US20050014655A1 - Method of stabilising clay or shale - Google Patents

Method of stabilising clay or shale Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20050014655A1
US20050014655A1 US10/499,333 US49933304A US2005014655A1 US 20050014655 A1 US20050014655 A1 US 20050014655A1 US 49933304 A US49933304 A US 49933304A US 2005014655 A1 US2005014655 A1 US 2005014655A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
ions
source
group consisting
ammonium
selected
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10/499,333
Inventor
Mark Aston
Michael Greenhill-Hooper
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
BP Exploration Operating Co Ltd
Original Assignee
BP Exploration Operating Co Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB0130110A priority Critical patent/GB0130110D0/en
Priority to GB0130110.0 priority
Application filed by BP Exploration Operating Co Ltd filed Critical BP Exploration Operating Co Ltd
Priority to PCT/GB2002/005635 priority patent/WO2003052023A1/en
Assigned to BP EXPLORATION OPERATING COMPANY LIMITED reassignment BP EXPLORATION OPERATING COMPANY LIMITED ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: ASTON, MARK SHELTON, GREENHILL-HOOPER, MICHAEL JOHN
Publication of US20050014655A1 publication Critical patent/US20050014655A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B33/00Sealing or packing boreholes or wells
    • E21B33/10Sealing or packing boreholes or wells in the borehole
    • E21B33/13Methods or devices for cementing, for plugging holes, crevices, or the like
    • E21B33/138Plastering the borehole wall; Injecting into the formations
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K8/00Compositions for drilling of boreholes or wells; Compositions for treating boreholes or wells, e.g. for completion or for remedial operations
    • C09K8/02Well-drilling compositions
    • C09K8/04Aqueous well-drilling compositions
    • C09K8/14Clay-containing compositions
    • C09K8/16Clay-containing compositions characterised by the inorganic compounds other than clay
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K8/00Compositions for drilling of boreholes or wells; Compositions for treating boreholes or wells, e.g. for completion or for remedial operations
    • C09K8/02Well-drilling compositions
    • C09K8/04Aqueous well-drilling compositions
    • C09K8/14Clay-containing compositions
    • C09K8/18Clay-containing compositions characterised by the organic compounds
    • C09K8/20Natural organic compounds or derivatives thereof, e.g. polysaccharides or lignin derivatives
    • C09K8/206Derivatives of other natural products, e.g. cellulose, starch, sugars
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K8/00Compositions for drilling of boreholes or wells; Compositions for treating boreholes or wells, e.g. for completion or for remedial operations
    • C09K8/50Compositions for plastering borehole walls, i.e. compositions for temporary consolidation of borehole walls
    • C09K8/504Compositions based on water or polar solvents
    • C09K8/5045Compositions based on water or polar solvents containing inorganic compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K8/00Compositions for drilling of boreholes or wells; Compositions for treating boreholes or wells, e.g. for completion or for remedial operations
    • C09K8/50Compositions for plastering borehole walls, i.e. compositions for temporary consolidation of borehole walls
    • C09K8/504Compositions based on water or polar solvents
    • C09K8/506Compositions based on water or polar solvents containing organic compounds
    • C09K8/508Compositions based on water or polar solvents containing organic compounds macromolecular compounds
    • C09K8/514Compositions based on water or polar solvents containing organic compounds macromolecular compounds of natural origin, e.g. polysaccharides, cellulose

Abstract

A method of reducing the swelling of shale or clay encountered in a wellbore, the method comprising introducing into the wellbore a composition comprising: (a) a continuous aqueous phase; (b) a source of borate ions; (c) a source of ions selected from the group consisting of alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium ions; and (d) optionally a source of at least one sugar selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides having from 2 to 4 saccharide groups.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a composition useful for stabilizing a clayey or shaley formation surrounding a wellbore. In particular, the present invention relates to a clay or shale swelling inhibitor composition for use during drilling, completing or maintaining wellbores.
  • Drilling fluids are used in the drilling of oil and gas wells. In rotary drilling operations drilling fluids are pumped down from the surface through a drill string to a drill bit. They emerge through ports in the drill bit and return to the surface via an annular space located between the drill string and the walls of the borehole. The functions of drilling fluids may be multiple: for example, they serve to cool and lubricate both the drill bit and drill string, they transport drill cuttings to the surface, they equalize the pressure between the fluids in the wellbore and the formation fluids, they prevent “squeezing” of the wellbore or caving of the formation into the wellbore, or minimise any potential damage to the “pay zone” of the wellbore.
  • Drilling fluids are of two basic types, oil-based (hereinafter referred to as OBMs—oil based muds), and water-based (hereinafter referred to as WBMs—water based muds). OBMs are superior in performance to WBMs in several important respects including lubricating properties and thermal stability thereby allowing wells to be drilled at a faster rate than when using WBMs resulting in considerable cost savings. In particular, OBMs are useful where the downhole temperature is high, for example when drilling deviated wells through high temperature formations. Furthermore, OBMs mitigate problems associated with swelling and dispersion of clays or shales, which are frequently encountered during drilling with WBMs. Such problems will hereinafter be referred to as “clay or shale destabilization”.
  • Unfortunately, OBMs are less attractive than WBMs from an environmental perspective. The disposal of spent OBMs, and the associated problems of cuttings clean-up and disposal are posing increasing difficulties for the oil and gas exploration industry. One proposal has been the use of biodegradable oils to formulate OBMs, but such products may not comply with future legislation which is expected to impose more stringent limits on disposal of waste materials. The consequence of this is that much effort has been expended in the development of WBMs having improved performance in terms of reducing clay or shale destabilization. If no attempts are made to inhibit hydration and swelling of clays or shales the consequences can be severe. Thus, clay or shale destabilization may result in weaknesses developing in the formation, possibly leading to erosion of the borehole. Also, as would be well known to the person skilled in the art, the phenomenon of “stuck pipe” can occur, and furthermore, logging operations during drilling can be hampered.
  • A number of approaches have been proposed for reducing the clay or shale destabilization characteristics of WBMs. The use of salts such as Group IA metal salts, in particular, potassium chloride, to balance the water activity between the clay or shale and the drilling fluid, or even to provide an osmotic gradient that leads to a net flow of water out of the clay or shale, has been employed to prevent clay or shale hydration. This approach may be combined with the use of silicates which are capable of forming osmotic membranes on the exposed surface of the clay or shale, as described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 3,640,343, and van Oort et. al. in SPE/IADC paper No. 35059, presented at the LADC/SPE Drilling Conf. New Orleans, 12-15 Mar. 1996. The osmotic membrane facilitates the flow of water out of the clay or shale whilst inhibiting the diffusion of ions between the clay or shale and the fluids in the wellbore thereby improving the clay or shale stabilization characteristics of the WBM.
  • The precipitation of silicates on the exposed surface of the clay or shale is also believed to produce a physical barrier against invasion of fluids from the wellbore into the clay or shale. The use of silicates, however, may be associated with problems of high drilling torques and poor lubricity owing to the tendency of silicates to precipitate out on metal surfaces, for example, on the drill bit. Also, the use of silicates may lead to problems of incompatibility with conventional drilling fluid additives. Finally, silicate solutions are highly alkaline and this can lead to difficulties with safe storage and handling.
  • Other proposals for improving the clay or shale stabilization performance of WBMs include the addition of glycols or polyols. Suitable glycols or polyols include, for example, polyglycerols, glycols, polyalkylene glycols (PAG), e.g., polyethylene glycols (PEG), polypropylene glycols (PPG) and copolymers of ethylene and propylene glycols, alcohol ethoxylates and glycol ethers as described in for example, EP 0495579, U.S. Pat. No. 4,830,765, U.S. Pat. No. 4,172,800 and The Society of Petroleum Engineers Reports SPE 25989 and 28818. In The Society of Petroleum Engineers Report SPE 28960 it is disclosed that potassium ions work synergistically with glycols in drilling fluids to improve the shale stabilization performance of the WBMs.
  • Other proposals described in the art to improve the clay or shale stabilization properties of WBMs include the use of additives such as aluminium complexes, chemically modified starch, chemically modified cellulosic materials, water soluble polyacrylamides and other water soluble polymers, lime or gypsum, asphaltene derived products and calcium lignosulphonates.
  • The use of borates in hydraulic fracturing fluids is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5372732, U.S. Pat. No. 5445223, GB 2253868 and WO 87/00236 while U.S. Pat. No. 5220960 discloses the use of borates as cement retardants for completion operations.
  • CA 1248337 teaches the use of borates in the field for low specific gravity non-damaging workover and completion fluids. CA 1303841 describes the use of borates in water profile control in oil recovery. E L Bigelow in The Society of Petroleum Engineers publication SPE 27644 discloses that borates maybe used in pulsed neutron logging. Borates have also been used in lost circulation treatments (fluid loss pills) during drilling operations (as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,372,732).
  • U.S. Pat. No. 6,105,691 refers to the use of boric acid or glycerol-borate esters in drilling fluids for the purposes of improving the lubricity of the drilling fluid and its clay dispersion characteristics. However, U.S. Pat. No. 6,105,691 is silent concerning any beneficial effect of borate on the clay or shale stabilizing properties of drilling fluids.
  • RU 1699991 relates to a silicate drilling mud having increased mud stability and calcium chloride resistance. The drilling mud is prepared by adding boric acid and sodium or potassium silicate to water to produce a gel-like mass, which is then diluted until the required viscosity, structural and mechanical properties have been obtained. An organic stabilizer may then be added to adjust filtration. There is no suggestion that a sugar may be added to the mud to increase its shale or clay stabilization characteristics.
  • An object of the present invention is to provide an aqueous based composition, in particular, an aqueous based drilling fluid composition, having improved clay or shale stabilization characteristics. A further object of the present invention is to provide a method of reducing the swelling of shale or clay encountered in a wellbore, for example, during drilling through a formation.
  • It has now been found that an aqueous based composition which contains a combination of (a) borate ions and (b) ions selected from the group consisting of alkali(ne earth) metal ions and ammonium ions exhibits markedly improved clay or shale stabilization properties compared with aqueous based compositions containing components (a) or (b) alone. It has also been found that the addition of a silicate to the aqueous based composition containing components (a) and (b) has a detrimental effect on its clay or shale stabilization properties. It has further been found that the addition of at least one sugar, selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides having from 2 to 4 saccharide groups, to the aqueous based composition containing components (a) and (b) improves the clay or shale stabilization characteristics thereof.
  • Thus, in a first embodiment of the present invention there is provided a use of a combination of (a) a source of borate ions, (b) a source of ions selected from the group consisting of alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium ions and (c) optionally a source of at least one sugar selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides having from 2 to 4 saccharide groups, in a composition comprising a continuous aqueous phase, to improve the clay or shale stabilizing properties thereof.
  • In a second embodiment of the present invention there is provided a method of reducing the swelling of shale or clay encountered in a wellbore, the method comprising introd ucing into the wellbore a composition comprising:
    • (a) a continuous aqueous phase;
    • (b) a source of borate ions;
    • (c) a source of ions selected from the group consisting of alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium ions; and
    • (d) optionally a source of at least one sugar selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides having from 2 to 4 saccharide groups.
  • The composition that is introduced into the wellbore may be used in drilling, completing or maintaining a wellbore. Where the composition is used in drilling a wellbore, the composition is preferably circulated in the wellbore thereby stabilising the clay or shale.
  • According to a preferred aspect of the present invention there is provided a method of reducing the swelling of shale or clay encountered during the drilling of a wellbore through a formation using a drill string disposed within the wellbore, said drill string having a first end and a second end, the first end of the drill string being located at or near the surface of the wellbore and the second end of the drill string being in communication with a drill bit having ports therein, wherein:
    • (A) a drilling fluid composition comprising (a) a continuous aqueous phase, (b) a source of borate ions, (c) a source of ions selected from the group consisting of alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium ions, and (d) optionally a source of at least one sugar selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides and oligosaccharidcs having from 2 to 4 saccharide groups is introduced into the first end of the drill string, is pumped through the drill string from the first end to the second end thereof and is discharged into the wellbore through the ports in the drill bit; and
    • (B) the drilling fluid composition is recycled to the first end of the drill string via an annular space which is provided between the drill string and the walls of the wellbore.
  • Suitably, the continuous aqueous phase of the composition may be fresh water, tap water, sea water, river water or aquifer water.
  • Preferably, the source of borate ions is an alkali metal borate, an ammonium borate or mixtures thereof. Preferably, the source of the borate ions is a borate of generic formula (1):
    n(M1 2O)m(B2O3).xH2O   (I)
    wherein M1 represents an alkali metal (preferably, sodium or potassium) or NH4, n is an integer in the range 0 to 5, m is an integer in the range 1 to 7, the ratio of n:m is 0-1:1 and x is an integer in the range 0 to 10. Regardless of the source of borate ions, it is preferred that the ratio of n:m in the composition is in the range 0.1:1 to 1.2:1. This ratio may be adjusted by addition of an alkali metal hydroxide (for example, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide) or ammonium hydroxide to the composition.
  • The source of borate ions may be a refined product or a natural mineral. Preferably, the source of borate ions may be selected from, but not limited to, the group consisting of disodium tetraborate pentahydrate (Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O), disodium tetraborate decahydrate or tincal (Na2O.2B2O3.10H2O), disodium tetraborate (Na2O.2B2O3), sodium metaborate tetrahydrate (Na2O.B2O3.8H2O), sodium metaborate dihydrate (Na2O.B2O3.4H2O), sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (Na2O.5B2O3.10H2O), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (Na2O.4B2O3 .4H2O), boric acid (H3BO3), dipotassium tetraborate tetrahydrate (K2O.2B2O3.4H2O), potassium pentaborate tetrahydrate (K2O.5B2O3.8H2O), diammonium tetraborate tetrahydrate ((NH4)2O.2B2O3.4H2O), ammonium pentaborate tetrahydrate ((NH4)2O.5B.2O3.8H2O) and caesium pentaborate tetrahydrate (Cs2O.5B2O3.8H2O).
  • Where the source of borate ions is an alkali metal borate or an ammonium borate, the borate will also act as a source of alkalimetal ions or of ammonium ions respectively. If necessary, a source of additional alkali metal ions or ammonium ions, may be added to the composition, as described above.
  • The amount of borate, expressed as B2O3 in lb/bbl (pounds per barrel) present in the continuous aqueous phase of the composition is preferably in the range 0.1 to 150 lb/bbl, and more preferably, in the range 0.5 to 50 lb/bbl.
  • It is envisaged that the source of borate ions may be sold as a concentrate ready for dilution with the composition. The concentrate may comprise a solution or dispersion of a borate in an aqueous liquid or a non aqueous liquid. Suitable aqueous liquids are as described above. Suitable non aqueous liquids include polar solvents such as alcohols and glycols. Preferably, the concentrate comprises a solution or dispersion of a borate in an aqueous liquid. The amount of borate, expressed as B2O3 in lb/bbl (pounds per barrel) present in the concentrate is preferably in the range 10 to 250 lb/bbl.
  • Suitably, the source of the ions selected from the group consisting of alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium ions is a water soluble salt of an alkali(ne earth) metal, a water soluble ammonium salt or mixtures thereof. It is preferred that the water soluble salt of the alkali(ne earth) metal is not a silicate. Preferably the water soluble salt is a potassium salt, caesium salt or ammonium salt including, but not limited to, potassium bromide, caesium bromide, ammonium bromide, potassium chloride, caesium chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium hydroxide, caesium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide. For example, if boric acid is used as the source of borate, then the water soluble salt is preferably selected from potassium hydroxide, caesium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide.
  • Suitably, the alkali(ne earth) metal salt, ammonium salt or mixtures thereof may be present in the continuous aqueous phase of the composition in an amount in the range 0.1 to 150 lb/bbl, preferably, in the range 0.5 to 100 lb/bbl.
  • It is envisaged that the source of the alkali(ne earth) metal ions, ammonium ions or mixtures thereof may be sold as a concentrate ready for dilution with the composition. Preferably, the concentrate may comprise a solution or dispersion of an alkali(ne earth) metal salt, ammonium salt or mixtures thereof in an aqueous liquid. Preferably, the concentration of alkali(ne earth) metal salt, ammonium salt or mixtures thereof in the concentrate is in the range 10 to 150 lb/bbl, preferably 10 to 100 lb/bbl.
  • The sugar may be selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides, and oligosaccharides having 2 to 4 saccharide groups. Preferred monosaccharides include glucose and fructose. Preferred disaccharides include sucrose (for example, obtained from cane or beet), maltose and lactose. It is also envisaged that the source of the sugar may be a mixture of sugars, for example, glucose syrup, golden syrup, molasses or Activ 7™ (a water soluble liquid syrup obtained by partial hydrolysis of starch).
  • Suitably, the amount of sugar in the continuous aqueous phase of the composition is in the range from 0.1 to 150 lb/bbl, preferably 0.5 to 50 lb/bbl.
  • It is envisaged that the source of the sugar may be sold as a concentrate ready for dilution with the composition. Preferably, the concentrate may comprise a solution or dispersion of the sugar in an aqueous liquid. Preferably, the concentration of the sugar in the concentrate is in the range 10 to 300 lb/bbl, preferably 20 to 300 lb/bbl.
  • It is also envisaged that (a) the source of borate ions, (b) the source of the alkali(ne earth) metal ions, ammonium ions or mixtures thereof and (c) the source of sugar may be sold as a mixed concentrate. Suitably, the amount of components (a), (b) and (c) in the mixed concentrate are as described above for the individual concentrates.
  • An advantage of the present invention is that the composition is stable at elevated temperature for a prolonged period of time. Typically, the composition is stable for a period of at least 12 hours, preferably at least 16 hours at a temperature of at least 100° C., preferably at least 120° C.
  • A further advantage of the present invention is that the source of borate ions acts as a pH buffer for the composition thereby controlling the pH at a value which is typically above 8, preferably above 9. Accordingly, there is no requirement to include a pH control agent such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
  • The composition may be beneficially used in combination with conventional additives for improving the clay or shale stabilization properties of a drilling or completion fluid. These conventional additives include, but are not limited to glycols.
  • The composition may also contain additional ingredients such as weighting agents, e.g., barite, haematite, or galena; viscosifiers, e.g. xanthan gum; fluid loss control agents, e.g., starch or cellulose derivatives (e.g., carboxymethyl cellulose); defoamers and lubricants.
  • Yet a further advantage of the composition is that it is compatible with conventional fluid loss control agents.
  • There is no special requirement in relation to the preparation of the composition. The source of borate ions, the source of the alkali(ne earth) metal ions, ammonium ions or mixtures thereof, and optionally the source of the sugar may be added in any order to the continuous aqueous phase (either as concentrates or as solids). Gentle heating is optional to dissolve or disperse the source of borate ions, the source of alkali(ne earth) metal ions, ammonium ions or mixtures thereof, and the optional source of the sugar in the continuous aqueous phase of the composition.
  • As discussed above, the sugar has been found to improve the clay or shale stabilization properties of the aqueous based composition used in the present invention. Thus, in yet a further embodiment of the present invention there is provided a composition comprising (a) a continuous aqueous phase, (b) a source of borate ions, (c) a source of ions selected from the group consisting of alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium ions and (d) a source of at least one sugar selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides having from 2 to 4 saccharide groups.
  • The components (a) to (d) of the composition of the present invention have the preferred features described above.
  • The performance of the composition of the present invention in clay or shale stabilization is now illustrated by reference to the following examples.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Aqueous based compositions, were prepared comprising the components shown in Table 1. Each composition was made up to a weight of 80 g with demineralised water and was contained in a 100 ml glass bottle.
  • A model shale (London Clay; 10 g) screened to a particle size range of 2-4 mm, was added to each bottle. The bottles were then sealed with screw caps and rolled at 20 rpm for 16 hours (bottle rolling test). Each sample mixture was then passed through a separate pre-weighed 500 micron sieve (i.e. a sieve which retains particles having a size of greater than 500 microns). The clay retained on each sieve was rinsed gently with tap water. The sieves plus retained clay were then placed in a drying oven at a temperature of 130° C. for 24 hours.
  • Each sieve was re-weighed and the percentage of dry clay retained on the sieves was calculated using the following formula, taking into account the original moisture content of the clay as 20 wt. %:
    % clay retained=12.5×[(weight of sieve+dried retained clay(g))−(weight of clean sieve (g))]
  • The higher the % clay retained the better the performance of the composition in stabilising the model shale. The results obtained are shown in Table 1. TABLE 1 Results of Bottle Rolling Tests Composition % clay retained 1. 80 g demineralised water (comparative) 0.8 2. 25 lb/bbl KCl (comparative) 9.1 3. 25 lb/bbl NH4Cl (comparative) 27.5 4. 25 lb/bbl CsCl (comparative) 79.1 5. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 3 wt. % DCP2081 (comparative) 81.9 6. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 3.47 wt. % Activ 72 (comparative) 33.1 7. 25 lb/bbl LiCl (comparative) −0.9 8. 25 lb/bbl MgCl2 (comparative) 0.4 9. 25 lb/bbl CaCl2 (comparative) 0.4 10. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 2.5 wt. % Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 93.6 2.5 wt. % Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 11. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 10 wt. % Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 94.0 12. 25 lb/bbl NH4Cl + 2.5 wt. % Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 93.6 2.5 wt. % Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 13. 25 lb/bbl CsCl + 2.5 wt. % Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 96.0 2.5 wt. % Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 14. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 3 wt. % DCP2081 + 97.6 2.5 wt. % Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 2.5 wt. % Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 15. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 3.47 wt. % Activ 72 + 97.2 1.51 wt. % Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 1.96 wt. % H3BO3 16. 25 lb/bbl LiCl + 2.5 wt. % Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 77.4 2.5 wt. % Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 17. 25 lb/bbl MgCl2 + 2.5 wt. % Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 64.1 2.5 wt. % Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 18. 25 lb/bbl CaCl2 + 2.5 wt. % Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 74.1 2.5 wt. % Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 19. 4.0 wt. % K2O.2B2O3.5H2O (1.826 wt. % B2O3) 80.2 20. 3.4 wt. % (NH4)2O.2B2O3.5H2O 68.0 (1.826 wt. % B2O3)
    1a glycol supplied by BP Chemicals

    2wheat starch by-product (glucose syrup) supplied by Roquette Freres
  • The unexpectedly superior performance of the compositions comprising a source of borate ions and a source of alkali(ne earth) metal ions or ammonium ions in stabilizing shale (examples 10-20) is evident. The effect of adding a source of sugar (Activ 7) to a composition containing a source of borate ions and a source of alkali(ne earth) metal ions or ammonium ions to improve the shale stabilization performance of the composition still further is evidenced by example 15.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • The procedure in Example 1 was repeated with further compositions to assess the effect of borate ion concentration and the ratio of n:m (i.e. molar ratio of Na2O:B2O3) on shale stabilization performance. The results are given in Table 2. TABLE 2 Results of Bottle Tests to Determine the Effect of Borate Ion Concentration and Ratio of n:m on Shale Stabilization Performance wt. % Composition B2O3 n:m % retained 21. 10. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 0.25 wt. % 0.183 0.67:1 59.5 Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 0.25 wt. % Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 22. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 1.25 wt. % 0.913 0.67:1 96.5 Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 1.25 wt. % Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 23. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 2.5 wt. % 1.826 0.67:1 96.6 Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 2.5 wt. % Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 24. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 3.24 wt. % H3BO3 1.826  0.0:1 20.8 25. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 1.53 wt. % 1.826 0.20:1 76.1 Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 1.94 wt. % H3BO3 26. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 3.82 wt. % 1.826 0.50:1 97.8 Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O 27. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 7.32 wt. % 1.826  1.0:1 97.6 Na2O.B2O3.8H2O
  • The results indicate that an acceptable shale stabilization performance can be achieved with compositions having a range of borate ion concentrations and a range of n:m ratios.
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • Water based compositions (350 ml), were prepared comprising the components shown in Table 3 below. Each composition was made up using tap water and was prepared in a plastic bottle. To each of the bottles was added 30 g of 2-4 mm size range Oxford clay. The bottles were sealed and rolled at a speed of approximately 30 rpm in an oven set at a temperature of 65° C. for a period of 16 hours. The compositions were then repeatedly passed through a 2 mm sieve. The clay retained on the sieve was collected and oven dried for a minimum of 16 hours. The % clay retained in the test was calculated taking into account, as in Example 1, the original moisture content of the clay. The results are shown in Table 3. TABLE 3 Results of Bottle Rolling Tests using Oxford Clay % clay Composition pH retained 28. 25 lb/bbl KCl (comparative)  9.4 11.5 29. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 3% Glydril MC1 (comparative)  7.4 49.7 30. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 2.5% Polyseal silicate2 123 99.1 (comparative) 31. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 6 wt. % Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O  9.3 40.2 32. 25 lb/bbl KCl + 3.47 wt. % Activ 7 + 1.51 wt. %  93 102.2 Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O + 1.96 wt. % H3BO3
    1commercial glycol shale inhibitor product

    22:1 SiO2:Na2O

    3pH adjusted value
  • EXAMPLE 4
  • A so-called Hamster Cage Test for evaluating the shale stabilizing performance of the compositions according to the present invention was performed. This test involved preparing 1500 ml of water based drilling fluid compositions as presented in Table 4 (where the aqueous liquid component of the compositions is demineralised water): TABLE 4 Compositions for use in Hamster Cage Test Drilling Fluid A (comparative) Drilling Fluid B Ingredient lb/bbl of ingredient lb/bbl of ingredient KCl 25 25 Polyanionic cellulose1 1.5 1.5 Starch2 4.0 4.0 Xanthan gum3 1.5 1.0 Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O 0 8.75 Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 0 8.75
    1PAC L - supplied by Baroid

    2DEXTRID - supplied by Baroid

    3Xanvis - supplied by Schlumberger
  • The viscosities of the drilling fluid compositions prepared in Table 4 were measured at a temperature of 20° C. using a Fann Viscometer (Model 35SA—Baroid Testing Equipment, Texas, USA). The results of the viscosity tests are presented in Table 5. TABLE 5 Viscosities of Drilling Fluid Compositions Drilling Fluid A Fann viscometer readings (comparative) Drilling Fluid B 600 rpm 49 48 300 rpm 34.5 31 200 rpm 28 25 100 rpm 19.5 17  6 rpm 6 5  3 rpm 4.5 4 PV/cP 14.5 17 YP/lb/100 sqrft 20 14 PH 10.0 (adjusted with NaOH) 9.4
  • These results demonstrate that drilling fluid compositions with desired rheological properties can be formulated containing borate ions. Furthermore, the presence of borate ions enables lower levels of viscosifying polymer to be employed, and ensures that the fluid is well buffered at the correct pH.
  • Hamster Cage Test
  • The Hamster Cage Test involved removing the lids from pre-weighed cages (of 1 mm mesh size) and adding approximately 80 g of London Clay (4-8 mm sieved particle size range) to each cage. The lids were replaced on the cages which were then suspended in a first and a second trough previously filled with drilling fluid compositions A and B respectively. The cages were then rotated automatically for 4 hours. At the end of this period, the cages were removed from the apparatus, the lids opened and the cages and retained cuttings rinsed with tap water. They were then dried in an oven for 16 hours at a temperature of 130° C., and finally re-weighed. The formula used in Example 1 was employed to calculate the percentage of clay cuttings retained in the cage. The results are presented in Table 6: TABLE 6 Results of Hamster Cage Tests % Clay Retained Drilling Fluid A (Comparative) 44.0 Drilling Fluid B 73.1
  • The improved shale stabilizing performance of the drilling fluid composition containing borate ions and potassium ions (Drilling Fluid B) is evident from these results.
  • EXAMPLE 5
  • The fluid loss characteristics and viscosity of drilling fluid composition C, comprising the ingredients given in Table 7, were measured before and after high temperature ageing (hot rolling) at a temperature of 1 20° C. for 16 hours. The results are presented in Table 8. TABLE 7 Drilling Fluid Composition C Ingredient lb/bbl of Ingredient KCl 25 Polyanionic cellulose 1.5 Starch 4.0 Xanthan Gum 1.5 Na2O.2B2O3.5H2O 8.75 Na2O.B2O3.8H2O 8.75 Barite 100 HMP1 10
    1HMP = Hymod Prima clay obtained from Imerys comprising illite and having a particle size of about 1 to 5 microns. HMP is a non-swelling clay and simulates drilled solids (cuttings) in the formulation.
  • TABLE 8 Viscosity and Fluid Loss Characteristics of Un-aged and Aged (16 hours at 120° C.) Samples of Drilling Fluid Composition C Fann viscometer readings Un-aged Aged 600 rpm 90 85 300 rpm 62 59 200 rpm 50 47 100 rpm 36 34  6 rpm 12 12  3 rpm 9 10 Gel/10 s 11 14 PV/cP 28 26 YP/lb/100 sqrft 34 33 Fluid loss   1 min 0.0 0.1 7.5 min 0.6 0.9  30 min 2.9 3.7 pH 9.5 9.3
  • The fluid loss characteristics of drilling fluid composition C are good and this property together with the viscosity of the drilling fluid composition remain substantially unaltered despite high temperature ageing.

Claims (20)

1-20 (cancelled).
21. A method of reducing the swelling of shale or clay encountered during drilling a wellbore, the method comprising circulating in the wellbore a composition comprising:
(a) a continuous aqueous phase;
(b) a source of borate ions;
(c) a source of ions selected from the group consisting of alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium ions; and
(d) optionally a source of at least one sugar selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides having from 2 to 4 saccharide groups.
22. A method of reducing the swelling of shale or clay encountered during the drilling of a wellbore through a formation using a drill string disposed within the wellbore, said drill string having a first end and a second end, the first end of the drill string being located at or near the surface of the wellbore and the second end of the drill string being in communication with a drill bit having ports therein, wherein:
(A) a drilling fluid composition comprising (a) a continuous aqueous phase, (b) a source of borate ions, (c) a source of ions selected from the group consisting of alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium ions, and (d) optionally a source of at least one sugar selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides having from 2 to 4 saccharide groups is introduced into the first end of the drill string, is pumped through the drill string from the first end to the second end thereof and is discharged into the wellbore through the ports in the drill bit; and (B) the drilling fluid composition is recycled to the first end of the drill string via an annular space which is provided between the drill string and the walls of the wellbore.
23. A method according to claim 21 wherein the source of borate ions is selected from the group consisting of sodium borates, potassium borates, caesium borates, ammonium borates, and boric acid.
24. A method according to claim 23 wherein the source of borate ions is selected from the group consisting of:
Disodium tetraborate pentahydrate—Na2O 2B2O3 5H2O (borax pentahydrate),
Disodium tetraborate decahydrate—Na2O 2B2O3 10H2O (borax decahydrate, tincal),
Disodium tetraborate tetrahydrate—Na2O 2B2O3 4H2O (kernite),
Disodium tetraborate—Na2O 2B2O3 (anhydrous borax),
Sodium metaborate tetrahydrate—Na2O B2O38H2O,
Sodium metaborate dihydrate—Na2O B2O3 4H2O,
Sodium pentaborate pentahydrate—Na2O 5B2O3 10H2O,
Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate—Na2O 4B2O3 4H2O,
Boric acid—H3BO3,
Dipotassium tetraborate tetrahydrate—K2O 2B2O3 4H2O,
Potassium pentaborate tetrahydrate—K2O 5B2O3 8H2O,
Diammonium tetraborate tetrahydrate—(NH4)2O 2B2O3 4H2O,
Ammonium pentaborate tetrahydrate—(NH4)2O 5B2O3 8H2O, and
Caesium pentaborate tetrahydrate—Cs2O 5B2O3 8H2O.
25. A method according to claim 21 wherein the concentration of borate expressed as B2O3 in the continuous aqueous phase is in the range 0.1 to 150 lb/bbl.
26. A method according to claim 21 wherein the source of the alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium ions is a water soluble salt of an alkali(ne earth) metal, a water soluble ammonium salt or mixtures thereof.
27. A method according to claim 26 wherein the salt is selected from the group consisting of potassium salts, caesium salts, and ammonium salts.
28. A method according to claim 27 wherein the salt is selected from the group consisting of potassium bromide, caesium bromide, ammonium bromide, potassium chloride, caesium chloride, ammonium chloride, potassium hydroxide, caesium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide.
29. A method according to claim 26 wherein the concentration of alkali metal salt, alkaline earth metal salt or ammonium salt in the continuous aqueous phase is in the range 0.1 to 150 lb/bbl.
30. A method according to claim 21 wherein the sugar is selected from the group consisting of glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, lactose and mixtures thereof.
31. A method according to claim 21 wherein the concentration of sugar in the continuous aqueous phase is in the range 0.1 to 150 lb/bbl.
32. A method according to claim 21 wherein the composition comprises additional additives selected from the group consisting of weighting agents, viscosifiers, fluid loss control agents, defoamers, lubricants, and glycols.
33. A composition comprising (a) a continuous aqueous phase (b) a source of borate ions, (c) a source of ions selected from the group consisting of alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium ions and (d) a source of at least one sugar selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides and oligosaceharides having from 2 to 4 saceharide groups.
34. A concentrate comprising a source of borate ions, a source of ions selected from the group consisting of alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium ions and a source of at least one sugar selected from the group consisting of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides having from 2 to 4 saceharide groups dissolved or dispersed in an aqueous phase.
35. A concentrate as claimed in claim 34 wherein the concentration of borate, expressed as B2O3, is in the range 10 to 250 lb/bbl, the concentration of alkali metal salt, alkaline earth metal salt or ammonium salt is in the range 10 to 150 lb/bbl and the concentration of sugar is in the range 10 to 300 lb/bbl.
36. A concentrate as claimed in claim 34 wherein the source of borate ions is as defined in claim 3.
37. A concentrate as claimed in claim 34 wherein the source of the alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions or the ammonium ions is as defined in claim 6.
38. A concentrate as claimed in claim 34 wherein the source of the sugar is as defined in claim 10.
39. Use of a composition according to claim 33 as a drilling fluid.
US10/499,333 2001-12-17 2002-12-12 Method of stabilising clay or shale Abandoned US20050014655A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0130110A GB0130110D0 (en) 2001-12-17 2001-12-17 Composition
GB0130110.0 2001-12-17
PCT/GB2002/005635 WO2003052023A1 (en) 2001-12-17 2002-12-12 Method of stabilising clay or shale

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20050014655A1 true US20050014655A1 (en) 2005-01-20

Family

ID=9927750

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/499,333 Abandoned US20050014655A1 (en) 2001-12-17 2002-12-12 Method of stabilising clay or shale

Country Status (8)

Country Link
US (1) US20050014655A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1453932A1 (en)
AU (1) AU2002350945A1 (en)
CA (1) CA2469051A1 (en)
GB (1) GB0130110D0 (en)
NO (1) NO20042827L (en)
RU (1) RU2004122107A (en)
WO (1) WO2003052023A1 (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040099446A1 (en) * 2002-09-17 2004-05-27 M I Llc. Membrane forming in-situ polymerization for water based drilling fluid
US20080217064A1 (en) * 2007-03-09 2008-09-11 Techstar Energy Services Drilling fluid and methods
US20130333888A1 (en) * 2012-06-19 2013-12-19 Marco Tulio Rincon-Torres Self-degrading ionically cross-linked biopolymer composition for well treatment
US8703658B2 (en) 2007-03-09 2014-04-22 Canadian Energy Services L.P. Drilling fluid and methods

Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
AU2008279816B2 (en) 2007-07-26 2013-02-07 Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company Method for controlling loss of drilling fluid
US10053935B2 (en) * 2013-07-03 2018-08-21 Baker Hughes, A Ge Company, Llc Lubricating compositions for use with downhole fluids
WO2015041669A1 (en) 2013-09-20 2015-03-26 Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. Methods for enhancing and maintaining fracture conductivity after fracturing shale formations without proppant placement

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2785125A (en) * 1955-10-17 1957-03-12 Exxon Research Engineering Co Drilling muds
US3177142A (en) * 1962-06-21 1965-04-06 Texaco Inc Drilling fluid
US4257903A (en) * 1978-10-19 1981-03-24 The Dow Chemical Company Drilling fluid containing crosslinked polysaccharide derivative
US4546252A (en) * 1984-07-25 1985-10-08 Mobil Oil Corporation Method for monitoring potassium chloride concentration in drilling fluids
US4948428A (en) * 1988-09-14 1990-08-14 Baroid Technology, Inc. Grouting composition and method for grouting conduits in well bores
US5281270A (en) * 1992-02-19 1994-01-25 Halliburton Company Retarded acid soluble well cement compositions and methods
US6258756B1 (en) * 1999-01-26 2001-07-10 Spectral, Inc. Salt water drilling mud and method
US6273928B1 (en) * 1998-10-19 2001-08-14 U.S. Borax Inc. Pourable aqueous boron-containing compositions and their preparation
US20030022796A1 (en) * 2001-07-03 2003-01-30 Crews James B. Polyols for breaking of borate crosslinked fracturing fluid
US20030092584A1 (en) * 2001-11-13 2003-05-15 Crews James B. Deep water completions fracturing fluid compositions

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5445223A (en) * 1994-03-15 1995-08-29 Dowell, A Division Of Schlumberger Technology Corporation Delayed borate crosslinked fracturing fluid having increased temperature range
RU2186820C1 (en) * 2001-05-23 2002-08-10 Общество с ограниченной ответственностью "ПермНИПИнефть" Clayless drilling mud for controlled directional and horizontal holes and for exposing productive formations (versions)
  • 2001