US20040261612A1 - Piston with cast-in undercrown pins for increased heat dissipation - Google Patents

Piston with cast-in undercrown pins for increased heat dissipation Download PDF

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Publication number
US20040261612A1
US20040261612A1 US10602792 US60279203A US2004261612A1 US 20040261612 A1 US20040261612 A1 US 20040261612A1 US 10602792 US10602792 US 10602792 US 60279203 A US60279203 A US 60279203A US 2004261612 A1 US2004261612 A1 US 2004261612A1
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Prior art keywords
piston
pins
undercrown
crown
engine
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Granted
Application number
US10602792
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US6840156B1 (en )
Inventor
Mark Gillman
Rodney Elnick
Todd Ridley
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Motors Liquidation Co
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Motors Liquidation Co
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02FCYLINDERS, PISTONS OR CASINGS, FOR COMBUSTION ENGINES; ARRANGEMENTS OF SEALINGS IN COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02F3/00Pistons
    • F02F3/0076Pistons the inside of the pistons being provided with ribs or fins

Abstract

A cast engine piston has a crown with a combustion surface and an undercrown for exposure to crankcase fluids. A plurality of pins extend from the undercrown to increase the surface area of the undercrown. The pins draw heat from the crown and dissipate the heat to the crankcase fluids. Crankcase oil may be sprayed, splashed, or misted against the pins to further increase heat dissipation.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • This invention relates to internal combustion engines, and more particularly to piston cooling. [0001]
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • An engine piston must dissipate the heat energy it absorbs, from the conversion of chemical energy into heat energy and finally into mechanical work, occurring within an engine sequence. [0002]
  • Engine pistons are commonly made of iron or aluminum alloys. A piston has a crown with an upper surface exposed to engine combustion temperatures. The piston undercrown is exposed to crankcase fluids. A ring belt carrying compression and oil control rings extends from the edge of the crown. A piston skirt having curved sidewalls extends from the ring belt to absorb reciprocating thrust forces exerted on the piston. A pin boss may extend between the skirt walls for receiving a wrist pin for connection with a connecting rod. [0003]
  • In operation in an engine, the piston crown absorbs heat from an engine combustion chamber. Heat absorbed by the crown is conducted through the piston to the undercrown, the ring belt, and the skirt. Heat in the ring belt and skirt is conducted to the associated engine cylinder by direct contact and through the piston rings. Heat in the undercrown is transferred to the ring belt or dissipated to crankcase fluids, including air, oil vapors and liquid oil present in the engine crankcase and provided, in part, for piston cooling. The need for high heat transfer to control piston temperatures limits the use of higher strength piston materials, which have lower heat transfer capability. [0004]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention provides a design for increasing piston cooling. The piston may be made of steel or aluminum alloys or other suitable materials. The piston has a crown with an upper surface adapted for exposure to engine combustion temperatures. The piston undercrown is exposed to crankcase fluids. A ring belt for carrying compression and oil control rings extends from the edge of the crown. A piston skirt having curved sidewalls extends from the ring belt to absorb reciprocating thrust forces exerted on the piston. A pin boss may extend between the skirt walls for receiving a wrist pin for connection with a connecting rod. [0005]
  • In accordance with the invention, a plurality of cooling pins are located beneath the crown in locations such as the undercrown, ring belt and pin boss. The pins provide additional undercrown surface area to increase cooling of the piston. The pins may be conical and may be formed during casting of the piston, or they may be preformed and cast in during the piston casting process. [0006]
  • In operation in an engine, the piston crown absorbs heat from an engine combustion chamber. Heat absorbed by the crown is conducted through the piston to the undercrown, the ring belt, and the skirt and connecting rod bosses. Heat in the ring belt and skirt is conducted to the associated engine cylinder by direct contact and through the piston rings. Heat is also conducted to the pins through the undercrown. The pins increase the surface area of the undercrown, which increases heat dissipation to the crankcase fluids. The additional heat transferred through the pins can lower piston crown temperature and may allow the use of higher strength piston materials, which have lower heat transfer capability. [0007]
  • These and other features and advantages of the invention will be more fully understood from the following description of certain specific embodiments of the invention taken together with the accompanying drawings.[0008]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a pictorial view of an exemplary engine piston with cooling pins according to the present invention. [0009]
  • FIG. 2 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view through the piston crown. [0010]
  • FIG. 3 is pictorial view of an alternative embodiment of an engine piston with cooling pins.[0011]
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • Referring to FIG. 1 of the drawings in detail, numeral [0012] 10 generally indicates an engine piston made of steel or aluminum alloy or other suitable materials such as titanium or ceramic. The piston includes a crown 12 having an outer crown surface 14 and an undercrown 16. In use, the crown surface 14 is exposed to engine combustion temperatures. The undercrown 16 is exposed to crankcase fluids including air, oil vapor and liquid oil droplets or spray.
  • A ring belt [0013] 18 for carrying compression and oil control piston rings extends downward from the edge of the crown 12. A skirt 20 extends from the ring belt 18 to absorb thrust forces during piston 10 movement. The undercrown 16 of the piston has a pin boss 22 for receiving a wrist pin.
  • In an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, a plurality of cooling pins [0014] 24 extend from the undercrown 16 of the piston 10 to increase the surface area of undercrown 16, as shown in FIG. 1. In an alternative embodiment, pins 24 may also extend downward from the pin boss 22 and the ring belt 18, as shown in FIG. 3. The pins 24 have a conical shape tapered outward toward the undercrown 16. The pins 24 may vary in length to avoid interference with the connecting rod, not shown.
  • The piston [0015] 10 may be formed by casting or forging. The material used to form the piston 10 is typically steel or aluminum alloy. The pins 24 may preformed during the casting process of the piston 10, or they may be separately formed and cast in during the piston casting process. The pin shape may be varied as desired with a larger range of shapes available for cast-in pins (for example, cylindrical).
  • FIG. 2 is a fragmentary cross section showing a typical cooling pin configuration in an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The pins [0016] 24 have a conical shape with a diameter 26 from about 1-2 mm and a length 28 of about 2-5 mm. The length 28, diameter 26, and number of the pins 24 may vary depending upon the amount of thermal conductance required.
  • During engine operation, the piston [0017] 10 reciprocates in an engine cylinder wherein fuel is burned in an associated combustion chamber. Some of the heat produced is transferred to the crown surface 14 of the piston 10. The heat is dissipated by conduction through the crown 14 to the ring belt 18, the skirt 20, and the connecting rod bosses to crankcase fluids, air, oil vapor and liquid oil.
  • As the piston [0018] 10 reciprocates in the cylinder, the crankcase fluids contact the piston undercrown 16, including the pins 24. This allows heat from the piston 10 to be transferred through the pins 24 to the surrounding fluids. The additional surface area provided by the pins 24 transfers more heat to the air and other fluids than does the undercrown surface alone.
  • The piston [0019] 10 may be further cooled by misting, squirting, or splashing engine oil on the pins 24 and undercrown 16 of the piston 10. As the oils contacts the undercrown 16 and the pins 24, heat is transferred from the undercrown 16 and the pins 24 into the oil.
  • The improved cooling by the pins [0020] 24 allows the piston 10 to be formed of higher strength alloy materials having lower thermal conductivity. The stronger materials permit shortening piston compression height and increasing engine displacement. The improved cooling of the piston 10 undercrown 16 by the pins 24 rejects more heat into the engine oil and may reduce knock limiting of the engine.
  • While the invention has been described by reference to certain preferred embodiments, it should be understood that numerous changes could be made within the spirit and scope of the inventive concepts described. Accordingly, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the disclosed embodiments, but that it have the full scope permitted by the language of the following claims. [0021]

Claims (14)

  1. 1. An engine piston having a crown comprising:
    an outer crown surface adapted for exposure to engine combustion temperatures;
    an undercrown adapted for exposure to crankcase fluids;
    a plurality of cooling pins extending from the undercrown for contact with crankcase fluids to assist in cooling the piston crown.
  2. 2. A piston as in claim 1 wherein the pins are conical.
  3. 3. A piston as in claim 1 wherein the pins are preformed and cast into the piston.
  4. 4. A piston as in claim 1 wherein the pins are cast with the piston.
  5. 5. A piston as in claim 1 wherein the pins have a length of about 2-5 mm and diameter of about 1-2 mm.
  6. 6. A piston as in claim 1 wherein the piston is formed of steel.
  7. 7. A piston as in claim 1 wherein the piston is formed of aluminum alloy.
  8. 8. A piston as in claim 1 wherein the piston is formed of ceramic.
  9. 9. A piston as in claim 1 wherein the piston is formed of titanium alloy.
  10. 10. A piston as in claim 1 wherein the piston includes a ring belt with grooves for receiving piston rings.
  11. 11. A piston as in claim 10 wherein cooling pins also extend from the ring belt.
  12. 12. A piston as in claim 1 wherein the piston includes a skirt for absorbing thrust forces on the pistons.
  13. 13. A piston as in claim 1 wherein the piston includes a pin boss for receiving a wrist pin.
  14. 14. A piston as in claim 13 wherein cooling pins also extend from the pin boss.
US10602792 2003-06-24 2003-06-24 Piston with cast-in undercrown pins for increased heat dissipation Expired - Fee Related US6840156B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

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US10602792 US6840156B1 (en) 2003-06-24 2003-06-24 Piston with cast-in undercrown pins for increased heat dissipation

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10602792 US6840156B1 (en) 2003-06-24 2003-06-24 Piston with cast-in undercrown pins for increased heat dissipation
DE200410025960 DE102004025960A1 (en) 2003-06-24 2004-05-27 Pistons with cast-in pins on the floor bottom surface for increased heat dissipation

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US20040261612A1 true true US20040261612A1 (en) 2004-12-30
US6840156B1 US6840156B1 (en) 2005-01-11

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DE (1) DE102004025960A1 (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20110073061A1 (en) * 2009-09-28 2011-03-31 Jeungsuck Chae Pistons with a rough surface
WO2015070035A1 (en) * 2013-11-07 2015-05-14 Federal-Mogul Powertrain, Inc. Monolithic, galleryless piston and method of construction thereof
WO2016088454A1 (en) * 2014-12-02 2016-06-09 日立オートモティブシステムズ株式会社 Piston for internal combustion engine, and production method and production device for piston for internal combustion engine
US20170107935A1 (en) * 2015-10-14 2017-04-20 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Direct-injection internal combustion engine with piston, and method for producing a piston of an internal combustion engine of said type

Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102012211440A1 (en) 2011-10-21 2013-04-25 Mahle International Gmbh piston
WO2013138261A1 (en) * 2012-03-12 2013-09-19 Federal-Mogul Corporation Engine piston
USD768207S1 (en) 2014-07-16 2016-10-04 Federal-Mogul Corporation Piston

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1073086A (en) * 1912-11-05 1913-09-16 Charles S Blose Two-cycle gas-engine.
US1741032A (en) * 1925-06-08 1929-12-24 Clarke C Minter Internal-combustion engine
US2213418A (en) * 1939-10-07 1940-09-03 Bernard A Swanson Two-cycle combustion engine
US4363293A (en) * 1980-05-30 1982-12-14 Societe D'etudes De Machines Thermiques S.E.M.T. Piston for a reciprocating piston machine, particularly an internal combustion engine
US4617888A (en) * 1983-12-21 1986-10-21 National Research Development Corporation Pistons for internal combustion engines
US5975040A (en) * 1995-03-09 1999-11-02 Wartsila Diesel International Oy Piston unit for an internal combustion engine
US6318243B1 (en) * 1999-08-31 2001-11-20 D. Kent Jones Two-piece piston assembly

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1073086A (en) * 1912-11-05 1913-09-16 Charles S Blose Two-cycle gas-engine.
US1741032A (en) * 1925-06-08 1929-12-24 Clarke C Minter Internal-combustion engine
US2213418A (en) * 1939-10-07 1940-09-03 Bernard A Swanson Two-cycle combustion engine
US4363293A (en) * 1980-05-30 1982-12-14 Societe D'etudes De Machines Thermiques S.E.M.T. Piston for a reciprocating piston machine, particularly an internal combustion engine
US4617888A (en) * 1983-12-21 1986-10-21 National Research Development Corporation Pistons for internal combustion engines
US5975040A (en) * 1995-03-09 1999-11-02 Wartsila Diesel International Oy Piston unit for an internal combustion engine
US6318243B1 (en) * 1999-08-31 2001-11-20 D. Kent Jones Two-piece piston assembly

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20110073061A1 (en) * 2009-09-28 2011-03-31 Jeungsuck Chae Pistons with a rough surface
WO2011035919A1 (en) * 2009-09-28 2011-03-31 Mahle International Gmbh Pistons with a rough surface
WO2015070035A1 (en) * 2013-11-07 2015-05-14 Federal-Mogul Powertrain, Inc. Monolithic, galleryless piston and method of construction thereof
US10094327B2 (en) 2013-11-07 2018-10-09 Federal-Mogul Llc Monolithic, galleryless piston and method of construction thereof
CN105940213A (en) * 2013-11-07 2016-09-14 费德罗-莫格尔动力系统有限公司 Monolithic, galleryless piston and method of construction thereof
US9869268B2 (en) 2013-11-07 2018-01-16 Federal-Mogul Llc Monolithic, galleryless piston and method of construction thereof
JPWO2016088454A1 (en) * 2014-12-02 2017-07-20 日立オートモティブシステムズ株式会社 Method and apparatus for manufacturing a piston and the piston for an internal combustion engine
WO2016088454A1 (en) * 2014-12-02 2016-06-09 日立オートモティブシステムズ株式会社 Piston for internal combustion engine, and production method and production device for piston for internal combustion engine
US20170107935A1 (en) * 2015-10-14 2017-04-20 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Direct-injection internal combustion engine with piston, and method for producing a piston of an internal combustion engine of said type
DE102015219895A1 (en) * 2015-10-14 2017-04-20 Ford Global Technologies, Llc Direct-injection internal combustion engine piston and method for producing a piston of such an internal combustion engine

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US6840156B1 (en) 2005-01-11 grant
DE102004025960A1 (en) 2005-01-20 application

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Owner name: GENERAL MOTORS CORPORATION, MICHIGAN

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GILLMAN, MARK W.;ELNICK, RODNEY K.;RIDLEY, TODD R.;REEL/FRAME:014537/0198;SIGNING DATES FROM 20030603 TO 20030609

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Effective date: 20090111