US20040102311A1 - Bridged metallocene catalyst component, method of making, polyolefin catalyst having C1, C2, or Cs symmetry, methods of making, methods of polymerizing, olefins and products made thereof - Google Patents

Bridged metallocene catalyst component, method of making, polyolefin catalyst having C1, C2, or Cs symmetry, methods of making, methods of polymerizing, olefins and products made thereof Download PDF

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US20040102311A1
US20040102311A1 US10301884 US30188402A US2004102311A1 US 20040102311 A1 US20040102311 A1 US 20040102311A1 US 10301884 US10301884 US 10301884 US 30188402 A US30188402 A US 30188402A US 2004102311 A1 US2004102311 A1 US 2004102311A1
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Abbas Razavi
Margarito Lopez
Didier Baekelmans
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Fina Technology Inc
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    • B01J31/18Catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds containing coordination complexes containing nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic or antimony as complexing atoms, e.g. in pyridine ligands, or in resonance therewith, e.g. in isocyanide ligands C=N-R or as complexed central atoms
    • B01J31/1805Catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds containing coordination complexes containing nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic or antimony as complexing atoms, e.g. in pyridine ligands, or in resonance therewith, e.g. in isocyanide ligands C=N-R or as complexed central atoms the ligands containing nitrogen
    • B01J31/181Cyclic ligands, including non-condensed polycyclic ligands, comprising at least one complexing nitrogen atom as ring member, e.g. pyridine
    • B01J31/1815Cyclic ligands, including non-condensed polycyclic ligands, comprising at least one complexing nitrogen atom as ring member, e.g. pyridine with more than one complexing nitrogen atom, e.g. bipyridyl, 2-aminopyridine
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    • B01J2531/0258Flexible ligands, e.g. mainly sp3-carbon framework as exemplified by the "tedicyp" ligand, i.e. cis-cis-cis-1,2,3,4-tetrakis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)cyclopentane
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    • B01J31/18Catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds containing coordination complexes containing nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic or antimony as complexing atoms, e.g. in pyridine ligands, or in resonance therewith, e.g. in isocyanide ligands C=N-R or as complexed central atoms
    • B01J31/1845Catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds containing coordination complexes containing nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic or antimony as complexing atoms, e.g. in pyridine ligands, or in resonance therewith, e.g. in isocyanide ligands C=N-R or as complexed central atoms the ligands containing phosphorus
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Abstract

Bridged metallocene catalyst component in which a bridge spans two cyclopentadienyl groups, which Cp groups are attached to same or different heteroatoms of the bridge, which heteroatoms are also bonded to the metal. A catalyst systems is made by contacting the bridged component with a cocatalyst. Polymerization of olefins in catalyzed by the system.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention [0001]
  • The present invention relates to catalyst components, to methods of making such components, to catalyst systems comprising such components, to methods of making such systems, to methods of polymerization using such systems, to polymer compositions, and to articles made from such polymer compositions. In another aspect, the present invention relates to olefin polymerization catalyst components, to methods of making such components, to olefin polymerization catalyst systems comprising such components, to methods of making such systems, to methods of polymerization using such systems, to polymer compositions, and to articles made from such polymer compositions. In even another aspect, the present invention, the present invention relates to chiral catalysts having C[0002] 1, C2 or CS symmetry, to methods of making such catalysts, methods of polymerization using such catalysts, to polymer compositions, and to articles made from such polymer compositions. In still another aspect, the present invention relates to chiral polyolefin catalysts having C1, C2 or CS symmetry, to methods of making such catalysts, to methods of polymerizing or copolymerizing olefins, to polyolefin compositions, and to articles made from such polyolefin compositions.
  • 2. Description of the Related Art [0003]
  • As is well known, various processes and catalysts exist for the production of polyolefins. [0004]
  • First commercialized in the 1950's, the traditional Ziegler-Natta catalyst systems utilize a transition metal compound cocatalyzed by an aluminum alkyl. [0005]
  • Commercialized in the 1980's, “metallocene” catalysts for olefin polymerization comprise a metallocene and an aluminum alkyl component, with the transition metal compound having two or more cyclopentadienyl ring ligands. Accordingly, titanocenes, zirconocenes and hafnocenes have all been utilized as the transition metal component in such “metallocene” containing catalyst systems for the production of polyolefins. Metallocene catalysts are cocatalyzed with an alumoxane, rather than an aluminum alkyl, to provide a metallocene catalyst system of high activity for the production of polyolefins. [0006]
  • In addition to Ziegler-Natta catalysts and metallocene catalysts, a number of “non-metallocene” type catalysts have been suggested for the polymerization of olefins. [0007]
  • Specifically, for example, in [0008] The Search for New-Generation Olefin Polymerization Catalysts: Life Beyond Metallocenes, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1999, 38, 428-447, Britovsek et al. review a number of olefin catalyst systems, including: Group 3 metal catalysts such as scandium and yttrium complexes; Rare Earth Metal catalysts such as lanthanide and actinide-based catalysts stabilized with substituted cyclopentadienyl ligands; cationic Group 4 metal complexes including carbon-based ligands (such as alkyl ligands, allyl ligands, Cp analogues), including nitrogen-based ligands (such as amide ligands either along or in combination with other ligands, amidinate ligands either alone or in combination with other ligands, and β-diketimate ligands), and including oxygen-based ligands (such as alkoxide ligands either alone or in combination with other ligands, bis-alkoxides with additional donors); neutral Group 4 metal complexes; Group 5 metal catalysts; Group 6 metal catalysts; Group 8 metal catalysts; Group 9 metal catalysts; Group 10 metal catalysts; Group 13 metal catalysts.
  • Additionally, in [0009] Iron and Cobalt Ethylene Polymerization Catalysts Bearing 2,6-Bis (Imino)Pyridyl Ligands; Synthesis, Structures, and Polymerization Studies, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 8728-8740, Britovsek et al. disclose certain iron and cobalt catalysts for the polymerization of ethylene.
  • WO 98/30612, published Jul. 16, 1998, discloses selected iron complexes of 2,6-pyridinecarboxaldehydebis(imines) and 2,6-diacyclpyridinebis(imines) as catalysts for the polymerization of propylene. [0010]
  • WO 99/12981, published Mar. 18, 1999, discloses catalyst complexes having a bridge comprising heteroatoms bridging R groups R[0011] 5 and R7, with these complexes taught as being useful “especially for polymerizing ethylene alone or for copolymerizing ethylene with higher 1-olefins” (page 2, lines 28-29). The bridged R groups R5 and R7 are independently selected from hydrogen, halogen, hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, heterohydrocarbyl or substituted heterohydrocarbyl. There is no teaching or suggestion to make a chiral complex suitable for producing high tacticity, crystallinity polypropylene.
  • The following patents disclose bridged metallocene catalyst systems: U.S. Pat. No. 5,145,819, issued Sep. 8, 1992 to Winter et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,158,920, issued Oct. 27, 1992 to Razavi; U.S. Pat. No. 5,243,001, issued Sep. 7, 1993 to Winter et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 6,002,033, issued Dec. 14, 1999 to Razavi et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 6,066,588, issued May 23, 2000, to Razavi et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 6,177,529 B1, issued Jan. 23, 2001, to Razavi et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 6,194,343 B1, issued Feb. 27, 2001 to Collins et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 6,211,110 B1, issued Apr. 3, 2001 to Santi et al.; and U.S. Pat. No. 6,268,518 B1, issued Jul. 31, 2001 to Resconi et al. [0012]
  • However, in spite of the above advancements, there still exists a need in the art for catalyst compositions, methods of making such compositions, methods of polymerization using such compositions, to polymer compositions, and to articles made from such polymer compositions. [0013]
  • There is another need in the art for catalyst compositions, methods of making such compositions, methods of polymerization using such compositions, to polymer compositions, and to articles made from such polymer compositions, which do not suffer from the disadvantages of the prior art compositions, products and methods. [0014]
  • These and other needs in the art will become apparent to those of skill in the art upon review of this specification, including its drawings and claims. [0015]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • It is an object of the present invention to provide for catalyst compositions, methods of making such compositions, methods of polymerization using such compositions, to polymer compositions, and to articles made from such polymer compositions. [0016]
  • It is another object of the present invention to provide for catalyst compositions, methods of making such compositions, methods of polymerization using such compositions, to polymer compositions, and to articles made from such polymer compositions, which do not suffer from the disadvantages of the prior art compositions, products and methods. [0017]
  • These and other objects of the present invention will become apparent to those of skill in the art upon review of this specification, including its drawings and claims. [0018]
  • According to one embodiment of the present invention there is provided a bridged metallocene compound having the formula: [0019]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00001
  • wherein M is a metal; each X is an atom or group covalently or ionically bonded to M and may be the same or different; R[0020] 1 and R2 may be the same or each may be different and are substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl rings; RB is a structural bridge between the cyclopentadienyl rings R1 and R2 and imparts stereorigidity to the rings, and comprises at least one heteroatom bonded to M, with each of R1 and R2 bonded to the same or different heteroatom of RB which heteroatom is also bonded to M; Z is the coordination number of M and is greater than or equal to 4; m is the number of bonds between M and heteroatoms of RB and to impart sterorigidity m≧2; because the number of bonds around M cannot exceed its coordination number m+2≦Z; and with R1, R2 and RB selected to provide a catalyst component that is chiral with C1, C2 or CS symmetry.
  • According to another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method of making a bridged metallocene compound comprising contacting a metal compound of the formula M(X)[0021] 2 with a bridged compound RB of the formula
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00002
  • wherein M, X, R[0022] 1, R2, m and z are as defined above.
  • According to even another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a catalyst system comprising an activated bridged metallocene compound having the formula: [0023]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00003
  • wherein M, X, R[0024] 1, R2, m and z are as defined above.
  • According to still another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method of making a catalyst system comprising contacting an activator with a bridged metallocene compound having the formula: [0025]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00004
  • wherein M, X, R[0026] 1, R2, m and z are as defined above.
  • According to yet another embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method of forming polyolefins comprising contacting olefin monomer or mixture of monomers in the presence of an activated bridged metallocene compound having the formula: [0027]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00005
  • wherein M, X, R[0028] 1, R2, m and z are as defined above.
  • For all of the above embodiments, various further embodiments are provided by changing M, X, R[0029] 1, R2, m and z as described in the detailed description.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The bridged metallocene catalyst component of the present invention is represented by the following formula EQN. 1: [0030]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00006
  • wherein M is a metal; each X is an atom or group covalently or ionically bonded to M and may be the same or different; R[0031] 1 and R2 may be the same or each may be different and are substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl rings; RB is a structural bridge between the cyclopentadienyl rings R1 and R2 and imparts stereorigidity to the rings, and comprises at least one heteroatom bonded to M, with each of R1 and R2 bonded to the same or different heteroatom of RB which heteroatom is also bonded to M; Z is the coordination number of M and is greater than or equal to 4; m is the number of bonds between M and the heteroatom(s) of RB and to impart sterorigidity m≧2; because the number of bonds around M cannot exceed its coordination number m+2≦Z; with R1, R2 and RB selected to provide a catalyst component that is chiral with C1, C2 or CS symmetry.
  • The metal M of the present invention may be any suitable metal useful as the metal component in metallocene catalysts. As a non-limiting example, M may be selected from among any metal as is known in the prior art to be useful as the metal component in metallocene catalysts. [0032]
  • M will be selected to have a coordination number Z that is at least equal to the number of substituents bonded to M, that is, m number of R[0033] B heteroatom-to-metal bonds plus 2 (for both X's).
  • Preferably, M is selected from among any transition metal. More preferably, M is selected from among transition metals, lanthanides and actinides. Even more preferably, M is selected from transition metals and lanthanides. Still more preferably, M is selected from among group 3d, 4d or 5d transition metals, specifically Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt. Yet more preferably, M is selected from among Fe, Co and Ni. Even still more preferably, M is selected from among Fe and Co. [0034]
  • R[0035] 1 and R2 may be the same or each may be different and may be generally described as being substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl rings. As non-limiting examples, R1 and R2 may be selected from among any substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl ring as are known in the art to be useful in metallocene catalysts. Non-limiting examples of hydrocarbon radicals suitable for use as R1 and R2 are shown in the Examples below.
  • Preferably, R[0036] 1 and R2 may be described as a cyclopentadienyl ring of the form (C5(R′)4), wherein each R′ may be the same or each may be different, and R′ is a hydrogen or a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl radical having 1-20 carbon atoms.
  • Non-limiting examples of hydrocarbyl radicals suitable for use as R′ include unsubstituted and substituted alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, alkylaryl or arylalkyl radicals. More specific non-limiting examples of suitable hydrocarbyl radicals include unsubstituted and substituted methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, amyl, isoamyl, hexyl, isobutyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, cetyl, phenyl, methylene, ethylene, propylene, and other like groups. [0037]
  • R[0038] B is a structural bridge between the cyclopentadienyl rings R1 and R2 and imparts stereorigidity to the rings, and comprises n heteroatoms (“HA”) bonded to M. Preferably, n≧1, more preferably n≧2, and even more preferably n≧3. An example of a suitable structural bridge RB is provided in the examples.
  • Heteroatoms useful in structural bridge R[0039] B include any that can be coordinated to the metal M by a “dative” bond, that is, a bond formed by the donation of a lone pair of electrons from the heteroatom. Where RB comprises more than one heteroatom bonded to M, they may be the same heteroatom or different heteroatoms. Non-limiting examples of suitable heteroatoms include O, N, S, and P. Preferably the heteroatoms are selected from among O, N, and P, and more preferably is N.
  • R[0040] 1 is bonded to a heteroatom of RB which heteroatom is also bonded to M. Likewise, R2 is also bonded to a heteroatom of RB which heteroatom is also bonded to M. R1 and R2 may be bonded to the same heteroatom that is also bonded to M, or may be bonded to different heteroatoms which different heteroatoms are also bonded to M.
  • According to the present invention, R[0041] 1, R2 and RB are selected to provide a catalyst component that is chiral with C1, C2 or CS symmetry.
  • Each X may be any atom or group as are known to be utilized with metallocene catalysts, and is generally covalently or ionically bonded to M. Each X may be the same or different, although commonly each X is the same. As a non-limiting example, X may be selected from among halide, sulphate, nitrate, thiolate, thiocarboxylate, BF[0042] 4 , PF6 , hydride, hydrocarbyloxide, carboxylate, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl, and heterohydrocarbyl. Non-limiting examples of such atoms or groups are chloride, bromide, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, octyl decyl, phenyl, benzyl, methoxide, ethoxide, isopropoxide, toxylate, triflate, formate, acetate, phenoxide and benzoate. Preferably, X is a halide or a C1 to C20 hydrocarbyl. More preferably, X is chloride.
  • The bridged metallocene catalyst component is generally made by contacting a bridge intermediate with a compound of the form M(X)[0043] 2. More details are provided in the Examples.
  • The present invention further includes a catalyst system comprising one or more of the above described bridged metallocene catalyst components and one or more activators and/or cocatalysts (as described in greater detail below) or the reaction product of an activator and/or cocatalyst, such as for example methylaluminoxane (MAO) and optionally an alkylation/scavenging agent such as trialkylaluminum compound (TEAL). The above described metallocene catalyst components may also be supported as is known in the metallocene art. Typical supports may be any support such as talc, an inorganic oxide, clay, and clay minerals, ion-exchanged layered compounds, diatomaceous earth, silicates, zeolites or a resinous support material such as a polyolefin. Specific inorganic oxides include silica and alumina, used alone or in combination with other inorganic oxides such as magnesia, titania, zirconia and the like. Non-metallocene transition metal compounds, such as titanium tetrachloride, are also incorporated into the supported catalyst component. The inorganic oxides used as support are characterized as having an average particle size ranging from 30-600 microns, desirably from 30-100 microns, a surface area of 50-1,000 square meters per gram, desirably from 100-400 square meters per gram, a pore volume of 0.5-3.5 cc/g, desirably from about 0.5-2 cc/g. [0044]
  • The bridged metallocenes of the present invention may be used in combination with some form of activator in order to create an active catalyst system. The term “activator” is defined herein to be any compound or component, or combination of compounds or components, capable of enhancing the ability of one or more metallocenes to polymerize olefins to polyolefins. Alklyalumoxanes such as methylalumoxane (MAO) are commonly used as metallocene activators. Generally alkylalumoxanes contain about 5 to 40 of the repeating units. [0045]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00007
    AIR2 for linear species and
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00008
    for cyclic species
  • where R is a C1-C8 alkyl including mixed alkyls. Particularly desirable are the compounds in which R is methyl. Alumoxane solutions, particularly methylalumoxane solutions, may be obtained from commercial vendors as solutions having various concentrations. There are a variety of methods for preparing alumoxane, non-limiting examples of which are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,665,208, 4,952,540, 5,091,352, 5,206,199, 5,204,419, 4,874,734, 4,924,018, 4,908,463, 4,968,827, 5,308,815, 5,329,032, 5,248,801, 5,235,081, 5,103,031 and EP-A-0 561 476, EP 0 279 586, EP-A-0 594 218 and WO 94/10180, each fully incorporated herein by reference. (As used herein unless otherwise stated “solution” refers to any mixture including suspensions.) Ionizing activators may also be used to activate the bridged metallocenes. These activators are neutral or ionic, or are compounds such as tri(n-butyl)ammonium tetrakis(pentaflurophenyl)borate, which ionize the neutral metallocene compound. Such ionizing compounds may contain an active proton, or some other cation associated with, but not coordinated or only loosely coordinated to, the remaining ion of the ionizing compound. Combinations of activators may also be used, for example, alumoxane and ionizing activators in combinations, see for example, WO 94/07928. [0046]
  • Descriptions of ionic catalysts for coordination polymerization comprised of metallocene cations activated by non-coordinating anions appear in the early work in EP-A-0 277 003, EP-A-0 277 004 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,198,401 and WO-A-92/00333 (incorporated herein by reference). These teach a desirable method of preparation wherein metallocenes (bis Cp and monoCp) are protanated by an anion precursor such that an alkyl/hydride group is abstracted from a transition metal to make it both cationic and charge-balanced by the non-coordinating anion. Suitable ionic salts include tetrakis-substituted borate or aluminum salts having fluorided aryl-constituents such as phenyl, biphenyl and napthyl. [0047]
  • The term “noncoordinating anion” (“NCA”) means an anion which either does not coordinate to said cation or which is only weakly coordinated to said cation thereby remaining sufficiently labile to be displaced by a neutral Lewis base. “Compatible” noncoordinating anions are those which are not degraded to neutrality when the initially formed complex decomposes. Further, the anion will not transfer an anionic substituent or fragment to the cation so as to cause it to form a neutral four coordinate metallocene compound and a neutral by-product from the anion. [0048]
  • The use of ionizing ionic compounds not containing an active proton but capable of producing both the active metallocene cation and a noncoordinating anion is also known. See, for example, EP-A-0 426 637 and EP-A-0 573 403 (incorporated herein by reference). An additional method of making the ionic catalysts uses ionizing anion precursors which are initially neutral Lewis acids but form the cation and anion upon ionizing reaction with the metallocene compounds, for example the use of tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane, see EP-A-0 520 732 (incorporated herein by reference). Ionic catalysts for addition polymerization can also be prepared by oxidation of the metal centers of transition metal compounds by anion precursors containing metallic oxidizing groups along with the anion groups, see EP-A-0 495 375 (incorporated herein by reference). [0049]
  • Where the metal ligands include halogen moieties (for example, bis-cyclopentadienyl zirconium dichloride) which are not capable of ionizing abstraction under standard conditions, they can be converted via known alkylation reactions with organometallic compounds such as lithium or aluminum hydrides or alkyls, alkylalumoxanes, Grignard reagents, etc. See EP-A-O 500 944 and EP-Al-0 570 982 (incorporated herein by reference) for in situ processes describing the reaction of alkyl aluminum compounds with dihalo-substituted metallocene compounds prior to or with the addition of activating anionic compounds. [0050]
  • Desirable methods for supporting ionic catalysts comprising metallocene cations and NCA are described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,643,847, U.S. patent application No. 09184358, filed Nov. 2, 1998 and U.S. patent application No. 09184389, filed Nov. 2, 1998 (all fully incorporated herein by reference). When using the support composition, these NCA support methods generally comprise using neutral anion precursors that are sufficiently strong Lewis acids to react with the hydroxyl reactive functionalities present on the silica surface such that the Lewis acid becomes covalently bound. [0051]
  • Additionally, when the activator for the metallocene supported catalyst composition is a NCA, desirably the NCA is first added to the support composition followed by the addition of the bridged metallocene catalyst. When the activator is MAO, desirably the MAO and bridged metallocene catalyst are dissolved together in solution. The support is then contacted with the MAO/metallocene catalyst solution. Other methods and order of addition will be apparent to those skilled in the art. [0052]
  • The catalysts of the present invention can be used for the polymerization of any type of α-olefins or the copolymerization any mixture of α-olefins. For example, the present catalyst is useful for catalyzing ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, hexene, 4-methylpentene and other α-alkenes having at least 2 carbon atoms, and also for mixtures thereof. Preferably, the catalysts of the present invention are utilized for the polymerization of propylene to produce polypropylene, most preferably high crystallinity polypropylene. [0053]
  • The polymerization and, where applicable, pre-polymerization conditions are well known in the art and need not be described in too much detail here. In general, polymerization is accomplished by contacting together either α-olefin monomer or mixture of α-olefins in the presence of the above described catalyst system under polymerization conditions. [0054]
  • The invention having been generally described, the following examples are given as particular embodiments of the invention and to demonstrate the practice and advantages thereof. It is understood that the exaples are given by way of illustration and are not intended to limit the specification or the claims to follow in any manner.[0055]
  • EXAMPLES
  • These examples are provided merely to illustrate a few embodiments of the present invention, and are not intended to and do not limit the specification or scope of the claims. [0056]
  • In these examples, all manipulations of air/moisture-sensitive materials were performed on a conventional vacuum/inert atmosphere line using standard Schlenk line techniques. [0057]
  • Example 1
  • The procedure as described in WO 99/12981 was utilized for synthesis of ligand intermediate A of the formula as shown below: [0058]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00009
  • 2,6-diisopropylaniline (3.46 ml, 18.4 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of 2,6-diacetylpyridine (1.5 g, 9.2 mmol) in absolute ethanol (25 ml) A few drops of glacial acetic acid was added and the solution was refluxed for 48 h. Concentration of the solution to half volume and cooling to −78° C. gave intermediate A as pale yellow crystals (80%). Calcd for C33H43N3: C, 82.3; H 8.9; N 8.7; Found; C, 81.9; H 8.5; 8.7%. FABMS: M+(481). 1H NMR (CDCl3): 8.6-7.9 [m, 3H, C5H3N], 7.2-6.9 [m, 6H, C6(CHMe2)H3], 2.73[sept, 4H, CHMe2], 2.26[s, 6H, C5H3N(CMeNAr)2] and 1.16 [m, 24H, CHMe2]. FABMS is fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. [0059]
  • Example 2
  • 250 mg, 1.09 eq. of Intermediate A, and 95 mg of FeCl2.4H2O was weighed into a 10 ml Schlenk flask containing a stirbar. The flask was placed on a Schlenk manifold, backfilled 3 times with argon, and 10 ml of THF were added while stirring. After 2 h, the THF was removed under vacuum. The resulting deep blue solid (formula below), was washed twice with ether and dried under vacuum. [0060]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00010
  • Example 3
  • This example shows creation of a ligand having C2/Class A symmetry. The same general synthesis is followed from Example 1, with the exception that the 2,6-diisopropylaniline is replaced with indene. [0061]
  • Indene (18.4 mmol) is added to a solution of 2,6-diacetylpyridine (9.2 mmol) in absolute. A few drops of glacial acetic acid is added and the solution is refluxed for 48 h. Concentration of the solution to half volume and cooling to room temperature and filtered to give the intermediate shown below. [0062]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00011
  • Example 4
  • A catalyst from the ligand of Example 3 (Intermediate with symmetry C2/Class A) is synthesized by using the same general synthesis as in Example 2, to provide the catalyst component shown below. [0063]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00012
  • Example 5
  • This example shows creation of a ligand having C2/Class B symmetry. The first part of the synthesis for this ligand is different from that of Example 1 above. The first part of the synthesis starts with the reduction of the diacetylpyridine to a diamine by using the Leuckart-Wallach reaction. In scheme 1 below, a general reaction is shown for the reduction of a carbonyl to an amine. [0064]
  • Scheme 1. Reduction of a carbonyl compounds to amines (Leuckart-Wallach Reaction): [0065]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00013
  • Example 6
  • This example illustrates the reduction of a carbonyl to an amine, specifically, the synthesis of 1-phenylethylamine (Vogel's Practical Organic Chemistry including qualitative organic analysis, 4[0066] th Ed, Furniss, B. S., et al., School of Chemistry Thames Polytechnic Longman Scientific and Technical, 1978).
  • 126 g (2.0 mol) of ammonium formate, 72 g (0.6 mol) of acetophenone and a few chips of porous porcelain were added to a 250 ml flask fitted with a Claisen still-head carrying a short fractionating column; a thermometer expending nearly to the bottom of the flask was inserted, and a short condenser was set for downward distillation to the side arm. The flask was heated (either with a heating mantle or in an air batch); the mixture first melted to two layers and distillation occurs. The mixture becomes homogeneous at 150-155 C. and reaction took place with slight frothing. Heating was continued, until the temperature reached 185 C. (about 2 hours); acetophenone, water and ammonium carbonate distill. The heating was stopped at 185 C., the upper layer of acetophenone was separated from the distillate and returned without drying to the flask. The mixture was heated for 3 hours at 180-185 C. and allowed to cool; the acetophone may be recovered from the distillate by extraction with 20 ml portions of toluene. The reaction mixture is transferred to a 250 ml separatory funnel and shake it with two 75 ml portions of water to remove formamide and ammonium formate. The crude (1-phenylethyl)formamide is transferred into the original reaction flask; the aqeous layer was extracted with two 20 ml portions of toluene, the toluene extracts were transferred to the flask, 75 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid and a few chips of porous porcelain were added. The mixture was heated cautiously until about 40 ml of toluene was collected, and boiled gently under reflux for a further 40 minutes; hydrolysis proceeded rapidly to 1-phenylethylamine hydrochloride except for a small layer of unchanged acetophenone. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool, and the acetopenone was removed by extraction with four 20 ml portions of toluene. The aqueous acid solution was transferred to a 500 ml round-bottom flask equipped for stream distillation, a solution of 62.5 g of sodium hydroxide was cautiously added to 125 ml water, and steam distilled: the distillation flask was heated so that the volume remained nearly constant. Most of the amine is contained in the first 500 ml of distillate; the operation was stopped when the distillate was only faintly alkaline. The distillate was extracted with five 25, ml portions of toluene, the extract was dried with sodium hydroxide pellets and fractionally distilled. Toluene distilled over at 111 C., followed by the phylethylamine. The latter was collected as a fraction of b.p. 180-190 C. (the bulk of the product distiled at 184-186 C. (3); the yield was 43 g (59%). [0067]
  • Example 7
  • The reduction of 2,6-diacetylpiridine to the diamine is provided using a similar synthetic procedure as described in Example 6 above. [0068]
  • Example 8
  • The diamine as obtained in Example 7 is then reacted with a ketone as shown in the following reaction formula. [0069]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00014
  • Example 9
  • The catalyst synthesis procedure to produce a catalyst with symmetry C2/Class B is the same procedure as the one described in WO 98/30612 (with the exception of different R′ and R groups), and is shown in the following reaction formula: [0070]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00015
  • Example 10
  • This example provides a catalyst with symmetry C2/Class B by reacting the ligand of Example 9 with the desired metal. [0071]
  • The ligand (1.05 eq.) of Example 9 and the metal salt in its hydrated or anhydrous form are added together in a Schlenk flask under inert atmosphere and then charged with THF. The mixture is stirred for several hours or until no detectable unreacted salts are observed. The mixture is filtered in air and the solids are washed with Et2O and dried under vacuum. [0072]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00016
  • Example 11
  • To synthesize a structure with a C2/Class C symmetry, a similar procedure as the one used for the C2/Class B symmetry is used. The exception is that only one acetyl group is reduced on the 2,6-diacetylanaline. The general procedure for this synthesis is shown in the formula below where only one of the acetyls is reduced to the amine. [0073]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00017
  • Example 12
  • In this example, the amine of Example 11 is reacted with a ketone to provide the R group double bond to the nitrogen. [0074]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00018
  • Example 13
  • In this Example, an amine is reacted with the mono-acetyl intermediate of Example 12 to provide the R group with a single bond to the nitrogen as shown in the formula below. [0075]
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00019
  • Example 14
  • A catalyst is then synthesized according to the procedure described in Example 10. [0076]
  • Simply by using different R groups bonded to the nitrogen atoms with a single bond, a double bond, or with one single bond and one double bond, th esymmetries for C[0077] 1 and CS may also be obtained. Some examples for the different symmetries is summarized in Table 1 for the structure of EQN. 1.
    TABLE 1
    Examples of Symmetries
    Symmetry R1 R2
    C2/Class A
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00020
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00021
    C2/Class B
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00022
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00023
    C2/Class C
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00024
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00025
    Cs/Class A
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00026
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00027
    Cs/Class B
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00028
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00029
    Cs/Class C
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00030
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00031
    Cs/Class D
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00032
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00033
    C1/Class A
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00034
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00035
    C1/Class B
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00036
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00037
    C1/Class C
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00038
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00039
    C1/Class D
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00040
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00041
  • Any patents, patent applications, articles, books, treatises, and any other publications cited herein, are hereby incorporated by reference for all that they teach or suggest. [0078]
  • While the illustrative embodiments of the invention have been described with particularity, it will be understood that various other modifications will be apparent to and can be readily made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, it is not intended that the scope of the claims appended hereto be limited to the examples and descriptions set forth herein but rather that the claims be construed as encompassing all the features of patentable novelty which reside in the present invention, including all features which would be treated as equivalents thereof by those skilled in the art to which this invention pertains. [0079]

Claims (20)

    I claim:
  1. 1. A bridged metallocene compound having the formula:
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00042
    wherein M is a metal; each X is an atom or group covalently or ionically bonded to M and may be the same or different; R1 and R2 may be the same or each may be different and are substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl rings; RB is a structural bridge between the cyclopentadienyl rings R1 and R2 and imparts stereorigidity to the rings, and comprises at least one heteroatom bonded to M, with each of R1 and R2 bonded to the same or different heteroatom of RB which heteroatom is also bonded to M; Z is the coordination number of M and is greater than or equal to 4; m is the number of bonds between M and heteroatoms of R1 and to impart sterorigidity m≧2; because the number of bonds around M cannot exceed its coordination number m+2≦Z; and with R1, R2 and RB selected to provide a catalyst component that is chiral with C1, C2 or CS symmetry.
  2. 2. The compound of claim 1, wherein M is selected from the group consisting of transition metals and lanthanide metals, wherein the heteroatoms are selected from the group consisting of O, N, S, and P,
  3. 3. The compound of claim 1, wherein RB comprises three heteroatoms bonded to M, and wherein R1 is bonded to one of the three heteroatoms, and R2 is bonded to a different one of the three heteroatoms.
  4. 4. The compound of claim 1, wherein M is selected from among Fe, Co and Ni.
  5. 5. The compound of claim 1, wherein M is Fe, RB comprises three heteroatoms bonded to M, and wherein R1 is bonded to one of the three heteroatoms, and R2 is bonded to a heteroatom different than the heteroatom to which R1 is bonded; M is selected from among Fe, Co and Ni.
  6. 6. The compound of claim 5, wherein each X is independently selected from among halides and substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyls.
  7. 7. A method of making a bridged metallocene compound comprising contacting a metal compound of the formula M(X)2 with a bridged compound RB of the formula
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00043
    wherein M is a metal; each X is an atom or group covalently or ionically bonded to M and may be the same or different; R1 and R2 may be the same or each may be different and are substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl rings; RB is a structural bridge between the cyclopentadienyl rings R1 and R2 and imparts stereorigidity to the rings, and comprises at least one heteroatom suitable for bonding to M, with each of R1 and R2 bonded to the same or different heteroatom of RB which heteroatom; Z is the coordination number of M and is greater than or equal to 4; and with R1, R2 and RB selected to provide a bridged metallocene compound that is chiral with C1, C2 or CS symmetry.
  8. 8. The method of claim 7, wherein M is selected from the group consisting of transition metals and lanthanide metals, wherein the heteroatoms are selected from the group consisting of O, N, S, and P,
  9. 9. The method of claim 7, wherein RB comprises three heteroatoms suitable for bonding to M, and wherein R1 is bonded to one of the three heteroatoms, and R2 is bonded to a different one of the three heteroatoms.
  10. 10. The method of claim 7, wherein M is selected from among Fe, Co and Ni.
  11. 11. The method of claim 7, wherein M is Fe, RB comprises three heteroatoms suitable for bonding to M, and wherein R1 is bonded to one of the three heteroatoms, and R2 is bonded to a heteroatom different than the heteroatom to which R1 is bonded; M is selected from among Fe, Co and Ni.
  12. 12. The method of claim 11, wherein each X is independently selected from among halides and substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyls.
  13. 13. A catalyst system comprising an activated bridged metallocene compound having the formula:
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00044
    wherein M is a metal; each X is an atom or group covalently or ionically bonded to M and may be the same or different; R1 and R2 may be the same or each may be different and are substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl rings; RB is a structural bridge between the cyclopentadienyl rings R1 and R2 and imparts stereorigidity to the rings, and comprises at least one heteroatom bonded to M, with each of R1 and R2 bonded to the same or different heteroatom of RB which heteroatom is also bonded to M; Z is the coordination number of M and is greater than or equal to 4; m is the number of bonds between M and heteroatoms of RB and to impart sterorigidity m≧2; because the number of bonds around M cannot exceed its coordination number m+2≦Z; and with R1, R2 and RB selected to provide a catalyst component that is chiral with C1, C2 or CS symmetry.
  14. 14. The system of claim 13, wherein M is selected from the group consisting of transition metals and lanthanide metals, wherein the heteroatoms are selected from the group consisting of O, N, S and P,
  15. 15. The system of claim 13, wherein RB comprises three heteroatoms bonded to M, and wherein R1 is bonded to one of the three heteroatoms, and R2 is bonded to a different one of the three heteroatoms.
  16. 16. The system of claim 13, wherein M is selected from among Fe, Co and Ni.
  17. 17. The system of claim 13, wherein M is Fe, RB comprises three heteroatoms bonded to M, and wherein R1 is bonded to one of the three heteroatoms, and R2 is bonded to a heteroatom different than the heteroatom to which R1 is bonded; M is selected from among Fe, Co and Ni.
  18. 18. The system of claim 17, wherein each X is independently selected from among halides and substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyls.
  19. 19. A method of making a catalyst system comprising contacting an activator with a bridged metallocene compound having the formula:
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00045
    wherein M is a metal; each X is an atom or group covalently or ionically bonded to M and may be the same or different; R1 and R2 may be the same or each may be different and are substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl rings; RB is a structural bridge between the cyclopentadienyl rings R1 and R2 and imparts stereorigidity to the rings, and comprises at least one heteroatom bonded to M, with each of R1 and R2 bonded to the same or different heteroatom of RB which heteroatom is also bonded to M; Z is the coordination number of M and is greater than or equal to 4; m is the number of bonds between M and heteroatoms of RB and to impart sterorigidity m≧2; because the number of bonds around M cannot exceed its coordination number m+2≦Z; and with R1, R2 and RB selected to provide a catalyst component that is chiral with C1, C2 or CS symmetry.
  20. 20. A method of forming polyolefins comprising contacting olefin monomer or mixture of monomers in the presence of an activated bridged metallocene compound having the formula:
    Figure US20040102311A1-20040527-C00046
    wherein M is a metal; each X is an atom or group covalently or ionically bonded to M and may be the same or different; R1 and R2 may be the same or each may be different and are substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl rings; RB is a structural bridge between the cyclopentadienyl rings R1 and R2 and imparts stereorigidity to the rings, and comprises at least one heteroatom bonded to M, with each of R1 and R2 bonded to the same or different heteroatom of RB which heteroatom is also bonded to M; Z is the coordination number of M and is greater than or equal to 4; m is the number of bonds between M and heteroatoms of RB and to impart sterorigidity m≧2; because the number of bonds around M cannot exceed its coordination number m+2≦Z; and with R1, R2 and RB selected to provide a catalyst component that is chiral with C1, C2 or CS symmetry.
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