US20040148685A1 - Heat resistant pad - Google Patents

Heat resistant pad Download PDF

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Publication number
US20040148685A1
US20040148685A1 US10358908 US35890803A US20040148685A1 US 20040148685 A1 US20040148685 A1 US 20040148685A1 US 10358908 US10358908 US 10358908 US 35890803 A US35890803 A US 35890803A US 20040148685 A1 US20040148685 A1 US 20040148685A1
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Prior art keywords
layer
pad
intermediate layer
heat resistant
garment
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Abandoned
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US10358908
Inventor
Samuel Messinger
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Samuel Messinger
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A41WEARING APPAREL
    • A41DOUTERWEAR; PROTECTIVE GARMENTS; ACCESSORIES
    • A41D31/00Selection of special materials for outerwear
    • A41D31/0011Selection of special materials for protective garments
    • A41D31/0022Selection of special materials for protective garments against fire and heat
    • A41D31/0027Selection of special materials for protective garments against fire and heat using layered materials
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A41WEARING APPAREL
    • A41DOUTERWEAR; PROTECTIVE GARMENTS; ACCESSORIES
    • A41D13/00Professional, industrial, or sporting protective garments, e.g. garments affording protection against blows or punches, surgeon's gowns
    • A41D13/05Professional, industrial, or sporting protective garments, e.g. garments affording protection against blows or punches, surgeon's gowns protecting only a particular body part
    • A41D13/06Knee or foot
    • A41D13/065Knee protectors

Abstract

The present invention relates to a heat resistant pad for protecting the user against high temperature. The pad includes an adhesive layer; an intermediate layer filled with air; and an insulation layer. The present invention also includes a protective garment containing at least one of the protective pads.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention [0001]
  • The present invention concerns to a heat resistant pad designed to provide insulation to the area covered by the pad. Furthermore, the present invention concerns a garment containing at least one of the protective pads according to the present invention. [0002]
  • 2. Description of the Related Art [0003]
  • Those whose employment brings them in contact with flame, or into the presence of high temperatures, such as firepersons, cooks, police, factory workers, machinery operators, and foundry workers find their bodies exposed to conditions capable of bringing about substantial injury to any part of their bodies. There is also a necessity of protecting elderly and infants from exposure and risk to flames and unexpected heat flashes. [0004]
  • The prior art discloses numerous protective garments and coveralls that are commercially available for protecting the body against high temperatures. A typical commercial garment for protecting its wearer against direct exposure to high temperature usually has an outer shell which is designed to prevent penetration by the heat, and an inner liner which is designed to provide a further thermal barrier between the wearer and the heat source. Usually, the outer shell is very heavy and does not permit passage of vapor. When combined with a typical inner liner, the complete garment is usually very heavy, quite bulky, and uncomfortable to wear and impede the freely activity of the wearer. [0005]
  • The more heavy and bulky the protective garment is, the more unlikely the user will actually wear the protective garment, especially during the long hours of a working shift. [0006]
  • An important principle which may seem trivial at first sight, but which has always been ignored hitherto in the design of protective garment outfits, is the need to provide a garment, which is comfortable to wear and is tolerable throughout the period during which it is in use. In other words, comfort should be considered to be a safety factor. [0007]
  • Another disadvantage presented by the protective garment of the prior art is that if a portion of the garment becomes damaged by fire, the entire garment needs to be replaced with an undamaged garment. [0008]
  • The present inventor has seen the necessity of providing a heat protection device that is easy to use and may be positioned on the skin or garment to provide thermal protection at the precise area where such protection is needed. [0009]
  • The present inventor also considered that a heat protective device should have characteristics, which make it suitable for the specific situation in which it is used; it should provide the intended protection to only the regions of the body exposed to the risk. [0010]
  • Finally, the present inventor thought of the necessity of providing a heat protection device that is simple in its construction, it is inexpensive to manufacture, and would therefore justify disposal after each use. [0011]
  • SUMMARY
  • It is an object of the present invention to provide a heat resistant pad for protecting the precise area where such protection is needed. [0012]
  • It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a heat resistant pad adapted to be attached to a garment. [0013]
  • It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a thin, light, heat resistant pad that is more comfortable to wear than known prior art garments intended for protection against exposure to hot surfaces. [0014]
  • It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a heat resistant pad that is easy to use and may be positioned on the skin to provide thermal protection at the precise area where such protection is needed. [0015]
  • It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a heat resistant pad that is simple in its construction, it is inexpensive to manufacture, and would therefore justify disposal after each use. [0016]
  • It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a heat resistant pad which is at all times flexible, which resists fire and heat and which expands upon exposure to heat to produce a barrier which creates a structural barrier to the heat source. [0017]
  • It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a garment made of the heat resistant pad of the present invention. [0018]
  • The present invention relates to a heat resistant pad to be attached to the user performing activities which involve a risk of burns, for example, cooks, urban, industrial and forest fire-fighting activities, as well as industrial activities which are carried out in the presence of molten metal, combustibles or high voltages, military and police activities, and for use by drivers of motor vehicles, aircraft pilots, etc. [0019]
  • The heat resistant pad for protecting the user against high temperature according to the present invention comprises: [0020]
  • an adhesive layer; [0021]
  • an intermediate layer filled with air; and [0022]
  • an insulation layer. [0023]
  • The layers are bonded to, or laminated with, one another to form a pad. The adhesive layer and the insulation layer form opposite exterior surfaces of the pad. [0024]
  • The intermediate layer can be a continuous layer or a segmented layer. [0025]
  • In a first preferred embodiment, the present invention relates to a heat resistant pad for protecting the user against high temperature, the pad comprising: [0026]
  • an adhesive layer; [0027]
  • an intermediate layer filled a heat activated material, which expands when it is contacted with heat; [0028]
  • an insulation layer. [0029]
  • In the first preferred embodiment, the intermediate layer further comprises air vents to allow air in when the heat-activated material is activated. The air vent locks the air into the cavity, creating a barrier to the heat source. [0030]
  • The present invention also includes a garment containing one or more pads of the present invention as described herein. The heat resistant pad of the present invention may be placed anywhere on the garment such as preferably on or at the knees, elbows, chest, back, shoulders, shins, forearms, etc. [0031]
  • The present invention further includes a garment made of a pad comprising: [0032]
  • an outer layer of fabric; [0033]
  • an intermediate layer filled with air; and [0034]
  • an inner layer of insulation material. [0035]
  • The garment is selected from the group consisting of coveralls, coats, pants, jackets, jumpsuit, vests, skirts, shirts, pajamas, suits, socks, mittens, gloves, head gear, dresses, and t-shirts. [0036]
  • A protective pad formed in accordance with the present invention is easy to use and may be positioned on the skin to provide thermal protection at the precise area where such protection is needed. Moreover, because the protective pad of the present invention is simple in its construction, it is inexpensive to manufacture and would therefore justify disposal after each use. [0037]
  • The foregoing has outlined rather broadly the more pertinent and important features of the present invention in order that the detailed description of the invention that follows may be better understood, and so that the present contribution to the art can be more fully appreciated. Additional features of the invention will be described hereinafter, which form the subject of the claims of the invention. It should be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the concept and the specific embodiments disclosed may be readily utilized as a basis for modifying or designing other aerators for carrying out the same purposes of the present invention. It should also be realized by those skilled in the art that such equivalent structures do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.[0038]
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of the present invention, reference should be made by the following detailed description taken in with the accompanying drawings in which: [0039]
  • FIG. 1 is an enlarged view showing the protective pad according to the present invention. [0040]
  • FIG. 2 is an exploded sectioned perspective view of the pad according to FIG. 1. [0041]
  • FIG. 3 is a front view showing a protective garment having the pad of FIG. 1. [0042]
  • FIG. 4 is a sectional view of a second preferred embodiment according to the present invention. [0043]
  • FIGS. 5[0044] a-c is a front view showing the protective pad of the present invention applied to the skin of the user.
  • FIG. 6[0045] a is an exploded sectioned perspective view of the pad according to the first preferred embodiment of the present invention showing the intermediate layer in normal conditions.
  • FIG. 6[0046] b is an exploded sectioned perspective view of the pad according to the first preferred embodiment of the present invention showing the intermediate layer in expanded conditions after being exposed to a heat source.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention provides a heat resistant pad which is relatively lightweight and of low bulk; a pad which provides insulation from exterior temperature extremes sufficient to meet hazardous duty requirements; a pad which can be made of flame and heat resistant materials suitable for use in firefighter garments; a pad having greater flexibility than protective garments of comparable insulating capability; and a pad which is relatively inexpensive and simple to construct. [0047]
  • The heat resistant pad of the present invention may be made by any geometric arrangement as long as the design of the protective pad allows sufficient flexibility to provide a comfortable movement within the garment or the body part upon which the pad is placed. [0048]
  • Referring to FIGS. [0049] 1-2 of the drawings, a heat resistant pad constructed in accordance with the present invention preferably includes three distinct components or layers:
  • an adhesive layer [0050] 40;
  • an intermediate layer fill with air [0051] 60; and
  • an insulation material [0052] 50.
  • Adhesive Layer [0053]
  • The protective pad [0054] 10 is preferably secured to the skin 20 or a garment 30 by means of the adhesive layer 40.
  • Although the adhesive layer [0055] 40 is preferably formed as a coating, the adhesive layer 40 may alternatively be formed from pressure-sensitive adhesive tape, which is bonded to, or laminated with, the intermediate layer of air 60. The surfaces forming the junction between the intermediate layer 60 and the adhesive layer 40 should provide an appropriate texture in order to achieve a suitable mechanical bond between the two layers.
  • FIG. 2 illustrates a preferred embodiment of a heat protective pad [0056] 10 wherein the adhesive layer 40 of the pad 10 is covered by a peel-off strip 70 of protective material which prevents dust and the like from accumulating on the tacky adhesive surface. The peel-off protective strip 70 is removed at the time the pad 10 is place on the user.
  • The surface of the peel-off strip [0057] 70 that contacts the adhesive layer 40 of the pad 10 may be formed with a smooth, waxy coating or similar material, thereby enabling the protective pad 10 to be easily removed from the strip 70 without tearing or impairing the adhesive layer 40.
  • Intermediate Layer [0058]
  • In the basic embodiment of the present invention, the intermediate layer [0059] 60 is filled with air. The air spaces serve to insulate the pad area of the protective garment. The insulating properties of the intermediate layer primarily arise from the air in the layer.
  • The intermediate layer [0060] 60 is preferably made of low-density polyethylene films or silicone.
  • The intermediate layer [0061] 60 is attached to the adhesive layer 40 and to the insulation layer 50 by any suitable means, such as by stitching, use of adhesive, or the like.
  • The air provides extra insulation to the pad. For maximum insulating effect, the intermediate layer is located next to the insulation layer. [0062]
  • The present invention also contemplates that the intermediate layer is formed of a plurality of individual pockets [0063] 100. The size and space between the pockets depend on the intended use of the patch. (FIG. 4)
  • The present invention also contemplates filling the intermediate layer with foam, and inert gas, gel, or medicine. [0064]
  • In a first preferred embodiment, the present invention contemplates filling the intermediate layer with a heat responsible material that expands upon exposure to heat to produce a barrier, which retains its structural integrity upon activation. [0065]
  • When using heat-activated material, the intermediate layer is an expandable layer. This design will allow the expansion of the heat-activated material. [0066]
  • The present invention also contemplates the use of at least one air intake valve [0067] 105 to suck air inside the intermediate layer, if necessary, when the intermediate layer is expanding (activated). The air intake valve of the present invention works in the same way as the one-way air valve used by inflatable rafts or air mattresses. Via a one-way air valve on the layer, the intermediate layer is pumped with air to offer a pressurized center that determines the firmness of the patch. The air intake valve will trap the air as the patch expands, and this dynamic instantaneous expansion has the effect of propelling the flesh in opposite direction to the flame. The patch is now filled with air that is excellent insulation from the heat.
  • Furthermore, the rapid expansion of the patch serves as early warning to notify the wearer who may be unaware that they have exposed their flesh to a dangerous level of heat/flame. This is often the case in the fast food industry where food is left at a heated overhead slide through from the kitchen, and where visibility and clearance is often minimal, and where risk and injury are high and predictable. [0068]
  • It will be seen that the materials, according to this embodiment, are constructed in such a way as to provide an initial response to flame or heat which results in an expansion in volume with the material retaining a significant portion of this increased volume for an extended period even when exposed to higher temperatures. [0069]
  • An example of a heat responsible material is an intumescent material. Intumescent compounds which limit the heat and mass transfer by creating an insulating charred layer on the surface of the burning polymer are also considered fire retardant materials. A typical intumescent additive is a mixture of ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol. [0070]
  • Examples of suitable oxidized polyacrylonitrile fibers include LASTAN, manufactured by Ashia Chemical in Japan, PYROMEX, manufactured by Toho Rayon in Japan, PANOX, manufactured by SGL, and PYRON, manufactured by Zoltek. [0071]
  • Inorganic materials, for example alkali metal silicates containing water, can also foam on exposure to a flame, and also can be employed for the purposes of fire prevention. [0072]
  • Another example of heat-activated material is expandable graphite. Expandable graphite can be purchased from the Alumina Trading Company of Parkridge, N.J. The preferred product is identified by grade 9980200 that is rated as having a maximum expansion volume of two hundred milliliters per gram. Such expandable graphite particles typically expand in volume one hundred and twenty-five (125) times their original volume at a temperature of five hundred degrees Fahrenheit (500° F.) to as large as one hundred and eighty (185) times their original volume when exposed to temperatures of one thousand degrees Fahrenheit (1000° F.). [0073]
  • The typically heat expandable material has a normal volume, but upon exposure to an adequate amount of heat, expand from their normal manufactured volume as illustrated in FIG. 6[0074] a to their heat-actuated, substantially expanded volume, and thereby assume an accordion-like or worm-like shape as generally illustrated in FIG. 6b.
  • Insulation Layer [0075]
  • The insulation layer [0076] 50 is formed from any resilient material that can substantially reduce the transfer of heat through the protective pad 10. It is preferable that a material having low thermal conductivity be used, such as cross-linked polyethylene foam, which can reduce the transfer of heat through the pad 10 while maintaining sufficient flexibility. Numerous other materials having similar properties, including synthetic or natural latex rubbers, neoprene, cotton, silk, or polyurethane foams, Advance®; a 60/40 blend of Kevlar® and Nomex® (available from Southern Mills, Inc. in Union City Ga.), a blend of Kevlar® and Hoechst-Celanese Corp. PBI®, Aralite®, available from Southern Mills, Inc. which consists of a layer of quilted Nomex® batting joined to a layer of woven Nomex®, and Gentex® aluminized fiberglass dual mirrored fabric, may also be advantageously employed.
  • It is preferred that such materials have a suitable degree of abrasion resistance to withstand the normal wear and tear occasioned by use in hostile environments, such as firefighting environments. On the other hand, the insulation layer is manufactured in a variety of colors to produce beautiful protective outwear. [0077]
  • The insulation layer [0078] 50 comprises the core of the heat resistant pad 10 and is situated next to the intermediate layer 60 and opposite to the adhesive layer 40. The primary function of the insulation layer 50 of the pad 10 is to provide thermal isolation between the skin and the exterior surface of the pad 10.
  • In addition to providing thermal isolation, the insulation layer [0079] 50 serves as a support structure to which the adhesive layer 40 and intermediate layer 60 are bonded.
  • Preferably, the insulation layer [0080] 50 of the pad 10 is of unitary construction (i.e., one piece), although alternatively, it can be of laminate construction made of separate distinct components or layers, which perform the same underlying function.
  • The heat resistant pad, according to the present invention, should be sized and shaped to provide ample coverage such as no bare skin is exposed which may directly contact the hot work surface. [0081]
  • The required thickness will, of course, be directly affected by the material used in the manufacture of the insulation layer [0082] 50.
  • The use of an insulating material having comparatively lower thermal conductivity generally translates to a reduction in the required thickness of the insulation layer [0083] 50 of the pad 10, resulting in a pad which is thinner overall.
  • The thickness of the protective pad [0084] 10 will also be dependent on the application for which the pad is to be used. Applications involving direct contact with high surface temperatures (for example, above 450° F. for a prolonged period of time (more than a few seconds) may necessarily require a thicker insulation layer 50 for the pad 10.
  • A heat resistant pad formed in accordance with the present invention is easy to use and may be positioned on the skin to provide thermal protection at the precise area where such protection is needed. Moreover, because the protective pad of the present invention is simple in its construction, it is inexpensive to manufacture and would therefore justify disposal after each use. [0085]
  • A garment constructed in accordance with the present invention may be a coat and/or trousers or other garment, which includes at least one pad described in accordance with the present invention. [0086]
  • FIG. 3 shows a protective coat or jacket [0087] 80 and trousers 90 upon which a plurality of pads, according to the present invention, may be used.
  • In addition to the hazardous duty garments described above, the heat resistant pad of the present invention can be employed in conventional garments as well as career apparel such as coveralls, coats, pants, jackets, jumpsuit, vests, skirts, shirts, pajamas, suits, dresses, and t-shirts. [0088]
  • The garment according to this embodiment comprises: [0089]
  • an outer layer of fabric; [0090]
  • an intermediate layer filled with air; and [0091]
  • an inner layer of insulation material. [0092]
  • The fabric used for the material of the outer layer is selected depending on the type of garment, and can be made of any color or texture. [0093]
  • The garment is selected from the group consisting of coveralls, coats, pants, jackets, jumpsuit, vests, skirts, shirts, pajamas, suits, socks, mittens, gloves, head gear, dresses, and t-shirts. [0094]
  • The present invention also contemplates providing a garment with detachable arms and legs, thus the damaged part can be easily replaced after exposure to fire. [0095]
  • Although the preferred embodiment of the pad for a protective garment, in accordance with this invention, has been described, it will be understood that within the scope of this invention, various changes may be made in the form, details, portion, and arrangement of parts, the combination of parts and the manner of use which generally stated consists in a pad for a protective garment within the scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims. The substitution of the equivalent materials, the use of various geometric arrangements, or the integration or separation of parts, may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention. [0096]
  • Other objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description, the accompanying drawings, and the appended claims. [0097]
  • In view of the above discussion of the drawings herein, it is understood that a garment constructed in accordance with the present invention has the same or better qualities of protection against the environment than conventional fire protection garments, such as conventional firefighting garments. [0098]
  • Accordingly, a worker wearing a garment provided with a pad in accordance with the present invention is able to work in a more effective manner by being able to move more quickly and effectively and to bear contact with heated surfaces, particularly those from which dangerous heated fluids emanate. [0099]
  • A heat resistant pad, formed in accordance with the present invention, is easy to use and may be positioned on the skin to provide thermal protection at the precise area where such protection is needed. Moreover, because the protective pad of the present invention is simple in its construction, it is inexpensive to manufacture and would therefore justify disposal after each use. [0100]
  • Although the preferred embodiment of the protective pad in accordance with this invention has been described, it will be understood that within the scope of this invention, various changes may be made in the form, details, portion, and arrangement of parts, the combination of parts and the manner of use which generally stated consists in a pad for a garment within the scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims. The substitution of the equivalent materials, the use of various geometric arrangements, or the integration or separation of parts, may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention. [0101]

Claims (14)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. A heat resistant pad for protecting the user against high temperature, the pad comprising:
    an adhesive layer;
    an intermediate layer filled with air; and
    an insulation layer.
  2. 2. A heat resistant pad according to claim 1, wherein the intermediate layer is a continuous layer.
  3. 3. A heat resistant pad according to claim 1, wherein the intermediate layer is formed of a plurality of pockets.
  4. 4. A heat resistant pad for protecting the user against high temperature, the pad comprising:
    an adhesive layer;
    an intermediate layer filled a heat activated material, which expands when it is contacted with heat;
    an insulation layer.
  5. 5. A heat resistant pad according to claim 4, wherein the heat activated material is selected from the group consisting of intumescent material, LASTAN, PYROMEX, PANOX, PYRON, and expandable graphite.
  6. 6. A heat resistant pad according to claim 4, wherein the intermediate layer is an expandable layer.
  7. 7. A heat resistant pad according to claim 4, wherein the intermediate layer further includes at least one air intake valve.
  8. 8. A heat resistant pad according to claim 1, wherein the intermediate layer is filled with a substance selected from the group consisting of foam, and inert gas, gel, and medicine.
  9. 9. A protective garment, comprising:
    at least one heat resistant pad for protecting the user against high temperature, the pad comprising:
    an adhesive layer;
    an intermediate layer filled with air; and
    an insulation layer.
  10. 10. A garment made of a pad comprising:
    an outer layer of fabric;
    an intermediate layer filled with air; and
    an inner layer of insulation material.
  11. 11. A garment according to claim 10, wherein the garment is selected from the group consisting of coveralls, coats, pants, jackets, jumpsuit, vests, skirts, shirts, pajamas, suits, socks, mittens, gloves, head gear, dresses, and t-shirts.
  12. 12. A garment according to claim 10, wherein the garment further includes at least one of detachable arms or legs.
  13. 13. A garment according to claim 10, wherein the intermediate layer is an expandable layer.
  14. 14. A garment according to claim 13, wherein the intermediate layer is filled with a heat activated material, which expands when it is contacted with heat.
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US20080290556A1 (en) * 2007-05-23 2008-11-27 Finn Tech, Inc. Protective materials and methods for producing protective materials
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WO2009145740A1 (en) * 2008-04-16 2009-12-03 Oztek Tekstil Terbiye Tesisleri Sanayi Ve Ticaret A.S. Multi-layer heat barrier fabric
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