetic means for indicating
    • G01L3/101Rotary-transmission dynamometers wherein the torque-transmitting element comprises a torsionally-flexible shaft involving electrical or magnetic means for indicating involving magnetic or electromagnetic means
    • G01L3/102Rotary-transmission dynamometers wherein the torque-transmitting element comprises a torsionally-flexible shaft involving electrical or magnetic means for indicating involving magnetic or electromagnetic means involving magnetostictive means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01LMEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE
    • G01L3/00Measuring torque, work, mechanical power, or mechanical efficiency in general
    • G01L3/02Rotary-transmission dynamometers
    • G01L3/04Rotary-transmission dynamometers wherein the torque-transmitting element comprises a torsionally-flexible shaft
    • G01L3/10Rotary-transmission dynamometers wherein the torque-transmitting element comprises a torsionally-flexible shaft involving electrical or magnetic means for indicating
    • G01L3/101Rotary-transmission dynamometers wherein the torque-transmitting element comprises a torsionally-flexible shaft involving electrical or magnetic means for indicating involving magnetic or electromagnetic means
    • G01L3/105Rotary-transmission dynamometers wherein the torque-transmitting element comprises a torsionally-flexible shaft involving electrical or magnetic means for indicating involving magnetic or electromagnetic means involving inductive means

Abstract

A torque sensing apparatus for picking up a magnetic field of a magnetostrictive material disposed on a shaft, comprising: a first integrating ring; a second integrating ring; a first fluxgate return strip and a second fluxgate return strip each being connected to the first integrating ring at one end and the second integrating ring at the other end; an excitation coil; and a feedback coil; wherein the first integrating ring and the second integrating ring are configured to be positioned to pick up flux signals along the entire periphery of the ends of the magnetostrictive material.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0001]
    This disclosure relates to torque sensing apparatus and, in particular, an apparatus and method for sensing the torque applied to a rotating shaft.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    In systems having rotating drive shafts it is sometimes necessary to know the torque and speed of these shafts in order to control the same or other devices associated with the rotatable shafts. Accordingly, it is desirable to sense and measure the torque applied to these items in an accurate, reliable and inexpensive manner.
  • [0003]
    Sensors to measure the torque imposed on rotating shafts, such as but not limited to shafts in vehicles, are used in many applications. For example, it might be desirable to measure the torque on rotating shafts in a vehicle's transmission, or in a vehicle's engine (e.g., the crankshaft), or in a vehicle's automatic braking system (ABS) for a variety of purposes known in the art.
  • [0004]
    One application of this type of torque measurement is in electric power steering systems wherein an electric motor is driven in response to the operation and/or manipulation of a vehicle steering wheel. The system then interprets the amount of torque or rotation applied to the steering wheel and its attached shaft in order to translate the information into an appropriate command for an operating means of the steerable wheels of the vehicle.
  • [0005]
    Prior methods for obtaining torque measurement in such systems was accomplished through the use of contact-type sensors directly attached to the shaft being rotated. For example, one such type of sensor is a “strain gauge” type torque detection apparatus, in which one or more strain gauges are directly attached to the outer peripheral surface of the shaft and the applied torque is measured by detecting a change in resistance, which is caused by applied strain and is measured by a bridge circuit or other well-known means.
  • [0006]
    Another type of sensor used is a non-contact torque sensor wherein magnetostrictive materials are disposed on rotating shafts and sensors are positioned to detect the presence of an external flux which is the result of a torque being applied to the magnetostrictive material.
  • [0007]
    Such magnetostrictive materials require an internal magnetic field which is typically produced or provided by either pre-stressing the magnetostrictive material by using applied forces (e.g., compressive or tensile) in either a clockwise or counter clockwise to pre-stress the coating prior to magnetization of the pre-stressed coating in order to provide the desired magnetic field. Alternatively, an external magnet or magnets are provided to produce the same or a similar result to the magnetostrictive material.
  • [0008]
    To this end, magnetostrictive torque sensors have been provided wherein a sensor is positioned in a surrounding relationship with a rotating shaft, with an air gap being established between the sensor and shaft to allow the shaft to rotate without rubbing against the sensor. A magnetic field is generated in the sensor by passing electric current through an excitation coil of the sensor. This magnetic field permeates the shaft and returns back to a pick-up coil of the sensor.
  • [0009]
    The output of the pick-up coil is an electrical signal that depends on the total magnetic reluctance in the above-described loop. Part of the total magnetic reluctance is established by the air gap, and part is established by the shaft itself, with the magnetic reluctance of the shaft changing as a function of torque on the shaft. Thus, changes in the output of the pick-up coil can be correlated to the torque experienced by the shaft.
  • [0010]
    As understood herein, the air gap, heretofore necessary to permit relative motion between the shaft and sensor, nonetheless undesirably reduces the sensitivity of conventional magnetostrictive torque sensors. As further understood herein, it is possible to eliminate the air gap between a shaft and a magnetostrictive torque sensor, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the sensor vis-a-vis conventional sensors. Moreover, the present disclosure recognizes that a phenomenon known in the art as “shaft run-out” can adversely effect conventional magnetostrictive torque sensors, and that a system can be provided that is relatively immune to the effects of shaft run-out.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0011]
    It is an object of the present disclosure to provide a torque sensor that is sufficiently compact for use in applications where space is at a premium, such as in automotive applications.
  • [0012]
    A torque sensing apparatus for picking up a magnetic field of a circumferentially magnetized magnetostrictive material disposed on a shaft, comprising: a first integrating ring; a second integrating ring; a first fluxgate return strip and a second fluxgate return strip each being connected to the first integrating ring at one end and the second integrating ring at the other end; an excitation coil comprising a first coil wound about the first fluxgate return strip and a second coil wound about the second fluxgate return strip wherein the first and second coils of the excitation coil are connected in series so that the net excitation flux circulates between the flux gate strips via a first integrating ring and a second integrating ring; and a feedback coil wound about the first fluxgate return strip and the second fluxgate return strip, wherein the first integrating ring and the second integrating ring are configured to be positioned to pick up flux signals along the entire periphery of the ends of the magnetostrictive material.
  • [0013]
    A method for determining the applied torque to a shaft, comprising: collecting flux a first end of a magnetostrictive material disposed on the shaft via a first integrating ring; collecting flux at a second end of the magnetostrictive material disposed on the shaft via a second integrating ring; providing a measurement flux in a first flux gate winding and a second flux gate winding positioned about said magnetostrictive material; providing a low reluctance closed loop flux path from the first flux gate winding to the second flux gate winding; and measuring an applied torque to the shaft by using a null detection scheme on the low reluctance closed loop flux path.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • [0014]
    FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a magnetostrictive material disposed on a shaft;
  • [0015]
    FIG. 2 is a perspective view of an integrating flux gate of the present disclosure disposed about a shaft having a magnetostrictive material;
  • [0016]
    FIG. 3 is a perspective schematic view of an integrating flux gate of the present disclosure;
  • [0017]
    FIG. 4A is a graph of the BH curve of the integrating flux gate of the present disclosure with no torque;
  • [0018]
    FIG. 4B is a graph of the BH curve of the integrating flux gate of the present disclosure with torque;
  • [0019]
    FIGS. 5 and 6 are graphs of illustrating the time dependence of the voltage across the excitation coil and the feedback coil for no applied torque and applied torque, respectively;
  • [0020]
    FIGS. 7A-7B are graphs illustrating the rectified second harmonic voltage signals as input to voltage to current converters feeding feedback coils;
  • [0021]
    FIG. 8 illustrates an integrating fluxgate with five coils (excitation C1, C2, connected in series; pickup C3, C4, connected in series; and Cfb);
  • [0022]
    FIG. 9 shows the measured current waveform when a sinusoidal voltage is applied to the excitation coil (C1) in the presence of a torque flux;
  • [0023]
    FIG. 10 illustrates the voltage measured across pick up coil (C3) under the same excitation as illustrated in FIG. 9 and in the presence of a torque flux;
  • [0024]
    FIG. 11 illustrates the voltage measured across feedback coil (Cfb) under the same excitation as illustrated in FIG. 9 and in the presence of no torque flux;
  • [0025]
    FIG. 12 illustrates the voltage measured across pickup coil (C3) under the same excitation as illustrated in FIG. 9 and in the presence of no torque flux;
  • [0026]
    FIG. 13 is a schematic illustration of an exemplary circuit for use with the integrating flux gate of the present disclosure;
  • [0027]
    FIG. 14 is a schematic illustration of an alternative exemplary circuit for use with the integrating flux gate of the present disclosure;
  • [0028]
    FIG. 15 is a graph illustrating a plot of the output voltage on the feedback coil (Cfb) versus an applied torque;
  • [0029]
    FIG. 16 is another graph illustrating a plot of the output voltage on the feedback coil (Cfb) versus an applied torque in an ascending and descending torque direction;
  • [0030]
    FIG. 17 is a schematic illustration of another alternative exemplary circuit for use with the integrating flux gate of the present disclosure; and
  • [0031]
    FIG. 18 is a schematic illustration of yet another alternative alternative exemplary circuit for use with the integrating flux gate of the present disclosure.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0032]
    Referring now to FIGS. 1-18 exemplary embodiments of a torque sensing apparatus 10 are illustrated. In an exemplary embodiment and referring in particular to FIG. 1, the torque-subjected member is in the form of a cylindrical shaft 12. However, the present disclosure is not intended to be limited to the specific configurations illustrated in FIG. 1. The shaft comprises a non-magnetic material, such as a stainless steel or aluminum. Disposed on the surface of shaft 12 is a magnetostrictive material 14. The magnetostrictive material is coated on or applied to the shaft in a manner that will produce a flux signal when the torque is applied to the shaft. The same signal is collected by the integrating fluxgate for measuring the torque applied to the shaft. An example of the magnetostrictive material is of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,645,039, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference thereto. Of course, other types of magnetostrictive materials are contemplated to be used in accordance with the present disclosure.
  • [0033]
    The magnetostrictive material is magnetically polarized to have a circumferential moment in the direction of arrow 16. Of course, the magnetostrictive material may be magnetically polarized in a direction opposite of arrow 16. Upon receipt of an applied torque (arrow 18) a longitudinal magnetic flux (arrow 20) or torque flux leaves the magnetostrictive material. This flux is proportional to the torque that will be picked up by the device and method of the present disclosure.
  • [0034]
    Torque 18 is shown as being in a clockwise direction looking at the visible end of shaft 12, but obviously can be applied to rotate the shaft in either or both directions depending on the nature of the machine incorporating shaft 12.
  • [0035]
    Referring now in particular to FIGS. 2 and 3 an integrating fluxgate 22 is disposed about magnetostrictive material 14. As will be described herein integrating fluxgate 22 is adapted to measure the torque flux of shaft 12. Integrating fluxgate 22 is mounted on a cylindrical member 24. Member 24 is constructed of a non-conductive material such as plastic, nylon or polymer of equivalent properties, which is lightweight and easily molded or manufactured. Member 24 is configured to allow shaft and magnetostrictive material 14 to be rotatably received therein. In addition, member 24 is secured to a structure (not shown) that is stationary with respect to rotating shaft member 12 accordingly; shaft member 12 is capable of rotation within member 24. In addition, and in order to prevent the device of the present application from being affected by external magnetic fields (e.g., the Earth's magnetic field) the entire device will be received with a shield capable of protecting the torque sensing apparatus for being adversely affected by such magnetic fields.
  • [0036]
    Disposed on member 24 is a first integrating ring 26 and a second integrating ring 28. Integrating rings 26 and 28 are constructed out of a high-permeable material such metalglass or permalloy of mumetal, or other materials having equivalent characteristics. As will be discussed herein the configuration of integrating rings 26 and 28 allow integrating fluxgate 22 to pick up torque flux signals anywhere along the periphery of magnetostrictive material 14. The torque flux signals are sensed by the integrating flux gate using a variety of coil configurations. In one embodiment, a three-coil configuration (C excitation, C pickup and C feedback) is used, in another embodiment a three-coil configuration is used (C excitation (C1 and C2 connected in series) and C feedback), is used, in yet another embodiment a two-coil configuration is used (C excitation and C feedback), in still another embodiment a single-coil configuration is used (wherein the coil is used as C excitation and C feedback) and in still another embodiment a five-coil configuration is used (C excitation (C1 and C2 connected in series), C pickup (C3 and C4 connected in series) and C feedback). These configurations and schemes for measuring torque using the fluxgate will be discussed herein.
  • [0037]
    Referring now to FIG. 3 an integrating fluxgate with a three-coil arrangement is illustrated. Here a feedback coil 30 (Cfb) is disposed about the other two coils. Disposed between integrating rings 26 and 28 is a first fluxgate return strip 32 and a second fluxgate return strip 34 as shown in FIG. 3. First fluxgate return strip 32 and second fluxgate return strip 34 are constructed out of the same material as the integrating rings.
  • [0038]
    A first flux gate winding 36 (C1) is wound about first fluxgate return strip 32 and a second flux gate winding 38 (C2) is wound about second fluxgate return strip 34. As discussed above, and in one embodiment the integrating fluxgate of the present disclosure is able to measure the torque flux of the magnetostrictive material through the use of three coils, namely, C1, C2 and Cfb. In an exemplary embodiment coils C1 and C2 are connected in series and coil Cfb is disposed about coils C1 and C2. Thus, a device is created wherein the external magnetic field of the magnetostrictive material is measured. In particular, the external magnetic field is collected along the periphery of the ends of the magnetostrictive material through the use of integrating rings 26 and 28.
  • [0039]
    However, it is noted that the integrating fluxgate can measure the torque flux through the use of a five coil arrangement, shown in FIG. 8, comprising of coils C1, C2, C3, C4 and Cfb. The excitation coils (C1 and C2) are connected in series while the pick-up coils (C3 and C4) are also connected in series. In addition, and in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure the number of coils used are reduced. For example, and in one embodiment three coils are used (C excitation, C pickup and C feedback), or in another three coil arrangement wherein the pickup coil is eliminated C excitation (coils C1 and C2 connected in series) and C feedback is used, in another embodiment two coils are used (C excitation and C feedback) and in yet another embodiment one coil is used for both excitation and feedback, in the later three embodiments the pickup coil is completely eliminated.
  • [0040]
    In the three-coil arrangement (C excitation, C pickup and C feedback), the induced voltage in the pickup coil contains the 2nd harmonic component upon application of a torque to the shaft. This 2nd harmonic voltage is extracted by a means of a lock-in amplifier and rectified and fed, as current, to the feedback coil via a voltage to current converter to nullify the 2nd harmonic component. This 2nd harmonic voltage is proportional to the torque to the shaft.
  • [0041]
    In an exemplary embodiment and as illustrated in FIG. 3, first flux gate winding 36 and second flux gate winding 38 are connected in series to provide an excitation flux and the integrating flux gate 22 (integrating rings 26 and 28 and fluxgate return strips 32 and 34) provides a low reluctance closed loop flux path 40 from first flux gate winding 36 to second flux gate winding 38.
  • [0042]
    As shown, the apparatus is disposed in a surrounding relationship with the shaft to sense the torque imposed on the shaft. In one exemplary embodiment, the shaft is a rotating shaft within a vehicle. For instance, the shaft can be an ABS shaft, engine shaft, or transmission shaft, although it is to be appreciated that the principles set forth herein apply equally to other vehicular and non-vehicular rotating shafts.
  • [0043]
    It is being understood that in the embodiment where the pickup coil is eliminated the first and the second flux gate windings are connected in series are excited by a high frequency sinusoidal voltage to generate magnetic flux. This would also be the case in the five-coil arrangement. The excitation voltage and the frequency are adjusted such that the passing flux through the two flux gate strips and integrating rings such does not cause saturation without torque flux. The excitation current and frequency are adjusted such that the flux gate material is just below the saturation limit of the flux gate core.
  • [0044]
    For illustration purposes flux density (B) can be determined through use of the following formula:
    B=E×108/4Anf; wherein
      • E=Input or Output Voltage, in volt (rms)
      • A=Cross Sectional Area, in cm2
      • f=Switching frequency, in Hz
      • N=Number of Turns
  • [0049]
    In addition, and for illustration purposes, the magnetization force or H can be determined through the following formula:
    H=0.4πNI/l; wherein
      • N=No. of turns
      • I=Current in Amps
      • l=Magnetic Path Length in cm.
  • [0053]
    In addition, the second flux gate winding is configured to receive magnetic flux from the shaft. Thus, the apparatus of the present disclosure is capable of maintaining the flux gate material out of magnetic saturation wherein an applied torque will create a torque flux that will be picked up by the device. When the flux material is out of saturation (e.g., no torque applied and no torque flux measured) there is no 2nd harmonic waveform (current or voltage). Thus, and in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure the device uses the 2nd harmonic waveform (current or voltage) to provide a signal that is used to provide a nullifying current to the feedback coil. The skilled artisan will appreciate that the flux defines a flux path from the excitation coil to its respective pickup coil or in the embodiment wherein the pickup coil is removed the flux defines a flux path from the excitation coils connected in series.
  • [0054]
    As discussed above when shaft 12 is presented with an applied torque (arrow 18) a longitudinal magnetic flux leaves the coating of magnetostrictive material, the integrating fluxgate of the present disclosure provides this flux with a return path. The produced or excitation flux and torque flux, if existing, is picked up by integrating ring 26, passes through fluxgate return strips 32 and 34 and integrating ring 28 to the other side of the magnetostrictive material 14. The torque flux adds or subtracts to the excitation flux produced by C1 and C2 in a three-coil arrangement or C excitation in a three, two or single coil arrangement as discussed in the various embodiments of the present disclosure. The signals are then interpreted by the torque sensing apparatus of the various embodiments of the present disclosure in various ways so that the applied torque is capable of being measured.
  • [0055]
    FIGS. 4-6 illustrate the principle operation of the fluxgate of the present disclosure. FIGS. 4A and 4B illustrates a BH curve of the core material with and without torque. FIGS. 5 and 6 show the time dependence of the voltage across the excitation coils and feedback coil (with and without an applied flux or torque). FIGS. 7A and 7B are graphs which show the rectified 2nd harmonic voltage of the pickup coil (e.g., a three coil arrangement C excitation, C pickup and C feedback) as an input to the feedback coil (with and without an applied torque flux).
  • [0056]
    Therefore, the passing of the torque flux through both return strips of the fluxgate causes early magnetic saturation in one direction and then in the other direction while the excitation frequency is sweeping the fluxgate core material in both directions.
  • [0057]
    This saturation causes 2nd harmonic voltages in the feedback coil or pickup coil, depending on the embodiment being implemented as well as DC offset in the excitation current. Therefore, and in one embodiment, the applied torque is proportional to the rectified 2nd harmonic voltage of the feedback coil or pickup coil, which is fed as current input to the feedback coil to nullify the core saturation. In another embodiment, the torque is proportional to the DC offset current in the excitation coil, which is fed as input to the feedback coil to nullify the core saturation caused by external torque flux.
  • [0058]
    In addition, and due to the circular configuration of integrating rings the flux gate is capable of integrating the magnetic flux about the entire periphery of the magnetostrictive material. Accordingly, the torque moment is measured about the entire periphery of the magnetostrictive material by integrating along the circumference at either end of the magnetostrictive material. This allows the integrating fluxgate of the present disclosure to measure the torque moment of the shaft regardless of angle at which the shaft is positioned. In addition and by integrating along the circumference at either end of the magnetostrictive material, the integrating fluxgate is self-correcting or is not susceptible to measurement anomalies associated with shaft wobble or irregularities in the surface of the shaft or magnetostrictive material disposed on the shaft. Thus, the integrating fluxgate of the present disclosure measures the torque leakage along the entire end of the magnetostrictive material.
  • [0059]
    The output waveforms of various embodiments of the integrating fluxgate of the present disclosure are shown in FIGS. 8-12. FIG. 8 illustrates an integrating fluxgate constructed with five coils (C1, C2, C3, C4, and Cfb) where the excitation coils C1 and C2 are connected in series and the pickup coils C3 and C4 are connected in series. However, as discussed above and as will be shown herein only three coils (C1, C2 and Cfb) or less are necessary to measure the applied torque in accordance with the various embodiments of the present disclosure as the pickup coil and others can be removed while still providing a device for measuring and nullifying torque flux.
  • [0060]
    When a sinusoidal voltage is applied to the excitation coil (C1 or C1 and C2 connected in series) and the current waveform is measured in the presence of a torque flux, FIG. 9 shows that the current waveform has a distortion that consists of a second harmonic signal and asymmetry with respect to the x-axis. Accordingly, the integrating fluxgate of the present disclosure can use the following properties to diagnose the presence of a torque flux: the second harmonic voltage, or a non-zero D.C. value of the time-averaged integral of the excitation current.
  • [0061]
    Referring now to FIGS. 10 and 11 and under the same excitation as illustrated in FIG. 9, the voltage is measured across the pick up coil (C2). As illustrated, a second harmonic signal is also seen when a torque flux is present (FIG. 10) and disappears when the torque flux is zero. Accordingly, the voltage of pick up coil (C2) can also be used to diagnose the presence of a torque flux.
  • [0062]
    Referring now to FIG. 12 and under the same excitation, the waveform of the voltage on the feedback coil (Cfb) is also shown. This waveform also has a strong second harmonic signal. If the structure had been perfect, and the two fluxgate strips absolutely symmetric, no contribution of the fundamental waveform would have been measured on the feedback coil (Cfb). Therefore, the feedback coil can also use the second harmonic signal as a diagnostic of the torque flux.
  • [0063]
    During operation of the integrating fluxgate of the present disclosure and regardless of how many coils are used or implemented a D.C. current is sent into the feedback coil to counterbalance the torque flux. To accomplish this a feedback loop (FIGS. 13, 14, 17 and 18) is required and accordingly, a D.C. current is sent into the feedback coil, such that either the second harmonic contribution on the feedback coil (Cfb) or the DC offset current in the excitation coil are nul, or in other words the integral of the current waveform into excitation coil is zero or nul, This feedback ensures that the entire structure is out of magnetic saturation. This DC current fed back to the feedback coil nullifies the saturation due to torque flux since it is proportional to the applied shaft torque.
  • [0064]
    A signal relating to the DC current sent to the feedback coil is also sent to a microprocessor, controller or equivalent means having a look up table or other means for determining the applied torque, which is used in any vehicular or other control system requiring torque readings.
  • [0065]
    FIG. 13 illustrates an embodiment of a three coil (excitation coils AC1, AC2 connected in series and a feedback coil DC1) flux gate torque sensing circuit for determining the amount of torque being applied to the shaft by looking at the rectified second harmonic voltage of the voltage waveform of the feedback coil (DC1). In this embodiment AC1 is wound about one of the flux gate strips and AC2 is wound about the other while the feedback coil DC1 is wound about the two excitation coils AC1 and AC2.
  • [0066]
    The circuit is contemplated for use with an integrating flux gate as illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3. The integrating flux gate comprises two integrating rings, two flux strips, two coils (AC1 or C1) and (AC2 or C2) connected in series and the feedback coil (DC1 or Cfb). In this embodiment AC1 comprises 50 turns of 32 gage wire and AC2 comprises 50 turns of 32 gage wire while the feedback coil DC1 comprises 72 turns of 25 gage wire. Of course, and as applications require the gage of the wire and number of turns may vary. In the illustrated embodiment, an AC voltage of 1.8 volts at a frequency of 49 kilohertz is applied to the excitation coils (AC1 and AC2, connected in series). In addition, this voltage is also applied to a frequency doubler 44 that doubles the frequency and applies a 98 kilohertz frequency as a reference input into a lock-in amplifier 46, which is used as a bandpass filter. Accordingly, only voltages at the reference frequency (98 khz, i.e. double the excitation frequency) will be picked up. Of course, and as applications require the frequency and the magnitude of excitation voltage may vary depending on the design of the flux gate.
  • [0067]
    The feedback coil voltage is passed through the lock-in amplifier to extract the rectified second harmonic voltage signal, which is then inputted into a voltage to current converter 48. This converted voltage is then inputted as DC current in the feedback coil DC1 to nullify the flux gate core saturation caused by the torque flux. The rectified 2nd harmonic voltage is proportional to the applied shaft torque.
  • [0068]
    In this embodiment the integrating fluxgate is measuring the applied torque by using a null detection scheme wherein the fluxgate is measuring the applied torque by picking up the 2nd harmonic rectified DC voltage of the feedback coil, converting it into a current, and feeding into the feedback coil to nullify the core saturation due to torque flux.
  • [0069]
    Referring now to FIG. 14, an alternative circuit for determining the amount of torque that is being applied to the shaft in a three coil (C1, C2, Cfb) flux gate torque sensor circuit by looking at the second harmonic of the current waveform of the excitation coil (C1 and C2 connected in series). The circuit is contemplated for use with an integrating flux gate as illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3. The integrating flux gate comprises two integrating rings, two flux strips, two coils (AC1 or C1) and (AC2 or C2) connected in series and the feedback coil (DC1 or Cfb). In this embodiment AC1 comprises 50 turns of 32 gage wire and AC2 comprises 50 turns of 32 gage wire while the feedback coil DC1 comprises 72 turns of 25 gage wire. Of course, and as applications require the gage of the wire and number of turns may vary. In the illustrated embodiment, an AC voltage of 1.8 volts at a frequency of 49 kilohertz is applied to the coils AC1 and AC2.
  • [0070]
    The excitation frequency is also applied to a frequency doubler 44 that doubles the frequency (98 kilohertz) and used as a reference frequency signal to the lock-in amplifier 46. This lock-in amplifier takes the voltage proportional to the excitation current across the shunt 50 as input, shown in FIG. 14, and extracts the 2nd harmonic content. It also rectifies and filters the 2nd harmonic voltage and provides a DC voltage signal to the voltage to current converter.
  • [0071]
    In an exemplary embodiment, resistor 50 has a value in the range of 10-100 ohms; of course, other values greater or less than the aforementioned range are contemplated for use with the present disclosure.
  • [0072]
    As illustrated, only currents at the reference frequency, double the excitation frequency (98 khz) will be picked up. Of course, and as applications require the frequency and magnitude of the excitation voltage may vary to values greater or less than 49 khz and 1.8 volts respectively. The measured voltage across the resistor, which is proportional to the current in the resistor, is fed into the lock-in amplifier, the DC output voltage signal of the lock-in amplifier is fed to the feedback coil through a voltage to current converter wherein the current applied to the feedback coil nullifies core saturation caused by the torque flux. The output of DC voltage of the lockin amplifier is proportional to the applied shaft torque.
  • [0073]
    In this embodiment the integrating fluxgate is measuring the applied torque by using a null detection scheme wherein the fluxgate is measuring the applied torque by picking up the 2nd harmonic current in the excitation coil (C1) and drive it to zero by feeding the current into the feedback coil to nullify the core saturation caused by the torque flux.
  • [0074]
    FIG. 15 is a graph illustrating a plot of the output voltage on the feedback coil (Cfb) versus an applied torque and FIG. 16 is another graph illustrating a plot of the output voltage on the feedback coil (Cfb) versus an applied torque.
  • [0075]
    FIG. 17 is a schematic illustration of an alternative embodiment of the present disclosure wherein a two coil (excitation and feedback) torque sensor circuit is used to measure the applied torque. In this embodiment a single coil is used to provide the excitation flux and receive the torque flux through the integrating rings and flux gate return strips of the present disclosure. The circuit of this embodiment comprises an oscillator 60 it can be square wave or sine wave or any periodic function of time, a differential amplifier 62, a second order filter 64, a voltage controlled current source 66, and an output amplifier 68.
  • [0076]
    In this embodiment the flux strips of the closed loop reluctance path are maintained just below the magnetic saturation point when only excitation current flows through the single excitation coil (with no torque flux). When an applied torque is encounter or applied to the shaft the flux strips are magnetically saturated in one direction then in the other direction when the excitation frequency is sweeping the core in both positive and negative directions. The saturation causes DC offset in the excitation waveform, the voltage proportional to the excitation current obtained by measuring the voltage across the series resistor connected in the excitation coil is fed to the differential amplifier 62. The output of the differential amplifier 62 is fed to second order active filter 64 to extract DC voltage proportional to the offset DC current in the excitation coil. The voltage is fed to the voltage to current converter (voltage control current source 66) and fed back to the feedback coil to nullify the flux gate core saturation due to torque flux.
  • [0077]
    FIG. 18 is a schematic illustration of another alternative exemplary circuit for use with the integrating flux gate of the present disclosure. Here a single coil is used as both the excitation and feedback coil. In this embodiment the flux strips of the closed loop reluctance path are maintained just below their magnetic saturation point when the excitation current is flowing through the coil. When an applied torque is encountered or applied to the shaft the flux strips are magnetically saturated in one direction then in the other direction when the excitation frequency is sweeping the core in both positive and negative directions. The saturation causes DC offset in the excitation waveform, the voltage proportional to the excitation current obtained by measuring the voltage across the series resistor connected in the coil is fed to the differential amplifier 62. The output of the differential amplifier 62 is fed to second order active filter 64 to extract DC voltage proportional to the offset DC current in the coil. The voltage is fed to the voltage to current converter (voltage control current source 66) and fed back to the coil to nullify the flux gate core saturation due to torque flux.
  • [0078]
    While the invention has been described with reference to an exemplary embodiment, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the invention without departing from the essential scope thereof. Therefore, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the particular embodiment disclosed as the best mode contemplated for carrying out this invention, but that the invention will include all embodiments falling within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (9)

1. A torque sensing apparatus for picking up a magnetic field of a magnetostrictive material disposed on a shaft, comprising:
a first integrating ring;
a second integrating ring;
a first fluxgate return strip and a second fluxgate return strip each being connected to said first integrating ring at one end and said second integrating ring at the other end;
an excitation coil comprising a first coil and a second coil, said first coil being wound about said first fluxgate return strip and said second coil being wound about said second fluxgate return strip and said first and said second coil are connected in series to provide a measurement flux; and
a feedback coil wound about said excitation coil;
wherein said first integrating ring, said second integrating ring, said first fluxgate return strip and said second fluxgate return strip provide a low reluctance closed loop flux path and are disposed on a cylindrical member being configured to allow said shaft to be rotatable received therein.
2. The torque sensing apparatus as in claim 1, wherein said first integrating ring, said second integrating ring, said first fluxgate return strip and said second fluxgate return strip are constructed out of a high-permeable material.
3. The torque sensing apparatus as in claim 1, wherein said first integrating ring and said second integrating ring are configured to pick up magnetic flux along the periphery of the magnetostrictive material.
4. (canceled)
5. (canceled)
6. (canceled)
7. The torque sensing apparatus as in claim 1, wherein said first integrating ring and said second integrating ring are configured to be positioned to pick up flux signals along the entire periphery of the ends of the magnetostrictive material.
8. The torque sensing apparatus as in claim 1, wherein said first integrating ring, said second integrating ring, said first fluxgate return strip and said second fluxgate return strip are constructed out of a high-permeable material and said first integrating ring and said second integrating ring are configured to pick up magnetic flux along the periphery of the magnetostrictive material and the torque sensing apparatus further comprises a pickup coil.
9. The torque sensing apparatus as in claim 8, wherein the application of a torque to the shaft will provide an induced voltage in the pickup coil, the induced voltage contains a 2nd harmonic component which is extracted by a means of a lock-in amplifier and rectified and fed, as current, to the feedback coil via a voltage to current converter to nullify the 2nd harmonic component, wherein the 2nd harmonic voltage is proportional to the torque to the shaft.
US11018308 2003-03-28 2004-12-21 Integrating fluxgate for magnetostrictive torque sensors Abandoned US20050103126A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10402620 US6871553B2 (en) 2003-03-28 2003-03-28 Integrating fluxgate for magnetostrictive torque sensors
US11018308 US20050103126A1 (en) 2003-03-28 2004-12-21 Integrating fluxgate for magnetostrictive torque sensors

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11018308 US20050103126A1 (en) 2003-03-28 2004-12-21 Integrating fluxgate for magnetostrictive torque sensors

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10402620 Continuation US6871553B2 (en) 2003-03-28 2003-03-28 Integrating fluxgate for magnetostrictive torque sensors

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20050103126A1 true true US20050103126A1 (en) 2005-05-19

Family

ID=32989754

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10402620 Expired - Fee Related US6871553B2 (en) 2003-03-28 2003-03-28 Integrating fluxgate for magnetostrictive torque sensors
US11018308 Abandoned US20050103126A1 (en) 2003-03-28 2004-12-21 Integrating fluxgate for magnetostrictive torque sensors

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10402620 Expired - Fee Related US6871553B2 (en) 2003-03-28 2003-03-28 Integrating fluxgate for magnetostrictive torque sensors

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US6871553B2 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070028692A1 (en) * 2005-08-05 2007-02-08 Honeywell International Inc. Acoustic wave sensor packaging for reduced hysteresis and creep
US20070030134A1 (en) * 2005-08-05 2007-02-08 Honeywell International Inc. Wireless torque sensor

Families Citing this family (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1504246B1 (en) * 2002-05-15 2013-07-10 The Timken Company Eddy current sensor assembly for shaft torque measurement
EP1508022B1 (en) * 2002-05-29 2014-02-12 The Timken Company In-bearing torque sensor assembly
EP1477788B1 (en) * 2003-05-12 2006-04-26 HONDA MOTOR CO., Ltd. Magnetostrictive coat forming method
JP4292967B2 (en) * 2003-12-05 2009-07-08 日立電線株式会社 Magnetostrictive torque sensor
US7098658B2 (en) * 2004-04-01 2006-08-29 Visteon Global Technologies, Inc. Digital signal conditioning solution for a magnetometer circuit
JP2007086018A (en) * 2005-09-26 2007-04-05 Hitachi Cable Ltd Magnetostrictive torque sensor
US20100191480A1 (en) * 2007-01-09 2010-07-29 Magnetic Torque International, Ltd. Torque transfer measurement system
US20080282812A1 (en) * 2007-05-15 2008-11-20 Thaddeus Schroeder Magnetostrictive load sensor and method of manufacture
US8672086B2 (en) * 2007-08-02 2014-03-18 Marine Canada Acquisition Inc. Torque sensor type power steering system with solid steering shaft and vehicle therewith
WO2010020648A1 (en) * 2008-08-18 2010-02-25 National University Of Ireland, Cork A fluxgate sensor
US8726742B2 (en) * 2010-11-23 2014-05-20 Steering Solutions Ip Holding Corporation Torque sensing system having torque sensor, and steering system
US20130291657A1 (en) * 2012-04-02 2013-11-07 Ashish S. Purekar Apparatus and method for non contact sensing of forces and motion on rotating shaft
JP2014219217A (en) * 2013-05-01 2014-11-20 本田技研工業株式会社 Magnetostrictive torque sensor and electrically-driven power steering device

Citations (91)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2861900A (en) * 1955-05-02 1958-11-25 Union Carbide Corp Jet plating of high melting point materials
US3009934A (en) * 1960-06-06 1961-11-21 Searle & Co 2beta-halo-3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-ones and derivatives thereof
US3100724A (en) * 1958-09-22 1963-08-13 Microseal Products Inc Device for treating the surface of a workpiece
US3876456A (en) * 1973-03-16 1975-04-08 Olin Corp Catalyst for the reduction of automobile exhaust gases
US3993411A (en) * 1973-06-01 1976-11-23 General Electric Company Bonds between metal and a non-metallic substrate
US3996398A (en) * 1972-11-08 1976-12-07 Societe De Fabrication D'elements Catalytiques Method of spray-coating with metal alloys
US4180770A (en) * 1978-03-01 1979-12-25 Anderson Power Products, Inc. Method and apparatus for determining the capacity of lead acid storage batteries
US4243524A (en) * 1979-08-02 1981-01-06 Buckman Laboratories, Inc. Aminoalkylenephosphonic acids and salts thereof and their use in aqueous systems
US4263335A (en) * 1978-07-26 1981-04-21 Ppg Industries, Inc. Airless spray method for depositing electroconductive tin oxide coatings
US4416421A (en) * 1980-10-09 1983-11-22 Browning Engineering Corporation Highly concentrated supersonic liquified material flame spray method and apparatus
US4606495A (en) * 1983-12-22 1986-08-19 United Technologies Corporation Uniform braze application process
US4627298A (en) * 1983-08-30 1986-12-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Torque sensor of the noncontact type
US4651573A (en) * 1984-08-27 1987-03-24 S. Himmelstein And Company Shaft torquemeter
US4891275A (en) * 1982-10-29 1990-01-02 Norsk Hydro A.S. Aluminum shapes coated with brazing material and process of coating
US4939022A (en) * 1988-04-04 1990-07-03 Delco Electronics Corporation Electrical conductors
US5187021A (en) * 1989-02-08 1993-02-16 Diamond Fiber Composites, Inc. Coated and whiskered fibers for use in composite materials
US5217746A (en) * 1990-12-13 1993-06-08 Fisher-Barton Inc. Method for minimizing decarburization and other high temperature oxygen reactions in a plasma sprayed material
US5271965A (en) * 1991-01-16 1993-12-21 Browning James A Thermal spray method utilizing in-transit powder particle temperatures below their melting point
US5302414A (en) * 1990-05-19 1994-04-12 Anatoly Nikiforovich Papyrin Gas-dynamic spraying method for applying a coating
US5308463A (en) * 1991-09-13 1994-05-03 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Preparation of a firm bond between copper layers and aluminum oxide ceramic without use of coupling agents
US5328751A (en) * 1991-07-12 1994-07-12 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Ceramic circuit board with a curved lead terminal
US5340015A (en) * 1993-03-22 1994-08-23 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Method for applying brazing filler metals
US5362523A (en) * 1991-09-05 1994-11-08 Technalum Research, Inc. Method for the production of compositionally graded coatings by plasma spraying powders
US5395679A (en) * 1993-03-29 1995-03-07 Delco Electronics Corp. Ultra-thick thick films for thermal management and current carrying capabilities in hybrid circuits
US5424101A (en) * 1994-10-24 1995-06-13 General Motors Corporation Method of making metallized epoxy tools
US5464146A (en) * 1994-09-29 1995-11-07 Ford Motor Company Thin film brazing of aluminum shapes
US5465627A (en) * 1991-07-29 1995-11-14 Magnetoelastic Devices, Inc. Circularly magnetized non-contact torque sensor and method for measuring torque using same
US5476725A (en) * 1991-03-18 1995-12-19 Aluminum Company Of America Clad metallurgical products and methods of manufacture
US5493921A (en) * 1993-09-29 1996-02-27 Daimler-Benz Ag Sensor for non-contact torque measurement on a shaft as well as a measurement layer for such a sensor
US5520059A (en) * 1991-07-29 1996-05-28 Magnetoelastic Devices, Inc. Circularly magnetized non-contact torque sensor and method for measuring torque using same
US5525570A (en) * 1991-03-09 1996-06-11 Forschungszentrum Julich Gmbh Process for producing a catalyst layer on a carrier and a catalyst produced therefrom
US5527627A (en) * 1993-03-29 1996-06-18 Delco Electronics Corp. Ink composition for an ultra-thick thick film for thermal management of a hybrid circuit
US5585574A (en) * 1993-02-02 1996-12-17 Mitsubishi Materials Corporation Shaft having a magnetostrictive torque sensor and a method for making same
US5593740A (en) * 1995-01-17 1997-01-14 Synmatix Corporation Method and apparatus for making carbon-encapsulated ultrafine metal particles
US5648123A (en) * 1992-04-02 1997-07-15 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Process for producing a strong bond between copper layers and ceramic
US5683615A (en) * 1996-06-13 1997-11-04 Lord Corporation Magnetorheological fluid
US5708216A (en) * 1991-07-29 1998-01-13 Magnetoelastic Devices, Inc. Circularly magnetized non-contact torque sensor and method for measuring torque using same
US5725023A (en) * 1995-02-21 1998-03-10 Lectron Products, Inc. Power steering system and control valve
US5795626A (en) * 1995-04-28 1998-08-18 Innovative Technology Inc. Coating or ablation applicator with a debris recovery attachment
US5854966A (en) * 1995-05-24 1998-12-29 Virginia Tech Intellectual Properties, Inc. Method of producing composite materials including metallic matrix composite reinforcements
US5875626A (en) * 1996-09-27 1999-03-02 Sonoco Products Company Adapter for rotatably supporting a yarn carrier in a winding assembly of a yarn processing machine
US5889215A (en) * 1996-12-04 1999-03-30 Philips Electronics North America Corporation Magnetoelastic torque sensor with shielding flux guide
US5894054A (en) * 1997-01-09 1999-04-13 Ford Motor Company Aluminum components coated with zinc-antimony alloy for manufacturing assemblies by CAB brazing
US5907761A (en) * 1994-03-28 1999-05-25 Mitsubishi Aluminum Co., Ltd. Brazing composition, aluminum material provided with the brazing composition and heat exchanger
US5907105A (en) * 1997-07-21 1999-05-25 General Motors Corporation Magnetostrictive torque sensor utilizing RFe2 -based composite materials
US5952056A (en) * 1994-09-24 1999-09-14 Sprayform Holdings Limited Metal forming process
US5965193A (en) * 1994-04-11 1999-10-12 Dowa Mining Co., Ltd. Process for preparing a ceramic electronic circuit board and process for preparing aluminum or aluminum alloy bonded ceramic material
US5989310A (en) * 1997-11-25 1999-11-23 Aluminum Company Of America Method of forming ceramic particles in-situ in metal
US5993565A (en) * 1996-07-01 1999-11-30 General Motors Corporation Magnetostrictive composites
US6033622A (en) * 1998-09-21 2000-03-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Method for making metal matrix composites
US6047605A (en) * 1997-10-21 2000-04-11 Magna-Lastic Devices, Inc. Collarless circularly magnetized torque transducer having two phase shaft and method for measuring torque using same
US6051277A (en) * 1996-02-16 2000-04-18 Nils Claussen Al2 O3 composites and methods for their production
US6051045A (en) * 1996-01-16 2000-04-18 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Metal-matrix composites
US6074737A (en) * 1996-03-05 2000-06-13 Sprayform Holdings Limited Filling porosity or voids in articles formed in spray deposition processes
US6098741A (en) * 1999-01-28 2000-08-08 Eaton Corporation Controlled torque steering system and method
US6119667A (en) * 1999-07-22 2000-09-19 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Integrated spark plug ignition coil with pressure sensor for an internal combustion engine
US6129948A (en) * 1996-12-23 2000-10-10 National Center For Manufacturing Sciences Surface modification to achieve improved electrical conductivity
US6139913A (en) * 1999-06-29 2000-10-31 National Center For Manufacturing Sciences Kinetic spray coating method and apparatus
US6149736A (en) * 1995-12-05 2000-11-21 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Magnetostructure material, and process for producing the same
US6159430A (en) * 1998-12-21 2000-12-12 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Catalytic converter
US6189663B1 (en) * 1998-06-08 2001-02-20 General Motors Corporation Spray coatings for suspension damper rods
US6261703B1 (en) * 1997-05-26 2001-07-17 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Copper circuit junction substrate and method of producing the same
US6283859B1 (en) * 1998-11-10 2001-09-04 Lord Corporation Magnetically-controllable, active haptic interface system and apparatus
US6289748B1 (en) * 1999-11-23 2001-09-18 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Shaft torque sensor with no air gap
US6330833B1 (en) * 1997-03-28 2001-12-18 Mannesmann Vdo Ag Magnetoelastic torque sensor
US6338827B1 (en) * 1999-06-29 2002-01-15 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Stacked shape plasma reactor design for treating auto emissions
US6344237B1 (en) * 1999-03-05 2002-02-05 Alcoa Inc. Method of depositing flux or flux and metal onto a metal brazing substrate
US6374664B1 (en) * 2000-01-21 2002-04-23 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Rotary position transducer and method
US6402050B1 (en) * 1996-11-13 2002-06-11 Alexandr Ivanovich Kashirin Apparatus for gas-dynamic coating
US20020071906A1 (en) * 2000-12-13 2002-06-13 Rusch William P. Method and device for applying a coating
US20020073982A1 (en) * 2000-12-16 2002-06-20 Shaikh Furqan Zafar Gas-dynamic cold spray lining for aluminum engine block cylinders
US6424896B1 (en) * 2000-03-30 2002-07-23 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Steering column differential angle position sensor
US6422360B1 (en) * 2001-03-28 2002-07-23 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Dual mode suspension damper controlled by magnetostrictive element
US20020102360A1 (en) * 2001-01-30 2002-08-01 Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation Thermal barrier coating applied with cold spray technique
US20020110682A1 (en) * 2000-12-12 2002-08-15 Brogan Jeffrey A. Non-skid coating and method of forming the same
US20020112549A1 (en) * 2000-11-21 2002-08-22 Abdolreza Cheshmehdoost Torque sensing apparatus and method
US6446857B1 (en) * 2001-05-31 2002-09-10 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Method for brazing fittings to pipes
US6465039B1 (en) * 2001-08-13 2002-10-15 General Motors Corporation Method of forming a magnetostrictive composite coating
US6485852B1 (en) * 2000-01-07 2002-11-26 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Integrated fuel reformation and thermal management system for solid oxide fuel cell systems
US6488115B1 (en) * 2001-08-01 2002-12-03 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for steering a vehicle
US20020182311A1 (en) * 2001-05-30 2002-12-05 Franco Leonardi Method of manufacturing electromagnetic devices using kinetic spray
US6511135B2 (en) * 1999-12-14 2003-01-28 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Disk brake mounting bracket and high gain torque sensor
US20030039856A1 (en) * 2001-08-15 2003-02-27 Gillispie Bryan A. Product and method of brazing using kinetic sprayed coatings
US6537507B2 (en) * 2000-02-23 2003-03-25 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Non-thermal plasma reactor design and single structural dielectric barrier
US6551734B1 (en) * 2000-10-27 2003-04-22 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Solid oxide fuel cell having a monolithic heat exchanger and method for managing thermal energy flow of the fuel cell
US6615488B2 (en) * 2002-02-04 2003-09-09 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Method of forming heat exchanger tube
US6623704B1 (en) * 2000-02-22 2003-09-23 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for manufacturing a catalytic converter
US6623796B1 (en) * 2002-04-05 2003-09-23 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Method of producing a coating using a kinetic spray process with large particles and nozzles for the same
US6624113B2 (en) * 2001-03-13 2003-09-23 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Alkali metal/alkaline earth lean NOx catalyst
US20030190414A1 (en) * 2002-04-05 2003-10-09 Van Steenkiste Thomas Hubert Low pressure powder injection method and system for a kinetic spray process
US20030219542A1 (en) * 2002-05-25 2003-11-27 Ewasyshyn Frank J. Method of forming dense coatings by powder spraying

Family Cites Families (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US110682A (en) * 1871-01-03 Improvement in cultivators
US219542A (en) * 1879-09-09 Improvement in sand-pump-reel mechanisms
US39856A (en) * 1863-09-08 Burner for coal-oil lamps
US182311A (en) * 1876-09-19 Improvement in wall-brackets
US73982A (en) * 1868-02-04 Improved washing-machine
US190414A (en) * 1877-05-08 Improvement in millstone-drivers
US71906A (en) * 1867-12-10 Improvement in harvesters
DE19959515A1 (en) 1999-12-09 2001-06-13 Dacs Dvorak Advanced Coating S Process for plastic coating by means of an injection molding process, an apparatus therefor and to the use of the layer
US6503575B1 (en) 2000-05-22 2003-01-07 Praxair S.T. Technology, Inc. Process for producing graded coated articles
DE10037212A1 (en) 2000-07-07 2002-01-17 Linde Gas Ag Plastic surfaces with a thermally sprayed coating, and processes for their preparation
DE10126100A1 (en) 2001-05-29 2002-12-05 Linde Ag Production of a coating or a molded part comprises injecting powdered particles in a gas stream only in the divergent section of a Laval nozzle, and applying the particles at a specified speed

Patent Citations (99)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2861900A (en) * 1955-05-02 1958-11-25 Union Carbide Corp Jet plating of high melting point materials
US3100724A (en) * 1958-09-22 1963-08-13 Microseal Products Inc Device for treating the surface of a workpiece
US3009934A (en) * 1960-06-06 1961-11-21 Searle & Co 2beta-halo-3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-ones and derivatives thereof
US3996398A (en) * 1972-11-08 1976-12-07 Societe De Fabrication D'elements Catalytiques Method of spray-coating with metal alloys
US3876456A (en) * 1973-03-16 1975-04-08 Olin Corp Catalyst for the reduction of automobile exhaust gases
US3993411A (en) * 1973-06-01 1976-11-23 General Electric Company Bonds between metal and a non-metallic substrate
US4180770A (en) * 1978-03-01 1979-12-25 Anderson Power Products, Inc. Method and apparatus for determining the capacity of lead acid storage batteries
US4263335A (en) * 1978-07-26 1981-04-21 Ppg Industries, Inc. Airless spray method for depositing electroconductive tin oxide coatings
US4243524A (en) * 1979-08-02 1981-01-06 Buckman Laboratories, Inc. Aminoalkylenephosphonic acids and salts thereof and their use in aqueous systems
US4416421A (en) * 1980-10-09 1983-11-22 Browning Engineering Corporation Highly concentrated supersonic liquified material flame spray method and apparatus
US4891275A (en) * 1982-10-29 1990-01-02 Norsk Hydro A.S. Aluminum shapes coated with brazing material and process of coating
US4627298A (en) * 1983-08-30 1986-12-09 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Torque sensor of the noncontact type
US4606495A (en) * 1983-12-22 1986-08-19 United Technologies Corporation Uniform braze application process
US4651573A (en) * 1984-08-27 1987-03-24 S. Himmelstein And Company Shaft torquemeter
US4939022A (en) * 1988-04-04 1990-07-03 Delco Electronics Corporation Electrical conductors
US5187021A (en) * 1989-02-08 1993-02-16 Diamond Fiber Composites, Inc. Coated and whiskered fibers for use in composite materials
US5302414B1 (en) * 1990-05-19 1997-02-25 Anatoly N Papyrin Gas-dynamic spraying method for applying a coating
US5302414A (en) * 1990-05-19 1994-04-12 Anatoly Nikiforovich Papyrin Gas-dynamic spraying method for applying a coating
US5217746A (en) * 1990-12-13 1993-06-08 Fisher-Barton Inc. Method for minimizing decarburization and other high temperature oxygen reactions in a plasma sprayed material
US5271965A (en) * 1991-01-16 1993-12-21 Browning James A Thermal spray method utilizing in-transit powder particle temperatures below their melting point
US5525570A (en) * 1991-03-09 1996-06-11 Forschungszentrum Julich Gmbh Process for producing a catalyst layer on a carrier and a catalyst produced therefrom
US5476725A (en) * 1991-03-18 1995-12-19 Aluminum Company Of America Clad metallurgical products and methods of manufacture
US5328751A (en) * 1991-07-12 1994-07-12 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Ceramic circuit board with a curved lead terminal
US5887335A (en) * 1991-07-29 1999-03-30 Magna-Lastic Devices, Inc. Method of producing a circularly magnetized non-contact torque sensor
US6490934B2 (en) * 1991-07-29 2002-12-10 Magnetoelastic Devices, Inc. Circularly magnetized non-contact torque sensor and method for measuring torque using the same
US5708216A (en) * 1991-07-29 1998-01-13 Magnetoelastic Devices, Inc. Circularly magnetized non-contact torque sensor and method for measuring torque using same
US5465627A (en) * 1991-07-29 1995-11-14 Magnetoelastic Devices, Inc. Circularly magnetized non-contact torque sensor and method for measuring torque using same
US5520059A (en) * 1991-07-29 1996-05-28 Magnetoelastic Devices, Inc. Circularly magnetized non-contact torque sensor and method for measuring torque using same
US5706572A (en) * 1991-07-29 1998-01-13 Magnetoelastic Devices, Inc. Method for producing a circularly magnetized non-contact torque sensor
US5362523A (en) * 1991-09-05 1994-11-08 Technalum Research, Inc. Method for the production of compositionally graded coatings by plasma spraying powders
US5308463A (en) * 1991-09-13 1994-05-03 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Preparation of a firm bond between copper layers and aluminum oxide ceramic without use of coupling agents
US5648123A (en) * 1992-04-02 1997-07-15 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Process for producing a strong bond between copper layers and ceramic
US5585574A (en) * 1993-02-02 1996-12-17 Mitsubishi Materials Corporation Shaft having a magnetostrictive torque sensor and a method for making same
US5340015A (en) * 1993-03-22 1994-08-23 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Method for applying brazing filler metals
US5395679A (en) * 1993-03-29 1995-03-07 Delco Electronics Corp. Ultra-thick thick films for thermal management and current carrying capabilities in hybrid circuits
US5527627A (en) * 1993-03-29 1996-06-18 Delco Electronics Corp. Ink composition for an ultra-thick thick film for thermal management of a hybrid circuit
US5493921A (en) * 1993-09-29 1996-02-27 Daimler-Benz Ag Sensor for non-contact torque measurement on a shaft as well as a measurement layer for such a sensor
US5907761A (en) * 1994-03-28 1999-05-25 Mitsubishi Aluminum Co., Ltd. Brazing composition, aluminum material provided with the brazing composition and heat exchanger
US5965193A (en) * 1994-04-11 1999-10-12 Dowa Mining Co., Ltd. Process for preparing a ceramic electronic circuit board and process for preparing aluminum or aluminum alloy bonded ceramic material
US5952056A (en) * 1994-09-24 1999-09-14 Sprayform Holdings Limited Metal forming process
US5464146A (en) * 1994-09-29 1995-11-07 Ford Motor Company Thin film brazing of aluminum shapes
US5424101A (en) * 1994-10-24 1995-06-13 General Motors Corporation Method of making metallized epoxy tools
US5593740A (en) * 1995-01-17 1997-01-14 Synmatix Corporation Method and apparatus for making carbon-encapsulated ultrafine metal particles
US5725023A (en) * 1995-02-21 1998-03-10 Lectron Products, Inc. Power steering system and control valve
US5795626A (en) * 1995-04-28 1998-08-18 Innovative Technology Inc. Coating or ablation applicator with a debris recovery attachment
US5854966A (en) * 1995-05-24 1998-12-29 Virginia Tech Intellectual Properties, Inc. Method of producing composite materials including metallic matrix composite reinforcements
US6149736A (en) * 1995-12-05 2000-11-21 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Magnetostructure material, and process for producing the same
US6051045A (en) * 1996-01-16 2000-04-18 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Metal-matrix composites
US6051277A (en) * 1996-02-16 2000-04-18 Nils Claussen Al2 O3 composites and methods for their production
US6074737A (en) * 1996-03-05 2000-06-13 Sprayform Holdings Limited Filling porosity or voids in articles formed in spray deposition processes
US5683615A (en) * 1996-06-13 1997-11-04 Lord Corporation Magnetorheological fluid
US5993565A (en) * 1996-07-01 1999-11-30 General Motors Corporation Magnetostrictive composites
US5875626A (en) * 1996-09-27 1999-03-02 Sonoco Products Company Adapter for rotatably supporting a yarn carrier in a winding assembly of a yarn processing machine
US6402050B1 (en) * 1996-11-13 2002-06-11 Alexandr Ivanovich Kashirin Apparatus for gas-dynamic coating
US5889215A (en) * 1996-12-04 1999-03-30 Philips Electronics North America Corporation Magnetoelastic torque sensor with shielding flux guide
US6129948A (en) * 1996-12-23 2000-10-10 National Center For Manufacturing Sciences Surface modification to achieve improved electrical conductivity
US5894054A (en) * 1997-01-09 1999-04-13 Ford Motor Company Aluminum components coated with zinc-antimony alloy for manufacturing assemblies by CAB brazing
US6330833B1 (en) * 1997-03-28 2001-12-18 Mannesmann Vdo Ag Magnetoelastic torque sensor
US6261703B1 (en) * 1997-05-26 2001-07-17 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Copper circuit junction substrate and method of producing the same
US5907105A (en) * 1997-07-21 1999-05-25 General Motors Corporation Magnetostrictive torque sensor utilizing RFe2 -based composite materials
US6553847B2 (en) * 1997-10-21 2003-04-29 Magna-Lastic Devices, Inc. Collarless circularly magnetized torque transducer and method for measuring torque using the same
US6145387A (en) * 1997-10-21 2000-11-14 Magna-Lastic Devices, Inc Collarless circularly magnetized torque transducer and method for measuring torque using same
US6260423B1 (en) * 1997-10-21 2001-07-17 Ivan J. Garshelis Collarless circularly magnetized torque transducer and method for measuring torque using same
US6047605A (en) * 1997-10-21 2000-04-11 Magna-Lastic Devices, Inc. Collarless circularly magnetized torque transducer having two phase shaft and method for measuring torque using same
US5989310A (en) * 1997-11-25 1999-11-23 Aluminum Company Of America Method of forming ceramic particles in-situ in metal
US6189663B1 (en) * 1998-06-08 2001-02-20 General Motors Corporation Spray coatings for suspension damper rods
US6033622A (en) * 1998-09-21 2000-03-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Method for making metal matrix composites
US6283859B1 (en) * 1998-11-10 2001-09-04 Lord Corporation Magnetically-controllable, active haptic interface system and apparatus
US6159430A (en) * 1998-12-21 2000-12-12 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Catalytic converter
US6098741A (en) * 1999-01-28 2000-08-08 Eaton Corporation Controlled torque steering system and method
US6344237B1 (en) * 1999-03-05 2002-02-05 Alcoa Inc. Method of depositing flux or flux and metal onto a metal brazing substrate
US6139913A (en) * 1999-06-29 2000-10-31 National Center For Manufacturing Sciences Kinetic spray coating method and apparatus
US6338827B1 (en) * 1999-06-29 2002-01-15 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Stacked shape plasma reactor design for treating auto emissions
US6283386B1 (en) * 1999-06-29 2001-09-04 National Center For Manufacturing Sciences Kinetic spray coating apparatus
US6119667A (en) * 1999-07-22 2000-09-19 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Integrated spark plug ignition coil with pressure sensor for an internal combustion engine
US6289748B1 (en) * 1999-11-23 2001-09-18 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Shaft torque sensor with no air gap
US6511135B2 (en) * 1999-12-14 2003-01-28 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Disk brake mounting bracket and high gain torque sensor
US6485852B1 (en) * 2000-01-07 2002-11-26 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Integrated fuel reformation and thermal management system for solid oxide fuel cell systems
US6374664B1 (en) * 2000-01-21 2002-04-23 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Rotary position transducer and method
US6623704B1 (en) * 2000-02-22 2003-09-23 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for manufacturing a catalytic converter
US6537507B2 (en) * 2000-02-23 2003-03-25 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Non-thermal plasma reactor design and single structural dielectric barrier
US6424896B1 (en) * 2000-03-30 2002-07-23 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Steering column differential angle position sensor
US6551734B1 (en) * 2000-10-27 2003-04-22 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Solid oxide fuel cell having a monolithic heat exchanger and method for managing thermal energy flow of the fuel cell
US20020112549A1 (en) * 2000-11-21 2002-08-22 Abdolreza Cheshmehdoost Torque sensing apparatus and method
US20020110682A1 (en) * 2000-12-12 2002-08-15 Brogan Jeffrey A. Non-skid coating and method of forming the same
US20020071906A1 (en) * 2000-12-13 2002-06-13 Rusch William P. Method and device for applying a coating
US20020073982A1 (en) * 2000-12-16 2002-06-20 Shaikh Furqan Zafar Gas-dynamic cold spray lining for aluminum engine block cylinders
US20020102360A1 (en) * 2001-01-30 2002-08-01 Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation Thermal barrier coating applied with cold spray technique
US6624113B2 (en) * 2001-03-13 2003-09-23 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Alkali metal/alkaline earth lean NOx catalyst
US6422360B1 (en) * 2001-03-28 2002-07-23 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Dual mode suspension damper controlled by magnetostrictive element
US20020182311A1 (en) * 2001-05-30 2002-12-05 Franco Leonardi Method of manufacturing electromagnetic devices using kinetic spray
US6446857B1 (en) * 2001-05-31 2002-09-10 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Method for brazing fittings to pipes
US6488115B1 (en) * 2001-08-01 2002-12-03 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Apparatus and method for steering a vehicle
US6465039B1 (en) * 2001-08-13 2002-10-15 General Motors Corporation Method of forming a magnetostrictive composite coating
US20030039856A1 (en) * 2001-08-15 2003-02-27 Gillispie Bryan A. Product and method of brazing using kinetic sprayed coatings
US6615488B2 (en) * 2002-02-04 2003-09-09 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Method of forming heat exchanger tube
US6623796B1 (en) * 2002-04-05 2003-09-23 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Method of producing a coating using a kinetic spray process with large particles and nozzles for the same
US20030190414A1 (en) * 2002-04-05 2003-10-09 Van Steenkiste Thomas Hubert Low pressure powder injection method and system for a kinetic spray process
US20030219542A1 (en) * 2002-05-25 2003-11-27 Ewasyshyn Frank J. Method of forming dense coatings by powder spraying

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20070028692A1 (en) * 2005-08-05 2007-02-08 Honeywell International Inc. Acoustic wave sensor packaging for reduced hysteresis and creep
US20070030134A1 (en) * 2005-08-05 2007-02-08 Honeywell International Inc. Wireless torque sensor
US7307517B2 (en) 2005-08-05 2007-12-11 Honeywell International Inc. Wireless torque sensor

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US20040187605A1 (en) 2004-09-30 application
US6871553B2 (en) 2005-03-29 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Mohri et al. Sensitive and quick response micro magnetic sensor utilizing magneto-impedance in Co-rich amorphous wires
US5708216A (en) Circularly magnetized non-contact torque sensor and method for measuring torque using same
US3609530A (en) Magnetic leakage field flaw detector with compensation for variation in spacing between magnetizer and test piece
US6400142B1 (en) Steering wheel position sensor
US20040017187A1 (en) Magnetoresistive linear position sensor
US20050280411A1 (en) GMR sensor with flux concentrators
US5717330A (en) Magnetostrictive linear displacement transducer utilizing axial strain pulses
US5889215A (en) Magnetoelastic torque sensor with shielding flux guide
US5914593A (en) Temperature gradient compensation circuit
US6912911B2 (en) Inductively coupled stress/strain sensor
US5493921A (en) Sensor for non-contact torque measurement on a shaft as well as a measurement layer for such a sensor
US4712433A (en) Torque sensor for automotive power steering systems
US5144846A (en) Minimal structure magnetostrictive stress and torque sensor
US6160395A (en) Non-contact position sensor
US5548214A (en) Electromagnetic induction inspection apparatus and method employing frequency sweep of excitation current
US4811609A (en) Torque detecting apparatus
US4891992A (en) Torque detecting apparatus
EP0352187A1 (en) Magnetostrictive torque sensor
US4803885A (en) Torque measuring apparatus
US6823746B2 (en) Magnetoelastic torque sensor for mitigating non-axisymmetric inhomogeneities in emanating fields
US4416161A (en) Method and apparatus for measuring torque
US6118271A (en) Position encoder using saturable reactor interacting with magnetic fields varying with time and with position
US6341534B1 (en) Integrated two-channel torque sensor
US4523482A (en) Lightweight torquemeter and torque-measuring method
US5278500A (en) Planar, core saturation principle, low flux magnetic field sensor