US20040149122A1 - Crankless internal combustion engine - Google Patents

Crankless internal combustion engine Download PDF

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Publication number
US20040149122A1
US20040149122A1 US10/356,030 US35603003A US2004149122A1 US 20040149122 A1 US20040149122 A1 US 20040149122A1 US 35603003 A US35603003 A US 35603003A US 2004149122 A1 US2004149122 A1 US 2004149122A1
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Prior art keywords
cylinder
piston
shaft
providing
housing
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Abandoned
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US10/356,030
Inventor
Billy Vaughan
Gary Vaughan
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Vaughan Billy S.
Vaughan Gary R.
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Application filed by Vaughan Billy S., Vaughan Gary R. filed Critical Vaughan Billy S.
Priority to US10/356,030 priority Critical patent/US20040149122A1/en
Publication of US20040149122A1 publication Critical patent/US20040149122A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/32Engines characterised by connections between pistons and main shafts and not specific to preceding main groups
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01BMACHINES OR ENGINES, IN GENERAL OR OF POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT TYPE, e.g. STEAM ENGINES
    • F01B15/00Reciprocating-piston machines or engines with movable cylinders other than provided for in group F01B13/00
    • F01B15/007Reciprocating-piston machines or engines with movable cylinders other than provided for in group F01B13/00 having spinning cylinders, i.e. the cylinders rotating about their longitudinal axis
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01BMACHINES OR ENGINES, IN GENERAL OR OF POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT TYPE, e.g. STEAM ENGINES
    • F01B3/00Reciprocating-piston machines or engines with cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis
    • F01B3/0079Reciprocating-piston machines or engines with cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main shaft axis having pistons with rotary and reciprocating motion, i.e. spinning pistons

Abstract

An internal combustion engine provides a piston and a cylinder within which either the piston or the cylinder, or both, are free to move and using constraining motion, either the piston or the cylinder reciprocates. A shaft takeoff integral with either the piston or the cylinder experiences rotational motion. The motion is constrained by using laterally extending tits of either the piston or the cylinder to move in curilinear grooves of the other or of a housing encompassing the cylinder.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE: Applicant(s) hereby incorporate herein by reference, any and all U.S. patents, U.S. patent applications, and other documents and printed matter cited or referred to in this application. [0001]
  • 1. Field of the Invention [0002]
  • This invention relates generally to internal combustion engines and more particularly to an axial engine with reciprocating piston and rotating cylinder. [0003]
  • 2. Description of Related Art [0004]
  • The following art defines the present state of this field: [0005]
  • Rozansky, U.S. Pat. No. 3,967,535 describes a uniflow steam engine of the multi-cylinder type wherein the cylinders are rotatably mounted within a jacket having a curilinear cam track therein. Extending through slots, the ends of which are the exhaust ports in the cylinders and into the cam track are cam followers, which are mounted on the pistons for reciprocable movement therewith. At the head end of the cylinders there are apertures which rotate with registered cutouts in superimposed valve rings that control the flow of steam from manifolds at the head ends of each of the cylinders into the cylinders as the cylinders rotate. By adjusting the relative position between the valve rings, the length of time of steam introduced on each cycle may be adjusted and by concomitantly rotating both valve rings, the initial time for introduction of steam may be adjusted to alter lead or reverse torque. [0006]
  • Richter, U.S. Pat. No. 4,180,028 describes a fluid operated device comprising a cylinder, a piston movable axially therein, a shaft parallel to the axis of the cylinder and coupling means coupling the piston and cylinder and/or the piston and shaft in such a way that axial reciprocation of the piston causes rotation of the cylinder and/or the shaft. [0007]
  • Olsgaard, U.S. Pat. No. 4,274,327 describes an internal combustion engine, a fluid motor or a pump including a cylinder block enclosing an elongated cylindrical bore. A double-headed piston is slidably mounted within the bore. The piston and cylinder block are rotatable relative to each other about the longitudinal axis of the bore. A curilinear cam and a cam follower impart rotation. Reciprocation of the piston within the bore is accomplished along with corresponding rotational movement of the cylinder block. Opposed ends of the cylinder block include openings, which are aligned with and periodically communicate with exhaust and intake chambers. Porting collars are slidably mounted to the cylinder block and are stationary relative to the cylinder. [0008]
  • Paul, U.S. Pat. No. 4,366,784 describes a lightweight crankless piston engine utilizing cam action to produce two piston strokes for one revolution of the engine output shaft, which shaft does not pierce the piston or the combustion chamber. Ease of assembly is enabled. One section of the cam is embodied in the cylinder liner and the opposing cam section is an extension of the output shaft housing. In its simplest mode, the engine is ported for fuel-air induction and exhaust. Cam induced piston rotation directly drives the output shaft while piston reciprocation is allowed without influencing such shaft. [0009]
  • Milberger, U.S. Pat. No. 4,519,263 describes an actuator for converting axial movement into incremental rotation. Axial movement of a plunger provides successive increments of rotary motion of a shaft in a first direction through a predetermined angle, then automatically provides successive increments of rotation of the shaft in a reverse direction. After moving through a predetermined angle in the reverse direction the shaft rotation is again automatically reversed so the shaft rotates in the first direction. [0010]
  • Bekiaroglou, U.S. Pat. No. 4,553,506 describes a piston machine, most particularly an internal-combustion machine, in which the cylinder wall performs a rotating motion round its own axis. Apertures on the cylinder wall allow it to act as a rotating slide valve, so that no valve system is needed. In the first example, the stroke movement of the piston is converted to the rotating motion of the cylinder wall (which on the same time serves as the axle of the machine) through bolts which slide or roll in linear guide-slits in the cylinder wall and curved guide-tracks on the stationary outer part of the machine. The use of the curved guide-tracks allows the adaptation of the time-law for the volume change in the working chamber, to the needs of the mechanics, thermodynamics and reaction kinetics. In the same rotating cylinder are installed two pistons of equal mass which fulfil an exactly symmetrical opposite motion, so that no free accelerating forces exist and therefore no vibrations appear on the machine. In the second example the stroke movement of the piston is converted to the rotating motion of the axle through a crank and two universal joints. The relative position of the axis of the crank and the axis of the cylinder determine the length of the stroke and in consequence its power. The crank's bearing position can vary correspondingly to the cylinder during the function of the machine, so that its power is continuously variable and even its working direction can be reversed without stopping and by constant rotating speed. [0011]
  • Bernard, U.S. Pat. No. 4,887,558 describes an internal-combustion engine having opposed integral annular pistons and a central shaft. The piston block, formed by the two pistons exhibits, at each axial end, an axial double skirt fitted with an outer crown forming the piston head proper, and an inner crown forming an admission pump with an antechamber radially within the corresponding annular cylinder, wherein the piston head delimits a combustion chamber. Radial pawls, penetrating axial ports of the housing and radial holes of the piston block, have their inner radial ends engaged in curilinear circumferential undulated grooves made in an enlarged central part of the central driving shaft driven in rotation by the reciprocating axial movements of the piston block. The admission of comburent gas and/or fuel is effected axially by the ends, through valves and orifices in end plates closing the antechambers in which slide the inner crowns fitted with flaps to function as an admission pump. Application to an internal-combustion engine, of this type is for use to particularly equip aircraft. [0012]
  • Blount, U.S. Pat. No. 5,152,257 describes an apparatus for producing a rotary motion force by means of an internal combustion engine, rotary-reciprocal type, consisting of a housing, a rotor and a shaft combined with a rotor's guiding system, fuel intake system and an ignition system. This internal combustion engine has many uses which are commonly known but this apparatus may also be used as a compressor, as a pump, as an engine powered by an expanding heating liquid or gas or a combination of the above. [0013]
  • Blount, U.S. Pat. No. 5,156,115 describes an apparatus for producing a rotary motion force by means of an internal combustion engine, rotary-reciprocal type, consisting of a housing, a rotor and a shaft combined with a rotor's guiding system, fuel intake system and an ignition system. This internal combustion engine has many uses which are commonly known but this apparatus may also be used as a compressor, as a pump, as an engine powered by an expanding heating liquid or gas or a combination of the above. [0014]
  • Graves, U.S. Pat. No. 5,161,491 describes an internal combustion engine, which includes a system to deliver a combustible mixture to a cylinder, ignite the combustible mixture and exhaust the mixture after ignition. The internal combustion engine comprises at least one piston capable of reciprocating within the cylinder, each piston having an interior cylindrical surface and a continuous, wave-shaped groove recessed into the interior cylindrical surface. A rotatable crankshaft passes concentrically through the cylinder and through the piston. At least one crank member extends radially from the crankshaft and is received in the wave-shaped groove. The piston is prevented from rotating while being allowed to reciprocate so that the force of combustion causes movement of the piston thereby causing rotation of the crank member and rotation of the crankshaft. [0015]
  • Blount, U.S. Pat. No. 5,301,637 describes an apparatus for producing a rotary motion force by means of an internal combustion engine, rotary-reciprocal type, consisting of a housing, a rotor and a shaft combined with a rotor's guiding system, fuel intake system and an ignition system. This internal combustion engine has many uses which are commonly known but this apparatus may also be used as a compressor, as a pump, as an engine powered by an expanding heating liquid or gas or a combination of the above. [0016]
  • Sher, U.S. Pat. No. 5,592,866 describes a driving mechanism transforms continuous longitudinal reciprocation of a piston in a chamber into unidirectional rotation. The mechanism utilizes a closed wave-shaped groove defined in either the cylinder or the chamber and adapted to receive guiding members projecting from the other of the piston and the chamber. When the piston is forced to move longitudinally in either direction, the groove slides over the guiding members to force rotation. The apices of the wave-shaped groove are either contoured or provided with a gating structure to assure that the guide members do not backtrack but instead move in one direction through the groove. [0017]
  • Blount, U.S. Pat. No. 5,433,176 describes an apparatus for producing a rotary motion force by means of an external combustion engine, rotary-reciprocal type, consisting of a housing, a sealing mechanism or apparatus, a rotor and a shaft combined with a guiding system for the rotary and reciprocal motions, fuel intake system, exhaust system and an ignition system. This internal combustion engine has many uses which are commonly known but this apparatus may also be used as a compressor, as a pump, as an engine powered by an expanding heating liquid or gas or a combination of the above. [0018]
  • Sher, U.S. Pat. No. 5,467,684 describes a driving mechanism that transforms continuous longitudinal reciprocation of a piston in a chamber into unidirectional rotation. The mechanism utilizes a closed wave-shaped groove defined in either the cylinder or the chamber and adapted to receive guiding members projecting from the other of the piston and the chamber. When the piston is forced to move longitudinally in either direction, the groove slides over the guiding members to force rotation. The apices of the wave-shaped groove are either contoured or provided with a gating structure to assure that the guide members do not backtrack but instead move in one direction through the groove. [0019]
  • Sher, U.S. Pat. No. 5,806,404 describes a driving mechanism transforming continuous longitudinal reciprocation of a piston in a chamber into unidirectional rotation. The mechanism utilizes a closed wave-shaped groove defined in either the cylinder or the chamber and adapted to receive guiding members projecting from the other of the piston and the chamber. When the piston is forced to move longitudinally in either direction, the groove slides over the guiding members to force rotation. The apices of the wave-shaped groove are either contoured or provided with a gating structure to assure that the guide members do not backtrack but instead move in one direction through the groove. [0020]
  • Blount, U.S. Pat. No. 6,145,482 describes an apparatus for producing a rotary motion force, using an internal combustion engine, rotary-reciprocal type, consisting of a housing, a piston, a rotor, a shaft, a rotary reciprocal guiding system, fuel intake system and an ignition system. This rotary reciprocal engine is an improvement over known engines of this type, because it has a longer expansion and suction strokes, and a shorter compression and exhaustion strokes, thereby producing more rotary motion per ignition. This internal combustion engine has many uses which are commonly known, but this apparatus may also be used as a compressor, as a pump, as an engine, powered by an expanding heating liquid or gas, or a combination of the above. [0021]
  • The prior art teaches combustion engines using curilinear guides for reciprocation, but does not teach such an engine using a means for holding a piston in simple reciprocating motion while causing a related cylinder to rotate without reciprocation. The present invention fulfills these needs and provides further related advantages as described in the following summary. [0022]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention teaches certain benefits in construction and use which give rise to the objectives described below. [0023]
  • An internal combustion engine provides a piston and a cylinder within which either the piston or the cylinder, or both are free to move, using constraining motion in a curvilinear groove, either the piston or the cylinder reciprocates. A shaft takeoff integral with either the piston or the cylinder experiences rotational motion. The motion is constrained by using laterally extending tits mounted on either the piston or the cylinder to move in the curvilinear groove of the other or of a housing encompassing the cylinder. [0024]
  • A primary objective of the present invention is to provide an apparatus and method of use of such apparatus that provides advantages not taught by the prior art. [0025]
  • Another objective is to provide such an invention capable of providing internal combustion rotational output drive force without a crankshaft. [0026]
  • A further objective is to provide such an invention capable of effective enablement with relatively few parts and in one embodiment, with only one moving part. [0027]
  • A still further objective is to provide such an invention capable of effective enablement in a highly compact size. [0028]
  • Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following more detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention. [0029]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The accompanying drawings illustrate the present invention. In such drawings: [0030]
  • FIG. 1A is a sectional view of a cylinder of a first preferred embodiment of the invention; [0031]
  • FIG. 1B is a sectional view of a piston thereof; [0032]
  • FIGS. [0033] 2 is a sectional view thereof showing the piston in the cylinder at its upper end of stroke;
  • FIGS. [0034] 3 is a sectional view thereof showing the piston in the cylinder at its lower end of stroke and at a sectional cut 90 degrees away from that of FIG. 2 indicating that the piston rotates within the cylinder;
  • FIG. 4 is a sectional view thereof taken along line [0035] 4-4 in FIG. 3;
  • FIG. 5A is a sectional view of housing of a second preferred embodiment of the invention; [0036]
  • FIG. 5B is a sectional view of a cylinder thereof; [0037]
  • FIG. 5C is a sectional view of a piston thereof; [0038]
  • FIGS. 6 and 7 are sectional views thereof showing of the cylinder's motion in upper end of travel and lower end of travel respectively; [0039]
  • FIG. 8A is a sectional view of a housing of a third preferred embodiment of the invention; [0040]
  • FIG. 8B is a sectional view of a cylinder thereof; [0041]
  • FIG. 8C is a sectional view of a piston thereof; [0042]
  • FIGS. 9 and 10 are sectional views thereof showing the piston's motion in upper end of travel and lower end of travel respectively; [0043]
  • FIG. 11A is a sectional view of a housing of a fourth preferred embodiment of the invention; [0044]
  • FIG. 11B is a sectional view of a cylinder thereof; [0045]
  • FIG. 11C is a sectional view of a piston thereof; [0046]
  • FIGS. 12 and 13 are sectional views thereof showing the piston's motion in lower end of travel and upper end of travel respectively; [0047]
  • FIG. 14A is a sectional view of a housing of a fifth preferred embodiment of the invention; [0048]
  • FIG. 14B is a sectional view of a cylinder thereof; [0049]
  • FIG. 14C is a sectional view of a piston thereof; and [0050]
  • FIGS. 15 and 16 are sectional views thereof showing of the cylinder's motion in lower end of travel and upper end of travel respectively. [0051]
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The above described drawing figures illustrate the invention in at least one of its preferred embodiments, which is further defined in detail in the following description. [0052]
  • The present invention is an internal combustion engine and is described in four distinct preferred embodiments. FIGS. [0053] 1-4 are sectional views of a first preferred embodiment of the invention showing a piston 10 and its motion takeoff. As can be seen in this embodiment, a cylinder 20 is fixed, providing an interior annular curvilinear groove 30. The piston 10 has laterally protruding tits 12 engaged within the groove 30 of the cylinder 20 for moving in rotational and reciprocating motion within the cylinder 20. Spark plug 2 and ports 3 provide gas ignition and flow respectively. The piston 10 further provides a shaft 40 (FIG. 4) extending axially therefrom, the shaft 40 providing rotational driving force to a drive train 60 slidingly engaged with the shaft 40.
  • FIGS. [0054] 5-7 are sectional views of an alternate second embodiment of the invention showing, a rotating cylinder 20, and a stationary piston 10. FIGS. 6 and 7 are sectional views showing in FIG. 6, an upward position of the cylinder 20, and in FIG. 7 a downward position of the cylinder 20 to illustrate extremes of its reciprocating motion. The housing 50 provides the interior annular curvilinear groove 30. The cylinder 20 provides the laterally protruding tits 12 engaged within the groove 30 of the housing 50. The cylinder 20 moves in rotational and reciprocating motion within the housing 50. The cylinder 20 further provides shaft 40 extending axial from the cylinder 20. The shaft 40 provides rotational driving force to a drive train 60 slidingly engaged with the shaft 40, such as a spline or similar arrangement as shown and similar to that of the first embodiment.
  • FIGS. [0055] 8-10 show, in section, a third embodiment of the invention wherein the housing 50 provides a means for mounting the piston 10 wherein both piston 10 and housing 50 are stationary. The fixed housing 50 provides an integral axially-oriented interior linear guide rod 52 which is not round. The cylinder 20 provides the annular curvilinear groove 30, as above, and the piston 10 provides the laterally protruding tits 12 engaged within the groove 30 of the cylinder 20. The piston 10 moves in reciprocating motion within the cylinder 20 and along the linear guide 52 of the housing, but cannot rotate. The piston 10 provides an internal guide receiver 15′ which moves in sliding motion along the linear guide 52, and being non-round, the piston is prevented from rotation. The cylinder 20 is thereby caused to move in non-reciprocating rotational motion. Note aperture 22 at the bottom of the cylinder 20 for access of the linear guide 52. The cylinder 20 further provides shaft 40 extending axial therefrom, the shaft providing rotational driving force. Ports 3 are aligned at appropriate rotational positions of cylinder 20 for gas exchange and spark plug 2 provides ignition.
  • FIGS. [0056] 11-13 illustrate a fourth embodiment of the present invention. Here again, the housing 50 provides the annular curvilinear groove 30, as in the second embodiment. The piston 10 provides the laterally protruding tits 12 engaged within the groove 30 of the housing through apertures 25 in the cylinder 20. The piston 10 moves in reciprocating rotational motion within the cylinder 20, while the cylinder 20 is thereby caused to move in non-reciprocating rotational motion along with the piston by contact between tits 12 and slots 13 (FIG. 11B). The cylinder 20 further provides the shaft 40 extending axial therefrom as before. Porting of this embodiment is accomplished using a small piston 60 running in a further curvilinear groove 30′ in housing 50, as shown, whereby reciprocating motion of the small piston covers and uncovers gas ports 3 according to timing of the engine.
  • FIGS. [0057] 14-16 illustrate, in section, a fifth embodiment of the present invention; a modified version of the fourth embodiment described above. Here, the housing 50 provides a surface element 57, a bump for instance, as shown, which is interactive with a valve 27 of the cylinder 20 for actuating the valve cyclically each time it rotates within housing 50.
  • Clearly, each of the embodiments provide valves, gas ports, spark or glow plugs and the various other features needed for completing these embodiments as operating machines. One of skill in the art would have no trouble in configuring these additional necessary features. [0058]
  • While the invention has been described with reference to at least one preferred embodiment, it is to be clearly understood by those skilled in the art that the invention is not limited thereto. Rather, the scope of the invention is to be interpreted only in conjunction with the appended claims and it is made clear, here, that the inventor(s) believe that the claimed subject matter is the invention. [0059]

Claims (7)

What is claimed is:
1. An apparatus comprising: a cylinder and therewithin a piston; the piston free to move in reciprocating rotational motion within an annular curvilinear groove within the cylinder; and an axial shaft takeoff integral with the piston and engaged within a sliding coupling for delivery of rotational motion
2. An apparatus comprising: a housing and therewithin, a cylinder and therewithin a piston; one of the housing and the cylinder providing an annular curvilinear groove; one of the piston and the cylinder providing opposing tits engaged within the annular curvilinear groove enabling reciprocating motion of one of the piston and the cylinder.
3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the cylinder is fixed, the piston moving in rotational and reciprocating motion within the cylinder, the piston further providing a shaft extending axial therefrom, the shaft providing rotational driving force to a drive train slidingly engaged with the shaft.
4. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the housing provides the interior annular curvilinear groove, the cylinder providing the laterally protruding tits engaged within the groove of the housing; the cylinder moving in rotational and reciprocating motion within the housing; the cylinder further providing a shaft extending axial therefrom, the shaft providing rotational driving force to a drive train slidingly engaged with the shaft.
5. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the housing provides an integral axially oriented interior linear guide rod; the cylinder providing the annular curvilinear groove, and the piston providing the laterally protruding tits engaged within the groove of the cylinder; the piston moving in reciprocating motion within the cylinder and along the linear guide of the housing; the cylinder thereby caused to move in non-reciprocating rotational motion; the cylinder further providing a shaft extending axial therefrom, the shaft providing rotational driving force.
6. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the housing provides the annular curvilinear groove; the piston providing the laterally protruding tits engaged within the groove of the housing through apertures in the cylinder; the piston moving in reciprocating rotational motion within the cylinder; the cylinder thereby caused to move in non-reciprocating rotational motion; the cylinder further providing a shaft extending axial therefrom, the shaft providing rotational driving force.
7. The apparatus of claim 6 wherein the housing provides a surface element interactive with a valve of the cylinder for actuating the valve cyclically.
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Cited By (10)

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US20070079791A1 (en) * 2005-10-07 2007-04-12 Bradley Raether WaveTech engine
US20080141801A1 (en) * 2005-10-07 2008-06-19 Wavetech Engines, Inc. Systems and methods for facilitating conversion between reciprocating linear motion and rotational motion
JP2008522077A (en) * 2004-11-26 2008-06-26 アベナヴォリ、ブルーノ Improved system for converting linear motion to curvilinear motion or vice versa, especially for internal combustion engines
US20110011368A1 (en) * 2005-10-07 2011-01-20 Wavetech Engines, Inc. Reciprocating engines
EP2584221A1 (en) * 2009-01-21 2013-04-24 Gerhard Thien Transmission device for transferring a torque and apparatus for generating or converting a torque
US20140224091A1 (en) * 2011-10-19 2014-08-14 Genius Ip Ltd. Converting between rotary and linear motion, and a sawing device
WO2014131754A1 (en) * 2013-02-26 2014-09-04 Gerhard Thien Device for generating or converting torque
WO2014131753A1 (en) * 2013-02-26 2014-09-04 Gerhard Thien Device for generating or converting torque
JP2017008802A (en) * 2015-06-22 2017-01-12 学校法人早稲田大学 Crankless engine
JP2017137868A (en) * 2013-06-04 2017-08-10 ジーニアス ベロ リミテッドGenius Velo Limited Hydraulic or pneumatic drive system, and, motor and pump therefor

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Cited By (14)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2008522077A (en) * 2004-11-26 2008-06-26 アベナヴォリ、ブルーノ Improved system for converting linear motion to curvilinear motion or vice versa, especially for internal combustion engines
JP4722938B2 (en) * 2004-11-26 2011-07-13 アベナヴォリ、ブルーノ Improved system for converting linear motion to curvilinear motion or vice versa, especially for internal combustion engines
US20070079791A1 (en) * 2005-10-07 2007-04-12 Bradley Raether WaveTech engine
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