US20040092952A1 - Screw placement guide - Google Patents

Screw placement guide Download PDF

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Publication number
US20040092952A1
US20040092952A1 US10256636 US25663602A US2004092952A1 US 20040092952 A1 US20040092952 A1 US 20040092952A1 US 10256636 US10256636 US 10256636 US 25663602 A US25663602 A US 25663602A US 2004092952 A1 US2004092952 A1 US 2004092952A1
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
screw
rod
placement
receiving
element
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10256636
Inventor
Peter Newton
Mark Gracia
Michael Varieur
Carrie Breech
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
DePuy Spine Inc
Original Assignee
DePuy Spine Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/16Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans
    • A61B17/17Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires
    • A61B17/1739Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires specially adapted for particular parts of the body
    • A61B17/1757Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires specially adapted for particular parts of the body for the spine
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/00234Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for minimally invasive surgery
    • A61B2017/00238Type of minimally invasive operation

Abstract

A screw placement guide tool for use in minimally invasive surgery has a proximal handle portion, an extension member extending distally from the handle portion, and an alignment element connected transversely to a distal portion of the extension member and having a screw placement guide located thereon. In this aspect of the invention, the tool is configured so that a surgeon may operate the tool using the handle portion external to a patient's body to align the alignment element with implanted screws so that the screw placement guide indicates a desired position for implantation of an additional screw. Systems and methods for placing a rod receiving screw are also provided.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application claims priority to provisional application U.S. Ser. No. 60/400,912, filed Aug. 2, 2002.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates to devices and methods for placing a screw to be inserted in a patient's vertebrae during spinal fixation surgery.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    The use of spinal fixation instrumentation to align and/or fix a desired relationship between adjacent vertebral bodies is well established. Such instrumentation typically includes a spinal fixation element, such as a relatively rigid fixation rod, that is coupled to adjacent vertebrae by attaching the element to screws which have been inserted into the patient's vertebrae or to spinal hooks which can be placed into a vertebral arch for coupling to the vertebral bodies. Once installed, the spinal fixation instrumentation holds the vertebrae in a desired spatial relationship, either until desired healing or spinal fusion has taken place, or for some longer period of time.
  • [0004]
    One example of a rod based spinal fixation system is provided in U.S. Pat. No. 5,005,562, issued Apr. 9, 1991 to Cotrel (which is hereby incorporated by reference). This system includes pedicle screws and spinal hook vertebral coupling elements (both screws and hooks) having integral U-shaped bodies that extend outward from the vertebrae to which they are attached. A spinal fixation rod is shaped as desired and fitted into the “U” of U-shaped bodies of adjacent vertebrae. The inner surfaces of the U-shaped body are threaded to accept a set screw, and rod is fixed to the vertebral coupling elements by threading a set screw into each of the U-shaped bodies to lock in the rod.
  • [0005]
    U.S. Pat. No. 5,545,165, issued Aug. 13, 1996 to Biedermann et al. (and incorporated herein by reference), illustrates an improvement in closure systems for fixing a rod to vertebral coupling elements over those provided by Cotrel. The Biedermann et al. system also uses pedicle screws and spinal hooks having U-shaped bodies that extend outward from the vertebrae to which they are attached. The U-shaped bodies of the Biedermann et al. system are threaded on both the inside and the outside. The rod is therefore locked in by both an inner set screw and an outer lock nut. In the illustrated embodiments, the inner set screw is adapted to be driven on its threads using a hex-shaped driver element, and the outer locking nut is provided with hex-shaped flat outer surfaces suitable for engagement with a wrench or similar driving tool.
  • [0006]
    U.S. Pat. No. 5,443,467, issued Aug. 22, 1995 to Biedermann et al. (and incorporated herein by reference) illustrates the use of an inner set screw and an outer lock nut to lock a rod into a U-shaped body in a polyaxial screw system. In this system, a pedicle screw having a spherical head is captured within a separate U-shaped receiver body. The angle of the screw with respect to the body can be changed until a head-locking element is tightened to lock the angle of the screw head within the receiver body. According to Biedermann et al., this combination of an inner set screw and an outer locking nut provides an advantage in that the force acting on the rod can be independently adjusted by either the inner set screw or the outer locking nut—a particularly useful advantage where the rod being fastened is curved and an exact fastening might only be possible by independent adjustment of the two closure elements. In addition, when tightened, the inner set screw and the outer locking nut tend to lock each other in their tightened positions.
  • [0007]
    The effectiveness of these spinal fixation systems and others depend upon the rod receiving screws being properly placed. If the rod receiving screws are out of line, the surgeon will be able to place the rod within the receiving portions of the screw assemblies only by placing a load on the screw in order to move it into line to accept the rod. Such loads can result in improper alignment of the vertebrae, premature screw pull out, and fracture of the bone to which the screw is attached.
  • [0008]
    Accordingly, there is a need for a system, method and/or device to allow the surgeon to place the rod receiving screws in proper alignment before the rod is fitted to them.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0009]
    The present invention provides a system, device and method for placing rod receiving screws for implantation in spinal fixation surgery to ensure that rod receiving screws are properly placed so that, as a result of ensuring correct screw placement, surgeons will not need to apply undue force to orient the rod receiving screws to receive the spinal fixation rod to be implanted. The system, device and method of the invention can be advantageously adapted to be particularly useful in minimally invasive surgery. In a first aspect of the invention, a screw placement guide tool for use in minimally invasive surgery is provided having a proximal handle portion, an extension member extending distally from the handle portion, and an alignment element connected transversely to a distal portion of the extension member and having a screw placement guide located thereon. In this aspect of the invention, the tool is configured so that a surgeon may operate the tool using the handle portion external to a patient's body to align the alignment element with implanted screws so that the screw placement guide indicates a desired position for implantation of an additional screw.
  • [0010]
    In particular embodiments of the invention, the alignment element can be curved to correspond to a curve of a spinal fixation rod to be implanted. The alignment element can also be configured to be elongate with first and second opposed ends and to be connected to the extension member at a first opposed end with the screw placement guide located on the second opposed end. A curved portion can also connect the extension member to the alignment element. In one embodiment, the screw placement guide is a closed loop.
  • [0011]
    In a further aspect of the invention, a system for placing a rod receiving screw within a patient's bone is provided. The system includes a plurality of rod receiving screws with each rod receiving screw having a proximal rod receiving opening and a distal bone attachment portion, and a screw placement guide tool. The screw placement guide tool has an elongate alignment element including a screw placement guide located thereon. The elongate alignment element is sized to fit within the rod receiving opening of at least one of the plurality of rod receiving screws when the at least one rod receiving screw is implanted and to extend so that the screw placement guide indicates a placement location for another of the plurality of rod receiving screws. In a further embodiment, at least three rod receiving screws are provided and the alignment element is sized to fit within the rod receiving opening of at least two of the at least three rod receiving screws when the at least two rod receiving screws are implanted and to extend so that the screw placement guide indicates a placement location for a third rod receiving screw.
  • [0012]
    In one embodiment of the invention, the system further includes a marking tool that is guidable to a location indicated by the screw placement guide for placing an indication on a patient's bone where a screw is to be implanted. In further particular embodiments, the screw placement guide tool can include a proximally extending extension member with a handle and the alignment element can be curved to correspond to a curve of a spinal fixation rod to be implanted. The alignment element can also be configured to be elongate with first and second opposed ends and to be connected to the extension member at a first opposed end with the screw placement guide located on the second opposed end.
  • [0013]
    In a still further aspect of the invention, a method for placing a rod receiving screw for implantation in a vertebral body is provided. In the method, at least one rod receiving screw is implanted into a patient's spine with each screw having a distal bone attachment element and a proximal rod receiving opening. A screw placement guide tool having an elongate alignment element including a screw placement guide located thereon is then fitted within the rod receiving opening of the at least one implanted rod receiving screw so that the screw placement guide indicates a placement location for another receiving screw. In a further embodiment, at least two rod receiving screws are implanted and the alignment element is fitted within the rod receiving opening of the at least two implanted rod receiving screws and to extend so that the screw placement guide indicates a placement location for a third rod receiving screw.
  • [0014]
    In a further embodiment, a marking tool is also provided and guided to a location indicated by the screw placement guide and an indication is placed on a patient's bone where a screw is to be implanted using the marking tool. In further particular embodiments, the screw placement guide tool can include a proximally extending extension member with a handle and the alignment element can be curved to correspond to a curve of a spinal fixation rod to be implanted. The alignment element can also be configured to be elongate with first and second opposed ends and to be connected to the extension member at a first opposed end with the screw placement guide located on the second opposed end.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0015]
    The invention will be more fully understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings:
  • [0016]
    [0016]FIG. 1 a side view of a screw placement guide of the invention;
  • [0017]
    [0017]FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the screw placement guide of FIG. 1;
  • [0018]
    [0018]FIG. 3 illustrates the screw placement guide of FIG. 1 along with two rod receiving screws locating a placement for a third rod receiving screw on a patient's spine; and
  • [0019]
    [0019]FIG. 4 illustrates the screw placement guide of FIG. 1 along with two rod receiving screws and a marking tool for marking the location for the placement of a third rod receiving screw on a patient's spine.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0020]
    The present invention provides a system, device and method for placing rod receiving screws for implantation in spinal fixation surgery. The system, device and method of the invention can be configured to be particularly useful in minimally invasive surgery to ensure that rod receiving screws are properly placed so that, as a result of ensuring correct screw placement, surgeons will not need to apply undue force to orient the rod receiving screws to receive the spinal fixation rod to be implanted.
  • [0021]
    A screw placement guide tool 10 of the invention is illustrated in side and perspective views in FIGS. 1 and 2, respectively. Guide tool 10 includes an elongate alignment element 12 having a placement guide 14 disposed thereon. Placement guide 14 is shown as a closed loop, however, any guide or directional marker useful for placing a screw may be used. For example, placement guide 14 could simply be a blunt end against which a rod receiving screw could be aligned for placement into a patient's spine. Placement guide 14 could also provide an element for marking the bone to indicate where the screw is to be placed, or could itself be a screw holder or screw guide.
  • [0022]
    In the illustrated embodiment, guide tool 10 also includes an extension element 16 that extends substantially transversely and proximally from alignment element 12, connected to the alignment element by curved portion 18 that is designed to move through a patient without damaging nearby tissue. Extension element 16 may also include a proximal handle 20 for gripping by a surgeon. While alignment element 12 and extension member 16 are shown perpendicular to each other, a person of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that these elements could connect at any angle appropriate to the surgical procedure in which the tool is used, and that for some procedures, handle 20 and/or extension member 16 may not be required.
  • [0023]
    A system and method for placing a screw using screw placement guide 10 is illustrated by reference to FIGS. 3 and 4. In FIG. 3, two screws 22, 24 have been-placed into vertebral bodies 26, 28, respectively, in a patient's spine 30. Each of screws 22, 24 include a bone attaching element and a “U” shaped receiving member 32, 34, respectively, connected to or integral with them. As illustrated, screw placement guide 10 has been placed so that alignment element 12 rests within each of U-shaped receiving members 32, 34 and extends over a third vertebral body 36 into which a screw will be placed.
  • [0024]
    In order to perform its intended functions, alignment element 12 will generally be sized to fit within the U-shaped receiving members, having a diameter that is substantially the same as or, more preferably, slightly smaller than the diameter of the spinal fixation rod that will be employed, often in the range of approximately {fraction (3/16)} to ¼ inches. In addition, alignment element 12 should be of a sufficient length to rest within two U-shaped receiving members and still extend to an additional screw placement site. In one preferred embodiment, alignment element 12 is about 60 millimeters in length. Alignment element 12 can also be shaped so as to have the same contour that a spinal fixation rod to be implanted will take. To that end, alignment element 12 can be contoured using the same rod template that will be used to contour the spinal fixation rod to be implanted.
  • [0025]
    Turning to FIG. 4, screw placement tool 10 is illustrated having extension element 16 and proximal handle 20 as they might be configured for use in minimally invasive surgery. In this configuration, extension element 16 and handle 20 may extend approximately 200 to 400 millimeters proximally from alignment element 12 in its working position as illustrated. In this way, a surgeon can insert alignment element 12, then extension element 16 into an incision or portal being used to perform the surgery, and can operate the placement tool from outside the patient's body using handle 20.
  • [0026]
    In addition, an awl or marking tool 40 can be provided having an extension element 42 with a proximal handle 44 and a distal marking element 46 attached thereto. While in some embodiments, the screw may be placed directly in vertebral body 36 based on an indication from alignment element 12, marking tool 40 may also be used to extend through the eyelet of illustrated placement guide 14 to mark (in the illustrated case by scoring or punching a small hole) the place where a screw will be implanted. Marking tool 40 and screw placement guide 10 can then be removed and the screw may be implanted as marked on vertebral body 36. Where marking tool 40 is an awl, it can be used to start a hole that the surgeon can either tap through or insert the screw into.
  • [0027]
    While the embodiments of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4 show screw placement tool 10 being aligned with two rod receiving screws to locate the placement of a third screw, screw placement tool 10 could readily be used with one implanted rod receiving screw to locate the placement of a second screw. To do so, a first rod receiving screw such as screw 22 is implanted. Tool 10 is then fitted so that its alignment element 12 is aligned within rod receiving opening 32 and placement guide 14 is located over vertebral body 28 to locate a desired location for implanting a second screw. The location for the second screw can then be marked and/or the screw implanted as described above.
  • [0028]
    A person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate further features and advantages of the invention based on the above-described embodiments. For example, the invention may be applied using a variety of bone attachment devices used in spinal rod fixation including, but not limited to, each of the screws described in the Cotrel and Biedermann patents incorporated by reference above. Accordingly, the invention is not to be limited by what has been particularly shown and described, except as indicated by the appended claims. All publications and references cited herein are expressly incorporated herein by reference in their entity.

Claims (18)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. A screw placement guide tool for use in minimally invasive surgery, comprising:
    a proximal handle portion;
    an extension member extending distally from the handle portion; and
    an alignment element connected transversely to a distal portion of the extension member and having a screw placement guide located thereon;
    wherein the tool is configured so that a surgeon may operate the tool using the handle portion external to a patient's body to align the alignment element with implanted screws so that the screw placement guide indicates a desired position for implantation of an additional screw.
  2. 2. The tool of claim 1, wherein the alignment element is curved to correspond to a curve of a spinal fixation rod to be implanted.
  3. 3. The tool of claim 1, wherein the screw placement guide is a closed loop.
  4. 4. The tool of claim 1, wherein the alignment element is elongate, has first and second opposed ends, is connected to the extension member at a first opposed end, and has the screw placement guide located on the second opposed end.
  5. 5. The tool of claim 4, wherein a curved portion connects the extension member to the alignment element.
  6. 6. A system for placing a rod receiving screw within a patient's bone, comprising:
    a plurality of rod receiving screws, each rod receiving screw having a proximal rod receiving opening and a distal bone attachment portion;
    a screw placement guide tool having an elongate alignment element including a screw placement guide located thereon, the elongate alignment element being sized to fit within the rod receiving opening of at least one of the plurality rod receiving screws when the at least one rod receiving screw is implanted and to extend so that the screw placement guide indicates a placement location for another of the plurality of rod receiving screws.
  7. 7. The system of claim 6, wherein the plurality of rod receiving screws includes at least three rod receiving screws and the elongate alignment element is sized to fit within the rod receiving openings of at least two of the at least three rod receiving screws when the at least two rod receiving screws are implanted and to extend so that the screw placement guide indicates a placement location for a third of the at least three rod receiving screws.
  8. 8. The system of claim 6, wherein the screw placement guide tool further includes an extension member extending proximally from the alignment element and a handle disposed on a proximal portion of the alignment element.
  9. 9. The system of claim 6, wherein the alignment element is curved to correspond to a curve of a spinal fixation rod to be implanted.
  10. 10. The system of claim 6, wherein the screw placement guide is a closed loop.
  11. 11. The system of claim 6, wherein the alignment element has first and second opposed ends, is connected to the extension member at a first opposed end, and has the screw placement guide located on the second opposed end.
  12. 12. The system of claim 6, further including a marking tool, the marking tool being guidable to a location indicated by the screw placement guide for placing an indication on a patient's bone where a screw is to be implanted.
  13. 13. A method for placing a rod receiving screw for implantation in a vertebral body, comprising:
    implanting at least one rod receiving screw into a patient's spine, each of the at least one rod receiving screws having a distal bone attachment element and a proximal rod receiving opening; and
    fitting a screw placement guide tool having an elongate alignment element including a screw placement guide located thereon within the rod receiving opening of the at least one implanted rod receiving screw so that the screw placement guide indicates a placement location for another rod receiving screw.
  14. 14. The method of claim 13, wherein at least two rod receiving screws are implanted into a patient's spine and the screw placement guide tool is fitted to the rod receiving openings of the at least two implanted rod receiving screws so that the placement guide indicates a placement location for a third rod receiving screw.
  15. 15. The method of claim 13, wherein the screw placement guide tool further includes an extension member extending proximally from the alignment element and a handle disposed on a proximal portion of the alignment element so that a surgeon may operate the tool using the handle portion external to a patient's body to fit the alignment element within the rod receiving openings of the at least two implanted rod receiving screws.
  16. 16. The method of claim 13, further comprising curving the alignment element to correspond to a curve of a spinal fixation rod to be implanted.
  17. 17. The method of claim 13, wherein the alignment element has first and second opposed ends, is connected to the extension member at a first opposed end, and has the screw placement guide located on the second opposed end.
  18. 18. The method of claim 13, further comprising:
    guiding a marking tool to a location indicated by the screw placement guide; and
    placing an indication on a patient's bone where a screw is to be implanted using the marking tool.
US10256636 2002-08-02 2002-09-27 Screw placement guide Abandoned US20040092952A1 (en)

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EP20030766983 EP1538998A1 (en) 2002-08-02 2003-07-29 Screw placement guide
PCT/US2003/023805 WO2004012608A1 (en) 2002-08-02 2003-07-29 Screw placement guide
US11946382 US7981117B2 (en) 2002-08-02 2007-11-28 Screw placement guide

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US20100312279A1 (en) * 2006-08-23 2010-12-09 Gephart Matthew P Minimally Invasive Surgical System
US9655665B2 (en) 2007-07-03 2017-05-23 Pioneer Surgical Technology, Inc. Bone plate systems

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US9402620B2 (en) 2013-03-04 2016-08-02 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Knotless filamentary fixation devices, assemblies and systems and methods of assembly and use
US9788826B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2017-10-17 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Filamentary fixation device and assembly and method of assembly, manufacture and use
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US20080039839A1 (en) * 2005-02-23 2008-02-14 Pioneer Laboratories, Inc. Minimally invasive surgical system
US20080039840A1 (en) * 2005-02-23 2008-02-14 Pioneer Laboratories, Inc. Minimally invasive surgical system
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US9655665B2 (en) 2007-07-03 2017-05-23 Pioneer Surgical Technology, Inc. Bone plate systems

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EP1538998A1 (en) 2005-06-15 application
US20080071285A1 (en) 2008-03-20 application

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