New! View global litigation for patent families

US20050072786A1 - Hydrogen storage container - Google Patents

Hydrogen storage container Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20050072786A1
US20050072786A1 US10836992 US83699204A US2005072786A1 US 20050072786 A1 US20050072786 A1 US 20050072786A1 US 10836992 US10836992 US 10836992 US 83699204 A US83699204 A US 83699204A US 2005072786 A1 US2005072786 A1 US 2005072786A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
container
liner
space
metallic
particles
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10836992
Inventor
Frederic Gagnon
Robert Schulz
Patrick Larochelle
Stephane Gendron
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
HERA Hydrogen Storage Systems Inc
Original Assignee
HERA Hydrogen Storage Systems Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C11/00Use of gas-solvents or gas-sorbents in vessels
    • F17C11/005Use of gas-solvents or gas-sorbents in vessels for hydrogen
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C11/00Use of gas-solvents or gas-sorbents in vessels
    • F17C11/002Use of gas-solvents or gas-sorbents in vessels for acetylene
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C11/00Use of gas-solvents or gas-sorbents in vessels
    • F17C11/007Use of gas-solvents or gas-sorbents in vessels for hydrocarbon gases, such as methane or natural gas, propane, butane or mixtures thereof [LPG]
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2209/00Vessel construction, in particular methods of manufacturing
    • F17C2209/21Shaping processes
    • F17C2209/2154Winding
    • F17C2209/2163Winding with a mandrel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG] EMISSION, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/30Hydrogen technology
    • Y02E60/32Hydrogen storage
    • Y02E60/321Storage of liquefied, solidified, or compressed hydrogen in containers

Abstract

A container configured for containing at least metallic particles, the metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen such that the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, the container including an inner surface, comprising: a liner disposed within the container such that a void space is provided between the liner and the inner surface, wherein the liner engages the inner surface to substantially prevent ingress of metallic particles, when the metallic particles are contained in the container, into the void space. A method of assembling a container for containing metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen is provided and comprises a container including an inlet and an inner surface defining a container space, rolling a magnetically responsive liner about a mandrel so that the liner assumes a spiral configuration about the mandrel, when the liner is rolled about the mandrel inserting the liner into the container space through the inlet, releasing the liner from the mandrel, removing the mandrel from the container space through the inlet, applying a magnetic force sufficient to urge the liner against the inner surface of the container, when the magnetic force is acting on the liner, inserting a plurality of tubes into the container space through the inlet so as to urge the liner into engagement with the inner surface so as to define (i) a storage space configured to contain the metallic particles and (ii) a void space configured to contract as the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, terminating the application of the magnetic force, and inserting a plurality of metallic particles into the storage space.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to hydrogen storage containers and, particularly, to containers for containing metallic particles capable of forming metal hydrides.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    Metal hydrides, in the form of metallic particles, are used to store hydrogen in many different sizes and shaped containers. In order to facilitate the charging and discharging of the hydrogen, the metal hydride and, consequently, the container, needs to be cooled or heated. To facilitate good performance of the container (desorption rate, filling time, etc.), the inside of the container requires efficient heat exchange means to improve the charging/discharging kinetics.
  • [0003]
    Repeated absorption and desorption cycles typically result in the decrepitation of the metal hydride particles. By virtue of the decrepitation, a localized increase in packing fraction of the metallic particles is observed. Such increase in packing fraction, coupled with particle expansion during absorption, potentially creates localized stresses on the container. It is desirable to have means inside the container to absorb part of this volumetric expansion so that stress on the container is mitigated or avoided.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0004]
    The present invention provides a container configured for containing metallic particles, the metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen such that the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, the container including an inner surface, comprising a liner disposed within the container such that a void space is provided between the liner and the inner surface, wherein the liner engages the inner surface to substantially prevent ingress of metallic particles, when the metallic particles are contained in the container, into the void space.
  • [0005]
    In another broad aspect, the present invention provides a container configured for containing at least metallic particles, the metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen such that the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, the container including a container space and an inner surface, comprising a liner disposed within the container space and engaging the inner surface for defining (i) a storage space configured to contain the metallic particles and (ii) a void space configured to contract as the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, wherein, when the metallic particles are contained in the storage space, the engagement of the liner to the inner surface limits ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space.
  • [0006]
    In a further broad aspect, the present invention provides a container configured for containing at least metallic particles and gaseous hydrogen, the metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen such that the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, the container including a container space and an inner surface, comprising a liner disposed within the container such that a void space is provided between the liner and the inner surface, wherein the liner engages the inner surface to limit ingress of metallic particles, when the metallic particles are contained in the container, into the void space.
  • [0007]
    In a further broad aspect, the present invention provides a container configured for containing at least gaseous hydrogen and metallic particles, the metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen such that the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, the container defining a container space and including an inner surface, comprising a liner disposed within the container space and engaging the inner surface for defining (i) a storage space configured to contain the metallic particles and (ii) a void space configured to contract as the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, wherein, when the metallic particles are contained in the storage space, the engagement of the liner to the inner surface substantially prevents ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space.
  • [0008]
    In one aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein the liner is sufficiently flexible to deform in response to the expansion of the metallic particles.
  • [0009]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein the liner is shaped to define (i) a storage space configured to contain metallic particles and (ii) a void space configured to contract as the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of the hydrogen.
  • [0010]
    In yet another aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein the liner bears against the wall to substantially prevent or limit ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space when the storage space contains the metallic particles.
  • [0011]
    In a further aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein the liner abuts the wall to substantially prevent or limit ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space when the storage space contains the metallic particles.
  • [0012]
    In yet a further aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein the liner is urged against the wall to substantially prevent or limit ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space when the storage space contains the metallic particles.
  • [0013]
    In yet another aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein the liner is sufficiently resilient such that the liner has a tendency to reverse at least a portion of the deformation in response to discharging of hydrogen from the metallic particles.
  • [0014]
    In a further aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein the container includes a sidewall and an axis, the sidewall defining at least a portion of the inner surface and being spaced apart from and extending 360° about the axis in a plane, and wherein at least a portion of the liner is disposed between the sidewall and the axis and extends 360° about the axis in the plane.
  • [0015]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein the at least a portion of the liner opposes the sidewall.
  • [0016]
    In yet another aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein at least a portion of the void space is disposed between the sidewall and the at least a portion of the liner.
  • [0017]
    In a further aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein each of the sidewall and the liner is substantially tubular.
  • [0018]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein the liner includes corrugations defined by alternating ridges and grooves, each of the ridges and grooves extending transversely relative to the plane.
  • [0019]
    In yet a further aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein at least one of the ridges is configured to contact the sidewall when the metallic particles are contained in the storage space.
  • [0020]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the container further comprising a thermally conductive structure disposed in the storage space and in contact with the liner and configured for effecting heat transfer between the metallic particles and the liner.
  • [0021]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the container wherein the liner is stiffer than the container.
  • [0022]
    The present invention additionally provides a method of assembling a storage system for containing metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen to become charged with hydrogen comprising providing a container including an inlet and an inner surface defining a container space, inserting a magnetically responsive liner into the container space through the inlet, and applying a magnetic force sufficient to urge the liner against the inner surface of the container.
  • [0023]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the method wherein the magnetic force is generated externally of the container.
  • [0024]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the method wherein the liner being inserted into the container space has a spiral configuration, and the application of the magnetic force effects expansion of the liner from the spiral configuration.
  • [0025]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the method further comprising the step of inserting a plurality of tubes into the container space through the inlet when the magnetic force is acting on the liner.
  • [0026]
    In another broad aspect, the present invention provides a method of assembling a container for containing metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen to become charged with hydrogen comprising providing a container including an inlet and an inner surface defining a container space, inserting a magnetically responsive liner into the container space through the inlet, applying a magnetic force sufficient to urge the liner against the inner surface of the container, when the magnetic force is acting on the liner, inserting a plurality of tubes into the container space through the inlet so as to urge the liner into engagement with the inner surface so as to define (i) a storage space configured to contain the metallic particles and (ii) a void space configured to contract as the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, and terminating the application of the magnetic force, and inserting a plurality of metallic particles into the storage space.
  • [0027]
    In this respect, in one aspect, the present invention provides the method wherein the magnetic force is generated externally of the container.
  • [0028]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the method wherein the liner being inserted into the container space has a spiral configuration, and the application of the magnetic force effects expansion of the liner from the spiral configuration.
  • [0029]
    In yet another broad aspect, the present invention provides a method of assembling a container for containing metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen to become charged with hydrogen comprising providing a container including an inlet and an inner surface defining a container space, rolling a magnetically responsive liner about a mandrel so that the liner assumes a spiral configuration about the mandrel, when the liner is rolled about the mandrel, inserting the liner into the container space through the inlet, releasing the liner from the mandrel, removing the mandrel from the container space through the inlet, and applying a magnetic force sufficient to urge the liner against the inner surface of the container.
  • [0030]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the method wherein the magnetic force is generated externally of the container.
  • [0031]
    In this respect, in one aspect, the present invention provides the method wherein the liner being inserted into the container space has a spiral configuration, and the application of the magnetic force effects expansion of the liner from the spiral configuration.
  • [0032]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the method further comprising the step of inserting a plurality of tubes into the container space through the inlet when the magnetic force is acting on the liner.
  • [0033]
    The present invention also provides a method of assembling a container for containing metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen to become charged with hydrogen comprising providing a container including an inlet and an inner surface defining a container space, rolling a magnetically responsive liner about a mandrel so that the liner assumes a spiral configuration about the mandrel, when the liner is rolled about the mandrel inserting the liner into the container space through the inlet, releasing the liner from the mandrel, removing the mandrel from the container space through the inlet, applying a magnetic force sufficient to urge the liner against the inner surface of the container, when the magnetic force is acting on the liner, inserting a plurality of tubes into the container space through the inlet so as to urge the liner into engagement with the inner surface so as to define (i) a storage space configured to contain the metallic particles and (ii) a void space configured to contract as the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, terminating the application of the magnetic force, and inserting a plurality of metallic particles into the storage space.
  • [0034]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the method wherein the magnetic force is generated externally of the container.
  • [0035]
    In another aspect, the present invention provides the method wherein the liner being inserted into the container space has a spiral configuration, and the application of the magnetic force effects expansion of the liner from the spiral configuration.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • [0036]
    This invention will be better understood by reference to the following detailed description of the invention in conjunction with the following drawings, in which:
  • [0037]
    FIG. 1 is a front elevation view of a container of the present invention;
  • [0038]
    FIG. 2 is a sectional side elevation view of the container in FIG. 1, before the metallic particles have been inserted, and with the liner corrugations removed for purposes of clarity;
  • [0039]
    FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional plan view of the container, taken along lines A-A in FIG. 2, after metallic particles have been inserted;
  • [0040]
    FIGS. 4 a and 4 b are cross-sectional plan views of the container, taken along lines A-A and C-C, respectively, in FIG. 2, before the metallic particles have been inserted;
  • [0041]
    FIG. 5 is a top-perspective view of the liner, in an “unrolled condition”, of an embodiment of the container assembled according to a method illustrated in FIGS. 11 to 15;
  • [0042]
    FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the liner of the container illustrated in FIG. 4, taken between the lips of the liner;
  • [0043]
    FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional plan view of the container illustrated in FIG. 2, where metallic particles have been inserted and charged;
  • [0044]
    FIG. 8 illustrates a typical valving arrangement for the container of the present invention;
  • [0045]
    FIG. 9 is a schematic illustration of an embodiment of the container of the present invention immersed in a liquid bath for heat transfer;
  • [0046]
    FIG. 10 is a schematic illustration of an embodiment of the container of the present invention where the necessary heat transfer is effected by air flow generated by a mechanical fan; and
  • [0047]
    FIGS. 11 to 15 are schematic illustrations of a method of assembling an embodiment of the present invention;
  • [0048]
    FIG. 16 is a top perspective view of an apparatus for applying magnetic forces during the assembly of an embodiment of the present invention in accordance with the method illustrated in FIGS. 11 to 15;
  • [0049]
    FIG. 17 is a top sectional plan view of the apparatus illustrated in FIG. 16;
  • [0050]
    FIG. 18 is a sectional elevation view of the apparatus illustrated in FIG. 16, taken along lines A-A; and
  • [0051]
    FIGS. 19A and 19 b are cross-sectional plan views of another embodiment of the container, taken along lines A-A and C-C, respectively, in FIG. 2, before the metallic particles have been inserted.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0052]
    Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, the present invention provides a container 10 for containing metallic particles 12 capable of forming metal hydrides.
  • [0053]
    The interior space 20 of the container 10 receives metallic particles 12 capable of forming metal hydrides. The metallic particles 12 are in the form of a powder. An example of a suitable particle size of the powder is within the range of one micron to 3000 microns. The metallic particles 12 must be capable of absorbing hydrogen (also known as “charging”) to effect storage of hydrogen in the form of a metal hydride. Further, such metallic particles 12, after having absorbed hydrogen, (in the form of a metal hydride) must be capable of desorbing hydrogen (also known as “discharging”) upon demand from an unit operation, such as when required for use as a fuel in a fuel cell or in an internal combustion engine. Upon absorbing hydrogen, the metallic particles 12 expand, and thereby increase the volume occupied. During desorption, the metallic particles 12 contract, and thereby reduce the volume occupied. It is understood that not all of the metallic particles 12 must have necessarily absorbed hydrogen to their maximum capacity in order for the metallic particles 12 contained in the container 10 to be described as being “charged”. It is also understood that, once charged, not all of the previously absorbed hydrogen must have necessarily been desorbed in order for the metallic particles 12 contained in the container 10 to be described as being “discharged”. Charging of the metallic particles 12 with hydrogen is an exothermic process. In contrast, discharging of the absorbed hydrogen from the metallic particle 12 is an endothermic process.
  • [0054]
    Absorption of hydrogen by the metallic particles 12 refers to the association of hydrogen with the metallic particles 12. Possible mechanisms for association include: dissolution, covalent bonding, or ionic bonding. Dissolution describes the process where a hydrogen atom is incorporated in the voids of a lattice structure of a metal or intermetallic alloy. Examples of such metal hydrides include vanadium hydrides, titanium hydrides, and hydrides of vanadium-titanium alloys. An example of a covalently bonded hydride is magnesium hydride. Examples of ionically bonded hydrides are sodium hydride and potassium hydride. Complex hydrides are metal hydrides which exhibit bonding between a metalloid atom and an hydrogen atom which is characterized as being partially covalent and partially ionic. Examples include sodium alanate and lithium alanate.
  • [0055]
    The container 10 includes an inner surface 16 defining a container space 20 having a container volume. The inner surface 16 includes a first end 161, a second end 162, and a substantially tubular sidewall 163 extending between the first and second ends 161, 162 and also extending 360° about an axis 11 of the container. The first end 161 includes a rounded shoulder 169 extending from the sidewall 163 and terminating at a nozzle 24 which defines an aperture 241. The aperture 241 effects fluid communication between the container space 20 and the exterior of the container 10 (such as a downstream operation, for example, a fuel cell or internal combustion engine, so long as such unit operation is suitably fluidly coupled to the aperture 241). The aperture 241 functions as an inlet during charging, and as an outlet during discharging. Fluid communication through the aperture 241 is selectively controlled by a valve 300 coupled to the nozzle 24. The valve 300 is operable between open and closed conditions to respectively effect and seal the fluid communication. The second end 162 extends from the sidewall 163 and is closed.
  • [0056]
    A resilient liner 22 is disposed in the container 10. A void space 202 is provided between the liner and the inner surface 16 to accommodate expansion of the metallic particles 12 as is further described herein. Referring to FIGS. 3 and 4, the liner 22 defines a storage space 201 in the container space 20. The storage space 201 is configured to contain the metallic particles 12. The disposition of the metallic particles 12 typically extends up to the rounded shoulder 169 and up to the nozzle 24. The void space 202 is provided in the container space 20 and between the liner 22 and the inner surface 16. The void space 202 does not contain the metallic particles 12. The void space 202 has a void space volume to accommodate displacement of the liner 22, as will be described hereafter. It is understood that the void space 202 does not merely refer to spaces between tightly packed metallic particles 12.
  • [0057]
    The liner 22 engages or abuts the inner surface 16 to define the void space 202 and limit ingress of the metallic particles 12 into the void space 202 from the storage space 201. In this respect, the liner 22 is urged into contact with (or bears against) the inner surface 16 to define the void space 202 and limit the above-described ingress into the void space 202. The first end 221 of the liner 22 bears against the second end 162 of the container, and a second end 222 of the liner 22 bears against the sidewall 163 or the shoulder 169, and thereby define the void space 202.
  • [0058]
    It is understood that the engagement or abutment of the liner 22 with the inner surface 16 does not necessarily completely prevent ingress of metallic particles 12 into the space between the liner 22 and the inner surface 16, although such ingress is prevented over discrete intervals of time. Ingress of very small quantities of the metallic particles 12 may occur as a result of the liner 22 becoming temporarily displaced from the inner surface 16, thereby providing a passage through which the metallic particles 12 can migrate into the void space 202 from the storage space 201. Relatively insignificant ingress may also occur in the case where an embodiment of the container 10 is manufactured in accordance with the method described below and illustrated in FIGS. 11 to 15. In this respect, the space between the liner 22 and the inner surface 16 may not necessarily consist entirely of the void space 202. Also, it is understood that the fraction of the space between the liner 22 and the inner surface 16 consisting of the void space 202 may become smaller in volume during use of the container 10, due to periodic ingress of the metallic particles 12. In this respect, engagement or abutment of the liner 22 with the inner surface 16 is said to substantially prevent or limit ingress of the metallic particles 12 from the storage space 201 and into the void space 202.
  • [0059]
    Because the void space 202 does not contain any metallic particles 12, the void space 202 offers relatively little resistance to any displacement of the liner 22 towards the inner surface 16 in response to forces being imparted by the metallic particles 12 on the liner 22. In this respect, the void space 202 facilitates such displacement of the liner 22 so as to, at least in part, insulate the container 10 from such forces and the mechanical stresses the container 10 would otherwise experience. Such forces can arise by virtue of expansion of the metallic particles 12 due to the charging with hydrogen. This is aggravated by a localized increase in packing density of the metallic particles 12 arising from decrepitation of the metallic particles 12 (metallic particles 12 are pulverized, resulting in size reduction of the metallic particles 12) and concentration thereof. It is further understood that, although resilient, the liner 22 must not necessarily return to its exact original condition once the metallic particles contract upon the discharging of the hydrogen.
  • [0060]
    While the metallic particles 12 are being charged (i.e. during absorption of hydrogen), the space 202 contracts in response to forces imparted by the metallic particles 12 on the liner 22. This is because the metallic particles 12 expand upon absorption of hydrogen, causing the liner 22 to deform and become displaced in closer proximity to the inner surface 16. With an increase in packing density, the available space between the metallic particles 12, for accommodating the expansion of the metallic particles 12, decreases, resulting in stress being applied to the liner 22. Such stress is at least partially relieved by (i) elastic deformation of the liner 22, and (ii) distribution of stress by the liner 22. While the metallic particles 12 are being discharged (i.e. during desorption of hydrogen), the metallic particles 12 contract in volume, thereby relieving at least some of the forces that would have been previously being imparted by the metallic particles 12 while the metallic particles 12 were in a charged state. As a result, and owing to its resiliency, the liner 22 reverses at least a portion of its deformation (that is, deformation resulting from the previous charging of the metallic particles 12) during discharging.
  • [0061]
    The liner 22 is disposed in the interior space 20 such that at least a portion of the void space 202 is disposed between the sidewall 163 and at least a portion of the liner 22. In the embodiment illustrated, the liner 22 has a substantially tubular form. In this respect, the liner 22 is disposed between the sidewall 163 and the axis 11 of the container 10 and extends 360° about the axis 11. At least a portion of the liner 22 opposes a sidewall 163. In this respect, the sidewall 163 extends 360° about the axis 11 in a plane 13 perpendicular to the axis 11, and at least a portion of the liner 22 is disposed between the sidewall 163 and the axis 11 and extends 360° about the axis 11 in the plane 13.
  • [0062]
    Referring to FIGS. 1, 2, and 6, in the embodiment illustrated, when disposed in the container space 20, the liner 22 includes a sidewall 223 defining corrugations 2202. The corrugations 2202 are defined by alternating ridges 2204 and grooves 2206, each of the ridges 2204 and grooves 2206 extending transversely relative to the plane 13. The ridges 2204 contact the sidewall 163 when the liner 22 is disposed in the container space 20 of the container 10, thereby improving thermal communication and heat transfer between the metallic particles 12 and the sidewall 163. The corrugations 2206 allow for space between the inner wall 16 and the liner 22 when the liner 22 is disposed in the container space 20. Upon expansion of the metallic particles 12, the metallic particles 12 apply a force to the liner 22, causing the corrugations 2206 to flatten out (see FIG. 7).
  • [0063]
    Referring to FIGS. 1, 4 a and 4 b, to bear against the container sidewall 163 or the shoulder 169, each of the first and second ends 221, 222 of the liner 22 includes respective lips 224 a, 224 b projecting radially outwards from and extending about the perimeter of the liner sidewall 223. The lips 224 a, 224 b contact the inner surface 16 and effect the engagement or bearing of the liner 22 against the inner surface 16 for effecting the definition of the void space 202. The engagement of the lips 224 a, 224 b with inner surface 16 substantially prevents ingress of the metallic particles 12 from the storage space 201 to the void space 202 in the manner described above.
  • [0064]
    The liner 22 is constructed of spring steel (low carbon steel) SAE 1010 (having a tensile strength of 50-60 ksi, a yield strength of 30-40 ksi, a modulus of elasticity of about 29,000,000 psi, and a modulus of rigidity of about 11,000,000 psi). Owing to a combination of these features, including the corrugations 202, and geometry, the liner 22 is configured to facilitate stress distribution within the container 10 (relative to the case where there is no liner 22).
  • [0065]
    The nozzle 24 is configured for fluid coupling to a conduit for effecting delivery of hydrogen being discharged from the metallic particles 12 from within the container space 20 to a downstream operation, such as a fuel cell or an internal combustion engine. The conduit also facilitates supply of hydrogen to the container 10 to effect charging of the metallic particles 12. FIG. 8 illustrates a typical valving arrangement for the container 10. A valve 300 is mounted to the nozzle 24 to effect control of fluid communication between the storage space 201 and a downstream operation or a source of hydrogen supply. Additionally, disposed in the nozzle 24 between the valve 300 and the interior space 20, a filter element is provided including a 316 L stainless steel solid sintered filter. The filter element functions as a retainer for retaining the metallic particles 12 in the space 20.
  • [0066]
    Heat is imparted to and dissipated from the container 10 by contacting the container 10 with a fluid (liquid or gas, such as water or ambient air) which acts as a heat sink or heat source as required. The container 10 must be cooled to effect charging, and must be heated to effect discharging. FIG. 9 illustrates the container 10 immersed in a liquid bath 400 to effect the necessary heat transfer. FIG. 10 illustrates the necessary heat transfer to and from the container 10 being effected by airflow, the airflow being generated by a mechanical fan 500 and then being directed across a heat transfer medium 510 (such as piping containing heating or cooling fluid) before contacting the exterior surface of the container 10.
  • [0067]
    Referring to FIGS. 2, 3, 4 a and 4 b, a structure 18 is disposed in the space 201 and is configured to effect or improve thermal communication between the inner surface 16 and the metallic particles 12 disposed within the storage space 201. The structure 18 includes a plurality of elongated aluminum tubes 30. The tubes 30 extend from the second end 162 of the container 10 and terminate just below the first end 161. The tubes 30 are isolated from the inner surface 16 by the liner 22, and thermally communicate with the inner surface 16 through the liner 22. In relation to the tubes 30, the metallic particles 12 occupy the space within the tubes 30 as well as the space between the tubes 30. The metallic particles 12 also occupy the space within the first end 161 of the container 10. To facilitate heat transfer between the metallic particles 12 and the inner wall 16, the tubes 30 are tightly packed and in direct physical contact with the liner 22 to facilitate heat transfer between the liner 22 and the metallic particles 12. The tightly packed configuration of the tubes 30 urges the liner 22, and particularly the lips 224 a, 224 b, into contact engagement with the inner surface 16.
  • [0068]
    The tubes 30 play a role in containing a portion of the expansion forces of the expanding metallic particles 12, thereby reducing stresses on the liner 22 and, thus, the container 10. In this respect, the tubes reduce the influence of the expanding metallic particles 12 on the container 10.
  • [0069]
    The tubes 30 also play a role in limiting the creation of differences in localized packing density of the metallic particles 12 within the storage space 201. This is because the tubes 30 function as physical barriers, limiting migration of the metallic particles.
  • [0070]
    To facilitate migration of hydrogen gas during charging and discharging, each of the tubes 30 can include a plurality of very small apertures or perforations 301. Preferably, these apertures or perforations have a maximum diameter of {fraction (1/32)}″ or smaller. Such apertures are small enough to allow the migration of the hydrogen gas, but prevent the metallic particles 12 within the tubes 30 from migrating outside of the tubes 30 and thereby exerting additional forces on adjacent materials or surfaces during expansion.
  • [0071]
    At least one of the plurality of tubes 30 can be in the form of a solid sintered filter cylinder that would provide a permeable solid to assist in the absorption and desorption of hydrogen gas while not allowing the migration of metallic particles 12. In one embodiment, the solid sintered filter cylinder comprises 316 L stainless steel.
  • [0072]
    Referring to FIGS. 19 a and 19 b, in one embodiment, at least one of the plurality of tubes 30 includes a fluid passage tube 3001 disposed within the at least one tube 30 in a substantially concentric relationship relative to the at least one tube 30. The fluid passage tube 3001 contains substantially no metallic particles 12. The metallic particles 12 occupy the space 3003 between the tubes 30 and 3001. The fluid passage tube 3001 extends substantially along the complete length of the tube 30. The fluid passage tube 3001 is configured to provide a relatively low pressure fluid passage for effecting communication of hydrogen gas between the aperture 241 and at least the metallic particles 12 between the tubes 30 and 3001.
  • [0073]
    A method of assembling an embodiment of the container 10 will now be described. A container 10 is provided, having a length of 355 mm defined by the distance between its terminal ends identified by reference numerals 101, 102 in FIG. 2, an outside maximum diameter of 89 mm, and a wall thickness of 3.68 mm, and is constructed of aluminum SAE 6061-T6. The liner 22 is then inserted into the container space 20 through the aperture 241 of the nozzle 24.
  • [0074]
    Referring to FIG. 5, the liner 22 is provided in the form of a 273 mm×268 mm sheet having a thickness of 0.15 mm, for co-operation with the container 10 having the dimensions described above. The liner 22 is further defined by first and second side edges 225, 226. Lips 224 a, 224 b are formed at the first and second ends 161, 162, respectively, without corrugations. The liner 22 is constructed of spring steel (low carbon steel) SAE 1010.
  • [0075]
    Referring to FIG. 11, to enable the liner to be inserted, one of the side edges 225, 226 of the liner 22 is inserted into a groove 702 provided in a mandrel 700. With one of the side edges 225 or 226 disposed in the groove 702, the liner 22 is then tightly rolled around the mandrel 700 by hand by a human operator. The mandrel 700 is in the form of a rod-like structure with a cylindrical surface and functions as a means for facilitating rolling of the liner 22. By rolling the liner 22 around the mandrel 400, the liner 22 is manipulated to effect overlap of the first and second side edges 225, 226. Preferably, the liner 22 is manipulated into a spiral configuration and maintains overlap of the first and second side edges 225, 266 as the liner 22 becomes positioned in the container 10 in the manner described below.
  • [0076]
    Referring to FIG. 12, with the liner 22 tightly wound around the mandrel 700 and maintained (i.e. pressed) in this condition by the hand of a human operator, the mandrel 700, with the liner 22, is inserted into the container space 20 through the nozzle 24. Once approximately 50% of the length of the liner 22 has been inserted through the nozzle 24, forces applied to maintain the liner 22 in a rolled condition against the mandrel 700 can be released as, in this position, the liner is not capable of becoming released from within the container space 20 upon the release of the liner 22 from the mandrel 700. Once the above-described forces maintaining the liner 22 rolled against the mandrel 700 are removed, the liner 22 assumes a radially expanded condition about the mandrel 700 (FIG. 13). The mandrel 700 is then removed from the container space 20 through the nozzle 24. The liner 22 is pushed into the container space 20 (see FIG. 14), and expands further in the radial direction once not constrained by the nozzle 24.
  • [0077]
    With the liner 22 disposed in the container space 20, magnetic forces are applied to the container 10 to effect positioning of the liner against the inner wall 16 of the container 10. In this respect, the magnetic forces attract the liner 22 towards the inner wall 16 (see FIG. 15).
  • [0078]
    An apparatus 600 for applying the above-described magnetic forces is illustrated in FIGS. 16-18. The apparatus 600 is a plastic tube 602 of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene defining a passage 604 for receiving the container 10. The tube 602 has a length of 311 mm, an outside diameter of 162 mm, and an inside diameter of 89 mm, to accommodate an embodiment of the system 8 being assembled in accordance with the method presently being described. Recesses 606 are provided in the exterior surface of the plastic tube for receiving magnetic material 608. Magnetic material 608 is provided for effecting the above-described magnetic force. An example of suitable magnetic material 608 is a rare earth magnetic (neodymium iron boron) manufactured by Dura Magnetics, Inc. of Sylvania, Ohio, U.S.A. (see www.duramag.com). Once disposed in the passage 604 of the plastic tube 602, the magnetic forces imparted by the magnetic material 608 urge the liner 22 against the inner surface 16 of the container 10.
  • [0079]
    While the magnetic forces are continuing to be applied to the liner 22, the tubes 30 are inserted into the container space 20 through the nozzle 24. With the container 10 having the dimensions specified above, twenty-eight tubes 30, each having an outside diameter of 12.7 mm, a wall thickness of 0.8 mm, and a length of 263 mm, are inserted into the container space 20. Once all of the thirty-one tubes 30 are disposed in the container space 20, tubes 30 are disposed in a tightly packed configuration and are pressing liner 22 against the inner surface 16 of the container 10. As a result, the magnetic force being applied by the magnetic material 608 is no longer required to urge the liner 22 against the inner surface 16 and thereby effect its disposition against the inner wall 16 (i.e., bearing of the lips 224 a, 224 b against the inner wall 16). The container 10 can now be removed from within the passage 604 of the plastic tube 302.
  • [0080]
    In this condition, the lips 224 a, 224 b of the liner 22 engage the inner surface 16 for (i) defining a storage space 201 configured to contain the metallic particles 12 and also (ii) for defining a void space 202 configured to contract as the metallic particles 12 expand upon absorption of hydrogen, such that the engagement of the liner 22 to the inner surface 16 substantially prevents or limits ingress of the metallic particles 12 into the void space 202 from the storage space 201. At this point, an embodiment of the container 10 assembled in accordance with the just described method substantially assumes the condition illustrated in FIG. 2. While the liner 22 is in this condition, the storage space 201 of the container 10 is filled with the metallic particles 12 through the nozzle 24. The container 10 continues to be filled with the metallic particles 12 until the level of the metallic particles 12 in the storage space 12 reaches the nozzle 24.
  • [0081]
    It is understood that, by virtue of the assembly of an embodiment of the container 10 by the method above-described, the engagement of the liner 22 to the inner surface 16 substantially prevents ingress of the metallic particles into the void space 202 and does not completely prevent ingress into the void space 202. This is because, even after the tubes 30 are inserted into the container space 20 and thereby press against the liner 22, and particularly press the first and second ends 221, 222 against the inner surface 16 while simultaneously pressing portions of the liner 22 at opposite edges 225, 226 against each other to effect overlap of edges 225, 226, a very small space or spaces between the liner 22 and the inner surface 16 continue to exist and define a potential passage or passages for ingress of metallic particles 12 into the void space 202 from the storage space 201. However, where the metallic particles 12 are sufficiently large (e.g. where 77% of the metallic particles 12 have a particle size greater than 150 microns, and more particularly where 20% are within the range of 1000 to 2800 microns, 23% are within the range of 500 to 1000 microns, 34% are within the range of 150 microns, and the remainder under 150 microns), such space or spaces, defined in an embodiment of the container 10 created by the method described above, are sufficiently small so that any periodic ingress is relatively insignificant. In this respect, such ingress can also be characterized as being substantially prevented or limited.
  • [0082]
    Although the disclosure describes and illustrates preferred embodiments of the invention, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to these particular embodiments. Many variations and modifications may occur to those skilled in the art within the scope of the invention. For definition of the invention, reference is to be made to the appended claims.

Claims (61)

  1. 1. A container configured for containing at least metallic particles, the metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen such that the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, the container including an inner surface, comprising:
    a liner disposed within the container such that a void space is provided between the liner and the inner surface;
    wherein the liner engages the inner surface to substantially prevent ingress of metallic particles, when the metallic particles are contained in the container, into the void space.
  2. 2. The container as claimed in claim 1, wherein the liner is sufficiently flexible to deform in response to the expansion of the metallic particles.
  3. 3. The container as claimed in claim 1, wherein the liner is shaped to define (i) a storage space configured to contain metallic particles and (ii) the void space, wherein the void space is configured to contract as the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of the hydrogen.
  4. 4. The container as claimed in claim 3, wherein the liner bears against the wall to substantially prevent ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space when the storage space contains the metallic particles.
  5. 5. The container as claimed in claim 3, wherein the liner abuts the wall to substantially prevent ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space when the storage space contains the metallic particles.
  6. 6. The container as claimed in claim 3, wherein the liner is urged against the wall to substantially prevent ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space when the storage space contains the metallic particles.
  7. 7. The container as claimed in any of claims 4, 5, or 6, wherein the liner is sufficiently resilient such that the liner has a tendency to reverse at least a portion of the deformation in response to discharging of hydrogen from the metallic particles.
  8. 8. The container as claimed in claim 7, wherein the container includes a sidewall and an axis, the sidewall defining at least a portion of the inner surface and being spaced apart from and extending 360° about the axis in a plane, and wherein at least a portion of the liner is disposed between the sidewall and the axis and extends 360° about the axis in the plane.
  9. 9. The container as claimed in claim 8, wherein the at least a portion of the liner opposes the sidewall.
  10. 10. The container as claimed in claim 9, wherein at least a portion of the void space is disposed between the sidewall and the at least a portion of the liner.
  11. 11. The container as claimed in claim 10, wherein each of the sidewall and the liner is substantially tubular.
  12. 12. The container as claimed in claims 10 or 11, wherein the liner includes corrugations defined by alternating ridges and grooves, each of the ridges and grooves extending transversely relative to the plane.
  13. 13. The container as claimed in claim 12, wherein at least one of the ridges is configured to contact the sidewall when the metallic particles are contained in the storage space.
  14. 14. The container as claimed in claim 13, further comprising a thermally conductive structure disposed in the storage space and in contact with the liner and configured for effecting heat transfer between the metallic particles and the liner.
  15. 15. The container as claimed in any of claims 4, 5, or 6, wherein the liner includes corrugations defined by alternating ridges and grooves.
  16. 16. The container as claimed in claim 15, wherein at least one of the ridges contacts the sidewall.
  17. 17. The container as claimed in claim 16, further comprising a thermally conductive structure disposed in the storage space and in contact with the liner and configured for effecting heat transfer between the metallic particles and the liner.
  18. 18. The container as claimed in claim 17, wherein the thermally conductive structure urges the liner against the wall.
  19. 19. The container as claimed in any of claims 4, 5 or 6, further comprising a thermally conductive structure disposed in the storage space and in contact with the liner and configured for effecting heat transfer between the metallic particles and the liner.
  20. 20. The container as claimed in claim 19, wherein the thermally conductive structure urges the liner against the wall and effects the engagement of the liner with, or abutment or bearing of the liner against, the inner surface.
  21. 21. The container as claimed in claim 7, wherein the liner is stiffer than the container.
  22. 22. A container configured for containing at least metallic particles and gaseous hydrogen, the metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen such that the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, the container including an inner surface, comprising:
    a liner disposed within the container such that a void space is provided between the liner and the inner surface;
    wherein the liner engages the inner surface to limit ingress of metallic particles, when the metallic particles are contained in the container, into the void space.
  23. 23. The container as claimed in claim 22, wherein the liner is sufficiently flexible to deform in response to the expansion of the metallic particles.
  24. 24. The container as claimed in claim 22, wherein the liner is shaped to define (i) a storage space configured to contain metallic particles and (ii) the void space, wherein the void space is configured to contract as the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of the hydrogen.
  25. 25. The container as claimed in claim 22, wherein the liner bears against the wall to substantially prevent ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space when the storage space contains the metallic particles.
  26. 26. The container as claimed in claim 22, wherein the liner abuts the wall to substantially prevent ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space when the storage space contains the metallic particles.
  27. 27. The container as claimed in claim 22, wherein the liner is urged against the wall to substantially prevent ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space when the storage space contains the metallic particles.
  28. 28. The container as claimed in any of claims 25, 26, or 27, wherein the liner is sufficiently resilient such that the liner has a tendency to reverse at least a portion of the deformation in response to discharging of hydrogen from the metallic particles.
  29. 29. The container as claimed in claim 28, wherein the container includes a sidewall and an axis, the sidewall defining at least a portion of the inner surface and being spaced apart from and extending 360° about the axis in a plane, and wherein at least a portion of the liner is disposed between the sidewall and the axis and extends 360° about the axis in the plane.
  30. 30. The container as claimed in claim 29, wherein the at least a portion of the liner opposes the sidewall.
  31. 31. The container as claimed in claim 30, wherein at least a portion of the void space is disposed between the sidewall and the at least a portion of the liner.
  32. 32. The container as claimed in claim 31, wherein each of the sidewall and the liner is substantially tubular.
  33. 33. The container as claimed in claims 31 or 32, wherein the liner includes corrugations defined by alternating ridges and grooves, each of the ridges and grooves extending transversely relative to the plane.
  34. 34. The container as claimed in claim 33, wherein at least one of the ridges is configured to contact the sidewall when the metallic particles are contained in the storage space.
  35. 35. The container as claimed in claim 34, further comprising a thermally conductive structure disposed in the storage space and in contact with the liner and configured for effecting heat transfer between the metallic particles and the liner.
  36. 36. The container as claimed in any of claims 4, 5, or 6, wherein the liner includes corrugations defined by alternating ridges and grooves.
  37. 37. The container as claimed in claim 36, wherein at least one of the ridges contacts the sidewall.
  38. 38. The container as claimed in claim 37, further comprising a thermally conductive structure disposed in the storage space and in contact with the liner and configured for effecting heat transfer between the metallic particles and the liner.
  39. 39. The container as claimed in claim 38, wherein the thermally conductive structure urges the liner against the wall.
  40. 40. The container as claimed in any of claims 25, 26, or 27, further comprising a thermally conductive structure disposed in the storage space and in contact with the liner and configured for effecting heat transfer between the metallic particles and the liner.
  41. 41. The container as claimed in claim 40, wherein the thermally conductive structure urges the liner against the wall and effects the engagement of the liner with, or abutment or bearing of the liner against, the inner surface.
  42. 42. The container as claimed in claim 28, wherein the liner is stiffer than the container.
  43. 43. A container configured for containing at least metallic particles, the metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen such that the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, the container defining a container space and including an inner surface, comprising:
    a liner disposed within the container space and engaging the inner surface for defining (i) a storage space configured to contain the metallic particles and (ii) a void space configured to contract as the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen;
    wherein, when the metallic particles are contained in the storage space, the engagement of the liner to the inner surface substantially prevents ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space.
  44. 44. A container configured for containing at least gaseous hydrogen and metallic particles, the metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen such that the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen, the container defining a container space and including an inner surface, comprising:
    a liner disposed within the container space and engaging the inner surface for defining (i) a storage space configured to contain the metallic particles and (ii) a void space configured to contract as the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen;
    wherein, when the metallic particles are contained in the storage space, the engagement of the liner to the inner surface limits ingress of the metallic particles into the void space from the storage space.
  45. 45. A method of assembling a container for containing metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen comprising:
    providing a container including an inlet and an inner surface and defining a container space;
    inserting a magnetically responsive liner into the container space through the inlet; and
    applying a magnetic force sufficient to urge the liner against the inner surface of the container.
  46. 46. The method as claimed in claim 45, wherein the magnetic force is generated externally of the container.
  47. 47. The method as claimed in claim 46, wherein the liner being inserted into the container space has a spiral configuration, and the application of the magnetic force effects expansion of the liner from the spiral configuration.
  48. 48. The method as claimed in claim 47, further comprising the step of inserting a plurality of tubes into the container space through the inlet when the magnetic force is acting on the liner.
  49. 49. The method as claimed in claim 48, wherein the magnetic force is generated externally of the container.
  50. 50. The method as claimed in claim 49, wherein the liner being inserted into the container space has a spiral configuration, and the application of the magnetic force effects expansion of the liner from the spiral configuration.
  51. 51. A method of assembling a container for containing metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen comprising:
    providing a container including an inlet and an inner surface and defining a container space;
    inserting a magnetically responsive liner into the container space through the inlet;
    applying a magnetic force sufficient to urge the liner against the inner surface of the container;
    when the magnetic force is acting on the liner, inserting a plurality of tubes into the container space through the inlet so as to urge the liner into engagement with the inner surface so as to define (i) a storage space configured to contain the metallic particles and (ii) a void space configured to contract as the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen:
    terminating the application of the magnetic force; and
    inserting a plurality of metallic particles into the storage space.
  52. 52. The method as claimed in claim 51, wherein the magnetic force is generated externally of the container.
  53. 53. The method as claimed in claim 52, wherein the liner being inserted into the container space has a spiral configuration, and the application of the magnetic force effects expansion of the liner from the spiral configuration.
  54. 54. A method of assembling a container for containing metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen comprising:
    providing a container including an inlet and an inner surface and defining a container space;
    rolling a magnetically responsive liner about a mandrel so that the liner assumes a spiral configuration about the mandrel;
    when the liner is rolled about the mandrel, inserting the liner into the container space through the inlet;
    releasing the liner from the mandrel;
    removing the mandrel from the container space through the inlet; and
    applying a magnetic force sufficient to urge the liner against the inner surface of the container.
  55. 55. The method as claimed in claim 54, wherein the magnetic force is generated externally of the container.
  56. 56. The method as claimed in claim 55, wherein the liner being inserted into the container space has a spiral configuration, and the application of the magnetic force effects expansion of the liner from the spiral configuration.
  57. 57. The method as claimed in claim 56, further comprising the step of inserting a plurality of tubes into the container space through the inlet when the magnetic force is acting on the liner.
  58. 58. The method as claimed in claim 57, wherein the liner being inserted into the container space has a spiral configuration, and the application of the magnetic force effects expansion of the liner from the spiral configuration.
  59. 59. A method of assembling a container for containing metallic particles capable of absorbing hydrogen comprising:
    providing a container including an inlet and an inner surface and defining a container space;
    rolling a magnetically responsive liner about a mandrel so that the liner assumes a spiral configuration about the mandrel;
    when the liner is rolled about the mandrel inserting the liner into the container space through the inlet;
    releasing the liner from the mandrel;
    removing the mandrel from the container space through the inlet;
    applying a magnetic force sufficient to urge the liner against the inner surface of the container;
    when the magnetic force is acting on the liner, inserting a plurality of tubes into the container space through the inlet so as to urge the liner into engagement with the inner surface so as to define (i) a storage space configured to contain the metallic particles and (ii) a void space configured to contract as the metallic particles expand upon the absorption of hydrogen:
    terminating the application of the magnetic force; and
    inserting a plurality of metallic particles into the storage space.
  60. 60. The method as claimed in claim 59, wherein the magnetic force is generated externally of the container.
  61. 61. The method as claimed in claim 60, wherein the liner being inserted into the container space has a spiral configuration, and the application of the magnetic force effects expansion of the liner from the spiral configuration.
US10836992 2003-05-01 2004-04-30 Hydrogen storage container Abandoned US20050072786A1 (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CA2,427,725 2003-05-01
CA 2427725 CA2427725A1 (en) 2003-05-01 2003-05-01 Hydrogen storage container
US50101703 true 2003-09-09 2003-09-09
US50925603 true 2003-10-08 2003-10-08
US10836992 US20050072786A1 (en) 2003-05-01 2004-04-30 Hydrogen storage container

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10836992 US20050072786A1 (en) 2003-05-01 2004-04-30 Hydrogen storage container

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20050072786A1 true true US20050072786A1 (en) 2005-04-07

Family

ID=33315242

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10836992 Abandoned US20050072786A1 (en) 2003-05-01 2004-04-30 Hydrogen storage container

Country Status (3)

Country Link
US (1) US20050072786A1 (en)
CN (1) CN1784571A (en)
CA (1) CA2427725A1 (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102006042456A1 (en) * 2006-09-09 2008-03-27 Volkswagen Ag Metal hydride hydrogen reservoir, especially for fuel cell in automobile, comprises pressure-resistant storage container partially filled with metal hydride
US20080283420A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2008-11-20 Manbas Alpha Ab Distributed Gas Storage
US20090107853A1 (en) * 2007-10-26 2009-04-30 Ovonic Hydrogen Systems Llc Hydrogen storage system
FR3004515A1 (en) * 2013-04-10 2014-10-17 Ad Venta Compensator constraints tank of hydrogen based on metal hydride
EP2660167B1 (en) * 2007-12-31 2017-03-29 Lincoln Global, Inc. Insert for container packaging

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2004108570A (en) * 2002-07-22 2004-04-08 Toyota Industries Corp Hydrogen storage container

Citations (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4133426A (en) * 1978-02-24 1979-01-09 The International Nickel Company, Inc. Hydride container
US4134490A (en) * 1978-02-24 1979-01-16 The International Nickel Company, Inc. Gas storage containment
US4134491A (en) * 1978-02-24 1979-01-16 The International Nickel Company, Inc. Hydride storage containment
US4135621A (en) * 1978-02-24 1979-01-23 The International Nickel Company, Inc. Hydrogen storage module
US4165569A (en) * 1975-04-21 1979-08-28 Billings Energy Corporation Hydride storage and heat exchanger system and method
US4187092A (en) * 1978-05-15 1980-02-05 Billings Energy Corporation Method and apparatus for providing increased thermal conductivity and heat capacity to a pressure vessel containing a hydride-forming metal material
US4249654A (en) * 1979-09-25 1981-02-10 Helversen Frederick D Hydrogen storage apparatus
US4270380A (en) * 1979-05-25 1981-06-02 Corning Glass Works Metal shaping die assembly
US4383606A (en) * 1980-12-19 1983-05-17 Johnson Matthey, Inc. Hydrogen storage system
US4489564A (en) * 1982-05-06 1984-12-25 Thyssen Industrie Ag Hydride storage for hydrogen
US4548186A (en) * 1983-09-05 1985-10-22 Sekisui Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method and device for preheating an engine or an engine intake air
US4548044A (en) * 1981-09-17 1985-10-22 Agency Of Industrial Science & Technology Metal hydride container and metal hydride heat storage system
US4566281A (en) * 1979-02-12 1986-01-28 Ergenics, Inc. Reaction heat storage method for hydride tanks
US4566589A (en) * 1983-03-04 1986-01-28 Udo Poschinger Gas container
US4583638A (en) * 1983-10-18 1986-04-22 Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft Pressure-tight vessel for the storage of hydrogen in a metal matrix body
US4598836A (en) * 1983-10-24 1986-07-08 Mannesmann Aktiengesellschaft Pressure gas container
US4599867A (en) * 1985-01-25 1986-07-15 Retallick William B Hydrogen storage cell
US4667815A (en) * 1985-01-21 1987-05-26 Mannesmann Aktiengesellschaft Hydrogen storage
US4736779A (en) * 1985-04-22 1988-04-12 Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft Process and apparatus for using a hydride-forming alloy to store hydrogen
US4964524A (en) * 1987-12-04 1990-10-23 Gesellschaft Fuer Hybrid Und Wasserstofftechnik Mbh Pressure vessel for hydrogen storage
US5092281A (en) * 1988-07-26 1992-03-03 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyoda Jidoshokki Seisakusho Hydrogen engine system
US5958098A (en) * 1997-10-07 1999-09-28 Westinghouse Savannah River Company Method and composition in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a silica network
US6099811A (en) * 1998-02-13 2000-08-08 Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. Self-heating metal-hydride hydrogen storage system
US6378601B1 (en) * 2000-05-12 2002-04-30 Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. Hydrogen cooled hydrogen storage unit having a high packing density of storage alloy and encapsulation
US20020100369A1 (en) * 2001-01-26 2002-08-01 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Metal hydride tank apparatus
US6432379B1 (en) * 1996-04-01 2002-08-13 Westinghouse Savannah River Company Apparatus and methods for storing and releasing hydrogen

Patent Citations (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4165569A (en) * 1975-04-21 1979-08-28 Billings Energy Corporation Hydride storage and heat exchanger system and method
US4134490A (en) * 1978-02-24 1979-01-16 The International Nickel Company, Inc. Gas storage containment
US4134491A (en) * 1978-02-24 1979-01-16 The International Nickel Company, Inc. Hydride storage containment
US4135621A (en) * 1978-02-24 1979-01-23 The International Nickel Company, Inc. Hydrogen storage module
US4133426A (en) * 1978-02-24 1979-01-09 The International Nickel Company, Inc. Hydride container
US4187092A (en) * 1978-05-15 1980-02-05 Billings Energy Corporation Method and apparatus for providing increased thermal conductivity and heat capacity to a pressure vessel containing a hydride-forming metal material
US4566281A (en) * 1979-02-12 1986-01-28 Ergenics, Inc. Reaction heat storage method for hydride tanks
US4270380A (en) * 1979-05-25 1981-06-02 Corning Glass Works Metal shaping die assembly
US4249654A (en) * 1979-09-25 1981-02-10 Helversen Frederick D Hydrogen storage apparatus
US4383606A (en) * 1980-12-19 1983-05-17 Johnson Matthey, Inc. Hydrogen storage system
US4548044A (en) * 1981-09-17 1985-10-22 Agency Of Industrial Science & Technology Metal hydride container and metal hydride heat storage system
US4489564A (en) * 1982-05-06 1984-12-25 Thyssen Industrie Ag Hydride storage for hydrogen
US4566589A (en) * 1983-03-04 1986-01-28 Udo Poschinger Gas container
US4548186A (en) * 1983-09-05 1985-10-22 Sekisui Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Method and device for preheating an engine or an engine intake air
US4583638A (en) * 1983-10-18 1986-04-22 Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft Pressure-tight vessel for the storage of hydrogen in a metal matrix body
US4598836A (en) * 1983-10-24 1986-07-08 Mannesmann Aktiengesellschaft Pressure gas container
US4667815A (en) * 1985-01-21 1987-05-26 Mannesmann Aktiengesellschaft Hydrogen storage
US4599867A (en) * 1985-01-25 1986-07-15 Retallick William B Hydrogen storage cell
US4736779A (en) * 1985-04-22 1988-04-12 Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft Process and apparatus for using a hydride-forming alloy to store hydrogen
US4964524A (en) * 1987-12-04 1990-10-23 Gesellschaft Fuer Hybrid Und Wasserstofftechnik Mbh Pressure vessel for hydrogen storage
US5092281A (en) * 1988-07-26 1992-03-03 Kabushiki Kaisha Toyoda Jidoshokki Seisakusho Hydrogen engine system
US6432379B1 (en) * 1996-04-01 2002-08-13 Westinghouse Savannah River Company Apparatus and methods for storing and releasing hydrogen
US5958098A (en) * 1997-10-07 1999-09-28 Westinghouse Savannah River Company Method and composition in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a silica network
US6099811A (en) * 1998-02-13 2000-08-08 Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. Self-heating metal-hydride hydrogen storage system
US6378601B1 (en) * 2000-05-12 2002-04-30 Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. Hydrogen cooled hydrogen storage unit having a high packing density of storage alloy and encapsulation
US20020100369A1 (en) * 2001-01-26 2002-08-01 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Metal hydride tank apparatus

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080283420A1 (en) * 2005-09-15 2008-11-20 Manbas Alpha Ab Distributed Gas Storage
US8146735B2 (en) * 2005-09-15 2012-04-03 Manbas Alpha Ab Distributed gas storage
DE102006042456A1 (en) * 2006-09-09 2008-03-27 Volkswagen Ag Metal hydride hydrogen reservoir, especially for fuel cell in automobile, comprises pressure-resistant storage container partially filled with metal hydride
US20090107853A1 (en) * 2007-10-26 2009-04-30 Ovonic Hydrogen Systems Llc Hydrogen storage system
US7651554B2 (en) 2007-10-26 2010-01-26 Ovonic Hydrogen Systems Llc Hydrogen storage system
EP2660167B1 (en) * 2007-12-31 2017-03-29 Lincoln Global, Inc. Insert for container packaging
FR3004515A1 (en) * 2013-04-10 2014-10-17 Ad Venta Compensator constraints tank of hydrogen based on metal hydride

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
CN1784571A (en) 2006-06-07 application
CA2427725A1 (en) 2004-11-01 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6834508B2 (en) Hydrogen storage and supply system
US3553976A (en) Container refrigerator
US4609038A (en) Heat exchanger using a hydrogen occlusion alloy
US4292062A (en) Cryogenic fuel tank
Zhang et al. A review of heat transfer issues in hydrogen storage technologies
US4187092A (en) Method and apparatus for providing increased thermal conductivity and heat capacity to a pressure vessel containing a hydride-forming metal material
US7377294B2 (en) Gas cooling methods for high pressure fuel storage tanks on vehicles powered by compressed natural gas or hydrogen
US4270360A (en) Device for storage of hydrogen
US4165569A (en) Hydride storage and heat exchanger system and method
US6015041A (en) Apparatus and methods for storing and releasing hydrogen
US3156100A (en) Apparatus for supplying liquefied gas
US5579828A (en) Flexible insert for heat pipe freeze protection
US4566281A (en) Reaction heat storage method for hydride tanks
US20030209149A1 (en) Honeycomb hydrogen storage structure
US6709497B2 (en) Honeycomb hydrogen storage structure
Mellouli et al. A novel design of a heat exchanger for a metal-hydrogen reactor
US7112239B2 (en) Gas storage apparatus
US6105659A (en) Rechargeable thermal battery for latent energy storage and transfer
US6170287B1 (en) Desiccant installation for refrigerant condenser with integral receiver
US6742650B2 (en) Metal hydride storage canister design and its manufacture
US4341000A (en) Method of charging heat pipe
US7124790B2 (en) System and method for storing and discharging hydrogen
US4928496A (en) Hydrogen heat pump
Zhang et al. Effects of coupled heat and mass transfers in adsorbent on the performance of a waste heat adsorption cooling unit
US5661986A (en) Chemical reactor, refrigerating machine and container provided therewith and reagent cartridge therefor

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: HERA, HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS INC., CANADA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GAGNON, FREDERIC;SCHULZ, ROBERT;LAROCHELLE, PATRICK;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015539/0424;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040521 TO 20040714

AS Assignment

Owner name: HERA, HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS INC., CANADA

Free format text: ACCEPTANCE;ASSIGNORS:GAGNON, FREDERIC;SCHULZ, ROBERT;LAROCHELLE, PATRICK;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:016100/0257

Effective date: 20050214