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Sky turbine that may be mounted on top of a city

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Publication number
US20050008488A1
US20050008488A1 US10909324 US90932404A US2005008488A1 US 20050008488 A1 US20050008488 A1 US 20050008488A1 US 10909324 US10909324 US 10909324 US 90932404 A US90932404 A US 90932404A US 2005008488 A1 US2005008488 A1 US 2005008488A1
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Prior art keywords
fig
invention
sky
panels
blades
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Abandoned
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US10909324
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Manfred Brueckner
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Brueckner Manfred Karl
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D1/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially in wind direction
    • F03D1/02Wind motors with rotation axis substantially in wind direction having a plurality of rotors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D1/00Wind motors with rotation axis substantially in wind direction
    • F03D1/06Rotors
    • F03D1/0608Rotors characterised by their form
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D13/00Assembly, mounting or commissioning of wind motors; Arrangements specially adapted for transporting wind motor components
    • F03D13/20Arrangements for mounting or supporting wind motors; Masts or towers for wind motors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D80/00Details, components or accessories not provided for in groups F03D1/00 - F03D17/00
    • F03D80/40Ice detection; De-icing means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2240/00Components
    • F05B2240/20Rotors
    • F05B2240/202Rotors with adjustable area of intercepted fluid
    • F05B2240/2021Rotors with adjustable area of intercepted fluid by means of telescoping blades
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2240/00Components
    • F05B2240/20Rotors
    • F05B2240/30Characteristics of rotor blades, i.e. of any element transforming dynamic fluid energy to or from rotational energy and being attached to a rotor
    • F05B2240/31Characteristics of rotor blades, i.e. of any element transforming dynamic fluid energy to or from rotational energy and being attached to a rotor of changeable form or shape
    • F05B2240/313Characteristics of rotor blades, i.e. of any element transforming dynamic fluid energy to or from rotational energy and being attached to a rotor of changeable form or shape with adjustable flow intercepting area
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
    • F05B2240/00Components
    • F05B2240/90Mounting on supporting structures or systems
    • F05B2240/91Mounting on supporting structures or systems on a stationary structure
    • F05B2240/911Mounting on supporting structures or systems on a stationary structure already existing for a prior purpose
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. INCLUDING HOUSING AND APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/30Wind power
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG] EMISSION, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • Y02E10/721Blades or rotors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG] EMISSION, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • Y02E10/728Onshore towers

Abstract

A sky turbine, having impeller blades with a plurality of panels that can telescope inward and outward. The pitch of the panels can be adjusted, and the pitch of each panel on a blade, passing from the innermost panel to the outermost panel, differs from the pitch of the previous panel by a certain adjustable amount. The sky turbine is preferably mounted above a city at a sufficiently high elevation that air current will be generally faster than just above the ground. In the preferred embodiments, a wing with two pods is pivotally mounted on a tower. Each pod has front and rear shafts, from which four blades extend. Servomotors cause the wing to turn so that the shafts are approximately parallel to the direction the wind is blowing, cause the pitch of the panels of the blades to change, and cause the panels of the blades to move telescopingly.

Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • [0001]
    This application is based on Regular Utility patent application Ser. No. 10/051,521, filed Jan. 18, 2002.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0003]
    The present invention relates to turbines for generating electrical power from wind, which may be mounted on top of a city.
  • [0004]
    2. Description of the Prior Art
  • [0005]
    Mankind's history began in the stone age, then continued in the bronze age and the iron age, to our present age, the industrial revolution. At the present time, electricity is produced by hydroelectric dams, atomically or by the burning of hydrocarbons. Production of electricity by hydroelectric dams is limited and is also destructive to the environment. The burning of coal deposits mercury and acid rain into the environment. Toxic ash must also be disposed of. Nuclear power production is plagued with the problem of long term storage of radioactive waste. In 1954, Lewis Strauss, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, said that atomic reactors might someday produce such an abundance of energy that electricity would become “too cheap to meter”. What nuclear power failed to do, wind power using the present invention may accomplish. It will be the backbone of our next age, the solar age, in which all our energy needs are satisfied by power derived from the sun.
  • [0006]
    U.S. Pat. No. 1,757,667, issued on May 6, 1930, to Erich Hesse, discloses a device for regulating wind wheels to obtain a uniform rotational speed, by changing the pitch of their vanes with rods in the arms on which the vanes are located. The instant invention is distinguishable, in that the blades of the turbine can be telescopically extended or retracted to regulate their speed.
  • [0007]
    U.S. Pat. No. 4,065,225, issued on Dec. 27, 1977, to William D. Allison, discloses a multivane windmill, in which the pitch of the vanes can be changed in response to wind speed, to keep the speed of rotation constant. Again, the instant invention is distinguishable, in that the blades of the turbine can be telescopically extended or retracted to regulate their speed.
  • [0008]
    U.S. Pat. No. 4,257,736, issued on Mar. 24, 1981, to Dennis Jacobs, discloses a governed propeller type wind motor arrangement, in which the pitch of the blades is changed, but the blades do not telescope, as in the instant invention.
  • [0009]
    U.S. Pat. No. 4,500,259, issued on Feb. 19, 1985, to Berthold W. Schumacher, discloses a fluid flow energy converter, with several screws (or “helicoid structures”) rather than propeller-like blades, as in the instant invention. It is disclosed in column 8, lines 45-49 that, “an ideal location for a wind mill is, for instance, the roof of a high-rise building in a city. Of course, a special tower may also be built for carrying the helicoids.” But its structure in completely different from that of the instant invention.
  • [0010]
    U.S. Pat. No. 4,710,101, issued on Dec. 1, 1987, to Peter M. Jamieson, discloses a wind turbine, with each blade having a fixed inner portion and an outer portion that can move outward to lengthen the blade, to increase drag and slow down rotation of the turbine. The instant invention is distinguishable in that it has several panels, not just two, that can telescope inward or outward, and it can reduce its speed of rotation by telescoping inward.
  • [0011]
    U.S. Pat. No. 4,878,807, issued on Nov. 7, 1989, to Keith G. Baker, discloses a device for producing electricity from wind, having a vertical belt and interspaced hydrodynamic foil members. Its use in high rise buildings is disclosed in column 8, lines 13-21, but its structure is different from that of the instant invention, e.g., it has no telescoping blades.
  • [0012]
    U.S. Pat. No. 5,313,103, issued on May 17, 1994, to John J. Hickey, discloses an auger shaped fluid medium engaging member. Its use “on tops of roofs of a high rise building” is suggested in column 1, lines 66-67, but its structure is readily distinguishable from that of the instant invention, e.g., it has no telescoping blades.
  • [0013]
    U.S. Pat. No. 5,609,472, issued on Mar. 11, 1997, to Masahiro Obukata and Masaaki Nakadate, discloses a rotor blade for a rotary wing aircraft (such as a helicopter) having a different shape from the impeller blades of the instant invention.
  • [0014]
    U.S. Pat. No. 6,361,279, issued on Mar. 26, 2002, to Anne Marie Rodde, Joel Reneaux and Jean Jacques Thibert, discloses a blade profile for an aircraft rotor, again having a different shape from the impeller blades of the instant invention.
  • [0015]
    British Patent No. 252,461, complete specification accepted on May 27, 1926, inventor Kurt Bilau, discloses improvements in or related to wind-driven prime movers, including braking action by producing eddy currents in a slot or slots between displaced sections of the sail vane or the sail vane and a head piece, but not by telescoping as in the instant invention.
  • [0016]
    Japanese Patent No. 57-32074, published on Feb. 20, 1982, inventor Teru Matsumiya, discloses a wind mill, with blades having a fixed inner member and an outer member that can retract inward into the inner member to reduce the wind receiving area, or extend outward from the inner member to increase the wind receiving area. The instant invention is distinguishable in that it has not just two, but several telescoping panels, which also have an adjustable pitch.
  • [0017]
    Soviet Patent No. 992804, published on Jan. 30, 1983, discloses a wind motor rotor with telescopic blades, having a fixed part and a moving part. Again, the instant invention is distinguishable in that it has not just two, but several telescoping panels, which also have an adjustable pitch.
  • [0018]
    Electric Power from the Wind-II, Electrical World, May 12, 1945, pp. 102-104, discloses the possibility of generating electric power from wind, which is faster above the surface of the ground.
  • [0019]
    Marks' Standard Handbook, 9th Edition, 1987, p. 9-173, FIG. 9.11.18, discloses that the wind speed at an altitude of 350 meters is more than twice that on the ground.
  • [0020]
    Handbook of Airfoil Sections, Rice, Michael, 1971, p. 47, discloses that in a symmetrical airfoil, the center of pressure is stable for all angles of attack.
  • [0021]
    None of the above inventions and patents, taken either singly or in combination, is seen to describe the instant invention as claimed.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0022]
    The present invention is a sky turbine, which may be mounted atop a high rise city. Two main shafts are facing forward and two are facing aft. Both pairs are intermeshing and counter-rotating. There is no timing relationship between front and back. In fact, the front side may be shut down for maintenance while the back side continues producing power. The sky turbine is able to protect itself from high wind speeds in the sky. As the wind speed rises, the impeller blades have panels that can telescope inward, and they can also change their angle to the wind.
  • [0023]
    Accordingly, it is a principal object of the invention to produce cheap, clean, and abundant electric power for as long as there are air currents in the sky.
  • [0024]
    It is another object of the invention to produce electric power that is “too cheap to meter”.
  • [0025]
    It is a further object of the invention to reduce pollution of the environment.
  • [0026]
    Still another object of the invention is to enable dams to be dismantled and salmon and other migratory fish to return to running in rivers and streams.
  • [0027]
    It is an object of the invention to provide improved elements and arrangements thereof in an apparatus for the purposes described which is inexpensive, dependable and fully effective in accomplishing its intended purposes.
  • [0028]
    These and other objects of the present invention will become readily apparent upon further review of the following specification and drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0029]
    FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a sky turbine in the first preferred embodiment of the invention, with the blades fully extended.
  • [0030]
    FIG. 2 is a detail view of one impeller blade which is mounted at the left rear spinner.
  • [0031]
    FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a sky turbine in the first preferred embodiment of the invention with panels 2 through 4 telescoped into panel 1.
  • [0032]
    FIG. 4 is a detail view of one impeller blade which is mounted at the left rear spinner, with panels 2 through 4 telescoped into panel 1.
  • [0033]
    FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a sky turbine in the first preferred embodiment of the invention with panels 2 through 7 telescoped into panel 1.
  • [0034]
    FIG. 6 is a detail view of one impeller blade which is mounted at the left rear spinner, with panels 2 through 7 telescoped into panel 1.
  • [0035]
    FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a sky turbine in the first preferred embodiment of the invention with panels 2 through 9 telescoped into panel 1.
  • [0036]
    FIG. 8 is a detail view of one impeller blade which is mounted at the left rear spinner, with panels 2 through 9 telescoped into panel 1.
  • [0037]
    FIG. 9 is a detail view of one impeller blade which is mounted at the left rear spinner, with panels 2 through 9 telescoped into panel 1, with panel 1 having a lower pitch than in FIG. 8.
  • [0038]
    FIG. 10 is a left side elevational view of the turbine of the first preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0039]
    FIG. 11 is a top view of the first preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0040]
    FIG. 12 is a schematic front elevational view showing one blade in a first position.
  • [0041]
    FIG. 13 is a schematic front elevational view showing the blade in a second position.
  • [0042]
    FIG. 14 is a schematic front elevational view showing the blade in a third position.
  • [0043]
    FIG. 15 is a schematic front elevational view showing the blade in a fourth position.
  • [0044]
    FIG. 16 is a front elevational view of the second embodiment of the invention.
  • [0045]
    FIG. 17 is a left side elevational view of the second embodiment of the invention.
  • [0046]
    FIG. 18 is a top plan view of the second embodiment of the invention.
  • [0047]
    FIG. 19 is a sectional view drawn along lines 19-19 of FIG. 17.
  • [0048]
    FIG. 20 is a sectional view drawn along lines 20-20 of FIG. 17.
  • [0049]
    FIG. 21A and FIG. 21B are a single sectional view through a blade in either preferred embodiment of the invention, with the blade having five panels that are extended.
  • [0050]
    FIG. 22 is a sectional view through a blade in either preferred embodiment of the invention, with the blade having five panels that are retracted.
  • [0051]
    FIG. 23 is a schematic sectional view of the airfoil of the panel's skin.
  • [0052]
    FIG. 24 is a sectional view drawn along lines 24-24 of FIG. 22.
  • [0053]
    FIG. 25 is a sectional view drawn along lines 25-25 of FIG. 24.
  • [0054]
    FIG. 26 is a perspective view of the inside of the right hand pod in either preferred embodiment of the invention.
  • [0055]
    FIG. 27 is a diagram showing the relative efficiency of investment capital with respect height H.
  • [0056]
    FIG. 28 is a diagram showing the number of panels which are extended outward (out of a total of nine panels) with respect to the sky speed.
  • [0057]
    FIG. 29 is a schematic map of the Gulf of Mexico.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0058]
    FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a sky turbine in the first preferred embodiment of the invention. The invention will have this appearance when the sky speed is 2.7 meters/second (6 mph) or less. Each blade may have between five to twelve panels. The embodiment shown in FIG. 1 has nine panels, 1 through 9.
  • [0059]
    FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of one impeller blade which is mounted at the left rear spinner. The angle (or “pitch”) of the panels 1-9 is controlled by servomotors. The angles between the panels are such that the blade forms a helix.
  • [0060]
    FIG. 3 is similar to FIG. 1 but shows the invention as it would appear when the sky speed is between 5.8 and 7.6 meters/second (13 to 17 mph). Panels 2 through 4 have been telescoped into panel 1.
  • [0061]
    FIG. 4 complements FIG. 3.
  • [0062]
    FIG. 5 shows the arrangement of the invention as it would appear when it is facing a sky speed of between 14.3 and 21.5 meters/second (32 to 48 mph). Panels 2 through 7 have now been telescoped within panel 1.
  • [0063]
    FIG. 6 complements FIG. 5.
  • [0064]
    FIG. 7 shows the invention when facing a sky speed greater than 21.5 meters/second (48 mph). Also shown is arrow 10 which is indicating the direction of the wind as it approaches the invention. Tower 11 contains the stationary portion of the city. Wing 12 connects the city to the two parallel pods. The right front spinner 13 is mounted onto the right pod 14. Some of the cities most luxurious real estate is located just within the skin of the wing and pods. A weather station 15 located atop wing 12 contains an anemometer and a sky direction vane or other sensors. A computer (not shown) located near the weather station 15 communicates with and commands (via digital radio signals) the various servomotors located throughout the blades. A pair of wires (not shown) are strung the length of each spar. Continuity from spar to spar is maintained by electric brushes. Thus, power is provided to all servomotors within the blade. Servomotors are also mounted on tower 11 to keep wing 12 facing arrow 10, so that the shafts (32 in FIG. 26) that the impeller blades are connected to will be approximately parallel to the direction of the wind.
  • [0065]
    FIG. 8 complements FIG. 7.
  • [0066]
    FIG. 9 is similar to FIG. 8, but shows that the computer has set the blades to a low angle of attack as the invention faces a hurricane. This maneuver is merely a pitch change; the invention continues to produce power.
  • [0067]
    FIG. 10 is a left side elevational view of the turbine of the first preferred embodiment. Dimension H is the height as measured from the ground.
  • [0068]
    FIG. 11 is a top view of the present invention. Dimension D is the dihedral angle of the blades with respect to the spinner and dimension S is the skew angle between the spinner and the center of symmetry. The wind speed above an altitude of 350 meters (1148 feet) is more than two times the wind speed at the ground. (Marks' Standard Handbook, 9th Edition, 1987, p. 9-173, FIG. 9. 11.18). (The wind speed at these altitudes is herein referred to as the “sky speed”.) The skew angle subtracts angle of attack at the top of the swing and adds angle of attack at the bottom of the swing. With the right front blades rotating clockwise (when viewed from the front), the skew angle will automatically compensate for the difference of the sky speed at the various altitudes. When dimension H is 1.61 kilometers (1 mile) or more the skew angle is not needed.
  • [0069]
    FIG. 12 and FIG. 13 shows the telescoping of panel 1 over panel 2 in 90° of the blade swing. This is possible because the blades rotate quite slowly. The speed of the tip of the blades is about one-sixth of the speed of the wind.
  • [0070]
    Or RPM = kS s R
    whereby
  • [0072]
    RPM: revolutions per minute of the blades
  • [0073]
    k: a constant 57 (84)
  • [0074]
    SS: mean sky speed in M/S (mph)
  • [0075]
    R: the total radius of the blades in meters (feet)
  • [0076]
    The reciprocal of the RPM is the number of minutes required to complete one revolution.
  • [0077]
    The falling motion is powered by gravity and this fall is checked by servomotors located inside the blade.
  • [0078]
    FIG. 14 and FIG. 15 shows the inverse of FIG. 12 and FIG. 13. Panel 1 extends downward during 90° of blade rotation and this fall is again due to gravity.
  • [0079]
    FIG. 16 through FIG. 20 shows the various aspects of the second preferred embodiment of the invention. This embodiment differs from the first embodiment in that the wing 12 is integral with the city 18. Both are suspended by tower 17. In the version shown there is no skew angle, therefore, additional dihedral must be used. Reference 16 is a two channel rotating union allowing fresh water to enter the city and sewage to exit. FIGS. 19 and 20 are sections taken through FIG. 17.
  • [0080]
    FIG. 21A and FIG. 21B are sections through a five-paneled blade. This blade is shown at maximum extension (or “aspect ratio”) with a zero angle of attack on all panels (i.e., “full feathered”). Each panel is equipped with electrical deicing and a seal 31. This seal keeps out moisture and strips off any residual ice when the panels are in relative motion. Planetary gear 34 is a hypocycloid roller gear with pure rolling contact, that increases the speed of the main shaft 32 to 25.5 times faster than the spinner 13. (I.e., gear 34 is a smaller gear, with rollers in place of teeth, that rotates inside a larger gear with teeth on its inside.) The main shaft 32 is held to the stationary structure 35 by bearing 33. A light structural lattice 36 is provided to give the panels' airfoil a semi-monocoque strength (i.e., deriving most of its strength from its skin).
  • [0081]
    FIG. 22 is a retracted configuration of FIG. 21 (with the smallest possible aspect ratio). Typically the number of panels range between 5 and 12. The difference in aspect ratio of a fully extended blade to a fully retracted blade is a function of the total number of panels. Therefore, the more panels that are fitted, the more the aspect ratio and the size of the wind receiving surface can be changed, and the better the invention can protect itself from violent storms. Strobe light 30 warns approaching aircraft.
  • [0082]
    FIG. 23 is the airfoil of the panel's skin. This airfoil is symmetrical. The center of pressure is stable for all angles of attack. (Handbook of Airfoil Sections, Rice, Michael, 1971, p. 47). This airfoil cannot flutter (or “shimmy”). Chord C is the total length. The maximum width B is located ⅓ of the chord as measured from the front. ⅓ chord also equals ½ A.
  • [0083]
    Thus C 3 = A 2 or C 1.5 = A
    And the leading edge radius r = B 2 2 A
    Furthermore X = A 3 - 3 AB 2 + 2 B 3 4 B ( A - B )
  • [0086]
    Finally R = X + B 2
  • [0087]
    Both the chord C and dimension B may be arbitrarily chosen. Center 39 is the center of gravity of the airfoil and the axis of the telescoping octagonal mono-spar.
  • [0088]
    FIG. 24 is a section taken through FIG. 22. Each panel is equipped with two ball screws 19 through 22. (This figure has distorted proportions for the sake of clarity).
  • [0089]
    FIG. 25 is a section taken through FIG. 24.
  • [0090]
    FIG. 26 is an isometric view of the inside of the right hand pod 14. Main shaft 32 is rotating 25.5 times faster than spinner 13. Shaft 40 synchronizes the right main front shaft to the left main front shaft. The main shaft 32 is supported by pillow block 41 at its back end. Two universal joints 42 remove the skew angle before providing the nine speed gear box 43 with input. The output of this gear transmission 43 is fed into a bank of fixed displacement oil pumps 44 and also into a small bank of variable displacement pumps 45. The combined oil pumped is fed to a fixed displacement hydraulic motor 46 through pipe 47 and returned to the pumps by pipe 48. The motor 46 is directly coupled to A.C. generator 49. A small sample of electric power is taken from generator 49 by wires 50 and fed to a synchronous motor 51. The speed of motor 51 is compared by differential 52 to a clock 53. If generator 49 is operating off frequency, variable displacement pumps 45 are readjusted through feedback tube 54. A.C. power from generator 49 is supplied to all local loads by wire 55. Location 56 contains equipment to convert A.C. to D.C. This D.C. is sent worldwide by power grid 57. On rare occasions when the sky speed falls below 4 mph, the sky turbine may no longer have sufficient strength to supply its designated area with A.C. power. In that situation, D.C. power is borrowed from grid 57 and converted back to A.C. by 56 to be used locally through wires 55.
  • [0091]
    FIG. 27 shows the relative efficiency of investment capital with respect to dimension H. Eiffel's tower (in Paris, France) 58 is shown for height comparison. When the H dimension is doubled, the electric power is increased four times and the city's real estate is eight times more. Investment capital is largely recovered by the selling and renting of the city's real estate.
  • [0092]
    FIG. 28 shows the number of panels which are extended outward (out of a total of nine panels) with respect to the sky speed.
  • [0093]
    FIG. 29 is a map of the Gulf of Mexico, depicting hypothetical locations of my invention 59. Also shown is the worldwide D.C. power grid 57, including submerged portions 57 a. The local area 60 is supplied with A.C. power from wires 55 in FIG. 26.
  • [0094]
    In operation, weather station 15 reports to the computer that the sky speed has increased over 2.7 meters/second (6 mph). (See FIG. 28). The computer decides that it is time to retract panel 1 over panel 2. The computer then instructs panel 1 to align itself to panel 2, using simultaneously servomotors 27 and 28. (See FIG. 21B). It then instructs servomotor 37 to relax wedge 38. (See FIG. 25). Spar 25 is now free to slide down spar 26. (See FIG. 21B and FIG. 25). As panel 1 falls over panel 2, servomotor 23 decelerates this fall by using ball screw 20 and ball nut 24. Panel 1 then reaches its retracted position gently. Servomotor 37 then reactivates wedge 38 and a snug fit between spars 25 and 26 is re-established. All of this action takes place within 90° of blade rotation as shown in FIG. 12 and FIG. 13 and it is predominantly gravity driven.

Claims (17)

1. A sky turbine, comprising:
at least one shaft; and
blades extending from the shaft, each blade having at least three telescoping panels.
2. The sky turbine according to claim 1, wherein pressure of air current against the blades causes rotation of the shafts, which is used to generate electricity.
3. The sky turbine according to claim 2, mounted at a sufficiently high elevation that air current will be generally more rapid than on the ground.
4. The sky turbine according to claim 3, mounted above a city.
5. The sky turbine according to claim 4, mounted at the top of a tower containing the city.
6. The sky turbine according to claim 1, wherein the angles of the panels of the blades are adjustable.
7. The sky turbine according to claim 6, wherein there are two parallel pods, with each pod having two opposite ends containing one of the shafts, with the blades extending radially outward from the shaft in each end.
8. The sky turbine according to claim 7, wherein the pods are retained on a wing that can pivot on a vertical axis.
9. The sky turbine according to claim 8, wherein wind speed and direction are detected by sensors that communicate with a computer, and servomotors controlled by the computer cause the wing to turn so that the shafts are approximately parallel to the direction the wind is blowing, and minimize changes in the speed of rotation by causing the angles of the panels of the blades to change and the panels of the blades to move telescopingly.
10. The sky turbine according to claim 9, wherein when the blades telescope inward, the panels of the blades nearer to the shaft are nested within the panels of the blades further from the shaft.
11. The sky turbine according to claim 10, wherein the angles of the panels of each blade are such that the blade forms a helix.
12. The sky turbine according to claim 11, wherein one end of each pod is a front end, and the other end of each pod is a rear end, and the shafts in the front ends of the pods rotate independently of the shafts in the rear ends of the pods.
13. The sky turbine according to claim 12, wherein the shafts and blades on the front ends of the pods intermesh and counter-rotate, and the shafts and blades on the rear ends of the pods intermesh and counter-rotate.
14. The sky turbine according to claim 13, wherein each panel of the blades is equipped with electrical deicing and a moisture-proof seal, and is strengthened by a light structural lattice.
15. The sky turbine according to claim 14, wherein planetary gears increase the speed of the shafts.
16. The sky turbine according to claim 15, wherein each of the panels of each of the blades is a symmetrical airfoil having:
a. a chord (C) as its length,
b. a width (B),
c. a dimension (A) which is,
A = 2 C 3
d. a leading edge radius (r),
r = B 2 2 A
e. a line (M) perpendicular to the chord (C) and located at the dimension (A) from a trailing edge,
f. a dimension (X),
X = A 3 - 3 AB 2 + 2 B 3 4 B ( A - B )
g. a radius (R) centered on the line (M),
R = X + B 2
and
h. a straight portion, tangent to the radius (R) and the trailing edge.
17. A symmetrical airfoil comprising:
a. a chord (C) as its length,
b. a width (B),
c. a dimension (A) which is,
A = 2 C 3
d. a leading edge radius (r),
r = B 2 2 A
e. a line (M) perpendicular to the chord (C) and located at the dimension (A) from a trailing edge,
f. a dimension (X),
X = A 3 - 3 AB 2 + 2 B 2 4 B ( A - B )
g. a radius (R) centered on the line (M),
R = X + B 2
and
h. a straight portion, tangent to the radius (R) and the trailing edge.
US10909324 2002-01-18 2004-08-03 Sky turbine that may be mounted on top of a city Abandoned US20050008488A1 (en)

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US20090148290A1 (en) * 2007-06-06 2009-06-11 Garver Theodore M Wind turbine and method of operating same
US20130183160A1 (en) * 2011-09-15 2013-07-18 3 Phase Energy Systems, Inc. Wind generator hub assembly with hybrid sail blades
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US20130183160A1 (en) * 2011-09-15 2013-07-18 3 Phase Energy Systems, Inc. Wind generator hub assembly with hybrid sail blades
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US9394046B2 (en) 2011-11-16 2016-07-19 Ecological Energy Company Fluid interface device as well as apparati and methods including same

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