New! View global litigation for patent families

US20040153141A1 - Expandable stent and method for delivery of same - Google Patents

Expandable stent and method for delivery of same Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20040153141A1
US20040153141A1 US10761459 US76145904A US2004153141A1 US 20040153141 A1 US20040153141 A1 US 20040153141A1 US 10761459 US10761459 US 10761459 US 76145904 A US76145904 A US 76145904A US 2004153141 A1 US2004153141 A1 US 2004153141A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
stent
shaped
wall
fig
apex
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10761459
Inventor
Ian Penn
Donald Ricci
Original Assignee
Penn Ian M.
Ricci Donald R.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/91Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes
    • A61F2/915Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/91Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2002/825Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents having longitudinal struts
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2002/828Means for connecting a plurality of stents allowing flexibility of the whole structure
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/91Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes
    • A61F2/915Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other
    • A61F2002/91525Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other within the whole structure different bands showing different meander characteristics, e.g. frequency or amplitude
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/91Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes
    • A61F2/915Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other
    • A61F2002/91533Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other characterised by the phase between adjacent bands
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/91Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes
    • A61F2/915Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes with bands having a meander structure, adjacent bands being connected to each other
    • A61F2002/9155Adjacent bands being connected to each other
    • A61F2002/91575Adjacent bands being connected to each other connected peak to trough
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2210/00Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2210/0014Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof using shape memory or superelastic materials, e.g. nitinol
    • A61F2210/0019Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof using shape memory or superelastic materials, e.g. nitinol operated at only one temperature whilst inside or touching the human body, e.g. constrained in a non-operative shape during surgery, another temperature only occurring before the operation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2230/00Geometry of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2230/0002Two-dimensional shapes, e.g. cross-sections
    • A61F2230/0004Rounded shapes, e.g. with rounded corners
    • A61F2230/0013Horseshoe-shaped, e.g. crescent-shaped, C-shaped, U-shaped
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2250/00Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2250/0014Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof having different values of a given property or geometrical feature, e.g. mechanical property or material property, at different locations within the same prosthesis
    • A61F2250/0018Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof having different values of a given property or geometrical feature, e.g. mechanical property or material property, at different locations within the same prosthesis differing in elasticity, stiffness or compressibility
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2250/00Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2250/0014Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof having different values of a given property or geometrical feature, e.g. mechanical property or material property, at different locations within the same prosthesis
    • A61F2250/0029Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof having different values of a given property or geometrical feature, e.g. mechanical property or material property, at different locations within the same prosthesis differing in bending or flexure capacity
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2250/00Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2250/0014Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof having different values of a given property or geometrical feature, e.g. mechanical property or material property, at different locations within the same prosthesis
    • A61F2250/0036Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof having different values of a given property or geometrical feature, e.g. mechanical property or material property, at different locations within the same prosthesis differing in thickness

Abstract

An expandable stent comprising a proximal end and a distal end in communication with one another and a tubular wall disposed between the proximal end and the distal end. The tubular wall has a longitudinal axis and a porous surface defined by a plurality of intersecting members comprising a series of longitudinal struts disposed substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the stent. Each longitudinal strut in the series comprises flexure means for substantially complementary extension and compression of a diametrically opposed pair of the longitudinal struts upon flexure of the stent. The stent is expandable from a first, contracted position to a second, expanded position upon the application of a radially outward force on the stent. The provision of such flexure means in the series of longitudinal struts leads to a very desirable balance of lateral flexibility of the unexpanded stent and radial rigidity of the expanded stent.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to an expandable stent.
  • BACKGROUND ART
  • [0002]
    Stents are generally known. Indeed, the term “stent” has been used interchangeably with terms such as “intraluminal vascular graft” and “expansible prosthesis”. As used throughout this specification the term “stent” is intended to have a broad meaning and encompasses any expandable prosthetic device for implantation in a body passageway (e.g. a lumen or artery).
  • [0003]
    In the past six to eight years, the use of stents has attracted an increasing amount of attention due the potential of these devices to be used, in certain cases, as an alternative to surgery. Generally, a stent is used to obtain and maintain the patency of the body passageway while maintaining the integrity of the passageway. As used in this specification, the term “body passageway” is intended to have a broad meaning and encompasses any duct (e.g. natural or iatrogenic) within the human body and can include a member selected from the group comprising: blood vessels, respiratory ducts, gastrointestinal ducts and the like.
  • [0004]
    Initial stents were self-expanding, spring-like devices which were inserted in the body passageway in a contracted state. When released, the stent would automatically expand and increase to a final diameter dependent on the size of the stent and the elasticity of the body passageway. An example of such a stent is known in the art as the Wallstent™.
  • [0005]
    The self-expanding stents were found by some investigators to be deficient since, when deployed, they could place undue, permanent stress on the walls of the body passageway. Further, upon expansion, the stent would shorten in length in an unpredictable fashion thereby reducing the reliability of the stent. This led to the development of various stents which were controllably expandable at the target body passageway so that only sufficient force to maintain the patency of the body passageway was applied in expanding the stent.
  • [0006]
    Generally, in these later systems, a stent, in association with a balloon, is delivered to the target area of the body passageway by a catheter system. Once the stent has been properly located (for example, for intravascular implantation the target area of the vessel can be filled with a contrast medium to facilitate visualization during fluoroscopy), the balloon is expanded thereby expanding the stent by plastic deformation so that the latter is urged in place against the body passageway. As indicated above, the amount of force applied is at least that necessary to maintain the patency of the body passageway. At this point, the balloon is deflated and withdrawn within the catheter, and subsequently removed. Ideally, the stent will remain in place and maintain the target area of the body passageway substantially free of blockage (or narrowing).
  • [0007]
    A stent which has gained some notoriety in the art is known as the Palmaz-Schatz™ Balloon Expandable Stent (hereinafter referred to as “the Palmaz-Schatz stent”). This stent is discussed in a number of patents including U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,733,665, 4,739,762, 5,102,417 and 5,316,023, the contents of each of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
  • [0008]
    Another stent which has gained some notoriety in the art is known as the Gianturco-Roubin Flex-Stent™ (hereinafter referred to as “the Gianturco-Roubin stent”). This stent is discussed in a number of patents, including U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,800,882, 4,907,336 and 5,041,126, the contents of each of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
  • [0009]
    Other types of stents are disclosed in the following patents:
  • [0010]
    U.S. Pat. No. 5,035,706 (Gianturco et al.),
  • [0011]
    U.S. Pat. No. 5,037,392 (Hillstead),
  • [0012]
    U.S. Pat. No. 5,147,385 (Beck et al.),
  • [0013]
    U.S. Pat. No. 5,282,824 (Gianturco),
  • [0014]
    Canadian patent 1,239,755 (Wallsten), and
  • [0015]
    Canadian patent 1,245,527 (Gianturco et al.),
  • [0016]
    the contents of each of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
  • [0017]
    While these prior art stents have achieved a varying degree of success, the art is constantly in need of new stents having improved flexibility and stability while being able to be readily implanted with little or no trauma to the target lumen.
  • [0018]
    In our Canadian patent application number 2,134,997 (Penn et al.). the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference, there is described an improved expandable stent. The stent comprises a tubular wall disposed between the proximal end and the distal end. The tubular wall has a longitudinal axis and a porous surface defined by a plurality intersecting members arranged to define a first repeating pattern. The first repeating pattern comprises a polygon having a pair of side walls substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis. A first concave-shaped wall and a second convex-shaped wall connect the side walls. The first wall and the second wall are equidistant along an axis which is parallel to the longitudinal axis. The stent is expandable from a first, contracted position to a second, expanded position upon the application of a radially outward force exerted on the stent.
  • [0019]
    As disclosed in the '997 application, the first repeating pattern can be implemented in, inter alia, a mono-tubular expandable stent and a bifurcated expandable stent.
  • [0020]
    While the stent disclosed in the '997 application is an advance in the art, in certain cases, a significant force is required to achieve expansion in the target body passageway. Further, implantation of the stent disclosed in the '997 application can be difficult in certain situations where the unexpanded stent must travel through a significantly curved pathway to the target body passageway.
  • [0021]
    Accordingly, it would be desirable to have an improved stent which overcomes these disadvantages. It would be further desirable if the improved stent could be readily adapted, inter alia, to mono-tubular expandable stents and bifurcated expandable stents. The latter type of stents would be useful in treating aneurysms, blockages and other ailments. It would also be desirable if such a stent was relatively easy to implant. It would be further desirable if such a stent were capable of being uniformly expanded at relatively low pressure while obviating or mitigating longitudinal shrinkage thereof It would be further desirable if such a stent were not susceptible to asymmetric internal coverage of the body passageway, a problem associated with “coil”-type stents—see, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,282,824 (Gianturco). It would be further desirable if such a stent was not susceptible to movement along the longitudinal axis of the body passageway during or after implantation. It would be further desirable if such a stent was characterized by a desirable balance of lateral flexibility in the unexpanded state and radial rigidity in the expanded state.
  • DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
  • [0022]
    It is an object of the present invention to provide a novel expandable stent which obviates or mitigates at least one of the above-mentioned disadvantages of the prior art.
  • [0023]
    Accordingly, in one of its aspects, the present invention provides an expandable stent comprising a proximal end and a distal end in communication with one another, a tubular wall disposed between the proximal end and the distal end, the tubular wall having a longitudinal axis and a porous surface defined by a plurality of intersecting members comprising a series of longitudinal struts disposed substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the stent, each of the longitudinal struts comprising flexure means for substantially complementary extension and compression of a diametrically opposed pair of the longitudinal struts upon flexure of the stent, the stent being expandable from a first, contracted position to a second, expanded position upon the application of a radially outward force on the stent.
  • [0024]
    Thus, in this aspect of the present invention, we have now discovered that the use of flexure means in the series of longitudinal struts leads to a very desirable balance of lateral flexibility of the unexpanded stent and radial rigidity of the expanded stent. Practically, the flexure means confers lateral flexibility to the unexpanded stent by allowing diametrically opposed pairs of the longitudinal struts to undergo substantially complementary extension and compression. If one considers a stent in a flexed state, a first longitudinal strut disposed at the tangent of the bend (i.e. in two dimensions) will expand in response to the bending moment. In contrast, a second longitudinal strut disposed diametrically opposite (this can mean above, below or in the same radial plane as) the first longitudinal strut will compress in response to the bending bend moment. Generally, the degree of extension and compression will be substantially complementary. In other words, in most cases, the first longitudinal strut will expand and lengthen a first distance and the second longitudinal strut will compress and shorten a second distance. Preferably, the first distance is greater than the second distance and most preferably, the sum of the first distance and the second distance is substantially equal to the sum of the original lengths of the first longitudinal strut and the second longitudinal strut.
  • [0025]
    The specific shape of the flexure means disposed in the longitudinal strut is not particularly restricted provided that it confers lateral flexibility to the unexpanded stent by allowing diametrically opposed pairs of the longitudinal struts to undergo substantially complementary extension and compression. The term “diametrically opposed pairs of the longitudinal struts”, as used in this specification, is intended to have a broad meaning. Thus, the “pair” can include opposed struts in the same horizontal plane (i.e. the same ring of polygons) or in different horizontal planes (e.g. one strut in a first ring of polygons and the other diametrically opposed strut in a second ring of polygons above or below the first ring). Preferably, the flexure means comprises at least one lateral section disposed in the longitudinal strut, more preferably at least a first lateral section and a second lateral section disposed in the longitudinal strut. By “lateral section” is meant a section of the longitudinal strut which is bowed in or out of (i.e. radially from) the strut. The apex of the lateral section may be pointed, rounded or substantially flat. When the flexure means comprises a first lateral section and a second lateral section, the two sections may be symmetric or asymmetric (in the case of asymmetric this includes two sections of the same shape but different size and two sections of different and size). Further, when the flexure means comprises a first lateral section and a section lateral section, the sections may be bowed in the same or opposite direction.
  • [0026]
    A particularly preferred embodiment of the flexure means comprises a sinusoidal or S-shaped section (various examples of such a section are illustrated herein and discussed below). Preferably, the sinusoidal or S-shaped section is adjacent the second apex of the polygon and the remaining portion of the strut is substantially straight. This feature improves the lateral flexibility of the stent thereby facilitating implantation thereof and may further mitigate longitudinal shortening of the stent upon expansion.
  • [0027]
    In another preferred embodiment, at least one, more preferably both, of the side walls (i.e. longitudinal struts) of the polygon comprises the sinusoidal or S-shaped section. Preferably, the sinusoidal or S-shaped section is disposed at an end of the side wall. This feature improves the lateral flexibility of the stent thereby facilitating implantation thereof and may further mitigate longitudinal shortening of the stent upon expansion.
  • [0028]
    When a sinusoidal or S-shaped portion is disposed in the side walls and/or the strut connecting the first apex and the second apex (if present), the precise shape of the portion is not particularly restricted and generally takes the form of an “S”. Thus, the sinusoidal or S-shaped portion may be comprised of a pair of joined curved sections wherein each curved section has an arc of about 180°—i.e. this is illustrated in FIG. 8 of the present application. The term “arc” denotes the angle from one end of the curved section to the other about the radical point of the curved section. Alternatively, the sinusoidal or S-shaped portion may be comprised of a pair of joined curved sections wherein each curved section has an arc of greater than 180°—this is illustrated in FIG. 9 of the present application.
  • [0029]
    Further, the pair of joined curved sections can be of the same size (this is illustrated in FIGS. 8 and 9 of the present application) or of differing size (this is illustrated in FIG. 10 of the present application), the latter being the most preferred embodiment.
  • [0030]
    Preferably, the series of longitudinal struts containing the flexure means comprises all substantially longitudinal struts comprised in the plurality of intersecting members making up the porous surface of the stent.
  • [0031]
    Preferably, for this aspect of the present invention, the intersecting members are arranged to define a first repeating pattern comprised of a polygon having a pair of side walls substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis (i.e. a pair of the above-mentioned longitudinal struts comprising flexure means), a concave-shaped first wall having a first apex and a convex-shaped second wall having a second apex connecting the side walls. As used throughout this specification, the terms “concave-shaped” and “convex-shaped” are intended to have a broad meaning and a shape having apex. Thus, the first wall has a first apex and the second wall has a second apex. Thus, the first apex (i.e. of the concave-shaped first wall) is directed into the polygon whereas the second apex (i.e. of the convex-shaped second wall) is directed away from the polygon.
  • [0032]
    In another of its aspects, the present invention provides an expandable stent comprising a proximal end and a distal end in communication with one another, a tubular wall disposed between the proximal end and the distal end, the tubular wall having a longitudinal axis and a porous surface defined by a plurality intersecting members arranged to define a first repeating pattern comprised of a polygon having a pair of side walls substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis, a concave-shaped first wall having a first apex and a convex-shaped second wall having a second apex, the first wall and the second wall connecting the side walls, at least one of the first apex and the second apex being substantially flat, the stent being expandable from a first, contracted position to a second, expanded position upon the application of a radially outward force on the stent.
  • [0033]
    In this aspect of the invention, it is has been discovered that the use of such a first repeating pattern (including at least one of the first apex and second apex being substantially flat), with or without the flexure means present in the side walls of the polygon in the first repeating pattern, results in an improved stent. The advantages associated with the use of such a such a first repeating pattern include the following:
  • [0034]
    1. the force required to expand the stent is substantially reduced;
  • [0035]
    2. the stent is subjected to less traumatic stress during expansion;
  • [0036]
    3. plastic deformation of the stent during expansion is facilitated;
  • [0037]
    4. construction of the stent is facilitated; and
  • [0038]
    5. upon expansion of the stent, warpage of the first apex and the second apex is obviated or mitigated.
  • [0039]
    The provision of at least one of the first apex and the second apex being substantially flat usually results in the apex of the concave-shaped first wall and/or the convex-shaped second wall having a pair of shoulders. Preferably, these shoulders are rounded. The provision of such round shoulders results in the following additional advantages:
  • [0040]
    6. mitigation of potential trauma to the target body passageway from: (i) endoluminal contents within the passageway, and (ii) the contours of the passageway;
  • [0041]
    7. the resulting expanded stent is more stream-lined and flow-directed which mitigates potential trauma to the target body passageway;
  • [0042]
    [0042]8. further reduction in the force required to expand the stent;
  • [0043]
    9. an improved stent expansion ratio is achieved (i.e. ratio of expanded stent diameter at maximum expansion to unexpanded stent diameter);
  • [0044]
    10. upon expansion of the stent, the concave-shaped first wall and the convex-shaped second wall are in a substantially orthogonal relationship to the longitudinal axis thereby improving the rigidity of the stent (this is very important to mitigate the occurrence of stent recoil); and
  • [0045]
    11. the pattern of the expanded stent improves the rheology of fluid flow in the body passageway.
  • [0046]
    When the stent of the present invention includes the above-mentioned first repeating pattern, it is preferred to provide a connecting strut between the first apex and the second apex. Generally, the connecting strut will be substantially longitudinal (i.e. it will be parallel to the longitudinal axis of the stent). This feature mitigates lifting of the shoulders referred to above as the stent is flexed, for example, when passing the stent through a curved body passageway. The result of this is that potential trauma to the body passageway is mitigated since scraping of the body passageway by the shoulders is mitigated.
  • [0047]
    In a preferred embodiment, the connecting strut is curved with respect to the longitudinal axis (this is described and illustrated hereinbelow). Preferably, the strut is sufficiently curved to have a length of up to about 35%. more preferably up to about 15%, even more preferably in the range of from about 2% to about 8%, most preferably in the range of from about 3% to about 7%, greater than the distance between the first apex and the second apex. This feature improves the lateral flexibility of the stent thereby facilitating implantation thereof. In some cases, the curvature may be designed to comprise the flexure means discussed above. In other words, the shape of the curvature may be designed substantially complementary extension and compression of the connecting strut upon flexure of the stent.
  • [0048]
    Yet another preferred feature of the stent of the present invention is the provision of one or both of the side walls of the polygon of the repeating pattern being curved. Preferably, both side walls are curved. More preferably the curvature serves as flexure means as described above. Ideally, the curved side wall has length of up to about 35%, more preferably up to about 15%, even more preferably in the range of from about 2% to about 8%, most preferably in the range of from about 3% to about 7%, greater than the distance between the termini of the concave-shaped first wall and the concave-shaped second wall. This feature improves the lateral flexibility of the strut thereby facilitating implantation thereof.
  • [0049]
    Preferably, both the strut and the side walls are curved. More preferably, each of the curved members are of substantially the same length.
  • [0050]
    Yet another preferred feature of the stent of the present invention is, in addition to the strut and side walls of the polygon being curved, the provision of all longitudinal walls of the polygon of the repeating pattern being curved. Thus, in this embodiment of the invention, the concave-shaped first wall comprises a pair of curved first apex walls connecting the first apex and the side walls of the polygon, and the convex-shaped second wall comprises a pair of curved second apex walls connecting the second apex and the side walls of the polygon. Again, in some cases, the curvature may be designed to comprise the flexure means discussed above. Ideally, the curved first apex walls and the curved second apex walls each have a length of up to about 35%, more preferably up to about 15%, even more preferably in the range of from about 2% to about 8%, most preferably in the range of from about 3% to about 7%, greater than the straight (i.e. non-curved) distance between the first apex and the side walls, and the second apex and the side walls, respectively. In this embodiment, it is further preferred to have substantially all adjacent curved walls in an annular section of the repeating pattern (i.e. of the struts, first apex wall, second apex wall and side walls) are substantially equidistant from one another. This preferred feature of the stent of the present invention even further enhances the lateral flexibility of the stent thereby further facilitating implantation thereof
  • [0051]
    Yet another preferred feature of the stent of the present invention is provision of a porous surface comprising multiple designs. Specifically, in certain cases, it may be desirable to design the stent to varying degrees of relative flexibility and rigidity along the length thereof. Thus, the relatively flexible portion(s) of such a stent would facilitate delivery of the stent to a target body passageway through a relatively tortuous route, while the relatively rigid portion(s) of the stent serves facilitate maintaining the patency of the body passageway. As will be discussed in more detail hereinbelow, this may be achieved by varying the repeating pattern design along the longitudinal length of the stent.
  • [0052]
    An aspect of the present invention relates to the provision of an expandable bifurcated stent. As used throughout this specification, the tern “bifurcated stent” is intended to have a broad meaning and encompasses any stent having a primary passageway to which is connected at least two secondary passageways. Thus, trifurcated stents are encompassed herein. Further, one of the secondary passageways can be a continuation of the primary passageway with the result that the other secondary passageway is essentially a side branch to the primary passageway.
  • [0053]
    The stent of the present invention (bifurcated or mono-tubular) can further comprise coating material thereon. The coating material can be disposed continuously or discontinuously on the surface of the stent. Further, the coating may be disposed on the interior and/or the exterior surface(s) of the stent. The coating material can be one or more of a biologically inert material (e.g. to reduce the thrombogenicity of the stent), a medicinal composition which leaches into the wall of the body passageway after implantation (e.g. to provide anticoagulant action, to deliver a pharmaceutical to the body passageway and the like) and the like.
  • [0054]
    The stent is preferably provided with a biocompatible containing, in order of minimize adverse interaction with the walls of the body vessel and/or with the liquid, usually blood, flowing through the vessel. The coating is preferably a polymeric material, which is generally provided by applying to the stent a solution or dispersion of preformed polymer in a solvent and removing the solvent. Non-polymeric coating material may alternatively be used. Suitable coating materials, for instance polymers, may be polytetraflouroethylene or silicone rubbers, or polyurethanes which are known to be biocompatible. Preferably however the polymer has zwitterionic pendant groups, generally ammonium phosphate ester groups, for instance phosphoryl choline groups or analogues thereof Examples of suitable polymers are described in International application number WO-A-93/16479 and WO-A-93/15775. Polymers described in those specifications are hemo-compatible as well as generally biocompatible and, in addition, are lubricious. It is important to ensure that the surfaces of the stent are completely coated in order to minimize unfavourable interactions, for instance with blood, which might lead to thrombosis.
  • [0055]
    This good coating can be achieved by suitable selection of coating conditions, such as coating solution viscosity, coating technique and/or solvent removal step.
  • [0056]
    In another embodiment of the invention, the stent may be joined to a polymer material. Specifically, a polymer material may be extruded onto the stent in such a manner that it envelops at least a portion of the stent. This technique may be used to join two or more stents with a flexible polymeric tube. This technique may also be used to join a stent to another prosthetic device such as a tube, a graft and the like. Thus, in this embodiment of the invention, the stent is incorporated into an endoluminal prosthesis.
  • [0057]
    In yet another embodiment of the invention, the stent may be secured (e.g. by suturing) to an existing endoluminal prosthesis such as Gortex™ material or to biological material such as basilic vein. In this regard, securing of the stent to the existing endoluminal prosthesis or biological material may be facilitated by designing the stent such that an end of the stent comprises an annular row of the above-mentioned polygons is having a convex-shaped wall with a flat apex.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0058]
    Embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein like numerals designate like parts and in which:
  • [0059]
    [0059]FIG. 1 illustrates an exploded perspective view of a mono-tubular stent prior to expansion;
  • [0060]
    [0060]FIG. 1A illustrates an exploded view of a portion of the stent illustrated in FIG. 1;
  • [0061]
    FIGS. 2-10 each illustrate a two dimensional representation of various embodiments (not to relative scale) of a repeating pattern useful in the stent of the present invention;
  • [0062]
    [0062]FIG. 11 illustrates an ostial stenosis to which a preferred embodiment of the invention may be applied; and
  • [0063]
    [0063]FIGS. 12a-12 i illustrate various embodiments of flexure means (in two dimensions) which may be disposed in the longitudinal struts of preferred embodiments of the present stent.
  • BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
  • [0064]
    With reference to FIGS. 1, there is illustrated a stent 10. Stent 10 comprises a proximal end 15 and a distal end 20. Stent further comprises a tubular wall 25 disposed between proximal end 15 and distal end 20. As illustrated, tubular wall 25 is porous. The porosity of tubular wall 25 is defined by a plurality of intersecting members 30. Intersecting members 30 define a first repeating pattern designated A in FIG. 1
  • [0065]
    As illustrated and with further reference to FIG. 1A, repeating pattern A is a polygon comprising a pair of side walls 35,40. Side walls 35,40 are substantially parallel to a longitudinal axis 45 of stent 10 and thus side walls 35,40 may be considered to be longitudinal struts (indeed with reference to each of the drawings, side walls may also be considered to be longitudinal struts). Side walls 35,40 are connected by a concave-shaped wall 50 and a convex-shaped wall 60.
  • [0066]
    As illustrated, concave-shaped wall 50 is made up of a trio of segments 52,54,56. In the illustrated embodiment, segment 54 is the apex of concave-shaped wall 54. As is evident, segment 54 is a flat apex and results in the provision of a pair of substantially square shoulders 57,58 Convex-shaped wall 60 is made up of a trio of segments 62,64,66. In the illustrated embodiment, segment 64 is the apex of convex-shaped wall 60.
  • [0067]
    It will be appreciated by those of skill in the art that the provision of first repeating pattern A, as illustrated, necessarily defines and provides for a second repeating pattern B. It will also be appreciated by those of skill in the art that second repeating pattern B is a mirror image of first repeating pattern A taken along an axis (not shown) substantially normal to longitudinal axis 45. Thus, in the illustrated embodiments, adjacent rows of repeating pattern A and repeating pattern B may be considered to by interlocking polygons or “arrowheads”.
  • [0068]
    It will be further appreciated by those of skill in the art that the shape of concave-shaped wall 50 and/or convex-shaped wall 60 can be modified without departing from the function and performance of the stent provided that at least one of concave-shaped wall 50 and convex-shaped wall 60 retain a substantially flat apex. For example, the trio of segments can be replaced by a suitably curved or arcuate wall. Alternatively, more than three segments can be used to define concave-shaped wall 50 and/or convex-shaped wall 60. Other modifications will be apparent to those of skill in the art.
  • [0069]
    It will be further appreciated by those of skill in the art that various walls of first repeating pattern A and second repeating pattern B may be omitted (and even desired) at selected points along the body of the stent without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. For example, it is possible to omit one or both of side walls 35 and 40 at selected points along the body of the stent with a view to improving the longitudinal flexibility of the stent. Further, it is possible to omit one or more of segments 62,64,66 at selected points along the body of the stent with a view to improving the lateral flexibility of the stent.
  • [0070]
    Still further, the stent depicted in FIG. 1 can be modified to omit, on a selected basis, first repeating pattern A and/or second repeating B with a view to improve flexibility of the stent and to allow access to other structures (e.g. side branches/arteries) outside the bounds of the stent.
  • [0071]
    With reference to FIGS. 2-10, there are illustrated a number of preferred embodiments of repeating pattern A. For the sake of clarity, numerals in FIGS. 2-8 have the same final two digits as the corresponding numerals in FIG. 1. Thus, for example, the concave-shaped wall is depicted as element 50 in FIG. 1, element 150 in FIG. 2, element 250 in FIG. 3, etc.
  • [0072]
    Thus, as illustrated in FIG. 2, repeating pattern A is comprised of a concave-shaped wall 150 and a convex-shaped wall 160, the former having a flat apex. Further, as illustrated, concave-shaped wall 150 and convex-shaped wall 160 are not equidistant along an axis orthogonal to the longitudinal axis of the stent (not shown). Thus, in this embodiment, the flat apex in concave-shaped wall 150 has been modified such that it comprises a pair of substantially rounded shoulders 157,158.
  • [0073]
    With reference to FIG. 3, repeating pattern A is similar to the one illustrated in FIG. 1. In FIG. 3, the flat apex of concave-shaped wall 250 has been modified to provide a pair of rounded shoulders 257,258. Further, a strut 270 has been added to connect segment 254 of concave-shaped wall 250 and segment 264 of convex-shaped wall 260. As illustrated, strut 270 is thinner in dimension that any of the segments making up concave-shaped wall 250 and convex-shaped wall 260. Thus, strut 270 may be considered as a relatively thin retention wire which reconciles the need for retaining flexibility in the strut with mitigating lifting of rounded shoulders 257,258 when the stent is delivered to the target body passageway through a relatively tortuous route.
  • [0074]
    With reference to FIG. 4, repeating pattern A is similar to the one illustrated in FIG. 1. In FIG. 4, the flat apex of concave-shaped wall 350 has been modified to provide a pair of rounded shoulders 357,358. Further, a curved strut 370 has been added to connect segment 354 of concave-shaped wall 350 and segment 364 of convex-shaped wall 360.
  • [0075]
    With reference to FIG. 5, repeating pattern A is similar to the one illustrated in FIG. 1. In FIG. 5, the flat apex of concave-shaped wall 450 has been modified to provide a pair of rounded shoulders 457,458. Further, a curved strut 470 has been added to connect segment 454 of concave-shaped wall 450 and segment 464 of convex-shaped wall 460. Further, side walls 435,440 are also curved. As discussed above, since side walls 435,440 are bowed in opposite directions in adjacent rows of repeating pattern A and B, substantially diametric side walls in adjacent rows will function as the flexure means described above.
  • [0076]
    With reference to FIG. 6, repeating pattern A is similar to the one illustrated in FIG. 1. In FIG. 6, concave-shaped wall 550 has been modified to have a flat apex 554 having a pair of rounded shoulders 557,558 and convex-shaped wall 560 has been modified also to have a flat apex 564 having a pair of rounded shoulders 567,568. Further, a curved strut 570 has been added to connect flat apex 554 of concave-shaped wall 550 and flat apex 564 of convex-shaped wall 560. Further, side walls 535,540 are also curved.
  • [0077]
    With reference to FIG. 7, repeating pattern A is similar to the one illustrated in FIG. 1. In FIG. 7, concave-shaped wall 650 has been modified to have a flat apex 654 having a pair of rounded shoulders 657,658 and convex-shaped wall 660 has been modified also to have a flat apex 664 having a pair of rounded shoulders 667,668. Further, a curved strut 670 has been added to connect flat apex 654 of concave-shaped wall 650 and flat apex 664 of convex-shaped wall 660. Further, side walls 635,640 are also curved. Still further, walls 661,662 which connect flat apex 664 to side walls 635,640, respectively, and walls 651,652 which connect flat apex 654 to side walls 635,640, respectively, are each curved. It is believed that this design even further enhances the lateral flexibility of the stent.
  • [0078]
    With reference to FIG. 8, repeating pattern A is similar to the one illustrated in FIG. 1. In FIG. 7, concave-shaped wall 750 has been modified to have a flat apex 754 having a pair of rounded shoulders 757,758 and convex-shaped wall 760 has been modified also to have a flat apex 764 having a pair of rounded shoulders 767,768. Further, a strut 770 has been added to connect flat apex 754 of concave-shaped wall 750 and flax apex 764 of convex-shaped wall 760. Further, side walls 735,740 have been modified to include a sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portion 736,741, respectively, adjacent convex-shaped wall 760. Further, strut 770 has been modified to include a sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portion 771 adjacent flat apex of concave-shaped wall 750. This design even further enhances the lateral flexibility of the stent.
  • [0079]
    With reference to FIG. 9, repeating pattern A is similar to the one illustrated in FIG. 1. In FIG. 9, concave-shaped wall 850 has been modified to have a flat apex 854 having a pair of rounded shoulders 857,858. Further, side walls 835,840 have been modified to include a pair of sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portions 836,841, respectively, adjacent convex-shaped wall 860. This design further enhances the lateral flexibility of the stent illustrated in FIG. 2. It should be noted that each sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portion 836,841 in FIG. 9 comprises a pair of adjoined curved sections wherein each curved section has an arc of greater than 180°—another way to conceptualize this is a pair of link omega-shaped sections (cf. with the curved sections of sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portions 736,741,771 in FIG. 8).
  • [0080]
    With reference to FIG. 10, repeating pattern A is similar to the one illustrated in FIG. 1. In FIG. 10, concave-shaped wall 950 has been modified to have a flat apex 954 having a pair of rounded shoulders 957,958. Further, a strut 970 has been added to connect flat-apex 954 of concave-shaped wall 950 and segment 964 of convex-shaped wall 960. Further, side walls 935,940 have been modified to include a pair of sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portions 936,941, respectively, adjacent convex-shaped wall 960. Further, strut 970 has been modified to include sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portion 971 adjacent flat apex of concave-shaped wall 950. It should be noted that each sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portion 936,941,971 in FIG. 10 comprises a pair of adjoined curved sections wherein each curved section has an arc of greater than 180°. Further, the curved sections in sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portions 936,941 are of the same size, whereas the curved sections in sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portion 971 are of different size. A distinct advantage of the interspersion of sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portions 936,941 and sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portion 971 is that substantially uniform radial expansion of all segments in this stent will occur without specific regard to the expansion forces generated by the balloon or other means used to deploy the stent. Further, this design minimizes the force (e.g. pressure from a balloon) required to expand the stent. Still further, this design enhances the lateral flexibility of the stent.
  • [0081]
    As will be apparent to those of skill in the art, sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portion 971 is offset with respect to sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portions 936,941 in a panel horizontal to the longitudinal axis of repeating pattern A. The offset nature of these sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portions serves to increase the bending points in the stent allowing the stent to bend while avoiding buckling thereof. Thus, the staged distribution of the sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portions over a large portion of the surface area of the stent serves to improve the flexibility of the stent.
  • [0082]
    The advantages of the various alternate embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 2-10 are discussed hereinabove.
  • [0083]
    As discussed above, the use of flexure means, such as the sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portions in the design of the stents illustrated in FIGS. 8-10, in the longitudinal struts in the stent design provides the added benefit of improved flexibility of the stent in the unexpanded state. Specifically, during flexure of the stent, provision of such a feature allows the inner stent surface adjacent the bend to compress while concurrently allowing the outer stent surface adjacent the bend to extend, all while maintain substantially intact the integral strength of stent and avoiding buckling of the stent.
  • [0084]
    Accordingly the provision of such flexure means in the longitudinal struts of an otherwise general stent design is another feature of invention. With reference to FIGS. 12a-12 i there are illustrated various alternatives of bowed lateral sections which can be used in place of sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portions 736,741,771 in FIG. 8, sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portions 836,841 in FIG. 9 and sinusoidal (or S-shaped) portions 936,941,971 in FIG. 10. Thus, the flexure means illustrated in FIG. 12a may be considered to be an asymmetric zig-zag whereas that illustrated in FIG. 12b may be considered to be a symmetric zig-zag and that illustrated in FIG. 12c may be considered to be an in line symmetric double peak. The flexure means illustrated in FIG. 12d may be considered to be a single omega, whereas that illustrated in FIG. 12e may be considered to be an inline (and unlinked) double omega and that illustrated in FIG. 12f may be considered to be an opposed (and unlinked) double omega. The flexure means illustrated in FIG. 12g may be considered to be an opposed omega (facilitates extension)/U-joint (facilitates compression). Still further the flexure means illustrated in FIG. 12h may be considered to be a rail flex whereas that illustrated in FIG. 12i may be considered to be an opposed rail flex. Other specific designs which are with the spirit and scope of the present invention will be apparent to those of skill in the art.
  • [0085]
    Those of skill in the art will recognize that it is possible to combine various of the alternate embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 2-10 and 12 to derive further designs which are still within the spirit and scope of the present invention. Specifically, a preferred embodiment of the present invention involves combining various of the repeating patterns illustrated in FIGS. 2-10 to achieve a stent with relatively flexible and rigid regions, for example, as follows:
  • [0086]
    F-R
  • [0087]
    F-R-F
  • [0088]
    R-F-R
  • [0089]
    wherein F is a relatively flexible region and R is a relatively rigid region. With reference to the embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 1-10, the trackability of the stent through a tortuous pathway is enhanced from the design illustrated in FIG. 1 progressively through to the design illustrated in FIG. 10. For example, an embodiment of the invention is a stent comprising a first section incorporating the design of FIG. 10 and a second section incorporating the design of FIG. 9. It is believed that such a multi-sectional design provides a very desirable combination of lateral flexibility (primarily from the design of FIG. 9) with post-expansion radial rigidity (primarily from the design of FIG. 10).
  • [0090]
    Another technique by which the relative flexibility/rigidity may be varied along the length of the stent involves varying the thickness of the segments making up the polygon discussed hereinabove. Specifically, the thickness of the segments may be varied in the range of from about 0.0015 to about 0.0045 inches, preferably from about 0.0020 to about 0.0040 inches. The lower the thickness in this range, the more flexible the resulting stent design. Conversely, the higher the thickness in this range, the less flexible the resulting stent design. Thus, by judicious selection of segment thickness, the relative flexibility/rigidity of the stent may be varied along its length.
  • [0091]
    The provision of a stent with a variable relative flexibility/rigidity along its length is believed to be novel, especially a stent comprising a single relatively flexible portion and a single relatively rigid portion (i.e. the F-R embodiment discussed above). Such a stent would find immediate use in a number of applications. For, example, such a stent would very desirable for implantation in an ostial stenosis (these typically occur in coronary arteries, vein grafts and renal arteries). In this regard, an ostial stenosis is illustrated in FIG. 11 thereof. Thus, there is illustrated a right coronary cusp 105, a right coronary artery 110 and an ostial segment 115 of right coronary artery 110. As further illustrated a stenosis 120 presents a narrowing of ostial segment 115. Ideally, a stent capable of implantation into such an ostial stenosis must be of sufficient rigidity after expansion to resist the elastic recoil of the ostial blockage (Region Y in FIG. 11). However, a stent of such sufficient rigidity will be deficient since it will either: (i) be retarded in its advance along the artery due to the sharp bend in the right coronary artery (Region X in FIG. 11 ); or (ii) traverse the sharp bend in the right coronary artery but subsequently straighten Region X of right coronary artery 110 thereby increasing the likelihood of tearing the artery. Conversely, a stent of sufficiently flexibility to traverse the sharp bend in the right coronary artery (Region X in FIG. 11) is susceptible to recoil in the ostial right coronary artery (Region Y in FIG. 11). Accordingly, to the knowledge of the Applicant, there is no known effective manner by which a stent may be used to treat an ostial stenosis of the type illustrated in FIG. 11. It is believed that a stent having variable relative rigidity/flexibility along its length as discussed above is a novel means by which an ostial stenosis may be treated. FIG. 11 also serves to illustrated the substantially complementary extension and compression of longitudinal members in Region X of the right coronary artery.
  • [0092]
    The manner by which the present stent is manufactured is not particularly restricted. Preferably, the stent is produced by laser cutting techniques applied to a tubular starting material. Thus, the starting material could be a thin tube of a metal or alloy (non-limiting examples include stainless steel, titanium, tantalum, nitinol, Elgiloy, NP35N and mixtures thereof) which would then have sections thereof cut out to leave repeating pattern A discussed above. Thus, the preferred design of the present stent is one of a tubular wall which is distinct from prior art wire mesh designs wherein wire is conformed to the desired shape and welded in place. The preferred tubular wall design of the present stent facilitates production and improves quality control by avoiding the use of welds and, instead, utilizing specific cutting techniques.
  • [0093]
    Preferably, the stent is coated with a solution of 1:2 (mole) copolymer of (methacryloyloxy ethyl)-2-(trimethylammonium ethyl) phosphate inner salt with lauryl methacrylate in ethanol (as described in Example 2 of International patent application WO-A-93/01221) as follows. The non-expanded stent may be placed in a tube having a slightly larger diameter than the stent. The tube may then be filled with coating solution and the solution allowed to drain steadily from the tube to form a completely coated stent. Immediately thereafter a stream of warm air or nitrogen may be directed through the tube at a linear velocity of 0.1.5 m/s at room temperature to 50° C. for a period of 30 seconds to 5 minutes to dry the coating by evaporation of the ethanol solvent.
  • [0094]
    As an alternative or in addition (on top or underneath) to this coating, a cross-linkable coating may be used consisting of a polymer of 23 mole % (methacryloyloxy ethyl)-2-(trimethylammonium ethyl) phosphate inner salt, 47 mole % lauryl methacrylate, 5 mole % ytrimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate and 25 mole % of yhydroxypropyl methacrylate. This may be applied to the sent by the above described technique from a 5 mg/ml ethanoic solution. The solution may be dried as described above and then cured by heating at 70 to 75° C. for a period of at least about 1 hour, for instance overnight. This curing generally results in substantially complete reaction of the methoxy silyl groups, either with other methoxylsily groups or with hydroxy groups derived from the hydroxypropyl methacrylate monomer, driving off methanol. In one preferred embodiment the crosslinkable coating is applied to the cleared stent, cured and then a further coating of the lauryl methacrylate copolymer described above is applied.
  • [0095]
    The coated stent may be sterilised by ethylene oxide, gamma radiation or electron beam and subsequently mounted onto a balloon catheter for delivery.
  • [0096]
    Stent 10 can be implanted using a conventional system wherein a guidewire, catheter and balloon can be used to position and expand the stent. Implantation of mono-tubular stents such as stent 10 is conventional and within the purview of a person skilled in the art. See, for example, any one of U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,733,665, 4,739,762, 5,035,706, 5,037,392, 5,102,417, 5,147,385, 5,282,824, 5,316,023 and any of the references cited therein or any of the references cited hereinabove. When the present stent is constructed as a bifurcated stent, it may be implanted using the procedure outlined in the '997 patent application incorporated herein by reference. Such a bifurcated stent may be manufactured, inter alia, by any of the methods disclosed in the Canadian patent application number 2,175,720 filed in Applicant's name on May 3, 1996, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
  • [0097]
    It will be apparent to those of skill in the art that implantation of stent 10 can be accomplished by various other means. For example, it is contemplated that the stent can be made of a suitable material which will expand when a certain temperature is reached. In this embodiment, the material may be a metal alloy (e.g. nitinol) capable of self-expansion at a temperature of at least about 30° C., preferably in the range of from about 30° to about 40° C. In this embodiment, the stent could be implanted using a conventional catheter and the radially outward force exerted on the stent would be generated within the stent itself Further, stent 10 can be designed to expand upon the application of mechanical forces other than those applied by a balloon/catheter. For example, it is possible to implant stent 10 using a catheter equipped with a resisting sleeve or retaining membrane which may then be removed with the catheter once the stent is in position thereby allowing the stent to expand. Thus, in this example, the stent would be resiliently compressed and would self-expanded once the compressive force (i.e. provided by the sleeve or membrane) is removed.
  • [0098]
    As will be appreciated by those of skill in the art, repeating pattern A has been described hereinabove and illustrated in FIG. 1 in respect of a monotubular stent. Repeating pattern A and all of the features relating thereto illustrated in and described with reference to FIGS. 1-10 (including modification to include the flexure means illustrated in FIGS. 12a-12 i) is equally applicable to a bifurcated stent such as the one described and illustrated in the '997 application discussed hereinabove, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
  • [0099]
    While this invention has been described with reference to illustrative embodiments, this description is not intended to be construed in a limiting sense. Various modifications of the illustrative embodiments, as well as other embodiments of the invention, will be apparent to persons skilled in the art upon reference to this description. It is therefore contemplated that the appended claims will cover any such modifications or embodiments.

Claims (23)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. An expandable stent comprising a proximal end and a distal end in communication with one another, a tubular wall disposed between the proximal end and the distal end, the tubular wall having a longitudinal axis and a porous surface defined by a plurality of intersecting members comprising a series of longitudinal struts disposed substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the stent, each of the longitudinal struts comprising flexure means for substantially complementary extension and compression of a diametrically opposed pair of the longitudinal struts upon flexure of the stent, the stent being expandable from a first, contracted position to a second, expanded position upon the application of a radially outward force on the stent.
  2. 2. The stent defined in claim 1, wherein the flexure means at least one lateral section disposed in each longitudinal strut.
  3. 3. The stent defined in claim 2, wherein the at least one lateral section comprises a pointed apex.
  4. 4. The stent defined in claim 2, wherein the at least one lateral section comprises a rounded apex.
  5. 5. The stent defined in claim 2, wherein the at least one lateral section comprises a flat apex.
  6. 6. The stent defined in claim 1, wherein the flexure means at least first lateral section and second lateral section disposed in each longitudinal strut.
  7. 7. The stent defined in claim 6, wherein the first lateral section and the second lateral section are symmetric.
  8. 8. The stent defined in claim 6, wherein the first lateral section and the second lateral section are asymmetric.
  9. 9. The stent defined in claim 8, wherein the first lateral section and the second lateral section have substantially the same shape and differing size.
  10. 10. The stent defined in claim 8, wherein the first lateral section and the second lateral section have differing shape and size.
  11. 11. The stent defined in any one of claims 6-10, wherein the first lateral section and the second lateral section have substantially the same shape and differing size.
  12. 12. The stent defined in any one of claims 1-11, wherein the plurality of intersecting members are arranged to define a first repeating pattern comprised of a polygon having a pair of side walls substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis and the flexure means is disposed in each of the side walls..
  13. 13. The stent defined in claim 12, wherein the flexure means comprises an S-shaped portion.
  14. 14. The stent defined in any one of claims 12-13, wherein the S-shaped portion comprises a pair of joined curved sections wherein each curve section has an arc of about 180°.
  15. 15. The stent defined in any one of claims 12-13, wherein the S-shaped portion comprises a pair of joined curved sections wherein each curved section has an arc of greater than 180°.
  16. 16. The stent defined in any one of claims 14-15, wherein the curved sections are of substantially the same size.
  17. 17. The stent defined in any one of claims 14-15, wherein the curved sections are of different size.
  18. 18. The stent defined in any one of claims 1-17, wherein the series of longitudinal struts comprising the flexure means includes all longitudinal struts in the porous surface.
  19. 19. The stent defined in any one of claims 1-18, wherein the stent is constructed of stainless steel.
  20. 20. The stent defined in any one of claims 1-18, wherein the stent is constructed of a self-expanding material.
  21. 21. The stent defined in claim 20, wherein the self-expanding material is nitinol.
  22. 22. The stent defined in claim 20, wherein the self-expanding material expands at a temperature of greater than about 30° C.
  23. 23. The stent defined in claim 20, wherein the self-expanding material expands at a temperature of in the range of from about 30° to about 40° C.
US10761459 1996-03-05 2004-01-22 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same Abandoned US20040153141A1 (en)

Priority Applications (13)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CA 2171047 CA2171047A1 (en) 1996-03-05 1996-03-05 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
CA2,171,047 1996-03-05
CA 2175722 CA2175722A1 (en) 1996-05-03 1996-05-03 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
CA2,175,722 1996-05-03
CA2,185,740 1996-09-17
CA 2185740 CA2185740A1 (en) 1996-09-17 1996-09-17 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
CA 2192520 CA2192520A1 (en) 1996-03-05 1996-12-10 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
CA2,192,520 1996-12-10
US09142508 US6217608B1 (en) 1996-03-05 1997-03-05 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
CA 2248718 CA2248718A1 (en) 1996-03-05 1997-03-05 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US09672767 US6375677B1 (en) 1996-03-05 2000-09-29 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US10073277 US6858037B2 (en) 1996-03-05 2002-02-13 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US10761459 US20040153141A1 (en) 1996-03-05 2004-01-22 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10761459 US20040153141A1 (en) 1996-03-05 2004-01-22 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US11840098 US20080021536A1 (en) 1996-03-05 2007-08-16 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US12419453 US20090192590A1 (en) 1996-03-05 2009-04-07 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10073277 Division US6858037B2 (en) 1996-03-05 2002-02-13 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11840098 Continuation US20080021536A1 (en) 1996-03-05 2007-08-16 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20040153141A1 true true US20040153141A1 (en) 2004-08-05

Family

ID=27508590

Family Applications (8)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10073277 Expired - Fee Related US6858037B2 (en) 1996-03-05 2002-02-13 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US10190818 Expired - Fee Related US6881223B2 (en) 1996-03-05 2002-07-09 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US10191522 Expired - Fee Related US6887264B2 (en) 1996-03-05 2002-07-10 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US10761459 Abandoned US20040153141A1 (en) 1996-03-05 2004-01-22 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US10850397 Expired - Fee Related US8075609B2 (en) 1996-03-05 2004-05-21 Expandable stent
US10849990 Expired - Lifetime US7094255B2 (en) 1996-03-05 2004-05-21 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US11831693 Abandoned US20080021542A1 (en) 1996-03-05 2007-07-31 Expandable Stent And Method For Delivery Of Same
US11840098 Abandoned US20080021536A1 (en) 1996-03-05 2007-08-16 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same

Family Applications Before (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10073277 Expired - Fee Related US6858037B2 (en) 1996-03-05 2002-02-13 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US10190818 Expired - Fee Related US6881223B2 (en) 1996-03-05 2002-07-09 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US10191522 Expired - Fee Related US6887264B2 (en) 1996-03-05 2002-07-10 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same

Family Applications After (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10850397 Expired - Fee Related US8075609B2 (en) 1996-03-05 2004-05-21 Expandable stent
US10849990 Expired - Lifetime US7094255B2 (en) 1996-03-05 2004-05-21 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US11831693 Abandoned US20080021542A1 (en) 1996-03-05 2007-07-31 Expandable Stent And Method For Delivery Of Same
US11840098 Abandoned US20080021536A1 (en) 1996-03-05 2007-08-16 Expandable stent and method for delivery of same

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (8) US6858037B2 (en)
EP (2) EP1477133B9 (en)
CA (1) CA2248718A1 (en)
WO (1) WO1997032544A1 (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2005053577A2 (en) * 2003-11-26 2005-06-16 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Intravascular stent and assembly
US20070150049A1 (en) * 2004-03-16 2007-06-28 Alveolus, Inc. Stent
US20080021542A1 (en) * 1996-03-05 2008-01-24 Evysio Medical Devices Ulc Expandable Stent And Method For Delivery Of Same
US8262721B2 (en) 2005-05-13 2012-09-11 Merit Medical Systems, Inc. Drainage stent and associated method
US9907640B2 (en) 2013-06-21 2018-03-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent with deflecting connector

Families Citing this family (138)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7204848B1 (en) 1995-03-01 2007-04-17 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Longitudinally flexible expandable stent
US6896696B2 (en) 1998-11-20 2005-05-24 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Flexible and expandable stent
CA2214627A1 (en) * 1997-03-05 1998-09-05 Divysio Solutions Ulc Expandable stent
CA2192520A1 (en) * 1996-03-05 1997-09-05 Ian M. Penn Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
JP4636634B2 (en) 1996-04-26 2011-02-23 ボストン サイエンティフィック サイムド,インコーポレイテッドBoston Scientific Scimed,Inc. Intravascular stent
US20040106985A1 (en) 1996-04-26 2004-06-03 Jang G. David Intravascular stent
US8211167B2 (en) 1999-12-06 2012-07-03 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Method of using a catheter with attached flexible side sheath
EP1047356B2 (en) * 1998-01-14 2014-03-12 Advanced Stent Technologies, Inc. Extendible stent apparatus
US6033433A (en) 1997-04-25 2000-03-07 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent configurations including spirals
US6451049B2 (en) 1998-04-29 2002-09-17 Sorin Biomedica Cardio, S.P.A. Stents for angioplasty
DE69809114T2 (en) 1997-04-29 2003-10-02 Sorin Biomedica Cardio Spa Stent for angioplasty
DE69835634T3 (en) * 1997-05-07 2010-09-23 Cordis Corp. The intravascular stent and system for introducing (obstruction of the ostium of a vessel)
EP0884029B1 (en) 1997-06-13 2004-12-22 Gary J. Becker Expandable intraluminal endoprosthesis
EP1017336B1 (en) * 1997-09-24 2007-08-15 Med Institute, Inc. Radially expandable stent
US7662409B2 (en) 1998-09-25 2010-02-16 Gel-Del Technologies, Inc. Protein matrix materials, devices and methods of making and using thereof
US6071308A (en) 1997-10-01 2000-06-06 Boston Scientific Corporation Flexible metal wire stent
US6013091A (en) 1997-10-09 2000-01-11 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent configurations
US6235053B1 (en) 1998-02-02 2001-05-22 G. David Jang Tubular stent consists of chevron-shape expansion struts and contralaterally attached diagonal connectors
EP1059896B1 (en) 1998-03-04 2006-05-24 Boston Scientific Limited Improved stent cell configurations
EP1702586B1 (en) * 1998-03-30 2008-08-06 Conor Medsystems, Inc. Expandable medical device with ductile hinges
FR2777771B1 (en) 1998-04-27 2000-08-25 Microval The stent and tubular flexible
US6261319B1 (en) 1998-07-08 2001-07-17 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent
DE69924260D1 (en) 1998-07-31 2005-04-21 Evysio Medical Devices Ulc Van Expandable stent for small-lumen vessels
US8070792B2 (en) * 2000-09-22 2011-12-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent
US9039755B2 (en) 2003-06-27 2015-05-26 Medinol Ltd. Helical hybrid stent
US8382821B2 (en) 1998-12-03 2013-02-26 Medinol Ltd. Helical hybrid stent
US9155639B2 (en) 2009-04-22 2015-10-13 Medinol Ltd. Helical hybrid stent
EP1139918B1 (en) * 1998-12-18 2008-01-23 Cook Incorporated Cannula stent
US6743252B1 (en) 1998-12-18 2004-06-01 Cook Incorporated Cannula stent
EP1071378B1 (en) 1999-02-12 2006-11-08 Evysio Medical Devices Ulc Endovascular prosthesis
RU2001105404A (en) 2000-03-01 2003-03-10 Мединол Лтд. (Il) Stand having flexibility along the longitudinal axis
US7141062B1 (en) 2000-03-01 2006-11-28 Medinol, Ltd. Longitudinally flexible stent
US8920487B1 (en) 2000-03-01 2014-12-30 Medinol Ltd. Longitudinally flexible stent
US6723119B2 (en) 2000-03-01 2004-04-20 Medinol Ltd. Longitudinally flexible stent
US7621947B2 (en) 2000-03-01 2009-11-24 Medinol, Ltd. Longitudinally flexible stent
US6616689B1 (en) * 2000-05-03 2003-09-09 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent
CA2643556C (en) 2000-09-22 2011-08-16 Boston Scientific Limited Flexible and expandable stent
US7842083B2 (en) * 2001-08-20 2010-11-30 Innovational Holdings, Llc. Expandable medical device with improved spatial distribution
WO2002054989A3 (en) 2001-01-15 2003-09-25 Terumo Kabushiki Kaisha Stent
US6790227B2 (en) 2001-03-01 2004-09-14 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent
US6998060B2 (en) 2001-03-01 2006-02-14 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent and method of manufacture
US6740114B2 (en) * 2001-03-01 2004-05-25 Cordis Corporation Flexible stent
US20050055082A1 (en) 2001-10-04 2005-03-10 Shmuel Ben Muvhar Flow reducing implant
US6733521B2 (en) 2001-04-11 2004-05-11 Trivascular, Inc. Delivery system and method for endovascular graft
US6761733B2 (en) 2001-04-11 2004-07-13 Trivascular, Inc. Delivery system and method for bifurcated endovascular graft
US6887215B2 (en) 2001-06-01 2005-05-03 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Compressible ureteral stent for comfort
US6997944B2 (en) * 2001-08-13 2006-02-14 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for decreasing stent gap size
US20100016943A1 (en) 2001-12-20 2010-01-21 Trivascular2, Inc. Method of delivering advanced endovascular graft
US20030135265A1 (en) * 2002-01-04 2003-07-17 Stinson Jonathan S. Prostheses implantable in enteral vessels
US20040093056A1 (en) 2002-10-26 2004-05-13 Johnson Lianw M. Medical appliance delivery apparatus and method of use
US7637942B2 (en) * 2002-11-05 2009-12-29 Merit Medical Systems, Inc. Coated stent with geometry determinated functionality and method of making the same
US7959671B2 (en) 2002-11-05 2011-06-14 Merit Medical Systems, Inc. Differential covering and coating methods
US7875068B2 (en) * 2002-11-05 2011-01-25 Merit Medical Systems, Inc. Removable biliary stent
ES2345814T3 (en) 2002-12-19 2010-10-04 Invatec S.P.A. endoluminal prothesis.
US20070239251A1 (en) * 2002-12-31 2007-10-11 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Flexible stent
US20040148011A1 (en) * 2003-01-24 2004-07-29 Brian Shiu Flexible connecting bar for an endoluminal stent graft
WO2004082538A2 (en) * 2003-03-18 2004-09-30 St. Jude Medical, Inc. Body tissue remodeling apparatus
US7637934B2 (en) 2003-03-31 2009-12-29 Merit Medical Systems, Inc. Medical appliance optical delivery and deployment apparatus and method
US6945992B2 (en) * 2003-04-22 2005-09-20 Medtronic Vascular, Inc. Single-piece crown stent
US7604660B2 (en) 2003-05-01 2009-10-20 Merit Medical Systems, Inc. Bifurcated medical appliance delivery apparatus and method
DE10323628A1 (en) 2003-05-20 2004-12-30 Biotronik Ag Stents made of a material of low elongation at break
US8999364B2 (en) 2004-06-15 2015-04-07 Nanyang Technological University Implantable article, method of forming same and method for reducing thrombogenicity
WO2005034852A3 (en) 2003-08-26 2007-12-13 Gel Del Technologies Inc Protein biomaterials and biocoacervates and methods of making and using thereof
US7887579B2 (en) * 2004-09-29 2011-02-15 Merit Medical Systems, Inc. Active stent
CA2930497A1 (en) 2003-11-19 2005-06-02 Neovasc Medical Ltd. Vascular implant
US8454676B1 (en) 2004-01-20 2013-06-04 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Transition matching stent
WO2005094725A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-13 Merlin Md Pte Ltd A method for treating aneurysms
US8715340B2 (en) 2004-03-31 2014-05-06 Merlin Md Pte Ltd. Endovascular device with membrane
US8500751B2 (en) 2004-03-31 2013-08-06 Merlin Md Pte Ltd Medical device
US8363232B2 (en) * 2004-05-03 2013-01-29 Microsoft Corporation Strategies for simultaneous peripheral operations on-line using hierarchically structured job information
GB0419954D0 (en) * 2004-09-08 2004-10-13 Advotek Medical Devices Ltd System for directing therapy
FR2881946B1 (en) * 2005-02-17 2008-01-04 Jacques Seguin Device for the treatment of bodily conduits at a bifurcation
CN101484089B (en) 2005-04-04 2015-11-25 可挠支架装置公司 The flexible stent
US20060253193A1 (en) * 2005-05-03 2006-11-09 Lichtenstein Samuel V Mechanical means for controlling blood pressure
US7731654B2 (en) * 2005-05-13 2010-06-08 Merit Medical Systems, Inc. Delivery device with viewing window and associated method
US20100049003A1 (en) * 2005-06-24 2010-02-25 Levy Elad I Expandable surgical site access system
US20070043381A1 (en) * 2005-08-19 2007-02-22 Icon Medical Corp. Medical device deployment instrument
US8956400B2 (en) * 2005-10-14 2015-02-17 Flexible Stenting Solutions, Inc. Helical stent
US8092520B2 (en) 2005-11-10 2012-01-10 CardiAQ Technologies, Inc. Vascular prosthesis connecting stent
US20070173924A1 (en) * 2006-01-23 2007-07-26 Daniel Gelbart Axially-elongating stent and method of deployment
CA2535552A1 (en) * 2006-02-03 2007-08-03 Ever D. Grech Bifurcation stent
EP2004101A2 (en) * 2006-04-07 2008-12-24 Penumbra, Inc. Aneurysm occlusion system and method
US20070276444A1 (en) * 2006-05-24 2007-11-29 Daniel Gelbart Self-powered leadless pacemaker
US20070287879A1 (en) * 2006-06-13 2007-12-13 Daniel Gelbart Mechanical means for controlling blood pressure
US20110130822A1 (en) * 2007-07-20 2011-06-02 Orbusneich Medical, Inc. Bioabsorbable Polymeric Compositions and Medical Devices
US20080065192A1 (en) * 2006-09-13 2008-03-13 Medtronic Vascular, Inc. Compliance Graded Stent
FR2911063B1 (en) 2007-01-09 2009-03-20 Stentys S A S Soc Par Actions breakable bridge structure for a stent, and the stent including such bridge structures.
US8974514B2 (en) * 2007-03-13 2015-03-10 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Intravascular stent with integrated link and ring strut
US20080269745A1 (en) * 2007-04-24 2008-10-30 Osteolign, Inc. Thermo-chemically activated intramedullary bone stent
US20110009951A1 (en) * 2007-06-22 2011-01-13 C.R. Bard, Inc. Helical and segmented stent-graft
US9427343B2 (en) * 2007-06-22 2016-08-30 David L. Bogert Locked segments pushable stent-graft
US20090024158A1 (en) * 2007-07-16 2009-01-22 Zimmer Spine, Inc. Access Port Expander And Method
US8372131B2 (en) * 2007-07-16 2013-02-12 Power Ten , LLC Surgical site access system and deployment device for same
US7988723B2 (en) 2007-08-02 2011-08-02 Flexible Stenting Solutions, Inc. Flexible stent
US8663309B2 (en) 2007-09-26 2014-03-04 Trivascular, Inc. Asymmetric stent apparatus and method
US8066755B2 (en) 2007-09-26 2011-11-29 Trivascular, Inc. System and method of pivoted stent deployment
US8226701B2 (en) 2007-09-26 2012-07-24 Trivascular, Inc. Stent and delivery system for deployment thereof
US8328861B2 (en) 2007-11-16 2012-12-11 Trivascular, Inc. Delivery system and method for bifurcated graft
US8083789B2 (en) 2007-11-16 2011-12-27 Trivascular, Inc. Securement assembly and method for expandable endovascular device
US8114151B2 (en) * 2008-05-08 2012-02-14 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent with tabs and holes for drug delivery
EP2299945B1 (en) 2008-06-05 2016-03-23 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Balloon bifurcated lumen treatment
US8206636B2 (en) 2008-06-20 2012-06-26 Amaranth Medical Pte. Stent fabrication via tubular casting processes
US9005274B2 (en) * 2008-08-04 2015-04-14 Stentys Sas Method for treating a body lumen
US9730790B2 (en) 2009-09-29 2017-08-15 Edwards Lifesciences Cardiaq Llc Replacement valve and method
CN102292053A (en) 2008-09-29 2011-12-21 卡迪尔克阀门技术公司 Heart valve
WO2010040009A1 (en) 2008-10-01 2010-04-08 Cardiaq Valve Technologies, Inc. Delivery system for vascular implant
US9149376B2 (en) 2008-10-06 2015-10-06 Cordis Corporation Reconstrainable stent delivery system
WO2010042854A1 (en) * 2008-10-10 2010-04-15 Orbusneich Medical, Inc. Bioabsorbable polymeric medical device
EP2419050B1 (en) 2009-04-15 2017-06-28 Edwards Lifesciences CardiAQ LLC Vascular implant and delivery system
ES2549000T3 (en) 2009-07-27 2015-10-22 Endologix, Inc. endoprosthesis
US20110034998A1 (en) * 2009-08-07 2011-02-10 Kassem Ashe Annuloplasty tubes
US9211123B2 (en) * 2009-12-31 2015-12-15 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Intraluminal occlusion devices and methods of blocking the entry of fluid into bodily passages
US8328863B2 (en) 2010-04-22 2012-12-11 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Optimal ratio of polar and bending moment of inertia for stent strut design
US8579964B2 (en) 2010-05-05 2013-11-12 Neovasc Inc. Transcatheter mitral valve prosthesis
US9554897B2 (en) 2011-04-28 2017-01-31 Neovasc Tiara Inc. Methods and apparatus for engaging a valve prosthesis with tissue
US9308087B2 (en) 2011-04-28 2016-04-12 Neovasc Tiara Inc. Sequentially deployed transcatheter mitral valve prosthesis
US8556511B2 (en) 2010-09-08 2013-10-15 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Fluid bearing to support stent tubing during laser cutting
EP2658484A1 (en) 2010-12-30 2013-11-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Multi stage opening stent designs
WO2012118526A1 (en) 2011-03-03 2012-09-07 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Low strain high strength stent
WO2012119037A1 (en) 2011-03-03 2012-09-07 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent with reduced profile
CA2834620A1 (en) * 2011-04-29 2012-11-01 Evysio Medical Devices Ulc Endovascular prosthesis and delivery device
US8992595B2 (en) 2012-04-04 2015-03-31 Trivascular, Inc. Durable stent graft with tapered struts and stable delivery methods and devices
US9498363B2 (en) 2012-04-06 2016-11-22 Trivascular, Inc. Delivery catheter for endovascular device
CN104302250B (en) 2012-05-14 2017-03-15 C·R·巴德公司 Uniformly expandable stent
US9345573B2 (en) * 2012-05-30 2016-05-24 Neovasc Tiara Inc. Methods and apparatus for loading a prosthesis onto a delivery system
US20140012281A1 (en) * 2012-07-09 2014-01-09 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Expandable guide extension catheter
US9913740B2 (en) 2012-10-25 2018-03-13 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Stent with varying cross-section
USD723165S1 (en) 2013-03-12 2015-02-24 C. R. Bard, Inc. Stent
US9730791B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2017-08-15 Edwards Lifesciences Cardiaq Llc Prosthesis for atraumatically grasping intralumenal tissue and methods of delivery
US9681951B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2017-06-20 Edwards Lifesciences Cardiaq Llc Prosthesis with outer skirt and anchors
US9572665B2 (en) 2013-04-04 2017-02-21 Neovasc Tiara Inc. Methods and apparatus for delivering a prosthetic valve to a beating heart
US8998986B1 (en) 2013-07-05 2015-04-07 Zdzislaw B. Malinowski Nasal stent
EP2881089A1 (en) * 2013-12-03 2015-06-10 Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor Stent for implantation into blood vessels
US9375810B2 (en) 2014-01-24 2016-06-28 Q3 Medical Devices Limited Bidirectional stent and method of use thereof
USD755384S1 (en) 2014-03-05 2016-05-03 Edwards Lifesciences Cardiaq Llc Stent
US9545263B2 (en) 2014-06-19 2017-01-17 Limflow Gmbh Devices and methods for treating lower extremity vasculature
US9381103B2 (en) * 2014-10-06 2016-07-05 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Stent with elongating struts
DE102015115891A1 (en) * 2015-09-21 2017-03-23 Bentley Innomed Gmbh Stent graft

Citations (90)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3657774A (en) * 1969-11-10 1972-04-25 Harry E Reynolds Connector for golf club covers
US4506569A (en) * 1982-11-02 1985-03-26 Hardinge Brothers, Inc. Multiple axis slant bed machine
US4580568A (en) * 1984-10-01 1986-04-08 Cook, Incorporated Percutaneous endovascular stent and method for insertion thereof
US4655771A (en) * 1982-04-30 1987-04-07 Shepherd Patents S.A. Prosthesis comprising an expansible or contractile tubular body
US4681110A (en) * 1985-12-02 1987-07-21 Wiktor Dominik M Catheter arrangement having a blood vessel liner, and method of using it
US4733665A (en) * 1985-11-07 1988-03-29 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US4762128A (en) * 1986-12-09 1988-08-09 Advanced Surgical Intervention, Inc. Method and apparatus for treating hypertrophy of the prostate gland
US4768507A (en) * 1986-02-24 1988-09-06 Medinnovations, Inc. Intravascular stent and percutaneous insertion catheter system for the dilation of an arterial stenosis and the prevention of arterial restenosis
US4795458A (en) * 1987-07-02 1989-01-03 Regan Barrie F Stent for use following balloon angioplasty
US4800882A (en) * 1987-03-13 1989-01-31 Cook Incorporated Endovascular stent and delivery system
US4830003A (en) * 1988-06-17 1989-05-16 Wolff Rodney G Compressive stent and delivery system
US4856516A (en) * 1989-01-09 1989-08-15 Cordis Corporation Endovascular stent apparatus and method
US4907336A (en) * 1987-03-13 1990-03-13 Cook Incorporated Method of making an endovascular stent and delivery system
US4994071A (en) * 1989-05-22 1991-02-19 Cordis Corporation Bifurcating stent apparatus and method
US5019085A (en) * 1988-10-25 1991-05-28 Cordis Corporation Apparatus and method for placement of a stent within a subject vessel
US5019090A (en) * 1988-09-01 1991-05-28 Corvita Corporation Radially expandable endoprosthesis and the like
US5035706A (en) * 1989-10-17 1991-07-30 Cook Incorporated Percutaneous stent and method for retrieval thereof
US5037392A (en) * 1989-06-06 1991-08-06 Cordis Corporation Stent-implanting balloon assembly
US5041126A (en) * 1987-03-13 1991-08-20 Cook Incorporated Endovascular stent and delivery system
US5102417A (en) * 1985-11-07 1992-04-07 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US5104404A (en) * 1989-10-02 1992-04-14 Medtronic, Inc. Articulated stent
US5108417A (en) * 1990-09-14 1992-04-28 Interface Biomedical Laboratories Corp. Anti-turbulent, anti-thrombogenic intravascular stent
US5116365A (en) * 1991-02-22 1992-05-26 Cordis Corporation Stent apparatus and method for making
US5135538A (en) * 1989-09-29 1992-08-04 General Motors Corporation Electromagnetically controlled heart valve
US5147385A (en) * 1989-11-01 1992-09-15 Schneider (Europe) A.G. Stent and catheter for the introduction of the stent
US5192307A (en) * 1987-12-08 1993-03-09 Wall W Henry Angioplasty stent
US5195984A (en) * 1988-10-04 1993-03-23 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft
US5197987A (en) * 1991-01-18 1993-03-30 Sulzer Brothers Limited Knee joint prosthesis
US5201901A (en) * 1987-10-08 1993-04-13 Terumo Kabushiki Kaisha Expansion unit and apparatus for expanding tubular organ lumen
US5282823A (en) * 1992-03-19 1994-02-01 Medtronic, Inc. Intravascular radially expandable stent
US5282824A (en) * 1990-10-09 1994-02-01 Cook, Incorporated Percutaneous stent assembly
US5290305A (en) * 1991-10-11 1994-03-01 Kanji Inoue Appliance collapsible for insertion into human organs and capable of resilient restoration
US5292331A (en) * 1989-08-24 1994-03-08 Applied Vascular Engineering, Inc. Endovascular support device
US5314472A (en) * 1991-10-01 1994-05-24 Cook Incorporated Vascular stent
US5316023A (en) * 1992-01-08 1994-05-31 Expandable Grafts Partnership Method for bilateral intra-aortic bypass
US5342387A (en) * 1992-06-18 1994-08-30 American Biomed, Inc. Artificial support for a blood vessel
US5345057A (en) * 1993-03-25 1994-09-06 Lasag Ag Method of cutting an aperture in a device by means of a laser beam
US5383892A (en) * 1991-11-08 1995-01-24 Meadox France Stent for transluminal implantation
US5395390A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-03-07 The Beth Israel Hospital Association Metal wire stent
US5397355A (en) * 1994-07-19 1995-03-14 Stentco, Inc. Intraluminal stent
US5405377A (en) * 1992-02-21 1995-04-11 Endotech Ltd. Intraluminal stent
US5421955A (en) * 1991-10-28 1995-06-06 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stents and method for making same
US5443498A (en) * 1991-10-01 1995-08-22 Cook Incorporated Vascular stent and method of making and implanting a vacsular stent
US5443500A (en) * 1989-01-26 1995-08-22 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent
US5496365A (en) * 1992-07-02 1996-03-05 Sgro; Jean-Claude Autoexpandable vascular endoprosthesis
US5507771A (en) * 1992-06-15 1996-04-16 Cook Incorporated Stent assembly
US5507767A (en) * 1992-01-15 1996-04-16 Cook Incorporated Spiral stent
US5522880A (en) * 1990-06-11 1996-06-04 Barone; Hector D. Method for repairing an abdominal aortic aneurysm
US5527354A (en) * 1991-06-28 1996-06-18 Cook Incorporated Stent formed of half-round wire
US5540712A (en) * 1992-05-01 1996-07-30 Nitinol Medical Technologies, Inc. Stent and method and apparatus for forming and delivering the same
US5591197A (en) * 1995-03-14 1997-01-07 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stent forming projecting barbs and method for deploying
US5607442A (en) * 1995-11-13 1997-03-04 Isostent, Inc. Stent with improved radiopacity and appearance characteristics
US5623771A (en) * 1995-01-12 1997-04-29 V.I.B. Apparatebau Gmbh Steam moistening apparatus
US5628787A (en) * 1993-01-19 1997-05-13 Schneider (Usa) Inc. Clad composite stent
US5634941A (en) * 1992-08-18 1997-06-03 Ultrasonic Sensing And Monitoring Systems, Inc. Vascular graft bypass apparatus
US5639278A (en) * 1993-10-21 1997-06-17 Corvita Corporation Expandable supportive bifurcated endoluminal grafts
US5643312A (en) * 1994-02-25 1997-07-01 Fischell Robert Stent having a multiplicity of closed circular structures
US5643340A (en) * 1994-10-27 1997-07-01 Nunokawa; Mioko Synthetic vascular prosthesis
US5653743A (en) * 1994-09-09 1997-08-05 Martin; Eric C. Hypogastric artery bifurcation graft and method of implantation
US5709712A (en) * 1995-04-21 1998-01-20 Sulzer Intermedics Inc. Implantable cardiac stimulation device with warning system
US5733303A (en) * 1994-03-17 1998-03-31 Medinol Ltd. Flexible expandable stent
US5755734A (en) * 1996-05-03 1998-05-26 Medinol Ltd. Bifurcated stent and method of making same
US5755771A (en) * 1994-11-03 1998-05-26 Divysio Solutions Ulc Expandable stent and method of delivery of same
US5776161A (en) * 1995-10-16 1998-07-07 Instent, Inc. Medical stents, apparatus and method for making same
US5868783A (en) * 1997-04-16 1999-02-09 Numed, Inc. Intravascular stent with limited axial shrinkage
US5879370A (en) * 1994-02-25 1999-03-09 Fischell; Robert E. Stent having a multiplicity of undulating longitudinals
US5906759A (en) * 1996-12-26 1999-05-25 Medinol Ltd. Stent forming apparatus with stent deforming blades
US5906640A (en) * 1994-11-03 1999-05-25 Divysio Solutions Ulc Bifurcated stent and method for the manufacture and delivery of same
US5911754A (en) * 1998-07-24 1999-06-15 Uni-Cath Inc. Flexible stent with effective strut and connector patterns
US5913695A (en) * 1996-08-08 1999-06-22 Yazaki Corporation Crimping terminal
US5922020A (en) * 1996-08-02 1999-07-13 Localmed, Inc. Tubular prosthesis having improved expansion and imaging characteristics
US5922005A (en) * 1994-10-27 1999-07-13 Medinol Ltd. Stent fabrication method
US5931866A (en) * 1998-02-24 1999-08-03 Frantzen; John J. Radially expandable stent featuring accordion stops
US6017365A (en) * 1997-05-20 2000-01-25 Jomed Implantate Gmbh Coronary stent
US6017362A (en) * 1994-04-01 2000-01-25 Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc. Folding self-expandable intravascular stent
US6042597A (en) * 1998-10-23 2000-03-28 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Helical stent design
US6053940A (en) * 1995-10-20 2000-04-25 Wijay; Bandula Vascular stent
US6059811A (en) * 1994-03-17 2000-05-09 Medinol Ltd. Articulated stent
US6066169A (en) * 1998-06-02 2000-05-23 Ave Connaught Expandable stent having articulated connecting rods
US6068656A (en) * 1997-05-15 2000-05-30 Jomed Implantate Gmbh Coronary stent
US6083259A (en) * 1998-11-16 2000-07-04 Frantzen; John J. Axially non-contracting flexible radially expandable stent
US6099455A (en) * 1998-11-25 2000-08-08 Isostent, Inc. Radioisotope stent with non-radioactive end sections
US6106548A (en) * 1997-02-07 2000-08-22 Endosystems Llc Non-foreshortening intraluminal prosthesis
US6171334B1 (en) * 1998-06-17 2001-01-09 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stent and method of use
US6179867B1 (en) * 1998-01-16 2001-01-30 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Flexible stent and method of use
US6179868B1 (en) * 1998-03-27 2001-01-30 Janet Burpee Stent with reduced shortening
US6183507B1 (en) * 1996-03-22 2001-02-06 Medtronic Ave, Inc. Stents for supporting lumens in living tissue
US6190403B1 (en) * 1998-11-13 2001-02-20 Cordis Corporation Low profile radiopaque stent with increased longitudinal flexibility and radial rigidity
US6190405B1 (en) * 1997-05-28 2001-02-20 Gfe Corporation For Research And Development Unlimited Flexible expandable vascular support
US6190406B1 (en) * 1998-01-09 2001-02-20 Nitinal Development Corporation Intravascular stent having tapered struts

Family Cites Families (75)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1511030A (en) 1974-11-04 1978-05-17 Gambro Ab Insert for use in vascular surgery
US4390599A (en) 1980-07-31 1983-06-28 Raychem Corporation Enhanced recovery memory metal device
NL8220336A (en) 1981-09-16 1984-01-02 Wallsten Hans Ivar Device for use in blood vessels or other difficult to reach places, and its use.
US4503569A (en) 1983-03-03 1985-03-12 Dotter Charles T Transluminally placed expandable graft prosthesis
US4878906A (en) 1986-03-25 1989-11-07 Servetus Partnership Endoprosthesis for repairing a damaged vessel
GB2189150B (en) 1986-04-21 1990-02-14 Medinvent Sa Prosthesis and process for its manufacture
US4969458A (en) 1987-07-06 1990-11-13 Medtronic, Inc. Intracoronary stent and method of simultaneous angioplasty and stent implant
US4886062A (en) 1987-10-19 1989-12-12 Medtronic, Inc. Intravascular radially expandable stent and method of implant
US5133732A (en) 1987-10-19 1992-07-28 Medtronic, Inc. Intravascular stent
US5266073A (en) 1987-12-08 1993-11-30 Wall W Henry Angioplasty stent
US5674278A (en) 1989-08-24 1997-10-07 Arterial Vascular Engineering, Inc. Endovascular support device
US5139480A (en) 1990-08-22 1992-08-18 Biotech Laboratories, Inc. Necking stents
US5161547A (en) 1990-11-28 1992-11-10 Numed, Inc. Method of forming an intravascular radially expandable stent
FR2671280B1 (en) 1991-01-03 1993-03-05 Sgro Jean Claude Self-expanding stent permanently elastic, low-shortening and application equipment.
CA2060067A1 (en) 1991-01-28 1992-07-29 Lilip Lau Stent delivery system
US5458615A (en) 1993-07-06 1995-10-17 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent delivery system
US5135536A (en) 1991-02-05 1992-08-04 Cordis Corporation Endovascular stent and method
US5073694A (en) 1991-02-21 1991-12-17 Synthes (U.S.A.) Method and apparatus for laser cutting a hollow metal workpiece
US5197978B1 (en) 1991-04-26 1996-05-28 Advanced Coronary Tech Removable heat-recoverable tissue supporting device
FR2678508B1 (en) 1991-07-04 1998-01-30 Celsa Lg Device for reinforcing the body vessels.
US5269802A (en) 1991-09-10 1993-12-14 Garber Bruce B Prostatic stent
JP2703510B2 (en) 1993-12-28 1998-01-26 アドヴァンスド カーディオヴァスキュラー システムズ インコーポレーテッド Expandable stent and a method for manufacturing the same
US5609627A (en) 1994-02-09 1997-03-11 Boston Scientific Technology, Inc. Method for delivering a bifurcated endoluminal prosthesis
US6464722B2 (en) 1994-03-17 2002-10-15 Medinol, Ltd. Flexible expandable stent
US5843120A (en) 1994-03-17 1998-12-01 Medinol Ltd. Flexible-expandable stent
DE69531239T2 (en) * 1994-04-01 2004-04-22 Prograft Medical, Inc., Palo Alto Selbstausdehnbarer stent and stent-graft transplant
DE69510986D1 (en) 1994-04-25 1999-09-02 Advanced Cardiovascular System Radiopaque stent markers
US6582461B1 (en) * 1994-05-19 2003-06-24 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Tissue supporting devices
US5578009A (en) 1994-07-20 1996-11-26 Danforth Biomedical Incorporated Catheter system with push rod for advancement of balloon along guidewire
US5575817A (en) 1994-08-19 1996-11-19 Martin; Eric C. Aorto femoral bifurcation graft and method of implantation
CA2161509C (en) 1994-10-27 2007-07-17 Jacob Richter Stent fabrication method
CA2163824C (en) 1994-11-28 2000-06-20 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for direct laser cutting of metal stents
US5683449A (en) 1995-02-24 1997-11-04 Marcade; Jean Paul Modular bifurcated intraluminal grafts and methods for delivering and assembling same
US6179837B1 (en) * 1995-03-07 2001-01-30 Enable Medical Corporation Bipolar electrosurgical scissors
US5709713A (en) 1995-03-31 1998-01-20 Cardiovascular Concepts, Inc. Radially expansible vascular prosthesis having reversible and other locking structures
US5575771A (en) 1995-04-24 1996-11-19 Walinsky; Paul Balloon catheter with external guidewire
US5776181A (en) * 1995-07-25 1998-07-07 Medstent Inc. Expandable stent
US6287336B1 (en) 1995-10-16 2001-09-11 Medtronic, Inc. Variable flexibility stent
DE29516712U1 (en) 1995-10-23 1995-12-21 Meyer Kobbe Clemens Dr Tube with lattice structure
US5824040A (en) 1995-12-01 1998-10-20 Medtronic, Inc. Endoluminal prostheses and therapies for highly variable body lumens
US6203569B1 (en) 1996-01-04 2001-03-20 Bandula Wijay Flexible stent
US5843117A (en) 1996-02-14 1998-12-01 Inflow Dynamics Inc. Implantable vascular and endoluminal stents and process of fabricating the same
CA2171047A1 (en) 1996-03-05 1997-09-06 Ian M. Penn Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
WO1997032544A1 (en) * 1996-03-05 1997-09-12 Divysio Solutions Ulc. Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US6796997B1 (en) * 1996-03-05 2004-09-28 Evysio Medical Devices Ulc Expandable stent
CA2192520A1 (en) * 1996-03-05 1997-09-05 Ian M. Penn Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
EP0800801A1 (en) 1996-04-10 1997-10-15 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent having varied amounts of structural strength along its length
US5922021A (en) * 1996-04-26 1999-07-13 Jang; G. David Intravascular stent
US6251133B1 (en) 1996-05-03 2001-06-26 Medinol Ltd. Bifurcated stent with improved side branch aperture and method of making same
CA2175722A1 (en) 1996-05-03 1997-11-04 Ian M. Penn Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US5697971A (en) 1996-06-11 1997-12-16 Fischell; Robert E. Multi-cell stent with cells having differing characteristics
US5676697A (en) 1996-07-29 1997-10-14 Cardiovascular Dynamics, Inc. Two-piece, bifurcated intraluminal graft for repair of aneurysm
CA2185740A1 (en) 1996-09-17 1998-03-18 Ian M. Penn Expandable stent and method for delivery of same
US5807404A (en) 1996-09-19 1998-09-15 Medinol Ltd. Stent with variable features to optimize support and method of making such stent
WO1998022159A3 (en) 1996-11-07 1998-07-09 Medtronic Instent Inc Variable flexibility stent
US5925061A (en) 1997-01-13 1999-07-20 Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc. Low profile vascular stent
DE29702671U1 (en) 1997-02-17 1997-04-10 Jomed Implantate Gmbh stent
US6033433A (en) * 1997-04-25 2000-03-07 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent configurations including spirals
US5836966A (en) 1997-05-22 1998-11-17 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Variable expansion force stent
US5913895A (en) 1997-06-02 1999-06-22 Isostent, Inc. Intravascular stent with enhanced rigidity strut members
EP0890346A1 (en) 1997-06-13 1999-01-13 Gary J. Becker Expandable intraluminal endoprosthesis
EP1017336B1 (en) 1997-09-24 2007-08-15 Med Institute, Inc. Radially expandable stent
US5964770A (en) 1997-09-30 1999-10-12 Litana Ltd. High strength medical devices of shape memory alloy
WO1999025272A1 (en) 1997-11-13 1999-05-27 Medinol Ltd. Multilayered metal stent
US6129754A (en) 1997-12-11 2000-10-10 Uni-Cath Inc. Stent for vessel with branch
US5964798A (en) 1997-12-16 1999-10-12 Cardiovasc, Inc. Stent having high radial strength
US6503271B2 (en) * 1998-01-09 2003-01-07 Cordis Corporation Intravascular device with improved radiopacity
WO1999038458A1 (en) * 1998-02-03 1999-08-05 Cardiovascular Interventional Systems, Inc. Tubular stent consists of non-parallel expansion struts and contralaterally attached diagonal connectors
US6123721A (en) 1998-02-17 2000-09-26 Jang; G. David Tubular stent consists of chevron-shape expansion struts and ipsilaterally attached M-frame connectors
US6238401B1 (en) 1998-07-31 2001-05-29 Zuli Holdings Ltd. Apparatus and method for selectively positioning a device and manipulating it
US6193744B1 (en) 1998-09-10 2001-02-27 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Stent configurations
US6355059B1 (en) * 1998-12-03 2002-03-12 Medinol, Ltd. Serpentine coiled ladder stent
US6273911B1 (en) 1999-04-22 2001-08-14 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Variable strength stent
DE60022348D1 (en) 1999-06-30 2005-10-06 Advanced Cardiovascular System Stent with variable thickness
US6540774B1 (en) 1999-08-31 2003-04-01 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent design with end rings having enhanced strength and radiopacity

Patent Citations (105)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3657774A (en) * 1969-11-10 1972-04-25 Harry E Reynolds Connector for golf club covers
US4655771B1 (en) * 1982-04-30 1996-09-10 Medinvent Ams Sa Prosthesis comprising an expansible or contractile tubular body
US4954126A (en) * 1982-04-30 1990-09-04 Shepherd Patents S.A. Prosthesis comprising an expansible or contractile tubular body
US4655771A (en) * 1982-04-30 1987-04-07 Shepherd Patents S.A. Prosthesis comprising an expansible or contractile tubular body
US4954126B1 (en) * 1982-04-30 1996-05-28 Ams Med Invent S A Prosthesis comprising an expansible or contractile tubular body
US4506569A (en) * 1982-11-02 1985-03-26 Hardinge Brothers, Inc. Multiple axis slant bed machine
US4580568A (en) * 1984-10-01 1986-04-08 Cook, Incorporated Percutaneous endovascular stent and method for insertion thereof
US4733665A (en) * 1985-11-07 1988-03-29 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US4739762A (en) * 1985-11-07 1988-04-26 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US4739762B1 (en) * 1985-11-07 1998-10-27 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US5102417A (en) * 1985-11-07 1992-04-07 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US4733665B1 (en) * 1985-11-07 1994-01-11 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft,and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US4733665C2 (en) * 1985-11-07 2002-01-29 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US4681110A (en) * 1985-12-02 1987-07-21 Wiktor Dominik M Catheter arrangement having a blood vessel liner, and method of using it
US4768507A (en) * 1986-02-24 1988-09-06 Medinnovations, Inc. Intravascular stent and percutaneous insertion catheter system for the dilation of an arterial stenosis and the prevention of arterial restenosis
US4762128A (en) * 1986-12-09 1988-08-09 Advanced Surgical Intervention, Inc. Method and apparatus for treating hypertrophy of the prostate gland
US4800882A (en) * 1987-03-13 1989-01-31 Cook Incorporated Endovascular stent and delivery system
US5041126A (en) * 1987-03-13 1991-08-20 Cook Incorporated Endovascular stent and delivery system
US4907336A (en) * 1987-03-13 1990-03-13 Cook Incorporated Method of making an endovascular stent and delivery system
US4795458A (en) * 1987-07-02 1989-01-03 Regan Barrie F Stent for use following balloon angioplasty
US5201901A (en) * 1987-10-08 1993-04-13 Terumo Kabushiki Kaisha Expansion unit and apparatus for expanding tubular organ lumen
US5192307A (en) * 1987-12-08 1993-03-09 Wall W Henry Angioplasty stent
US4830003A (en) * 1988-06-17 1989-05-16 Wolff Rodney G Compressive stent and delivery system
US5019090A (en) * 1988-09-01 1991-05-28 Corvita Corporation Radially expandable endoprosthesis and the like
US5195984A (en) * 1988-10-04 1993-03-23 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft
US5902332A (en) * 1988-10-04 1999-05-11 Expandable Grafts Partnership Expandable intraluminal graft
US5019085A (en) * 1988-10-25 1991-05-28 Cordis Corporation Apparatus and method for placement of a stent within a subject vessel
US4856516A (en) * 1989-01-09 1989-08-15 Cordis Corporation Endovascular stent apparatus and method
US5443500A (en) * 1989-01-26 1995-08-22 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Intravascular stent
US4994071A (en) * 1989-05-22 1991-02-19 Cordis Corporation Bifurcating stent apparatus and method
US5037392A (en) * 1989-06-06 1991-08-06 Cordis Corporation Stent-implanting balloon assembly
US5292331A (en) * 1989-08-24 1994-03-08 Applied Vascular Engineering, Inc. Endovascular support device
US5135538A (en) * 1989-09-29 1992-08-04 General Motors Corporation Electromagnetically controlled heart valve
US5104404A (en) * 1989-10-02 1992-04-14 Medtronic, Inc. Articulated stent
US5035706A (en) * 1989-10-17 1991-07-30 Cook Incorporated Percutaneous stent and method for retrieval thereof
US5147385A (en) * 1989-11-01 1992-09-15 Schneider (Europe) A.G. Stent and catheter for the introduction of the stent
US5522880A (en) * 1990-06-11 1996-06-04 Barone; Hector D. Method for repairing an abdominal aortic aneurysm
US5108417A (en) * 1990-09-14 1992-04-28 Interface Biomedical Laboratories Corp. Anti-turbulent, anti-thrombogenic intravascular stent
US5282824A (en) * 1990-10-09 1994-02-01 Cook, Incorporated Percutaneous stent assembly
US5197987A (en) * 1991-01-18 1993-03-30 Sulzer Brothers Limited Knee joint prosthesis
US5116365A (en) * 1991-02-22 1992-05-26 Cordis Corporation Stent apparatus and method for making
US5527354A (en) * 1991-06-28 1996-06-18 Cook Incorporated Stent formed of half-round wire
US5443498A (en) * 1991-10-01 1995-08-22 Cook Incorporated Vascular stent and method of making and implanting a vacsular stent
US5314472A (en) * 1991-10-01 1994-05-24 Cook Incorporated Vascular stent
US5290305A (en) * 1991-10-11 1994-03-01 Kanji Inoue Appliance collapsible for insertion into human organs and capable of resilient restoration
US5421955A (en) * 1991-10-28 1995-06-06 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stents and method for making same
US5603721A (en) * 1991-10-28 1997-02-18 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stents and method for making same
US5421955B1 (en) * 1991-10-28 1998-01-20 Advanced Cardiovascular System Expandable stents and method for making same
US5514154A (en) * 1991-10-28 1996-05-07 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stents
US5383892A (en) * 1991-11-08 1995-01-24 Meadox France Stent for transluminal implantation
US5316023A (en) * 1992-01-08 1994-05-31 Expandable Grafts Partnership Method for bilateral intra-aortic bypass
US5507767A (en) * 1992-01-15 1996-04-16 Cook Incorporated Spiral stent
US5405377A (en) * 1992-02-21 1995-04-11 Endotech Ltd. Intraluminal stent
US5282823A (en) * 1992-03-19 1994-02-01 Medtronic, Inc. Intravascular radially expandable stent
US5540712A (en) * 1992-05-01 1996-07-30 Nitinol Medical Technologies, Inc. Stent and method and apparatus for forming and delivering the same
US5395390A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-03-07 The Beth Israel Hospital Association Metal wire stent
US5507771A (en) * 1992-06-15 1996-04-16 Cook Incorporated Stent assembly
US5342387A (en) * 1992-06-18 1994-08-30 American Biomed, Inc. Artificial support for a blood vessel
US5496365A (en) * 1992-07-02 1996-03-05 Sgro; Jean-Claude Autoexpandable vascular endoprosthesis
US5634941A (en) * 1992-08-18 1997-06-03 Ultrasonic Sensing And Monitoring Systems, Inc. Vascular graft bypass apparatus
US5628787A (en) * 1993-01-19 1997-05-13 Schneider (Usa) Inc. Clad composite stent
US5345057A (en) * 1993-03-25 1994-09-06 Lasag Ag Method of cutting an aperture in a device by means of a laser beam
US5639278A (en) * 1993-10-21 1997-06-17 Corvita Corporation Expandable supportive bifurcated endoluminal grafts
US5643312A (en) * 1994-02-25 1997-07-01 Fischell Robert Stent having a multiplicity of closed circular structures
US6086604A (en) * 1994-02-25 2000-07-11 Fischell; Robert E. Stent having a multiplicity of undulating longitudinals
US5879370A (en) * 1994-02-25 1999-03-09 Fischell; Robert E. Stent having a multiplicity of undulating longitudinals
US5733303A (en) * 1994-03-17 1998-03-31 Medinol Ltd. Flexible expandable stent
US6059811A (en) * 1994-03-17 2000-05-09 Medinol Ltd. Articulated stent
US6017362A (en) * 1994-04-01 2000-01-25 Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc. Folding self-expandable intravascular stent
US5397355A (en) * 1994-07-19 1995-03-14 Stentco, Inc. Intraluminal stent
US5653743A (en) * 1994-09-09 1997-08-05 Martin; Eric C. Hypogastric artery bifurcation graft and method of implantation
US5643340A (en) * 1994-10-27 1997-07-01 Nunokawa; Mioko Synthetic vascular prosthesis
US5922005A (en) * 1994-10-27 1999-07-13 Medinol Ltd. Stent fabrication method
US5906640A (en) * 1994-11-03 1999-05-25 Divysio Solutions Ulc Bifurcated stent and method for the manufacture and delivery of same
US5755771A (en) * 1994-11-03 1998-05-26 Divysio Solutions Ulc Expandable stent and method of delivery of same
US5623771A (en) * 1995-01-12 1997-04-29 V.I.B. Apparatebau Gmbh Steam moistening apparatus
US5591197A (en) * 1995-03-14 1997-01-07 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stent forming projecting barbs and method for deploying
US5709712A (en) * 1995-04-21 1998-01-20 Sulzer Intermedics Inc. Implantable cardiac stimulation device with warning system
US5776161A (en) * 1995-10-16 1998-07-07 Instent, Inc. Medical stents, apparatus and method for making same
US6090127A (en) * 1995-10-16 2000-07-18 Medtronic, Inc. Medical stents, apparatus and method for making same
US6053940A (en) * 1995-10-20 2000-04-25 Wijay; Bandula Vascular stent
US5607442A (en) * 1995-11-13 1997-03-04 Isostent, Inc. Stent with improved radiopacity and appearance characteristics
US6183507B1 (en) * 1996-03-22 2001-02-06 Medtronic Ave, Inc. Stents for supporting lumens in living tissue
US5755734A (en) * 1996-05-03 1998-05-26 Medinol Ltd. Bifurcated stent and method of making same
US6090133A (en) * 1996-05-03 2000-07-18 Medinol Ltd. Bifurcated stent and method of making same
US5755735A (en) * 1996-05-03 1998-05-26 Medinol Ltd. Bifurcated stent and method of making same
US5922020A (en) * 1996-08-02 1999-07-13 Localmed, Inc. Tubular prosthesis having improved expansion and imaging characteristics
US5913695A (en) * 1996-08-08 1999-06-22 Yazaki Corporation Crimping terminal
US5906759A (en) * 1996-12-26 1999-05-25 Medinol Ltd. Stent forming apparatus with stent deforming blades
US6106548A (en) * 1997-02-07 2000-08-22 Endosystems Llc Non-foreshortening intraluminal prosthesis
US5868783A (en) * 1997-04-16 1999-02-09 Numed, Inc. Intravascular stent with limited axial shrinkage
US6068656A (en) * 1997-05-15 2000-05-30 Jomed Implantate Gmbh Coronary stent
US6017365A (en) * 1997-05-20 2000-01-25 Jomed Implantate Gmbh Coronary stent
US6190405B1 (en) * 1997-05-28 2001-02-20 Gfe Corporation For Research And Development Unlimited Flexible expandable vascular support
US6190406B1 (en) * 1998-01-09 2001-02-20 Nitinal Development Corporation Intravascular stent having tapered struts
US6179867B1 (en) * 1998-01-16 2001-01-30 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Flexible stent and method of use
US5931866A (en) * 1998-02-24 1999-08-03 Frantzen; John J. Radially expandable stent featuring accordion stops
US6179868B1 (en) * 1998-03-27 2001-01-30 Janet Burpee Stent with reduced shortening
US6066169A (en) * 1998-06-02 2000-05-23 Ave Connaught Expandable stent having articulated connecting rods
US6171334B1 (en) * 1998-06-17 2001-01-09 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Expandable stent and method of use
US5911754A (en) * 1998-07-24 1999-06-15 Uni-Cath Inc. Flexible stent with effective strut and connector patterns
US6042597A (en) * 1998-10-23 2000-03-28 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Helical stent design
US6190403B1 (en) * 1998-11-13 2001-02-20 Cordis Corporation Low profile radiopaque stent with increased longitudinal flexibility and radial rigidity
US6083259A (en) * 1998-11-16 2000-07-04 Frantzen; John J. Axially non-contracting flexible radially expandable stent
US6099455A (en) * 1998-11-25 2000-08-08 Isostent, Inc. Radioisotope stent with non-radioactive end sections

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20080021542A1 (en) * 1996-03-05 2008-01-24 Evysio Medical Devices Ulc Expandable Stent And Method For Delivery Of Same
US7766956B2 (en) 2000-09-22 2010-08-03 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Intravascular stent and assembly
WO2005053577A2 (en) * 2003-11-26 2005-06-16 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Intravascular stent and assembly
WO2005053577A3 (en) * 2003-11-26 2005-08-04 Scimed Life Systems Inc Intravascular stent and assembly
US20070150049A1 (en) * 2004-03-16 2007-06-28 Alveolus, Inc. Stent
US8652196B2 (en) 2004-03-16 2014-02-18 Merit Medical Systems, Inc. Stent
US8262721B2 (en) 2005-05-13 2012-09-11 Merit Medical Systems, Inc. Drainage stent and associated method
US9907640B2 (en) 2013-06-21 2018-03-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent with deflecting connector

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US7094255B2 (en) 2006-08-22 grant
EP1066804B1 (en) 2004-07-14 grant
EP1066804A2 (en) 2001-01-10 application
US20020183832A1 (en) 2002-12-05 application
EP1477133A2 (en) 2004-11-17 application
US20080021536A1 (en) 2008-01-24 application
US8075609B2 (en) 2011-12-13 grant
US20040236404A1 (en) 2004-11-25 application
US20020169501A1 (en) 2002-11-14 application
WO1997032544A1 (en) 1997-09-12 application
US20020165605A1 (en) 2002-11-07 application
US6887264B2 (en) 2005-05-03 grant
US6881223B2 (en) 2005-04-19 grant
EP1477133B1 (en) 2007-05-30 grant
US20040215325A1 (en) 2004-10-28 application
EP1477133B9 (en) 2007-11-21 grant
EP1477133A3 (en) 2004-12-01 application
US20080021542A1 (en) 2008-01-24 application
EP1066804A3 (en) 2001-09-05 application
US6858037B2 (en) 2005-02-22 grant
CA2248718A1 (en) 1997-09-12 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6602282B1 (en) Flexible stent structure
US5578075A (en) Minimally invasive bioactivated endoprosthesis for vessel repair
US5195984A (en) Expandable intraluminal graft
US7029493B2 (en) Stent with enhanced crossability
US5799384A (en) Intravascular radially expandable stent
US5556414A (en) Composite intraluminal graft
US6106548A (en) Non-foreshortening intraluminal prosthesis
US6755856B2 (en) Methods and apparatus for stenting comprising enhanced embolic protection, coupled with improved protection against restenosis and thrombus formation
US6997946B2 (en) Expandable stents
US6251134B1 (en) Stent with high longitudinal flexibility
US6916336B2 (en) Vascular prosthesis
US7763065B2 (en) Balloon expandable crush-recoverable stent device
US6270524B1 (en) Flexible, radially expansible luminal prostheses
US5906640A (en) Bifurcated stent and method for the manufacture and delivery of same
US20020019660A1 (en) Methods and apparatus for a curved stent
US20080004690A1 (en) Stent Design with Variable Expansion Columns along Circumference
US20070067017A1 (en) Stent with improved durability
US20060287712A1 (en) Bifurcation stent assembly
US20050203605A1 (en) Radially crush-resistant stent
EP0751752B1 (en) Expandable stent
US6344055B1 (en) Method for production of an expandable stent
US7922756B2 (en) Stent
US20030105517A1 (en) Non-foreshortening stent
US5776183A (en) Expandable stent
US20050004656A1 (en) Expandable stent having plurality of interconnected expansion modules