New! View global litigation for patent families

US20050002842A1 - Nox hg and so2 removal using ammonia - Google Patents

Nox hg and so2 removal using ammonia Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20050002842A1
US20050002842A1 US10497888 US49788804A US2005002842A1 US 20050002842 A1 US20050002842 A1 US 20050002842A1 US 10497888 US10497888 US 10497888 US 49788804 A US49788804 A US 49788804A US 2005002842 A1 US2005002842 A1 US 2005002842A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
gas
stream
ammonium
process
ammonia
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10497888
Inventor
Joanna Duncan
Christopher McLarnon
Francis Alix
Original Assignee
Joanna Duncan
Mclarnon Christopher
Francis Alix
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/60Simultaneously removing sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2251/00Reactants
    • B01D2251/30Alkali metal compounds
    • B01D2251/304Alkali metal compounds of sodium
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2251/00Reactants
    • B01D2251/60Inorganic bases or salts
    • B01D2251/604Hydroxides
    • Y02A50/2344
    • Y02A50/2345
    • Y02A50/2349

Abstract

A process and apparatus for removing SO?2#191, NO, and NO?2#191 from a gas stream having the steps of oxidizing (60) a portion of the NO in the flue gas stream to NO?2#191, scrubbing (62) the SO?2#191, NO, and NO?2#191 with an ammonia scrubbing solution, and removing (64) any ammonia aerosols generated by the scrubbing in a wet electrostatic precipitator. The process can also remove Hg by oxidizing it to HgO and removing it in the wet electrostatic precipitator. Ammonium sulfate, a valuable fertilizer, can be withdrawn from the scrubbing solution.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF INVENTION
  • [0001]
    a. Field of the Invention
  • [0002]
    This invention relates to methods and apparatuses for removing NOx and SO2 from a gas stream.
  • [0003]
    b. Description of the Related Art
  • [0004]
    Fossil fuels are burned in many industrial processes. Electric power producers, for example, burn large quantities of coal, oil, and natural gas. Sulfur dioxide (“SO2”), nitrogen oxide (“NO”), and nitrogen dioxide (“NO2”) are some of the unwanted byproducts of burning any type of fossil fuel. Mercury (“Hg”) is often also found in fossil fuels. These byproducts are known to have serious negative health effects on people, animals, and plants, and a great deal of research has been done to find a way to economically remove them from flue gas streams before they enter the atmosphere.
  • [0005]
    SO2 is often removed from gas streams (“desulfurization”) by scrubbing the gas with an aqueous ammonium sulfate solution containing ammonia. Examples of this process are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,690,807, 5,362,458, 6,277,343, and 6,221,325, which are not admitted to be prior art by their mention in this Background section. The absorbed sulfur compounds react with ammonia to form ammonium sulfite and ammonium bisulfite, which are then oxidized to form ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate. The ammonium bisulfate is further ammoniated to form ammonium sulfate. The process does not remove NO or NO2, however, which must then be dealt with using a different process.
  • [0006]
    NO and NO2 (together known as “NOx”) can be removed from a gas stream by contacting the gas stream with either ClO2 or O3 to convert NO into NO2, and then scrubbing with an aqueous solution of a sulfur-containing reducing compound of alkali metals or ammonia, and a catalytic compound. Such a process is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,029,739, by Senjo et al., which is not admitted to be prior art by its mention in this Background section. This process, however, does not remove SO2, and requires the addition of chlorine or ozone into the system by some other means.
  • [0007]
    Some processes exist that remove both NOx and SO2. In one such process disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,035,470, by Senjo et al., which is not admitted to being prior art by its mention in this Background section, NO is oxidized to NO2 by contacting the gas with either ClO2 or O3 as above. Then the SO2 is scrubbed with a sulfite and an oxidation retardant that suppresses oxidation of the sulfite to sulfate. Iron or copper compounds can also be added to depress oxidation. Optionally, ammonium hydroxide can be added to make sulfite and to react with CO2 in the gas stream to make carbonate. Like in U.S. Pat. No. 4,029,739 mentioned above, this process requires the addition of either chlorine or ozone, and further requires a consumable sulfite oxidation retardant. The referenced patent did not mention whether the byproducts included any valuable material like ammonium sulfate. However, both U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,029,739 and 4,035,470 require the addition of chlorine to a gas stream that is eventually released to the atmosphere, creating a serious safety concern.
  • [0008]
    Yet another process for removing NOx and SO2 from a gas stream is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,971,777, by Firnhaber et al., which is not admitted to be prior art by its inclusion in this Background section. In this process, NO is oxidized to NO2 by the addition of organic compounds which decompose into radicals at high temperatures. Then an aqueous ammonia solution in which the pH is adjusted to be below 5.0 absorbs the NOx and SO2. Firnhaber teaches the importance of holding the scrubbing solution to a low pH, since higher pH levels produce aerosols of the ammonia salts that he says is an environmental burden to be thwarted. Ammonia aerosols are formed by gas phase reactions of ammonia vapor in the scrubber and create a blue haze or white vapor that emanates from the stack. This is also called “ammonia slip.” Free ammonia in the atmosphere would be a serious health and environmental hazard. Firnhaber dismisses the possibility of aerosol removal means due to prohibitive investment costs and high pressure loss, for instance.
  • [0009]
    What is needed, therefore, is a cost-effective process that removes SO2, NO, and NO2 from a gas stream that does not require the addition of a catalyst, chlorine, or ozone, can occur at relatively high pH, and does not result in ammonia slip.
  • SUMMARY OF INVENTION
  • [0010]
    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus that removes SO2, NO, and NO2 from a gas stream that does not require the addition of a catalyst, chlorine, or ozone, occurs at a relatively high pH, and does not result in ammonia slip. A process that satisfies these needs comprises the steps of oxidizing NO to NO2, scrubbing SO2, NO, and NO2 from the flue gas stream with an ammonia scrubbing solution having a pH between six and eight, and removing any ammonia aerosols generated by the scrubbing steps with an aerosol removal means. These and other features, aspects, and advantages of the present invention will become better understood with reference to the following description, drawings, and claims.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • [0011]
    FIG. 1 is a process flow chart showing the process of the present invention.
  • [0012]
    FIG. 2 is a cut-away view of an apparatus according to the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0013]
    The present invention is a process and apparatus for removing SO2, NO, and NO2 from a gas stream, especially from the flue gas stream of a fossil fuel boiler. In practice, flue gas from the combustion of fossil fuel nearly always contains more NO than NO2, and often contains Hg, which can also be removed from the gas stream by this invention.
  • [0014]
    The inventors are familiar with methods and apparatuses for removing SO2 and NOx from gas streams. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,871,703, and 6,117,403 teach the use of an electrical discharge apparatus to oxidize SO2 and NOx to form sulfuric and nitric acids respectively, collecting the acids in a wet electrostatic precipitator (“WESP”) to form an effluent, and processing the effluent to make industrial grade acids that can be sold. The inventors on these two patents are Alix, Neister, and McLarnon, two of whom are inventors of the present invention. U.S. Pat. No. 6,132,692 teaches the use of a dielectric barrier discharge (“DBD”) reactor to form the same acids, collecting them in a WESP, and draining them from the WESP to remove them from a gas stream. The inventors on this patent are Alix, Neister, McLarnon, and Boyle, two of whom are inventors of the present invention. The above three patents were owned by the owner of the present invention as of the filing date of this specification. They are hereby incorporated by reference as if completely rewritten herein.
  • [0015]
    The present invention comprises a three-step process as shown in FIG. 1. A gas stream comprising SO2, NO, NO2, and perhaps Hg, are present prior to the first step 60. The first step 60 is oxidizing at least a portion of the NO in the flue gas to NO2 with an oxidizing means. The means selected should be able to oxidize greater than about two percent of the NO to NO2, and is preferably in the region of about ninety percent.
  • [0016]
    The oxidizing step should be adjusted so that the resulting mole ratio of SO2 to NO2 after the oxidizing step should be at least 2.5 to 1. The ratio is preferably four to one, but can be greater. The oxidizing means 60 can be any means known in the art, including but not limited to using an electrical discharge reactor, and injecting ClO2, O3 or certain organic compounds. For example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,029,739 and 4,035,470 teach converting NO to NO2 by the addition of ClO2 or O3 into the gas stream. U.S. Pat. No. 4,971,777 teaches the addition of certain organic compounds that decompose into radicals at high temperatures.
  • [0017]
    Examples of suitable electrical discharge reactors include corona, pulsed corona, e-beam, and DBD. DBD is synonymously referred to as silent discharge and non-thermal plasma discharge. It is not the same as corona discharge or pulsed corona discharge. The preferred embodiment uses a DBD reactor, such as that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,132,692, by Alix, et al. In practice, the operator of the process will adjust the power input to the reactor to attain the desired oxidation results as a function of the cost of power input to the reactor, desired scrubbing results, and other factors. Laboratory testing has shown that oxidation of at least 90% of the NO and Hg is readily attainable with the present invention.
  • [0018]
    As taught in U.S. Pat. No. 6,132,692, a DBD reactor will oxidize at least a portion of the NO and NO2 in a gas stream to nitric acid, and at least a portion of the SO2 in a gas stream to sulfuric acid. These acids are dealt with in the next step of the process.
  • [0019]
    If oxidizing means other than an electrical discharge reactor is used, Hg may or may not be oxidized to HgO. On the other hand, it is possible, and perhaps desirable, that some of the NO and NO2 becomes further oxidized to form HNO3 regardless of the means used. The reason why this may be desirable will be made clear later in this specification.
  • [0020]
    Another oxidizing means 60 is adding ethylene or propylene to the flue gas followed by oxidizing NO to NO2 in the electrical discharge reactor. This would have the advantage of reducing the power input requirement of the electrical discharge reactor to get the same amount of NO to NO2 oxidation. Ethylene can be added in about a 2:1 molar ratio of ethylene to NO. The chemical reaction mechanisms for ethylene conversion of NO to NO2 in an electrical discharge reactor are likely to be as follows:
    C2H4+OH-->HOCH2CH2  (1)
    HOCH2CH2+O2-->HOC2H4OO  (2)
    NO+HOC2H4OO-->NO2+HOC2H4O  (3)
    HOC2H4O+O2-->HOCH2CHO+HO2  (4)
    NO+HO2-->NO2+OH  (5)
    In any event, the output gas stream comprises less NO, more NO2, SO2, perhaps HNO3, perhaps H2SO4, and perhaps HgO, as shown in FIG. 1.
  • [0022]
    The second step 62 is scrubbing at least a portion of the SO2, NO, and NO2 present in the gas stream with an aqueous ammonia scrubbing solution. The term “scrubbing” typically means “absorbing” to people having skill in the art, meaning that SO2, NO, and NO2 is absorbed by the aqueous solution. However, it is intended that the term “scrubbing”as used in this specification also includes adding anhydrous ammonia gas to initiate the reactions leading to the oxidation of SO2 and reduction of NO2.
  • [0023]
    The solution preferably comprises ammonia, ammonium sulfite, ammonium sulfate, and water. The solution preferably has a pH between six and eight, which is much higher than that taught by Firnhaber. Firnhaber teaches that the pH must be kept to less than five, and is preferably 4.5, to prevent the formation of aerosols. However, the present invention is not concerned with avoiding the formation of aerosols because it includes an aerosol removal means 64, described later in this specification.
  • [0024]
    Maintaining a relatively high pH has several benefits. It increases the speed of absorption of SO2. It increases the ratio of sulfite available in solution compared to bisulfite, which facilitates the oxidation of SO2 and reduction of NO2. The ratio of sulfite to bisulfite is highly dependent on pH level. From these benefits, it follows that the absorption vessel, shown as item 44 in FIG. 2, can be substantially smaller than that used to scrub the same amount of SO2 in a conventional limestone scrubber which is the most typical SO2 scrubber in use today. In addition, the amount of scrubbing liquid required and the liquid to gas ratio can be reduced. It is estimated that the size of the absorption vessel 44 can be reduced by half, and the liquid to gas ratio can be reduced by a third. Because the cost of the absorption vessel and liquid circulating equipment represent a large fraction of the total cost of a scrubber, the ability to substantially reduce the size of the vessel and associated pumps and piping is a major advantage of the present invention over the prior art.
  • [0025]
    Although FIG. 1 shows ammonia being added at this step, ammonia in the form of ammonium hydroxide can be added instead. The ammonia reacts with the gas stream output from the oxidizing step, forming ammonium sulfite and ammonium bisulfite. The likely chemical reactions in this step are as follows:
    NH3+H2O+SO2-->NH4HSO3  (6)
    NH4HSO3+NH3-->(NH4)2SO3  (7)
    2NH4OH+SO2-->(NH4)2SO3+H2O  (8)
  • [0026]
    An oxidation inhibitor can be added at this step to inhibit the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate before the sulfite can perform its NO2 reduction function. Examples of oxidation inhibitors include thiosulfate and thiourea.
  • [0027]
    The ammonium bisulfite and ammonium sulfite reacts with the NO and NO2 to form ammonium sulfate. Ammonium sulfate is well known as a valuable agricultural fertilizer. The likely reactions that take place in this step are as follows:
    2NO2+4(NH4)2SO3-->4(NH4)2SO4+N2  (9)
    NO+NO2+3(NH4)2SO3-->3(NH4)2SO4+N2  (10)
  • [0028]
    Most of the HNO3 that may have been formed by further oxidation of NO and NO2, and/or created by a DBD reactor, will react with ammonia and form ammonium nitrate, also known to be a valuable agricultural fertilizer, according to the following formula:
    HNO3+NH3-->NH4NO3  (11)
  • [0029]
    In a similar way, most of the sulfuric acid created by the DBD reactor will react with the solution and form ammonium bisulfate and ammonium sulfate. As one can see from the above equations, the process removes SO2, NO, and NO2 from the gas stream, and produces ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and nitrogen. Over time, the ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate will concentrate in the aqueous ammonia solution and precipitate out of solution. The solid precipitate can then be removed from the scrubber and processed for use as fertilizer.
  • [0030]
    The gas stream after the scrubbing step comprises nitrogen and water. Since the pH of the scrubbing solution is higher than about five, the output from the scrubbing step will likely contain ammonia aerosols. If not collected in the scrubbing solution, the gas stream will also contain HgO.
  • [0031]
    The third step 64 is removing at least a portion of the ammonia aerosols and the HgO, if present, from the gas stream. A wet electrostatic precipitator (“WESP”) may be used as the aerosol removal means. A WESP is effective at collecting ammonia aerosols, HgO, and any other aerosols or particles that may be present in the gas stream.
  • [0032]
    As a result of this three-step process, SO2, NO, NO2, and Hg are removed from a gas stream to provide ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. The output of the aerosol removal means comprises N2 as a result of the process of the present invention.
  • [0033]
    An apparatus according to the present invention is shown in FIG. 2. A gas stream comprising SO2, NO, NO2, and perhaps Hg 14 enters the apparatus assisted by a forced draft fan 12. The gas then enters a means for oxidizing 10 at least a portion of the NO in the gas stream to NO2. The oxidation means 10 performs the oxidizing step 60 shown in FIG. 1, which is more fully described above. In the preferred embodiment, at least one DBD reactor is used, and can be provided in modules 16 to facilitate manufacture and installation. At least one power supply and controller is required to operate a DBD reactor, which are selected by those having skill in the art, but are not shown in the drawings.
  • [0034]
    After the oxidation means 10, the gas stream 18 comprises SO2, less NO, more NO2, perhaps HNO3, perhaps H2SO4 and perhaps HgO. The gas stream temperature at this point is about 177° C. (350° F.). The gas stream then enters a scrubbing vessel 44 in a region 19 over an aqueous ammonium sulfate solution 22. Preferably, the aqueous ammonium sulfate solution comprises ammonia, ammonium sulfite, ammonium sulfate, and water. Water in the ammonium sulfate solution 22 evaporates due to the heat of the gas stream 18, thus concentrating ammonium sulfate solution 15, which is then removed from the vessel 44. The removed ammonium sulfate solution 15 can processed by industry standard means to produce a saleable fertilizer product.
  • [0035]
    Air or other oxidizers 17 may be introduced into the ammonium sulfate solution 22 for oxidizing ammonium sulfite into ammonium sulfate. Ammonium sulfate solution 22 is pumped with a circulation pump 50 to a set of lower spray nozzles 24 that serve to cool and saturate the gas stream 18 with water vapor, and to a bubble cap tray 36 to absorb ammonia vapors.
  • [0036]
    Another circulation loop is provided wherein aqueous ammonium sulfite and sulfate in a vessel 48 is pumped with a circulation pump 52 to a set of upper spray nozzles 34. The liquid then falls to a dual flow tray 30. A separator tray 26 allows some of the liquid to fall into the ammonium sulfate solution 22, and the remainder is piped to the vessel 48. Additional makeup ammonia 32 is added to the upper spray nozzles 34. These two circulation loops, independently or together, perform the scrubbing step 62 of FIG. 1, which is described in detail above.
  • [0037]
    Following the scrubbing loops, a WESP 40 is provided to remove any ammonia aerosols or HgO that may have formed earlier in the process. The WESP 40 is preferably a shell-and-tube type of WESP, but can be a plate type, or any WESP such as is known by those having skill in the art. The WESP 40 is wetted using a set of sprays 42 fed with water via a conduit 20. A mist eliminator 38 can be provided below the WESP 40. The WESP 40 is an example of the aerosol removal means 64 described in FIG. 1. The gas stream 46 exiting the WESP 40 has considerably less NOx and SO2 than that which entered the process and apparatus, and has an increased amount of the reaction products, which are nitrogen and water.
  • [0038]
    The following laboratory-scale examples of the process demonstrate the efficacy of the present invention:
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • [0039]
    An absorption test was done for the scrubbing step of the process of the present invention, with a solution that was 1% w/w SO3 2− (“sulfite”), 6% w/w SO4 2− (“sulfate”), and 2.5% S2O3 2− (“thiosulfate”) in a packed column that was 46 cm (18 inches) high and 3.8 cm (1.5 inches) in diameter. The column was packed with 0.64 cm ({fraction (1/4)} inch) glass RASCHIG rings. The simulated flue gas at the inlet of the column contained 13% v/v moisture, 6% v/v O2 and the simulated flue gas pollutants listed in the table. There was continuous addition of NH3 and (NH4)2S2O3 to maintain a pH of 6.8 and a thiosulfate concentration of 2.5% w/w. The residence time in the column was 1.8 sec with an L/G ratio of 56 lpm/kacm·hr (25 gpm/kacfm).
  • [0040]
    The table shows the concentrations of NO, NO2, and SO2 at the inlet and outlet of the test system.
    TABLE 1
    Scrubbing Step Alone
    System Inlet System Outlet
    NO (ppmv) 20 4
    NO2 (ppmv) 250 36
    SO2 (ppmv) 1370 2
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • [0041]
    An absorption test was done for the scrubbing step of the process of the present invention starting with water and a flue gas stream consisting of 13% v/v moisture, 17 ppmv NO, 267 ppmv NO2, 1360 ppmv SO2, 6% v/v ° 2 and balance N2. Ammonia and ammonium thiosulfate were added to maintain a pH of 6.8 and a thiosulfate concentration of 2.5%, and the concentrations of sulfite and sulfate in the system were allowed to build to steady state. The NOx removal rate was 80% w/w at concentrations of SO3 2−, SO4 2− and S2O3 2− of 0.7% w/w, 2.5% w/w, and 0.5% w/w respectively.
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • [0042]
    Tests were conducted in a laboratory test facility for the NO oxidizing, scrubbing, and aerosol removal steps of the process of the present invention. The equipment consisted of a simulated flue gas delivery system, a coaxial cylinder DBD reactor, a packed column scrubber and a tubular WESP. The following is an example of data obtained in the lab test facility. Simulated flue gas was delivered to the DBD reactor at a flow rate of 14 scfm, a temperature of 290° F. and with the following composition: 6.2% v/v O2, 14.2% v/v CO2, 8.2% v/v H2O, 20 ppmv CO, 250 ppmv C2H4, 1740 ppmv SO2, and 259 ppmv NOx. Gas velocity through the discharge reactor was 15 m/s (50 ft/sec) with discharge power level of 140 watts. Gas from the discharge reactor entered a 10 cm (4 inch) ID packed column scrubber, packed with 1.3 cm ({fraction (1/2)} inch) INTALOX saddles to a depth of 1.2 m (4 feet). Liquid was introduced at the top of the scrubber at a flow rate of 1.2 lpm (0.33 gpm), L/G=44 lpm/kacm·hr (20 gpm/kacfm). Aqueous ammonia was added to and effluent liquid removed from the recirculating scrubber solution to maintain a constant total liquid volume and solution pH at 6.6. Gas from the packed bed scrubber was treated in a 10 cm (4 inch) ID wetted wall electrostatic precipitator with a gas residence time of 0.7 seconds. The table below shows the concentrations of NO, NO2 and SO2 at the inlet to the system, the outlet of the barrier discharge reactor and at the outlet of the system.
    TABLE 2
    Three Step Process
    Discharge Reactor System
    System Inlet Outlet Outlet
    NO (ppmv) 254 45 32
    NO2 (ppmv) 5 109 9
    SO2 (ppmv) 1740 1598 1
  • [0043]
    The three-step process and apparatus described herein was designed specifically to treat flue gas from a coal fired power plant. However, it can be appreciated that the invention is capable of operating on any gas stream in which NOx and SO2 are present, including but not limited to gas and oil-fired boilers and various chemical manufacturing processes. The NOx and SO2 concentrations and operating conditions will be different in each situation. Therefore, it is understood that an operator or system designer will be motivated to modify the scrubbing step 62 to possibly eliminate the need for either one or both the oxidizing step 60 or the aerosol removal step 64, or combine the three elements somehow so that fewer than three steps are needed.
  • [0044]
    It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit of the present invention. Accordingly, it is intended to encompass within the appended claims all such changes and modifications that fall within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (29)

  1. 1. A process for removing SO2, NO, and NO2 from a gas stream comprising the steps of
    a. oxidizing at least a portion of NO in a gas stream to NO2 with an oxidizing means resulting in a mole ratio of SO2 to NO2 of between 2.5 to 1 and 4 to 1, followed by
    b. scrubbing at least a portion of SO2, NO, and NO2 from the gas stream with a scrubbing solution
    comprising ammonia, and
    having a pH between 6 and 8, and
    c. removing at least a portion of any ammonia aerosols generated from the scrubbing step from the gas stream with an aerosol removal means.
  2. 2. The process of claim 1, wherein said oxidizing means is an electrical discharge reactor.
  3. 3. The process of claim 2, wherein said electrical discharge reactor is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor.
  4. 4. The process of claim 3, further comprising the step of oxidizing at least a portion of the NO to HNO3 with said dielectric barrier discharge reactor.
  5. 5. The process of claim 1, wherein said oxidizing means comprises injecting ethylene or propylene.
  6. 6. The process of claim 1, wherein said oxidizing step is adapted to result in a mole ratio of SO2 to NO2 of at least four to one.
  7. 7. The process of claim 1, said scrubbing solution
    comprising ammonia, ammonium sulfite, ammonium sulfate, and water, and
    having a pH between 6 and 8.
  8. 8. The process of claim 1, wherein said aerosol removal means is a wet electrostatic precipitator.
  9. 9. The process of claim 1, wherein said scrubbing step results in the formation of ammonium sulfate, the process further comprising the step of withdrawing ammonium sulfate from the scrubbing solution.
  10. 10. The process of claim 4, wherein said scrubbing step results in the formation of ammonium nitrate, the process further comprising the step of withdrawing ammonium nitrate from the scrubbing solution.
  11. 11. A process for removing SO2, NO, NO2, and Hg from a gas stream comprising the steps of
    a. oxidizing at least a portion of the NO in a gas stream to NO2, and at least a portion of the Hg in a gas stream to HgO, with an oxidizing means resulting in a mole ratio of SO2 to NO2 of between 2.5 to 1 and 4 to 1, followed by
    b. scrubbing at least a portion of the SO2, NO, and NO2 from the gas stream with a scrubbing solution
    comprising ammonia, and
    having a pH between 6 and 8, and
    c. removing at least a portion of any ammonia aerosols generated from the scrubbing step, and HgO, from the gas stream with an aerosol removal means.
  12. 12. The process of claim 11, wherein said oxidizing means comprising a dielectric discharge reactor.
  13. 13. The process of claim 11, wherein said oxidizing means comprising injecting ethylene or propylene.
  14. 14. The process of claim 11, wherein said aerosol removal means is a wet electrostatic precipitator.
  15. 15. The process of claim 11, said scrubbing solution comprising ammonia, ammonium sulfite, ammonium sulfate, and water, and having a pH between 6 and 8.
  16. 16. The process of claim 15, wherein said scrubbing step results in the formation of ammonium sulfate, the process further comprising the step of withdrawing ammonium sulfate from the scrubbing solution.
  17. 17. An apparatus for removing SO2, NO, and NO2 from a gas stream comprising
    a. an oxidizing means for oxidizing at least a portion of the NO in a gas stream to NO2, followed by
    b. a scrubber suitably adapted to scrub at least a portion of the SO2, NO, and NO2 from the gas stream with a scrubbing solution
    comprising ammonia, and
    having a pH between 6 and 8, and
    c. an aerosol removal means for removing at least a portion of any ammonia aerosols generated by the scrubber from the gas stream.
  18. 18. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein said oxidizing means is at least one electrical discharge reactor.
  19. 19. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein said electrical discharge reactor is at least one dielectric barrier discharge reactor.
  20. 20. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein said dielectric barrier discharge reactor is adapted to oxidize at least a portion of the NO to NO2 and HNO3.
  21. 21. The apparatus of claim 17, said scrubbing solution
    comprising ammonia, ammonium sulfite, ammonium sulfate, and water, and having a pH between 6 and 8.
  22. 22. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein said aerosol removal means is at least one wet electrostatic precipitator.
  23. 23. An apparatus for removing SO2, NO, NO2, and Hg from a gas stream comprising
    a. an oxidizing means for oxidizing at least a portion of the NO in a gas stream to NO2, and at least a portion of the Hg in a gas stream to HgO, followed by
    b. a scrubber suitably adapted to scrub at least a portion of the SO2, NO, and NO2 from the gas stream with a scrubbing solution
    comprising ammonia, and
    having a pH between 6 and 8, and
    c. an aerosol removal means for removing at least a portion of any ammonia aerosols generated by the scrubber, and HgO, from the gas stream.
  24. 24. An apparatus for removing SO2, NO, and NO2 from a gas stream comprising
    a. an NO oxidizer adapted to oxidize at least a portion of the NO in a gas stream to NO2, followed by
    b. a scrubber adapted to scrub at least a portion of the SO2, NO, and NO2 from the gas stream with a scrubbing solution
    comprising ammonia, and
    having a pH between 6 and 8, and
    c. an aerosol remover adapted to remove at least a portion of any ammonia aerosols generated by the scrubber from the gas stream.
  25. 25. The apparatus of claim 24, wherein said NO oxidizer is at least one electrical discharge reactor.
  26. 26. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein said electrical discharge reactor is at least one dielectric barrier discharge reactor.
  27. 27. The apparatus of claim 26, wherein said dielectric barrier discharge reactor is adapted to oxidize at least a portion of the NO to NO2 and HNO3.
  28. 28. The apparatus of claim 24, said scrubbing solution comprising ammonia, ammonium sulfite, ammonium sulfate, and water, and having a pH between 6 and 8.
  29. 29. The apparatus of claim 24, wherein said aerosol remover is at least one wet electrostatic precipitator.
US10497888 2001-12-06 2002-12-06 Nox hg and so2 removal using ammonia Abandoned US20050002842A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09683267 US6936231B2 (en) 2001-12-06 2001-12-06 NOx, Hg, and SO2 removal using ammonia
US10497888 US20050002842A1 (en) 2001-12-06 2002-12-06 Nox hg and so2 removal using ammonia
PCT/US2002/039095 WO2003050039A1 (en) 2001-12-06 2002-12-06 Nox, hg, and so2 removal using ammonia

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10497888 US20050002842A1 (en) 2001-12-06 2002-12-06 Nox hg and so2 removal using ammonia

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09683267 Continuation US6936231B2 (en) 2001-12-06 2001-12-06 NOx, Hg, and SO2 removal using ammonia

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20050002842A1 true true US20050002842A1 (en) 2005-01-06

Family

ID=24743270

Family Applications (5)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09683267 Expired - Fee Related US6936231B2 (en) 2001-12-06 2001-12-06 NOx, Hg, and SO2 removal using ammonia
US09683663 Expired - Fee Related US6605263B2 (en) 2001-12-06 2002-01-31 Sulfur dioxide removal using ammonia
US10064280 Expired - Fee Related US7052662B2 (en) 2001-12-06 2002-06-28 NOx, Hg, and SO2 removal using alkali hydroxide
US10064736 Expired - Fee Related US7048899B2 (en) 2001-12-06 2002-08-12 Removing NOx, SO2, and Hg from a gas stream using limestone regeneration
US10497888 Abandoned US20050002842A1 (en) 2001-12-06 2002-12-06 Nox hg and so2 removal using ammonia

Family Applications Before (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09683267 Expired - Fee Related US6936231B2 (en) 2001-12-06 2001-12-06 NOx, Hg, and SO2 removal using ammonia
US09683663 Expired - Fee Related US6605263B2 (en) 2001-12-06 2002-01-31 Sulfur dioxide removal using ammonia
US10064280 Expired - Fee Related US7052662B2 (en) 2001-12-06 2002-06-28 NOx, Hg, and SO2 removal using alkali hydroxide
US10064736 Expired - Fee Related US7048899B2 (en) 2001-12-06 2002-08-12 Removing NOx, SO2, and Hg from a gas stream using limestone regeneration

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (5) US6936231B2 (en)
CN (1) CN1326767C (en)
CA (1) CA2469321C (en)
WO (1) WO2003050039A1 (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030012718A1 (en) * 2001-07-11 2003-01-16 Battelle Memorial Institute Processes and apparatuses for treating halogen-containing gases
US20030161774A1 (en) * 2001-07-11 2003-08-28 Battelle Memorial Institute Processes and apparatuses for treating halogen-containing gases
CN102160961A (en) * 2011-02-25 2011-08-24 华北电力大学 Dielectric barrier discharge reactor, fume desulfurization and denitration system and desulfurizating and denitrating process

Families Citing this family (50)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6969494B2 (en) * 2001-05-11 2005-11-29 Continental Research & Engineering, Llc Plasma based trace metal removal apparatus and method
EP1458474A1 (en) * 2001-12-21 2004-09-22 Enviroscrub Technologies Corporation Pretreatment and regeneration of oxides of manganese
US7232782B2 (en) * 2002-03-06 2007-06-19 Enviroscrub Technologies Corp. Regeneration, pretreatment and precipitation of oxides of manganese
US20050046052A1 (en) * 2003-07-11 2005-03-03 Kenichi Okada Exhaust gas treating tower
US7303735B2 (en) * 2003-10-17 2007-12-04 The Boc Group, Inc. Process for the removal of contaminants from gas streams
WO2005102505A3 (en) * 2004-04-21 2005-12-01 Northeastern Technologies A method of removing pollutants from flue gas and system thereof
US7498009B2 (en) * 2004-08-16 2009-03-03 Dana Uv, Inc. Controlled spectrum ultraviolet radiation pollution control process
KR100623854B1 (en) 2005-04-16 2006-09-06 (주)씨에프텍 Integrated system of semi dry reactor and elctrostatic precipitator for the desulfurization and dust collection
US7384616B2 (en) * 2005-06-20 2008-06-10 Cansolv Technologies Inc. Waste gas treatment process including removal of mercury
US20070092418A1 (en) * 2005-10-17 2007-04-26 Chemical Products Corporation Sorbents for Removal of Mercury from Flue Gas
US20070154374A1 (en) * 2006-01-05 2007-07-05 Envirosolv Energy Llc Method for removing sulfur dioxide and other acid gases, mercury, and nitrogen oxides from a gas stream with the optional production of ammonia based fertilizers
US7641878B2 (en) 2006-02-21 2010-01-05 Pmi Ash Technologies, Llc Fly ash beneficiation systems with sulfur removal and methods thereof
US7311887B2 (en) * 2006-02-24 2007-12-25 Siemens Enviromental Systems&Services Hybrid wet and dry electrostatic precipitator ammonia scrubber
US7462235B2 (en) 2006-05-03 2008-12-09 Progress Materials, Inc. System and method for decomposing ammonia from fly ash
KR101239313B1 (en) 2006-05-17 2013-03-06 티오솔브, 엘.엘.씨. Process for treating a gas stream
WO2008002290A1 (en) * 2006-06-26 2008-01-03 Progress Materials, Inc. Emission control systems and methods thereof
US7223375B1 (en) * 2006-06-26 2007-05-29 Progress Materials, Inc. Emission control systems and methods thereof
US7258848B1 (en) 2006-07-31 2007-08-21 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Process for scrubbing ammonia from acid gases comprising ammonia and hydrogen sulfide
US7867462B2 (en) * 2006-09-25 2011-01-11 Pmi Ash Technologies, Llc Coal combustion systems with emissions control and fly ash beneficiation and methods thereof
US7670424B2 (en) * 2007-01-19 2010-03-02 Pmi Ash Technologies, Llc Methods for reclaiming and beneficiating fly ash particles and systems thereof
US20080233026A1 (en) * 2007-03-20 2008-09-25 Alstom Technology Ltd Method and system for NOx removal
US7842264B2 (en) * 2007-04-12 2010-11-30 Cefco, Llc Process and apparatus for carbon capture and elimination of multi-pollutants in flue gas from hydrocarbon fuel sources and recovery of multiple by-products
WO2009091437A1 (en) * 2008-01-18 2009-07-23 Powerspan Corp. Removal of carbon dioxide from a flue gas stream
EP2144689A1 (en) * 2007-05-09 2010-01-20 Powerspan Corp. Carbon dioxide scrubbing with ammonium carbonate and ammonia vapor control
US8545598B2 (en) * 2007-06-19 2013-10-01 Pmi Ash Technologies, Llc Mercury removal systems using beneficiated fly ash particles and methods thereof
CN101687137A (en) * 2007-07-12 2010-03-31 鲍尔斯潘公司 Scrubbing of ammonia with urea ammonium nitrate solution
EP2190781A2 (en) * 2007-08-24 2010-06-02 Powerspan Corp. Method and apparatus for producing ammonium carbonate from urea
US20090188782A1 (en) * 2007-10-01 2009-07-30 Escrub Systems Incorporated Wet-discharge electron beam flue gas scrubbing treatment
US20090252663A1 (en) * 2008-04-02 2009-10-08 Todd Marshall Wetherill Method and system for the removal of an elemental trace contaminant from a fluid stream
CA2725365A1 (en) * 2008-05-23 2009-11-26 Ron E. Cookson Separation and scrubbing system for exhaust gases
CN102099660A (en) * 2008-07-29 2011-06-15 鲍尔斯潘公司 Using raman spectroscopy to control carbonate / bicarbonate concentrations
EP2156878A1 (en) * 2008-08-12 2010-02-24 BP Alternative Energy International Limited Scrubbing system
US7846406B2 (en) * 2008-08-18 2010-12-07 Furnary Kevin P Scrubber for removing pollutants from flue gas
JP4955027B2 (en) * 2009-04-02 2012-06-20 クリーン・テクノロジー株式会社 Control method of the plasma by magnetic field in the exhaust gas treatment apparatus
US8012438B2 (en) * 2009-06-25 2011-09-06 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Wet scrubber additive for simultaneous removal of oxides and metals from a gas
FR2950819B1 (en) 2009-10-06 2013-08-09 Air Liquide combustion fumes of basic wash
CN102000490B (en) * 2010-11-25 2012-07-25 东南大学 Control method for aerosol in flue gas desulfurization by utilizing ammonia method and master desulfurizing tower
US8329128B2 (en) * 2011-02-01 2012-12-11 Alstom Technology Ltd Gas treatment process and system
CA2829929C (en) 2011-03-14 2015-03-03 Mark Anderson Eliminating hydrogen sulfide from liquid ammonia
DE102011014007A1 (en) * 2011-03-15 2012-09-20 Linde Aktiengesellschaft Process and apparatus for flue gas denitrification
EP2693868B1 (en) * 2011-04-05 2017-05-17 Tessenderlo Kerley, Inc. Potassium sulfite/potassium bisulfite (ks/kbs) liquid as fertilizers
WO2012154553A1 (en) * 2011-05-06 2012-11-15 Fluor Technologies Corporation Process for chloride reduction
US9643125B2 (en) 2012-03-26 2017-05-09 Fluor Technologies Corporation Emissions reduction for CO2 capture
US9644840B2 (en) * 2012-09-20 2017-05-09 General Electric Technology Gmbh Method and device for cleaning an industrial waste gas comprising CO2
US20140199218A1 (en) * 2013-01-11 2014-07-17 Samuel M. Sami Method and apparatus for zero emission combined heat and power
US9919269B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-03-20 3D Clean Coal Emissions Stack Llc Clean coal stack
WO2014144954A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-09-18 Three D Stack, LLC Cleaning stack gas
CN103521048A (en) * 2013-10-17 2014-01-22 太仓康茂电子有限公司 Tail gas treatment method
US20170029343A1 (en) * 2015-07-27 2017-02-02 Terrell D. Ginn Sulfur enhanced nitrogen production from emission scrubbing
CN105148700A (en) * 2015-08-27 2015-12-16 北京市环境保护科学研究院 Method and device for oxidizing, absorbing and treating pollutants in natural gas boiler flue gas

Citations (44)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4028071A (en) * 1974-12-12 1977-06-07 Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation Method for removing particulate pollutants from stack gases
US4029482A (en) * 1974-03-27 1977-06-14 Battelle Memorial Institute Electrostatic removal of airborne particulates employing fiber beds
US4029739A (en) * 1975-01-06 1977-06-14 Fuji Kasui Engineering Co., Ltd. Process for removing nitrogen oxides from waste gas
US4035470A (en) * 1974-11-02 1977-07-12 Fuji Kasui Engineering Co., Ltd. Process for removing sulfur oxides and/or nitrogen oxides from waste gas
US4120671A (en) * 1976-06-07 1978-10-17 Monsanto Company Separation of aerosols from gases in a horizontally disposed cylindrical fiber bed
US4193774A (en) * 1976-12-21 1980-03-18 Pilat Michael J Electrostatic aerosol scrubber and method of operation
US4345916A (en) * 1980-05-19 1982-08-24 Richards Clyde N Means and method for removing airborne particulates from an aerosol stream
US4435260A (en) * 1980-06-16 1984-03-06 Ebara Corporation Method and apparatus for desulfurization and denitrification of waste gas by multi-stage electron beam irradiation
US4650555A (en) * 1985-10-03 1987-03-17 General Electric Company Method for corona discharge enhanced flue gas clean-up
US4690807A (en) * 1985-08-15 1987-09-01 General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. Process for the simultaneous absorption of sulfur oxides and production of ammonium sulfate
US4726940A (en) * 1986-05-21 1988-02-23 Hitachi Zosen Corporation Method of purifying exhaust gas
US4735930A (en) * 1986-02-18 1988-04-05 Norton Company Catalyst for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen
US4735927A (en) * 1985-10-22 1988-04-05 Norton Company Catalyst for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen
US4806320A (en) * 1988-04-21 1989-02-21 Sanitech, Inc. Process for Nox control
US4892718A (en) * 1985-07-15 1990-01-09 Siegfried Peter Decontamination of gases by scrubbing
US4971777A (en) * 1987-11-19 1990-11-20 Krupp Koppers Gmbh Process for the removal of acid components and nitrogen oxides from the waste gases of industrial furnaces
US5023063A (en) * 1990-03-26 1991-06-11 The University Of Delaware Acid rain abatement
US5041271A (en) * 1987-12-10 1991-08-20 Ebara Corporation Method of treating waste gas by irradiation with electron beam
US5176888A (en) * 1990-03-26 1993-01-05 University Of Delaware Acid rain abatement
US5229091A (en) * 1992-04-15 1993-07-20 Mobil Oil Corporation Process for desulfurizing Claus tail-gas
US5308385A (en) * 1992-06-10 1994-05-03 Dennis Winn Pollution abatement apparatus and method
US5362458A (en) * 1993-03-22 1994-11-08 General Electric Environmental Services, Incorporated Process for the simultaneous absorption of sulfur oxides and production of ammonium sulfate
US5525317A (en) * 1994-11-04 1996-06-11 The Babcock & Wilcox Company Ammonia reagent application for NOX SOX and particulate emission control
US5547648A (en) * 1992-04-15 1996-08-20 Mobil Oil Corporation Removing SOx, NOX and CO from flue gases
US5624649A (en) * 1995-04-26 1997-04-29 General Electric Co. Process for reduction of sulfur dioxide emission from combustion gases combined with production of potassium sulfate
US5658547A (en) * 1994-06-30 1997-08-19 Nalco Fuel Tech Simplified efficient process for reducing NOx, SOx, and particulates
US5695616A (en) * 1995-09-27 1997-12-09 Virginia Accelerators Corporation Electron beam flue gas scrubbing treatment
US5715764A (en) * 1994-08-19 1998-02-10 Kvaener Enviropower Ab Combustion method
US5792238A (en) * 1995-12-01 1998-08-11 The Babcock & Wilcox Company Fine-particulate and aerosol removal technique in a condensing heat exchanger using an electrostatic system enhancement
US5871703A (en) * 1996-10-09 1999-02-16 Zero Emissions Technology Inc. Barrier discharge conversion of SO2 and NOx to acids
US6063352A (en) * 1997-07-19 2000-05-16 Lurgi Lentjes Bischoff Gmbh Method of removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases, especially power plant flue gases and flue gases from garbage incinerator plants
US6117403A (en) * 1996-10-09 2000-09-12 Zero Emissions Technology Inc. Barrier discharge conversion of Hg, SO2 and NOx
US6132692A (en) * 1996-10-09 2000-10-17 Powerspan Corp. Barrier discharge conversion of SO2 and NOx to acids
US6159440A (en) * 1998-01-09 2000-12-12 Haldor Topsoe A/S Process for production of ammonium thiosulphate
US6168709B1 (en) * 1998-08-20 2001-01-02 Roger G. Etter Production and use of a premium fuel grade petroleum coke
US6183708B1 (en) * 1998-01-14 2001-02-06 Ecolab Inc. Enhanced method of using peroxyacid compounds in odor reduction
US6193934B1 (en) * 1998-09-22 2001-02-27 Beltran, Inc. Corona-induced chemical scrubber for the control of NOx emissions
US6221325B1 (en) * 1998-09-08 2001-04-24 Marsulex Environmental Technologies, Llc Process for controlling ammonia slip in the reduction of sulfur dioxide emission
US6277343B1 (en) * 1999-09-23 2001-08-21 Marsulex Environmental Technologies, Llc Flue gas scrubbing method and apparatus therefor
US6277344B1 (en) * 1998-01-14 2001-08-21 Ecolab Inc. Simultaneous use of peroxygen and olefin compound in odor reduction
US6284022B1 (en) * 1998-04-20 2001-09-04 Basf Aktiengesellschaft Method for removing contaminants from a gas stream
US6302945B1 (en) * 1999-06-11 2001-10-16 Electric Power Research Institute, Incorporated Electrostatic precipitator for removing SO2
US20010033817A1 (en) * 1996-12-06 2001-10-25 Matthew T. Sander Aerogel honeycomb catalyst monoliths for selective catalytic reaction of gas phase chemical species
US6312505B1 (en) * 1999-11-19 2001-11-06 Energy Process Technologies, Inc. Particulate and aerosol remover

Family Cites Families (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3873532A (en) * 1973-04-23 1975-03-25 Envirotech Corp Sulfur dioxide scrubbing process
DE3733319C2 (en) * 1987-10-02 1989-09-14 Krupp Koppers Gmbh, 4300 Essen, De
US4999167A (en) * 1989-06-20 1991-03-12 Skelley Arthur P Low temperature Nox /Sox removal apparatus
US5206002A (en) * 1991-08-29 1993-04-27 Cannon Boiler Works, Inc. Process for removing nox and sox from exhaust gas
DE4335867A1 (en) 1993-10-21 1995-05-04 Hans Dr Remstedt Process for the simultaneous removal of sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides from combustion exhaust gases in an ammonia scrubber
US5723838A (en) * 1995-10-04 1998-03-03 Samsung Engineering Co., Ltd. Method for treating incinerator effluent gas
DE59509540D1 (en) * 1995-12-06 2001-09-27 Lurgi Lentjes Bischoff Gmbh Plant for cleaning flue gases with different contents of acidic components and methods of operation of the plant
EP1346759A3 (en) * 1998-02-23 2004-08-04 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Flue gas treating process
EP1064097A1 (en) 1998-03-17 2001-01-03 Monsanto Company Wet electrostatic filtration process and apparatus for cleaning a gas stream
US5985223A (en) * 1998-06-02 1999-11-16 The Boc Group, Inc. Removal of NOx and SOx emissions form pickling lines for metal treatment
US6136284A (en) * 1999-12-09 2000-10-24 The Boc Group, Inc. Process for the removal of nitrogen oxides from gas streams
WO2001087464A1 (en) 2000-05-12 2001-11-22 Powerspan Corp. Process for scrubbing flue gas using acids
US6531104B1 (en) 2000-11-21 2003-03-11 Alstom (Schweiz) Ag Process for the absorption of sulfur oxides and the production of ammonium sulfate

Patent Citations (47)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4029482A (en) * 1974-03-27 1977-06-14 Battelle Memorial Institute Electrostatic removal of airborne particulates employing fiber beds
US4035470A (en) * 1974-11-02 1977-07-12 Fuji Kasui Engineering Co., Ltd. Process for removing sulfur oxides and/or nitrogen oxides from waste gas
US4028071A (en) * 1974-12-12 1977-06-07 Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation Method for removing particulate pollutants from stack gases
US4029739A (en) * 1975-01-06 1977-06-14 Fuji Kasui Engineering Co., Ltd. Process for removing nitrogen oxides from waste gas
US4155726A (en) * 1976-06-07 1979-05-22 Monsanto Company Horizontally disposed cylindrical fiber bed separator for separation of aerosols from gases
US4120671A (en) * 1976-06-07 1978-10-17 Monsanto Company Separation of aerosols from gases in a horizontally disposed cylindrical fiber bed
US4193774A (en) * 1976-12-21 1980-03-18 Pilat Michael J Electrostatic aerosol scrubber and method of operation
US4345916A (en) * 1980-05-19 1982-08-24 Richards Clyde N Means and method for removing airborne particulates from an aerosol stream
US4435260A (en) * 1980-06-16 1984-03-06 Ebara Corporation Method and apparatus for desulfurization and denitrification of waste gas by multi-stage electron beam irradiation
US4892718A (en) * 1985-07-15 1990-01-09 Siegfried Peter Decontamination of gases by scrubbing
US4690807A (en) * 1985-08-15 1987-09-01 General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. Process for the simultaneous absorption of sulfur oxides and production of ammonium sulfate
US4650555A (en) * 1985-10-03 1987-03-17 General Electric Company Method for corona discharge enhanced flue gas clean-up
US4735927A (en) * 1985-10-22 1988-04-05 Norton Company Catalyst for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen
US4735930A (en) * 1986-02-18 1988-04-05 Norton Company Catalyst for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen
US4726940A (en) * 1986-05-21 1988-02-23 Hitachi Zosen Corporation Method of purifying exhaust gas
US4971777A (en) * 1987-11-19 1990-11-20 Krupp Koppers Gmbh Process for the removal of acid components and nitrogen oxides from the waste gases of industrial furnaces
US5041271A (en) * 1987-12-10 1991-08-20 Ebara Corporation Method of treating waste gas by irradiation with electron beam
US4806320A (en) * 1988-04-21 1989-02-21 Sanitech, Inc. Process for Nox control
US5023063A (en) * 1990-03-26 1991-06-11 The University Of Delaware Acid rain abatement
US5176888A (en) * 1990-03-26 1993-01-05 University Of Delaware Acid rain abatement
US5547648A (en) * 1992-04-15 1996-08-20 Mobil Oil Corporation Removing SOx, NOX and CO from flue gases
US5229091A (en) * 1992-04-15 1993-07-20 Mobil Oil Corporation Process for desulfurizing Claus tail-gas
US5308385A (en) * 1992-06-10 1994-05-03 Dennis Winn Pollution abatement apparatus and method
US5362458A (en) * 1993-03-22 1994-11-08 General Electric Environmental Services, Incorporated Process for the simultaneous absorption of sulfur oxides and production of ammonium sulfate
US5658547A (en) * 1994-06-30 1997-08-19 Nalco Fuel Tech Simplified efficient process for reducing NOx, SOx, and particulates
US5715764A (en) * 1994-08-19 1998-02-10 Kvaener Enviropower Ab Combustion method
US5525317A (en) * 1994-11-04 1996-06-11 The Babcock & Wilcox Company Ammonia reagent application for NOX SOX and particulate emission control
US5624649A (en) * 1995-04-26 1997-04-29 General Electric Co. Process for reduction of sulfur dioxide emission from combustion gases combined with production of potassium sulfate
US5695616A (en) * 1995-09-27 1997-12-09 Virginia Accelerators Corporation Electron beam flue gas scrubbing treatment
US5792238A (en) * 1995-12-01 1998-08-11 The Babcock & Wilcox Company Fine-particulate and aerosol removal technique in a condensing heat exchanger using an electrostatic system enhancement
US5846301A (en) * 1995-12-01 1998-12-08 Mcdermott Technology, Inc. Fine-particulate and aerosol removal technique in a condensing heat exchanger using an electrostatic system enhancement
US5871703A (en) * 1996-10-09 1999-02-16 Zero Emissions Technology Inc. Barrier discharge conversion of SO2 and NOx to acids
US6117403A (en) * 1996-10-09 2000-09-12 Zero Emissions Technology Inc. Barrier discharge conversion of Hg, SO2 and NOx
US6132692A (en) * 1996-10-09 2000-10-17 Powerspan Corp. Barrier discharge conversion of SO2 and NOx to acids
US20010033817A1 (en) * 1996-12-06 2001-10-25 Matthew T. Sander Aerogel honeycomb catalyst monoliths for selective catalytic reaction of gas phase chemical species
US6063352A (en) * 1997-07-19 2000-05-16 Lurgi Lentjes Bischoff Gmbh Method of removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases, especially power plant flue gases and flue gases from garbage incinerator plants
US6159440A (en) * 1998-01-09 2000-12-12 Haldor Topsoe A/S Process for production of ammonium thiosulphate
US6277344B1 (en) * 1998-01-14 2001-08-21 Ecolab Inc. Simultaneous use of peroxygen and olefin compound in odor reduction
US6183708B1 (en) * 1998-01-14 2001-02-06 Ecolab Inc. Enhanced method of using peroxyacid compounds in odor reduction
US6284022B1 (en) * 1998-04-20 2001-09-04 Basf Aktiengesellschaft Method for removing contaminants from a gas stream
US6168709B1 (en) * 1998-08-20 2001-01-02 Roger G. Etter Production and use of a premium fuel grade petroleum coke
US6221325B1 (en) * 1998-09-08 2001-04-24 Marsulex Environmental Technologies, Llc Process for controlling ammonia slip in the reduction of sulfur dioxide emission
US6193934B1 (en) * 1998-09-22 2001-02-27 Beltran, Inc. Corona-induced chemical scrubber for the control of NOx emissions
US6302945B1 (en) * 1999-06-11 2001-10-16 Electric Power Research Institute, Incorporated Electrostatic precipitator for removing SO2
US6277343B1 (en) * 1999-09-23 2001-08-21 Marsulex Environmental Technologies, Llc Flue gas scrubbing method and apparatus therefor
US6312505B1 (en) * 1999-11-19 2001-11-06 Energy Process Technologies, Inc. Particulate and aerosol remover
US20010045162A1 (en) * 1999-11-19 2001-11-29 Mcquigg Kevin System for removing particulate and aerosol from a gas stream

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030012718A1 (en) * 2001-07-11 2003-01-16 Battelle Memorial Institute Processes and apparatuses for treating halogen-containing gases
US20030161774A1 (en) * 2001-07-11 2003-08-28 Battelle Memorial Institute Processes and apparatuses for treating halogen-containing gases
US20040131524A1 (en) * 2001-07-11 2004-07-08 Battelle Memorial Institute Processes and apparatuses for treating halogen-containing gases
US6962679B2 (en) * 2001-07-11 2005-11-08 Battelle Memorial Institute Processes and apparatuses for treating halogen-containing gases
US7220396B2 (en) 2001-07-11 2007-05-22 Battelle Memorial Institute Processes for treating halogen-containing gases
US7407635B2 (en) 2001-07-11 2008-08-05 Battelle Memorial Institute Processes and apparatuses for treating halogen-containing gases
CN102160961A (en) * 2011-02-25 2011-08-24 华北电力大学 Dielectric barrier discharge reactor, fume desulfurization and denitration system and desulfurizating and denitrating process

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US6605263B2 (en) 2003-08-12 grant
US20030175190A1 (en) 2003-09-18 application
CN1617831A (en) 2005-05-18 application
US20030108469A1 (en) 2003-06-12 application
CN1326767C (en) 2007-07-18 grant
WO2003050039A1 (en) 2003-06-19 application
CA2469321C (en) 2009-08-18 grant
US20030108466A1 (en) 2003-06-12 application
US20030108472A1 (en) 2003-06-12 application
CA2469321A1 (en) 2003-06-19 application
US7048899B2 (en) 2006-05-23 grant
US7052662B2 (en) 2006-05-30 grant
US6936231B2 (en) 2005-08-30 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4246245A (en) SO2 Removal
US4035470A (en) Process for removing sulfur oxides and/or nitrogen oxides from waste gas
US7255842B1 (en) Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia
US5364604A (en) Solute gas-absorbing procedure
US3961018A (en) Method for purification of gas streams by removal of acidic gases
US5439509A (en) Stripping method and apparatus
US5670122A (en) Methods for removing air pollutants from combustion flue gas
US6676912B1 (en) Method for removal of nitrogen oxides from stationary combustion sources
US6531104B1 (en) Process for the absorption of sulfur oxides and the production of ammonium sulfate
US3949057A (en) Air pollution control of oxides of nitrogen
US7866638B2 (en) Gas liquid contactor and effluent cleaning system and method
US20050214187A1 (en) Removal of Hg, NOx, and SOx with using oxidants and staged gas/liquid contact
US4293524A (en) Method and apparatus for cooling and neutralizing acid gases
US20070189949A1 (en) Wet scrubbing apparatus and method for controlling NOx emissions
US3957949A (en) Process for removing nitrogen oxides from gas
US3733393A (en) Purification of combustion products before discharge into the atmosphere
US20070154374A1 (en) Method for removing sulfur dioxide and other acid gases, mercury, and nitrogen oxides from a gas stream with the optional production of ammonia based fertilizers
US20060239877A1 (en) Method for removing sulfur dioxide, mercury, and nitrogen oxides from a gas stream
US6759022B2 (en) Flue gas desulfurization process and apparatus for removing nitrogen oxides
US4085194A (en) Waste flue gas desulfurizing method
EP3083015A2 (en) Methods for removing contaminants from exhaust gases
US4400355A (en) Apparatus for desulfurizing combustion gases
US7964170B2 (en) Method and apparatus for the removal of carbon dioxide from a gas stream
Lee et al. Simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO by sodium chlorite solution in wetted-wall column
JPH05245340A (en) Treatment of combustion exhaust gas