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Dual band fet mixer

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Publication number
US20040137871A1
US20040137871A1 US10722845 US72284503A US2004137871A1 US 20040137871 A1 US20040137871 A1 US 20040137871A1 US 10722845 US10722845 US 10722845 US 72284503 A US72284503 A US 72284503A US 2004137871 A1 US2004137871 A1 US 2004137871A1
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
transistor
signal
local
node
oscillator
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10722845
Inventor
Brian McNamara
Heinz Banzer
Ludger Verweyen
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Infineon Technologies North America Corp
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Infineon Technologies North America Corp
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03DDEMODULATION OR TRANSFERENCE OF MODULATION FROM ONE CARRIER TO ANOTHER
    • H03D7/00Transference of modulation from one carrier to another, e.g. frequency-changing
    • H03D7/12Transference of modulation from one carrier to another, e.g. frequency-changing by means of semiconductor devices having more than two electrodes
    • H03D7/125Transference of modulation from one carrier to another, e.g. frequency-changing by means of semiconductor devices having more than two electrodes with field effect transistors

Abstract

A dual band mixer has a common node for at least one radio frequency input and an intermediate frequency output. The dual band mixer also has a first transistor with a gate coupled to a first local oscillator input and a drain coupled to the common node, and a second transistor with a gate coupled to a second local oscillator input and a drain coupled to the common node. Interconnection circuitry turns off the second transistor when the first local oscillator input signal is applied to the first transistor, and turns off the first transistor when the second local oscillator input signal is applied to the second transistor.

Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application claims priority to Provisional U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 60/210,158, filed Jun. 7, 2000, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    The present application relates to mixing signals from two different frequency bands.
  • [0003]
    In some devices, such as wireless telephones, it is often desirable to have circuitry that can operate in two radio frequency (RF) bands (or dual bands) while using a common intermediate frequency and common intermediate frequency (IF) circuitry. Unfortunately, a potential problem with such mixing circuitry is signal loss. Another potential problem is that the mixing circuitry may need a large number of components, thereby increasing the cost, power consumption and heat generated by the circuitry.
  • [0004]
    One conventional dual band mixing technique is to use two separate mixers with separate IF outputs. The separate IF outputs are either combined or selected with a switching circuit. Unfortunately, such circuitry can be large for IF frequency and is particularly undesirable in MMIC applications.
  • [0005]
    In another conventional dual band mixing technique, the IF circuitry is duplicated for each RF band up to the point where the combination of the IF signals paths can be more easily implemented. However, this duplicate circuitry has the disadvantage of increasing the number of components.
  • [0006]
    Another conventional dual band mixer technique is to use a single classical mixer with switches at the RF and local oscillator (LO) ports. Using this technique, a single IF output can be achieved. Unfortunately, disadvantages of this technique are that the RF and LO switches can introduce losses and increase the amount of switch circuitry.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0007]
    In one aspect, the invention is directed to a dual band mixer that has a common node for at least one radio frequency input and an intermediate frequency output. The dual band mixer also has a first transistor with a gate coupled to a first local oscillator input and a drain coupled to the common node, and a second transistor with a gate coupled to a second local oscillator input and a drain coupled to the common node.
  • [0008]
    Implementations of the invention may include one or more of the following features. The sources of the first and second transistors may be coupled to ground. The first and second transistors may be field effect transistors, e.g., depletion-type transistors. Circuitry may turn off the second transistor when a first local oscillator signal is applied to the gate of the first transistor and turn off the first transistor when a second local oscillator signal is applied to the gate of the second transistor. The circuitry may include a first network associated with the first transistor to generate a first negative voltage at a first node when the first local oscillator signal is applied to the gate of the first transistor and a second network associated with the second transistor to generate a second negative voltage at a second node when the second local oscillator signal is applied to the gate of the second transistor. The first network may include a first diode connected between the gate of the first transistor and the first node, and a first capacitor and a second diode connected in parallel between the source of the first transistor and the first node. Similarly, the second network may include a third diode connected between the gate of the second transistor and the second node, and a second capacitor and a fourth diode connected in parallel between the source of the second transistor and the second node. A common line may couple the first and second nodes. The circuitry need not require an external voltage source. A switch may direct one of a plurality of radio frequency inputs to the common node.
  • [0009]
    In another aspect, the invention is directed to a method of mixing in a dual band mixer. In the method, a gate of a first transistor is driven with a first local oscillator input, a gate of a second transistor is driven with a second local oscillator input, a radio frequency input is provided to a common node that is coupled to drains of the first and second transistors, and an intermediate frequency output is sensed from the common node.
  • [0010]
    In another aspect, the invention is directed to a dual band mixer that has a first transistor to mix a first local oscillator input signal with a first radio frequency signal, a second transistor to mix a second local oscillator input signal with a second radio frequency signal, and interconnection circuitry to turn off the second transistor when the first local oscillator input signal is applied to the first transistor and to turn off the first transistor when the second local oscillator input signal is applied to the second transistor.
  • [0011]
    Implementations of the invention may include one or more of the following features. Drains of the first and second transistors may be coupled to a common node for at least one of the first and second radio frequency input signals and an intermediate frequency output. The first and second transistors may be field effect transistors, e.g., depletion-type transistors. The interconnection circuitry may include a first network associated with the first transistor to generate a first negative voltage at a first node when the first local oscillator signal is applied to the gate of the first transistor and a second network associated with the second transistor to generate a second negative voltage at a second node when the second local oscillator signal is applied to the gate of the second transistor. The first network may include a first diode connected between the gate of the first transistor and the first node, and a first capacitor and a second diode connected in parallel between the source of the first transistor and the first node. The second network may include a third diode connected between the gate of the second transistor and the second node, and a second capacitor and a fourth diode connected in parallel between the source of the second transistor and the second node. A common line may couple the first and second nodes.
  • [0012]
    In another aspect, the invention is directed to a dual band mixer that has a plurality of transistors to mix a plurality of local oscillation input signals with a plurality of radio frequency signals, and interconnection circuitry coupling the plurality of transistors configured to turn off transistors other than one transistor at which a local oscillation input signal is received.
  • [0013]
    In another aspect, the invention is directed to a method of mixing in a dual band mixer. In the method, a first local oscillator input signal is mixed with a first radio frequency signal at a first transistor and a second local oscillator input signal is mixed with a second radio frequency signal at a second transistor. The second transistor is turned off when the first local oscillator input signal is applied to the first transistor, and the first transistor is turned off when the second local oscillator input signal is applied to the second transistor.
  • [0014]
    Potential advantages of the invention may include one or more of the following. The mixing circuitry can reduce signal losses, and can be realized with a small number of components. The mixing circuitry can have a single IF output without requiring a switch for the LO input signals. In addition, the mixing circuitry can provide a negative voltage output for use in surrounding circuitry.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0015]
    The FIGURE is a circuit diagram illustrating a dual band FET mixer according to the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0016]
    A dual band FET mixer 10 includes a first field effect transistor (FET) 12 a and a second field effect transistor 12 b connected in parallel. For each FET 12 a and 12 b, the drains 14 a and 14 b are connected together, whereas the sources 16 a and 16 b are connected to ground. The drains 14 a and 14 b of the FETs 12 a and 12 b are connected to a common terminal 20 that serves as the connection for both the radio frequency (RF) inputs RF1_IN, RF2_IN and the intermediate frequency (IF) output IF_OUT. The single IF output can serve both operating RF bands. The gate 18 a of the first FET 12 a is connected to the first local oscillator signal LO1, whereas the gate 18 b of the second FET 12 a is connected to the second local oscillator signal LO2. A switch 19 is used to direct one of the two RF inputs to the terminal 20.
  • [0017]
    Associated with FET 12 a is circuitry 21 a that includes a diode and resistor network, including diodes 24, 26, 28, resistors 30, 32, and capacitor 34. Capacitor 34 is connected between the source 16 a of FET 12 a and a node 36, and diode 24 and resistor 30 are connected in parallel between the gate 18 a of FET 12 a and node 36. Resistor 32 is connected between the source 16 a of FET 12 a and a controllable voltage terminal 38, whereas diodes 26, 28 are connected between the controllable voltage terminal 38 and the node 36.
  • [0018]
    The circuitry 21 b associated with FET 12 b has a similarly constructed diode and resistor network, and will not be further discussed.
  • [0019]
    The nodes 36 associated with the first and second FETs 12 a and 12 b are both connected by resistors 40 to a common node 42, which is coupled to ground by a common capacitor 44 and to a negative voltage terminal 46 by a resistor 48.
  • [0020]
    Good mixing performance in each operating band can be achieved by biasing the FETs 12 a and 12 b so that, for operation in the first band, the RF_IN signal flows only through the first FET 12 a and for operation in the second band, the RF2_IN signal flows only through the second FET 12 b. In other words, the second FET 12 b is turned “off” when the local oscillator signal LO1 is applied to the gate 18 a of the first FET 12 a, whereas the first FET 12 b is turned “off” when the local oscillator signal LO2 is applied to the gate 18 b of the second FET 12 b. Consequently, there is virtually no signal degradation as compared to a single band mixer.
  • [0021]
    The FETs 12 a and 12 b can be turned off by providing the proper DC voltages to the gates 18 a and 18 b, respectively. In the illustrated implementation, when the first local input signal LO1 is applied to the first FET 12 a, a negative voltage is generated at the gate 18 b of the second FET 12 b, thereby turning off the second FET 12 b. Similarly, when the second local input signal LO2 is applied to the second FET 12 b, a negative voltage is generated at the gate 18 a of the first FET 12 a, thereby turning off the second FET 12 a.
  • [0022]
    In one implementation, the FETs 12 a and 12 b are depletion-type FETs. The depletion-type FETs require a negative voltage between the gate and source to be turned off. Since the source terminals are grounded, a negative voltage needs to be provided at the gate. Each diode and transistor network can generate a negative voltage from the voltage swing of the associated local oscillator signal, and since the diode and transistor networks are coupled through the common node 42, the negative voltage can be applied to the gate of the other FET.
  • [0023]
    Specifically, when the first local oscillator signal LO1 is applied to the gate 18 a of the first FET 12 a, the voltage swings in the signal LO1 cause the first diode and resistor network 21 a to generate a negative voltage at node 36, which is then transferred by the common node 42 to the gate 18 b of the second FET 12 b, thereby deactivating the second FET 12 b. Similarly, when the second local oscillator signal LO2 is applied to the gate 18 b of the second FET 12 b, the voltage swings in the signal LO2 cause the second diode and resistor network 21 b to generate a negative voltage at node 36, which is then transferred by the common node 42 to the gate 18 a of the first FET 12 a, thereby deactivating the first FET 12 a. Circuitry to generate a negative voltage is also discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,465,419, the entirety of which is incorporated by reference.
  • [0024]
    The claims are not limited to the implementation described. For example, different bias networks could be used to turn off the FETs using a control signal or other means.

Claims (22)

What is claimed is:
1. A dual band mixer, comprising:
a common node for at least one radio frequency input and an intermediate frequency output;
a first transistor having a gate coupled to a first local oscillator input and a drain coupled to the common node; and
a second transistor having a gate coupled to a second local oscillator input and a drain coupled to the common node.
2. The dual band mixer of claim 1, wherein the first transistor has a source coupled to ground and the second transistor has a source coupled to ground.
3. The dual band mixer of claim 1, wherein the first and second transistors are field effect transistors.
4. The dual band mixer of claim 3, wherein the first and second transistors are depletion-type transistors.
5. The dual band mixer of claim 1, further comprising circuitry to turn off the second transistor when a first local oscillator signal is applied to the gate of the first transistor and to turn off the first transistor when a second local oscillator signal is applied to the gate of the second transistor.
6. The dual band mixer of claim 5, wherein the circuitry includes a first network associated with the first transistor to generate a first negative voltage at a first node when the first local oscillator signal is applied to the gate of the first transistor and a second network associated with the second transistor to generate a second negative voltage at a second node when the second local oscillator signal is applied to the gate of the second transistor.
7. The dual band mixer of claim 6, wherein the first network includes a first diode connected between the gate of the first transistor and the first node, and a first capacitor and a second diode connected in parallel between the source of the first transistor and the first node.
8. The dual band mixer of claim 7, wherein the second network includes a third diode connected between the gate of the second transistor and the second node, and a second capacitor and a fourth diode connected in parallel between the source of the second transistor and the second node.
9. The dual band mixer of claim 6, further comprising a common line coupling the first and second nodes.
10. The dual band mixer of claim 5, wherein the circuitry does not require an external voltage source.
11. The dual band mixer of claim 1, further comprising a plurality of radio frequency inputs and a switch to direct one of the plurality of radio frequency inputs to the common node.
12. A method of mixing in a dual band mixer, comprising:
driving a gate of a first transistor with a first local oscillator input;
driving a gate of a second transistor with a second local oscillator input;
providing a radio frequency input to a common node that is coupled to drains of the first and second transistors; and
sensing an intermediate frequency output from the common node.
13. A dual band mixer, comprising:
a first transistor to mix a first local oscillator input signal with a first radio frequency signal;
a second transistor to mix a second local oscillator input signal with a second radio frequency signal; and
interconnection circuitry to turn off the second transistor when the first local oscillator input signal is applied to the first transistor and to turn off the first transistor when the second local oscillator input signal is applied to the second transistor.
14. The dual band mixer of claim 13, further comprising a common node for at least one of the first and second radio frequency input signals and an intermediate frequency output, and drains of the first and second transistors are coupled to the common node.
15. The dual band mixer of claim 13, wherein the first and second transistors are field effect transistors.
16. The dual band mixer of claim 15, wherein the first and second transistors are depletion-type transistors.
17. The dual band mixer of claim 13, wherein the interconnection circuitry includes a first network associated with the first transistor to generate a first negative voltage at a first node when the first local oscillator signal is applied to the gate of the first transistor and a second network associated with the second transistor to generate a second negative voltage at a second node when the second local oscillator signal is applied to the gate of the second transistor.
18. The dual band mixer of claim 17, wherein the first network includes a first diode connected between the gate of the first transistor and the first node, and a first capacitor and a second diode connected in parallel between the source of the first transistor and the first node.
19. The dual band mixer of claim 18, wherein the second network includes a third diode connected between the gate of the second transistor and the second node, and a second capacitor and a fourth diode connected in parallel between the source of the second transistor and the second node.
20. The dual band mixer of claim 17, further comprising a common line coupling the first and second nodes.
21. A dual band mixer, comprising:
a plurality of transistors to mix a plurality of local oscillation input signals with a plurality of radio frequency signals; and
interconnection circuitry coupling the plurality of transistors configured to turn off transistors other than one transistor at which a local oscillation input signal is received.
22. A method of mixing in a dual band mixer, comprising:
mixing a first local oscillator input signal with a first radio frequency signal at a first transistor;
mixing a second local oscillator input signal with a second radio frequency signal at a second transistor; and
turning off the second transistor when the first local oscillator input signal is applied to the first transistor and turning off the first transistor when the second local oscillator input signal is applied to the second transistor.
US10722845 2000-06-07 2003-11-25 Dual band fet mixer Abandoned US20040137871A1 (en)

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US21015800 true 2000-06-07 2000-06-07
US09876258 US6665528B2 (en) 2000-06-07 2001-06-06 Dual band fet mixer
US10722845 US20040137871A1 (en) 2000-06-07 2003-11-25 Dual band fet mixer

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US20040063418A1 (en) * 2002-09-30 2004-04-01 Wolfram Kluge Mixing apparatus
US20140070973A1 (en) * 2012-09-11 2014-03-13 Mediatek Inc. Signal mixing circuit and associated converter

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US6665528B2 (en) * 2000-06-07 2003-12-16 Infineon Technologies North America Corp. Dual band fet mixer
US6959178B2 (en) * 2002-04-22 2005-10-25 Ipr Licensing Inc. Tunable upconverter mixer with image rejection
WO2003090370A1 (en) * 2002-04-22 2003-10-30 Cognio, Inc. Multiple-input multiple-output radio transceiver
US7567341B2 (en) * 2006-12-29 2009-07-28 Avago Technologies Ecbu Ip (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Optical navigation device adapted for navigation on a transparent structure
US8045944B2 (en) * 2007-09-14 2011-10-25 Qualcomm Incorporated Offset correction for passive mixers
JP2009284059A (en) * 2008-05-20 2009-12-03 Toshiba Corp Filter circuit, radio transmitter and radio receiver
US8736344B1 (en) 2012-04-30 2014-05-27 Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. Voltage controlled variable attenuator
US8779834B1 (en) 2012-08-20 2014-07-15 Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. Multi-LO band switched-core frequency mixer

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040063418A1 (en) * 2002-09-30 2004-04-01 Wolfram Kluge Mixing apparatus
US6937849B2 (en) * 2002-09-30 2005-08-30 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Mixing apparatus
US20140070973A1 (en) * 2012-09-11 2014-03-13 Mediatek Inc. Signal mixing circuit and associated converter
US8890736B2 (en) * 2012-09-11 2014-11-18 Mediatek Inc. Signal mixing circuit and associated converter

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US6665528B2 (en) 2003-12-16 grant
JP2003536311A (en) 2003-12-02 application
WO2001095479A3 (en) 2003-03-06 application
KR20030017988A (en) 2003-03-04 application
US20020077070A1 (en) 2002-06-20 application
EP1305877A2 (en) 2003-05-02 application
WO2001095479A2 (en) 2001-12-13 application

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