US20040029303A1 - Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use - Google Patents

Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20040029303A1
US20040029303A1 US10214951 US21495102A US2004029303A1 US 20040029303 A1 US20040029303 A1 US 20040029303A1 US 10214951 US10214951 US 10214951 US 21495102 A US21495102 A US 21495102A US 2004029303 A1 US2004029303 A1 US 2004029303A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
substrate
material
porous
regions
wells
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
US10214951
Other versions
US6962822B2 (en )
Inventor
Mark Hart
Ho-cheol Kim
Robert Miller
Gregory Wallraff
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
GlobalFoundries Inc
Original Assignee
International Business Machines Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L3/00Containers or dishes for laboratory use, e.g. laboratory glassware; Droppers
    • B01L3/50Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes
    • B01L3/508Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes rigid containers not provided for above
    • B01L3/5085Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes rigid containers not provided for above for multiple samples, e.g. microtitration plates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C40COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY
    • C40BCOMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY; LIBRARIES, e.g. CHEMICAL LIBRARIES, IN SILICO LIBRARIES
    • C40B60/00Apparatus specially adapted for use in combinatorial chemistry or with libraries
    • C40B60/08Integrated apparatus specially adapted for both creating and screening libraries
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/00274Sequential or parallel reactions; Apparatus and devices for combinatorial chemistry or for making arrays; Chemical library technology
    • B01J2219/00583Features relative to the processes being carried out
    • B01J2219/00603Making arrays on substantially continuous surfaces
    • B01J2219/00605Making arrays on substantially continuous surfaces the compounds being directly bound or immobilised to solid supports
    • B01J2219/00614Delimitation of the attachment areas
    • B01J2219/00617Delimitation of the attachment areas by chemical means
    • B01J2219/00619Delimitation of the attachment areas by chemical means using hydrophilic or hydrophobic regions
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/00274Sequential or parallel reactions; Apparatus and devices for combinatorial chemistry or for making arrays; Chemical library technology
    • B01J2219/00583Features relative to the processes being carried out
    • B01J2219/00603Making arrays on substantially continuous surfaces
    • B01J2219/00605Making arrays on substantially continuous surfaces the compounds being directly bound or immobilised to solid supports
    • B01J2219/00614Delimitation of the attachment areas
    • B01J2219/00621Delimitation of the attachment areas by physical means, e.g. trenches, raised areas
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/00274Sequential or parallel reactions; Apparatus and devices for combinatorial chemistry or for making arrays; Chemical library technology
    • B01J2219/00583Features relative to the processes being carried out
    • B01J2219/00603Making arrays on substantially continuous surfaces
    • B01J2219/00639Making arrays on substantially continuous surfaces the compounds being trapped in or bound to a porous medium
    • B01J2219/00644Making arrays on substantially continuous surfaces the compounds being trapped in or bound to a porous medium the porous medium being present in discrete locations, e.g. gel pads
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2200/00Solutions for specific problems relating to chemical or physical laboratory apparatus
    • B01L2200/12Specific details about manufacturing devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/06Auxiliary integrated devices, integrated components
    • B01L2300/0609Holders integrated in container to position an object
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/06Auxiliary integrated devices, integrated components
    • B01L2300/069Absorbents; Gels to retain a fluid
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/08Geometry, shape and general structure
    • B01L2300/0809Geometry, shape and general structure rectangular shaped
    • B01L2300/0829Multi-well plates; Microtitration plates
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/08Geometry, shape and general structure
    • B01L2300/0848Specific forms of parts of containers
    • B01L2300/0851Bottom walls
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/16Surface properties and coatings
    • B01L2300/161Control and use of surface tension forces, e.g. hydrophobic, hydrophilic
    • B01L2300/165Specific details about hydrophobic, oleophobic surfaces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/16Surface properties and coatings
    • B01L2300/168Specific optical properties, e.g. reflective coatings

Abstract

A biomolecular array includes a substrate across which is distributed an array of discrete regions of a porous substance. The porous substance is designed to bind chemical targets useful in biotechnology applications, such as gene expression, protein, antibody, and antigen experiments. The regions are preferably optically isolated from each other and may be shaped to enhance detection of optical radiation emanating from the porous substance, e.g., as a result of irradiation of the regions with ultraviolet light. The discrete regions may be configured as microscopic wells within the substrate, or they may reside on top of the substrate in the form of microscopic mesas.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0001]
    The invention is in the field of biomolecular arrays, and more particularly, the invention relates to biomolecular arrays having high areal density.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    Biomolecular arrays have quickly developed into an important tool in life science research. Microarrays, or densely-packed, ordered arrangements of miniature reaction sites on a suitable substrate, enable the rapid evaluation of complex biomolecular interactions. Because of their high-throughput characteristics and low-volume reagent and sample requirements, microarrays are now commonly used in gene expression studies, and they are finding their way into significant emerging areas such as proteomics and diagnostics.
  • [0003]
    The reaction sites of the array can be produced by transferring, to the substrate, droplets containing biological or biochemical material. A variety of techniques can be used, including contact spotting, non-contact spotting, and dispensing. With contact spotting, a fluid bearing pin leaves a drop on the surface when the pin is forced to contact the substrate. With non-contact spotting, a drop is pulled from its source when the drop touches the substrate. With dispensing, a drop is delivered to the substrate from a distance. Reaction sites on the array can also be produced by photolithographic techniques (such as those employed by Affymetrix or NimbleGen, for example).
  • [0004]
    The quality of the reaction sites directly affects the reliability of the resultant data. Ideally, each site would have a consistent and uniform morphology and would be non-interacting with adjacent sites, so that when a reaction occurred at a given site, a clear and detectable response would emanate from only that one site, and not from neighboring sites or from the substrate. To reduce the overall size of an array while maximizing the number of reaction sites and minimizing the required reagent and sample volumes, the sites on the array should have the highest possible areal density.
  • [0005]
    With the present microarray technology, which is dominated by the use of flat substrates (often glass microscope slides), areal density is limited. To increase the signal from a given reaction site, the interaction area between the fluid and the substrate should be maximized. One way to do this is by using a surface that promotes wetting. A flat surface that promotes wetting, however, can lead to spots (and thus sites) having irregular shapes and compositions. A flat wetting surface can also lead to the spreading of fluid from its intended site into neighboring sites. Thus, flat surfaces are intrinsically limited by fluid-surface interactions that force a tradeoff between the desired properties of the reaction sites.
  • [0006]
    To make the sites more uniform, the surface can be made non-wetting. Unfortunately, this reduces the interaction area between the fluid and the surface and therefore reduces the signal that would otherwise be obtainable. In addition, since droplets do not adhere well to a flat non-wetting surface, deposition volumes can vary from site to site, and droplets can slide away from their intended place.
  • [0007]
    There is still a need for an improved biomolecular microarray apparatus that has a high areal density of sites and that permits the collection of data with good signal/noise ratio. Such an apparatus would ideally have sites of consistent and uniform spot morphology.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    Preferred embodiments of the invention are directed to chemical and/or biochemical applications, and include a substrate having an array of discrete regions of a porous substance designed to bind chemical targets. These regions are preferably optically isolated from each other and may be shaped to enhance detection of optical radiation emanating from the porous substance, e.g., fluorescence as a result of irradiation of the regions with ultraviolet, visible, or infrared light. For example, these regions may have a parabolic or hemispherical contour. The discrete regions themselves may be microscopic wells formed in the substrate, or they may reside on top of the substrate as microscopic mesas.
  • [0009]
    One preferred embodiment of the invention is a substrate across which is distributed an array of discrete regions of a porous substance, in which the porous substance is selected to bind chemical targets. The regions are optically isolated from each other and have respective boundaries contoured to enhance detection of optical radiation emanating from the discrete regions. The regions may be adjoined by an optical coating designed to enhance this optical emission. The regions may further include a hydrophobic coating. In one preferred embodiment, the regions are wells in the substrate and have a shape that is parabolic or hemispherical.
  • [0010]
    Another preferred embodiment of the invention is a substrate that has a surface and an array of discrete wells formed in the surface. The wells have respective volumes that are at least 25% occupied by a porous substance selected to bind chemical targets. More preferably, the wells are at least 50% or 75% filled with a porous substance. The wells may be adjoined by an optical coating designed to enhance optical emission out of the wells.
  • [0011]
    Yet another preferred embodiment of the invention is a substrate having a surface on which is distributed an array of discrete regions of a porous substance, in which the porous substance is selected to bind chemical targets, and the regions are optically isolated from each other. The optical isolation may be provided by a coating.
  • [0012]
    A preferred implementation of the invention is a detection method that includes providing a substrate across which is distributed an array of discrete regions of porous material to which are bound respective chemical targets, and bringing chemically active material into contact with the chemical targets. The chemically active material then binds to at least one of the chemical targets; the chemically active material includes a tag that fluoresces at a first wavelength upon being irradiated by electromagnetic radiation at a second wavelength. The method further includes directing electromagnetic radiation that includes this second wavelength onto the discrete regions, so that optical radiation corresponding to the first wavelength is emitted from at least one of the regions, and then detecting the optical radiation emitted at the first wavelength. The method preferably further includes determining which chemical targets correspond to regions emitting at the first wavelength. The discrete regions may include wells formed in the substrate, in which at least 25%, 50%, or 75% (or more) of the volume of the wells is filled with porous material. Alternatively, the discrete regions may include raised areas overlying the substrate. The chemically active material may be brought into contact with the chemical targets bound to the porous material by passing a solution over the porous material, in which the solution contains the chemically active material. The regions, whether they be wells in the substrate or raised regions on the substrate, may have a characteristic transverse dimension that is between 1 and 500 microns, between 1 and 200 microns, between 1 and 100 microns, between 1 and 50 microns, or between 1 and 10 microns.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0013]
    [0013]FIG. 1 is a plan view of a biochip having an array of microscopic wells (“microwells”) that contain porous material, in accordance with a preferred implementation of the invention;
  • [0014]
    [0014]FIGS. 2A and 2B are cross sectional side views of biochips that have microwells of different shapes;
  • [0015]
    [0015]FIG. 3 is an enlarged view of a microwell that includes optical and hydrophobic coatings;
  • [0016]
    [0016]FIG. 4 is a cross sectional side view of a biochip in which an optical coating has been applied to the underside of the substrate;
  • [0017]
    [0017]FIG. 5 shows porous material within the microwells of the biochip;
  • [0018]
    [0018]FIGS. 6A and 6B show cross sectional and plan views, respectively, of a biochip in which the microwells include vertical members that facilitate introduction of biochemical material into the microwells;
  • [0019]
    FIGS. 7A-7G illustrate a series of steps used to form a biochip having porous material arranged in the form of microscopic mesas (“micromesas”); and
  • [0020]
    [0020]FIG. 8 shows a biochip that includes an array of micromesas having respective vertical members therein.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0021]
    Preferred embodiments of the invention are now described with reference to the accompanying figures, in which like numerals refer to like parts. FIG. 1 shows a plan view of a biochip 10 that includes a substrate 16 into which a number of small wells 22 or microwells have been formed. As discussed below, the microwells 22 have porous material therein (see FIG. 5, for example), resulting in a significant increase in effective surface area, and thereby permitting more sensitive detection measurements to be made. The microwells 22 (and the micromesas discussed below) may have a characteristic transverse (lateral) dimension of about 1-500 microns, preferably 1-200 microns, more preferably 1-100 microns, still more preferably 1-50 microns, or most preferably 1-10 microns (e.g., if the microwells have a circular cross section, their diameters may be about 1 micron; for a square cross section, the corresponding square may be about 1 micron×1 micron). The depth of each microwell 22 (or height of the micromesas discussed below) may be about 1-50 microns or more preferably 0.5-50 microns. The width of the substrate 16 that separates adjacent microwells 22 (or the distance separating the micromesas discussed below) is preferably sufficient to optically isolate one microwell 22 from adjacent microwells, e.g., 0.1-10 microns. The material separating adjacent microwells 22 is preferably optically opaque; if this material is not intrinsically optically opaque, the microwells may have roughened surfaces so that light is scattered, or these surfaces may be coated (as discussed below).
  • [0022]
    The substrate 16 may be either an organic or an inorganic material. For example, the substrate may be silicon or glass which has undergone a (dry or wet) mask/etch process (e.g., those used in the field of semiconductor processing) to form the microwells 22. An isotropic process can be used to form wells 22 a having a contoured shape, e.g., a parabolic shape, such as that depicted in FIG. 2A. (Other preferred shapes include prismatic, cylindrical, and hemispherical.) An anisotropic process (such as is attainable in some dry etch processes) is more appropriate for the formation of microwells 22 b that are cylindrically shaped, like those shown in FIG. 2B.
  • [0023]
    Alternatively, the substrate 16 may be plastic. In this case, an embossing technique known to those skilled in the art may be used, in which protrusions in the embossing master penetrate the plastic to form the microwells 22 a or 22 b. Likewise, an injection molding process may used to form the substrate 16/microwells 22 assembly. In general, whether the substrate 16 is plastic, glass, silicon, or another material, wells 22 having a contoured shape (like the wells 22 a of FIG. 2A) are preferred, as they permit more sensitive optical detection, as discussed below. As used herein, the term optical includes ultraviolet, visible, and infrared electromagnetic radiation.
  • [0024]
    The microwells 22 preferably have walls 30 that are hydrophobic to reduce unwanted spreading of aqueous reagents added to the porous material 54. If plastic is used as the substrate 16, this property may be intrinsic to the plastic, as is the case with such thermally stable materials like polycarbonates, polyesters, polyimides, polyazoles, and polyolefins. Alternatively, one may coat or otherwise treat the walls 30 of the wells 22 a or 22 b so that they are hydrophobic, e.g., a hydrophobic coating 36 such as an organic wax or surface active reagent (such as hexamethyldisilazane) may be applied to the walls 30. In the event that an optical detection arrangement is used (in which optical radiation at an input wavelength is directed towards chemical or biochemical material bound to porous material in the wells 22, and optical radiation at an output wavelength emanates away from the wells, as discussed in greater detail below), an optical coating 42 may be first applied to the walls 30, followed by the application of the hydrophobic coating 36 (see FIG. 3). The hydrophobic coating 36 is preferably not absorbing at either the input or the output wavelength, whereas the optical coating 42 is preferably both non-absorbing and reflective at both of these wavelengths. If a thin-walled embossed plastic is used as a substrate 16 a, then a reflective optical coating 48 such as silver or aluminum may be applied to the underside of the substrate, as shown in FIG. 4. The microwells 22 are preferably at least 25% filled (in the volumetric sense) with a porous material 54, still more preferably at least 50% filled with porous material, and most preferably substantially filled with porous material (e.g., 75-90% or more, as illustrated in FIG. 5). One preferred nanoporous material is formed using an organosilicate material (such as methylsilsesquioxane, or MSSQ) that has been mixed with a sacrificial porogen in a solvent. (See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,895,263 to Carter et al. issued Apr. 20, 1999 and titled “Process for manufacture of integrated circuit device”, which is hereby incorporated by reference.) The solvent containing the porogen and MSSQ is applied over the substrate 16 by spraying, spin coating, or doctor blading (or another technique known to those skilled in the art), so that the wells 22 are filled with the solvent/MSSQ/porogen mixture. Excess solvent on the substrate 16 may be wiped away, and the solvent is allowed to evaporate. As the remaining MSSQ/porogen mixture is then heated (or exposed to an oxygen plasma), the porogen decomposes within the MSSQ host material, leaving tiny voids therein. In this manner, porous material 54 is formed in the microwells 22. (Note that the particular method used for producing the porous material 54 may impact the hydrophilicity of the porous material.) This process may be repeated as desired, until, for example, the microwells are substantially filled with porous material 54. If multiple coatings are applied, each coating may be cured to 250° C. in an inert atmosphere to produce a layered nanohybrid which is subsequently cured to >400° C. to produce porosity. The substrate 16 may be polished or etched as needed to remove any excess material that remains on the top of the substrate between the microwells 22. Organosilicate materials that may be used in combination with porogens include inorganic materials such as sol-gel silica, silica, and spin-on glasses, and inorganic-like materials such as substituted silsesquioxanes (SSQs) (such as methyl SSQ, hydrido SSQ, alkyl SSQ, aryl SSQ), as well as copolymers of the foregoing.
  • [0025]
    Alternatively, controlled pore glass may be used. Controlled pore glass is made starting with a borosilicate material that is heated, resulting in separation of the borates and the silicates within the borosilicate material. After then leaching out the borates, one is left with a glass having pores of substantially uniform size. One commercially available source of controlled pore glass is Controlled Pore Glass, Inc., Lincoln Park, N.J. A slurry made from solvent and microscopic particles of controlled pore glass may be made (or silica aerogel particles can also be used, either alone or in a matrix of sol-gel silica, silica, spin-on glasses, substituted silsesquioxanes (SSQs) (such as MSSQ, hydrido SSQ, alkyl SSQ, aryl SSQ), and copolymers thereof) and passed over the substrate 16. After the solvent has evaporated, any excess pore glass on the substrate 16 may be polished or scraped off, and the remaining pore glass may be sintered in situ so that the pore glass is bound within the microwells 22, i.e., to the walls 30 of the microwells. If necessary, the substrate 16 may then be polished back to ensure that the pore glass resides only within the microwells 22, and not on top of the substrate 16. (Alternatively, one can vapor deposit borosilicate glass into the microwells, polish, leach out the borates, and anneal.) A more elaborate method for adding pore glass particles to the microwells involves the use of patterned electric and/or magnetic fields. The particles can be drawn into the wells 22 electrokinetically, or if controlled pore glass particles having magnetic impurities therein are used, by a magnetic field. The pore glass particles can then be manipulated by introducing, underneath the substrate 16, a patterned electric and/or magnetic field having high field gradients and/or strengths, so that the pore glass particles are drawn into the microwells 22. To this end, one can position a plate having a patterned array of metal protrusions underneath the substrate 16, with the protrusions being aligned with respective microwells.
  • [0026]
    The apparatuses disclosed herein can be used with a variety of tagged detection methods, and are well suited for use with detection methods that employ optical detection techniques. The porous material 54 in each of the microwells 22 within the biochip 10 (or the porous material in the “micromesas”, see below) is individually prepared with a chemical or biochemical target or material. For example, in a common gene expression experiment, each microwell 22 may contain a different oligonucleotide or DNA fragment attached to the porous material 54 using the same chemical derivatization procedure known to those in the art for planar substrates. (See, for example M. C. Pirrung, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., vol. 41, 2002, pp. 1276-1289.) RNA may be extracted from cells treated with a drug of interest, and DNA copies from this RNA may then be constructed which are then “tagged” with dyes that fluoresce (e.g., in the visible region of the spectrum) when exposed to input radiation (e.g., ultraviolet, or even visible or infrared). A solution containing this “tagged” DNA may then be washed over the biochip 10, so that the tagged DNA binds itself to any complementary DNA that has been previously attached to the porous material 54 in the microwells 22. Emission from an input electromagnetic radiation source (e.g., ultraviolet, visible or infrared) may then be directed onto the biochip 10, and emission from the fluorescent dyes identifies those particular microwells 22 (and thus those DNA strands) that complement the RNA extracted from the cells. More sensitive detection is possible if the microwells have boundaries that are appropriately contoured, e.g., if they have a parabolic shape, since a greater fraction of the light from the fluorescent dyes can then be collected. Even greater detection sensitivity is possible if reflecting layers are incorporated. A sensor or array of sensors can be used to detect the fluorescent emission, and the data can be processed by a computer. (For additional details regarding biochip technology, see, for example, “Making chips to probe genes”, Samuel K. Moore, IEEE Spectrum, vol. 38, March 2001, pp. 54-60.) Analogous detection methods may be used in connection with complementary RNA and DNA strands, antibody-antigen, ligand-receptor, agonist-receptor, antagonist-receptor, enzyme-substrate, and enzyme-inhibitor combinations.
  • [0027]
    As discussed above, each of the microwells 22 in the biochip 10 may be individually prepared with chemical or biochemical material, i.e., biochemical material may be bioconjugated or “bioattached” to the porous material 54 in each microwell 22. This bioattachment is generally intrinsic to the porous material, i.e., independent of its size and/or shape. Linkers (i.e., primers) may be utilized for attaching the biochemical material to the porous material. Such a linker may advantageously include a substrate binder (e.g., (EtO)3Si), a spacer (such as linear alkyl, aryl alkyl, alkylene ether), and a group having reactive functionality (e.g., NH2, OH, COOH). Further details regarding the chemistry of linkers can be found in the article by M. C. Pirrung, supra.
  • [0028]
    Biochemical material may be attached to the porous material 54 through a primer or directly via one of a variety of techniques, such as contact spotting, non-contact spotting, or dispensing. If one of these techniques is used with the embodiment shown in FIG. 5, for example, a fluid bearing pin or drop of fluid is brought into direct contact with the porous material 54 in the microwells 22. To reduce the possibility that the porous material 54 might be damaged as a result of this fluid transfer process, one can use the alternative microwell construction illustrated in FIGS. 6A (a cross sectional, side view of a substrate 16 c) and 6B (a partial plan view). The substrate 16 c has a number of microwells 22 c therein, each of which includes a mechanically robust vertical member 60 that passes through the porous material 54 and is preferably located at or near the center of the microwell 22 c. The vertical member 60 is shown as being an integrated part of the non-porous substrate 16 c, and may be formed along with the microwells 22 c as a result of an etch/mask process like one of those described herein. With the embodiment of FIGS. 6A and 6B, the fluid bearing pin or drop of fluid that contains the biochemical material may be brought into contact with the vertical member 60, thereby allowing the fluid to dissipate away from the vertical member into the porous material 54. In this way, the structural integrity of the porous material 54 is protected. The boundaries of the wells 22 c may have one of a number of shapes, e.g., they may be contoured as in FIG. 2A or cylindrically-shaped as shown in FIG. 2B.
  • [0029]
    FIGS. 7A-7E correspond to steps in a lithographic process leading to the “micromesa” structure shown in FIGS. 7F and 7G, which is an alternative to the microwell apparatuses discussed above. FIG. 7A shows a substrate 70 onto which a porogen-containing organosilicate 76 (dissolved in solvent) such as MSSQ has been deposited. As shown in FIG. 7B, the organosilicate 76 is converted to porous material 80 upon exposure to heat or an oxygen plasma. FIG. 7C illustrates how a photoresist 86 is then laid over the porous material 80. The photoresist is exposed to UV light and developed, leading to the structure shown in FIG. 7D. Etching of the porous material 80 results in the structure illustrated in FIG. 7E. As shown in FIG. 7F, the remaining photoresist is then removed, leaving the porous material 80 in the form of micromesas 90 that reside on the substrate 70. The micromesas 90 may advantageously be in the form of cylinders or rectangular parallelepipeds. FIG. 7G shows how an absorptive coating 92 may be introduced between the micromesas 90, in order to provide better optical isolation between them. The coating 92 used between the micromesas 90 may be advantageously hydrophobic. As an alternative to the fabrication process outlined above, the organosilicate 76 may be converted to porous material 80 at a later stage in the process, e.g., after the remaining photoresist shown in FIG. 7E has been removed.
  • [0030]
    Alternatively, the micromesas 90 can be made in a non-lithographic process by contact molding a film (of MSSQ and porogen) from an embossing master. The film can be heated to 250° C. in an inert atmosphere to generate the nanohybrid. The embossing master can be removed, and porosity may be generated by heat or chemical treatment. Thereafter, a plasma descum process can be used to remove any thin film left in the patterned depressions of the film on the substrate.
  • [0031]
    These micromesa fabrication processes may be modified so that the micromesas include a vertical member that passes through the porous material. FIG. 8 shows a substrate 100 that includes vertical members 106 surrounded by porous material 80, with each micromesa/vertical member unit 104 optionally separated by a coating 110. In this case, extra processing steps are required to form the vertical members 106 out of the substrate 100. The vertical members 106 can then be used when biochemical material is brought into contact with the porous material 80 to guard against the possibility of damaging the porous material, as discussed previously in connection with the microwell embodiments. During lithography, the walls of the mesas and also the surfaces between the mesas may be coated with a material opaque to the emitted fluorescence to improve optical site isolation. In addition, a reflecting layer (not shown) can be included below the mesas to reflect fluorescence emission, thereby enhancing the system's sensitivity.
  • [0032]
    The system sensitivity for preferred embodiments disclosed herein is at least a factor of 100 greater than that which can be achieved on a dense planar surface, and at least a factor of 10 greater than that which can be achieved on a non-porous surface that has been roughened, e.g., via an etching process.
  • [0033]
    The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from its spirit or essential characteristics. The described embodiments are to be considered in all respects only as illustrative and not restrictive. The scope of the invention is therefore indicated by the appended claims rather than the foregoing description. All changes within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are to be embraced within that scope.

Claims (41)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. A substrate across which is distributed an array of discrete regions of a porous substance, wherein:
    said porous substance is selected to bind chemical targets; and
    said regions are optically isolated from each other and have respective boundaries contoured to enhance detection of optical radiation emanating from said discrete regions.
  2. 2. The substrate of claim 1, wherein said regions have a characteristic transverse dimension that is between 1 and 200 microns.
  3. 3. The substrate of claim 1, wherein said porous substance is selected from the group consisting of inorganic and inorganic-like materials.
  4. 4. The substrate of claim 1, wherein said regions are wells formed in said substrate.
  5. 5. The substrate of claim 4, wherein said wells have a shape that is parabolic or hemispherical.
  6. 6. The substrate of claim 1, wherein said regions are adjoined by an optical coating designed to enhance optical emission from said discrete regions.
  7. 7. The substrate of claim 6, wherein said optical coating and said porous substance are located on opposite sides of said respective boundaries.
  8. 8. The substrate of claim 1, wherein said regions include a hydrophobic coating.
  9. 9. A substrate, comprising:
    a surface; and
    an array of discrete wells formed in said surface, wherein said wells have respective volumes that are at least 25% occupied by a porous substance selected to bind chemical targets.
  10. 10. The substrate of claim 9, wherein said wells are at least 50% filled by said porous substance.
  11. 11. The substrate of claim 9, wherein said wells are at least 75% filled by said porous substance.
  12. 12. The substrate of claim 9, wherein said wells are optically isolated from each other.
  13. 13. The substrate of claim 9, further comprising said chemical targets.
  14. 14. The substrate of claim 9, wherein said wells have a characteristic transverse dimension that is between 1 and 200 microns.
  15. 15. The substrate of claim 9, wherein said wells have a characteristic transverse dimension that is between 1 and 100 microns.
  16. 16. The substrate of claim 9, wherein said wells have a characteristic transverse dimension that is between 1 and 50 microns.
  17. 17. The substrate of claim 9, wherein said porous substance is selected from the group consisting of inorganic and inorganic-like materials.
  18. 18. The substrate of claim 9, said wells including respective non-porous vertical members that are in contact with said substrate and pass through said porous substance.
  19. 19. The substrate of claim 9, wherein said wells have a parabolic or hemispherical shape.
  20. 20. The substrate of claim 9, wherein said wells are adjoined by an optical coating designed to enhance optical emission out of said wells.
  21. 21. A substrate having a surface on which is distributed an array of discrete regions of a porous substance, wherein said porous substance is selected to bind chemical targets, and said regions are optically isolated from each other.
  22. 22. The substrate of claim 21, wherein said regions are shaped in the form of a cylinder or rectangular parallelepiped.
  23. 23. The substrate of claim 21, wherein optical isolation is provided by a coating.
  24. 24. The substrate of claim 21, said regions including respective non-porous vertical members that are in contact with said substrate and pass through said porous substance.
  25. 25. The substrate of claim 21, further comprising said chemical targets.
  26. 26. The substrate of claim 21, wherein said regions have a characteristic transverse dimension that is between 1 and 200 microns.
  27. 27. The substrate of claim 21, wherein said regions have a characteristic transverse dimension that is between 1 and 100 microns.
  28. 28. The substrate of claim 21, wherein said regions have a characteristic transverse dimension that is between 1 and 50 microns.
  29. 29. The substrate of claim 21, wherein said porous substance is selected from the group consisting of inorganic and inorganic-like materials.
  30. 30. A detection method, comprising:
    providing a substrate across which is distributed an array of discrete regions of porous material to which are bound respective chemical targets;
    bringing chemically active material into contact with the chemical targets, the chemically active material binding to at least one of the chemical targets, the chemically active material including a tag that fluoresces at a first wavelength upon being irradiated by electromagnetic radiation at a second wavelength;
    directing electromagnetic radiation that includes the second wavelength onto the discrete regions, so that optical radiation corresponding to the first wavelength is emitted from at least one of the regions; and
    detecting the optical radiation emitted at the first wavelength.
  31. 31. The method of claim 30, further comprising determining which chemical targets correspond to regions emitting at the first wavelength.
  32. 32. The method of claim 30, the discrete regions including wells formed in the substrate, wherein the wells are at least 25% filled with porous material.
  33. 33. The method of claim 30, the discrete regions including wells formed in the substrate, wherein the wells are at least 50% filled with porous material.
  34. 34. The method of claim 30, the discrete regions including wells formed in the substrate, wherein the wells are at least 75% filled with porous material.
  35. 35. The method of claim 30, the discrete regions including raised areas overlying the substrate.
  36. 36. The method of claim 30, said bringing step comprising passing a solution over the porous material, wherein the solution contains the chemically active material.
  37. 37. The substrate of claim 30, wherein the regions have a characteristic transverse dimension that is between 1 and 200 microns.
  38. 38. The substrate of claim 30, wherein the regions have a characteristic transverse dimension that is between 1 and 100 microns.
  39. 39. The substrate of claim 30, wherein the regions have a characteristic transverse dimension that is between 1 and 50 microns.
  40. 40. The substrate of claim 30, wherein the regions have a characteristic transverse dimension that is between 1 and 10 microns.
  41. 41. The substrate of claim 30, wherein the porous substance is selected from the group consisting of inorganic and inorganic-like materials.
US10214951 2002-08-07 2002-08-07 Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use Active US6962822B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10214951 US6962822B2 (en) 2002-08-07 2002-08-07 Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10214951 US6962822B2 (en) 2002-08-07 2002-08-07 Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use
PCT/EP2003/050284 WO2004014554A1 (en) 2002-08-07 2003-07-02 Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use
US11184702 US7354777B2 (en) 2002-08-07 2005-07-19 Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use
US12028767 US7651872B2 (en) 2002-08-07 2008-02-08 Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11184702 Division US7354777B2 (en) 2002-08-07 2005-07-19 Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20040029303A1 true true US20040029303A1 (en) 2004-02-12
US6962822B2 US6962822B2 (en) 2005-11-08

Family

ID=31494750

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10214951 Active US6962822B2 (en) 2002-08-07 2002-08-07 Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use
US11184702 Active 2022-12-27 US7354777B2 (en) 2002-08-07 2005-07-19 Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use
US12028767 Expired - Fee Related US7651872B2 (en) 2002-08-07 2008-02-08 Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use

Family Applications After (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11184702 Active 2022-12-27 US7354777B2 (en) 2002-08-07 2005-07-19 Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use
US12028767 Expired - Fee Related US7651872B2 (en) 2002-08-07 2008-02-08 Discrete nano-textured structures in biomolecular arrays, and method of use

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (3) US6962822B2 (en)
WO (1) WO2004014554A1 (en)

Cited By (66)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20030082588A1 (en) * 2001-07-13 2003-05-01 Viswanadham Garimella Method for immobilizing molecules onto surfaces
US6878616B1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2005-04-12 International Business Machines Corporation Low-k dielectric material system for IC application
US20050233473A1 (en) * 2002-08-16 2005-10-20 Zyomyx, Inc. Methods and reagents for surface functionalization
WO2005105308A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-11-10 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Functionalized porous supports for microarrays
US20060030037A1 (en) * 2004-05-28 2006-02-09 Victor Joseph Thermo-controllable high-density chips for multiplex analyses
US20060171856A1 (en) * 2003-01-17 2006-08-03 Heinrich Jehle High throughput polymer-based microarray slide
EP1752222A1 (en) * 2005-07-27 2007-02-14 The Automation Partnership (Cambridge) Limited Sample tube
US20070134714A1 (en) * 2002-05-28 2007-06-14 Nanosphere, Inc. Method for attachment of silylated molecules to glass surfaces
US20070224116A1 (en) * 2006-03-27 2007-09-27 Chandru Chandrasekaran Medical devices comprising a porous metal oxide or metal material and a polymer coating for delivering therapeutic agents
US20080176290A1 (en) * 2007-01-22 2008-07-24 Victor Joseph Apparatus for high throughput chemical reactions
US20080197292A1 (en) * 2005-07-18 2008-08-21 Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V. Luminescence Sensor Using Multi-Layer Substrate Structure
WO2008109207A2 (en) * 2007-01-30 2008-09-12 The Regents Of The University Of California Methods and devices for biomolecular arrays
US20090027767A1 (en) * 2006-02-09 2009-01-29 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Production of cavities that can be filled with a fluid material in an optical microtechnological component
US20090118813A1 (en) * 2007-11-02 2009-05-07 Torsten Scheuermann Nano-patterned implant surfaces
FR2938834A1 (en) * 2008-11-27 2010-05-28 Commissariat Energie Atomique A method of making a retention matrix and comprising a functional liquid
CN101915851A (en) * 2010-07-26 2010-12-15 北京航空航天大学 Diatom arrayed positioning and processing method for manufacturing biochip
US7931683B2 (en) 2007-07-27 2011-04-26 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Articles having ceramic coated surfaces
US7938855B2 (en) 2007-11-02 2011-05-10 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Deformable underlayer for stent
US7942926B2 (en) 2007-07-11 2011-05-17 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis coating
US7976915B2 (en) 2007-05-23 2011-07-12 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis with select ceramic morphology
US7981150B2 (en) 2006-11-09 2011-07-19 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis with coatings
US7985252B2 (en) 2008-07-30 2011-07-26 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprosthesis
US20110180944A1 (en) * 2008-06-27 2011-07-28 Jean-Paul Cano Improved Method for Making Enclosures Filled with Liquid and Closed by a Membrane
US7998192B2 (en) 2008-05-09 2011-08-16 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprostheses
US8002821B2 (en) 2006-09-18 2011-08-23 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible metallic ENDOPROSTHESES
US8002823B2 (en) 2007-07-11 2011-08-23 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis coating
US8029554B2 (en) 2007-11-02 2011-10-04 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent with embedded material
US8048150B2 (en) 2006-04-12 2011-11-01 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis having a fiber meshwork disposed thereon
US8052745B2 (en) 2007-09-13 2011-11-08 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis
US8052743B2 (en) 2006-08-02 2011-11-08 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis with three-dimensional disintegration control
US8052744B2 (en) 2006-09-15 2011-11-08 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices and methods of making the same
US8057534B2 (en) 2006-09-15 2011-11-15 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprostheses and methods of making the same
US8066763B2 (en) 1998-04-11 2011-11-29 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Drug-releasing stent with ceramic-containing layer
US8067054B2 (en) 2007-04-05 2011-11-29 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stents with ceramic drug reservoir layer and methods of making and using the same
US8071156B2 (en) 2009-03-04 2011-12-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprostheses
US8070797B2 (en) 2007-03-01 2011-12-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical device with a porous surface for delivery of a therapeutic agent
US8080055B2 (en) 2006-12-28 2011-12-20 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprostheses and methods of making the same
US8089029B2 (en) 2006-02-01 2012-01-03 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioabsorbable metal medical device and method of manufacture
US8128689B2 (en) 2006-09-15 2012-03-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprosthesis with biostable inorganic layers
US8216632B2 (en) 2007-11-02 2012-07-10 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis coating
US8221822B2 (en) 2007-07-31 2012-07-17 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical device coating by laser cladding
US8231980B2 (en) 2008-12-03 2012-07-31 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical implants including iridium oxide
US8236046B2 (en) 2008-06-10 2012-08-07 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprosthesis
US8267992B2 (en) 2009-03-02 2012-09-18 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Self-buffering medical implants
US8287937B2 (en) 2009-04-24 2012-10-16 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthese
US8303643B2 (en) 2001-06-27 2012-11-06 Remon Medical Technologies Ltd. Method and device for electrochemical formation of therapeutic species in vivo
US8353949B2 (en) 2006-09-14 2013-01-15 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices with drug-eluting coating
US8382824B2 (en) 2008-10-03 2013-02-26 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical implant having NANO-crystal grains with barrier layers of metal nitrides or fluorides
US20130096034A1 (en) * 2007-06-18 2013-04-18 Illumina, Inc. Microfabrication methods for the optimal patterning of substrates
US8431149B2 (en) 2007-03-01 2013-04-30 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Coated medical devices for abluminal drug delivery
US8449603B2 (en) 2008-06-18 2013-05-28 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis coating
US20130208371A1 (en) * 2012-02-13 2013-08-15 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd. Biological sensing structures and methods of forming the same
US8574615B2 (en) 2006-03-24 2013-11-05 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices having nanoporous coatings for controlled therapeutic agent delivery
US8668732B2 (en) 2010-03-23 2014-03-11 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Surface treated bioerodible metal endoprostheses
US8771343B2 (en) 2006-06-29 2014-07-08 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices with selective titanium oxide coatings
US8808726B2 (en) 2006-09-15 2014-08-19 Boston Scientific Scimed. Inc. Bioerodible endoprostheses and methods of making the same
US8815275B2 (en) 2006-06-28 2014-08-26 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Coatings for medical devices comprising a therapeutic agent and a metallic material
US8815273B2 (en) 2007-07-27 2014-08-26 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Drug eluting medical devices having porous layers
US8840660B2 (en) 2006-01-05 2014-09-23 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprostheses and methods of making the same
US8900292B2 (en) 2007-08-03 2014-12-02 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Coating for medical device having increased surface area
US8920491B2 (en) 2008-04-22 2014-12-30 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices having a coating of inorganic material
US8932346B2 (en) 2008-04-24 2015-01-13 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices having inorganic particle layers
US9063410B2 (en) 2008-04-04 2015-06-23 Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives Method for making micron or submicron cavities
US9116269B2 (en) 2010-07-21 2015-08-25 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives Microstructure with walls of determined optical property and method for making microstructures
US9284409B2 (en) 2007-07-19 2016-03-15 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis having a non-fouling surface
US9857367B2 (en) 2009-07-29 2018-01-02 Dynex Technologies, Inc. Sample plate systems and methods

Families Citing this family (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB0519181D0 (en) * 2005-09-20 2005-10-26 Seiko Epson Corp A method of producing a substrate having areas of different hydrophilicity and/or oleophilicity on the same surface
US7833266B2 (en) 2007-11-28 2010-11-16 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bifurcated stent with drug wells for specific ostial, carina, and side branch treatment
US7951193B2 (en) 2008-07-23 2011-05-31 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Drug-eluting stent
US9523701B2 (en) 2009-07-29 2016-12-20 Dynex Technologies, Inc. Sample plate systems and methods
WO2014022657A1 (en) 2012-08-02 2014-02-06 Allergan, Inc. Mucosal tissue adhesion via textured surface
US9138308B2 (en) 2010-02-03 2015-09-22 Apollo Endosurgery, Inc. Mucosal tissue adhesion via textured surface
DK2569021T3 (en) 2010-05-11 2017-04-10 Allergan Inc Porogensammensætninger, to processes for preparation and uses
WO2014052724A1 (en) 2012-09-28 2014-04-03 Allergan, Inc. Porogen compositions, methods of making and uses
US9200883B2 (en) * 2011-05-05 2015-12-01 International Business Machines Corporation Transferable probe tips
WO2014144132A1 (en) * 2013-03-15 2014-09-18 Douglas Scientific Tape with a matrix of wells

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5895263A (en) * 1996-12-19 1999-04-20 International Business Machines Corporation Process for manufacture of integrated circuit device
US6143496A (en) * 1997-04-17 2000-11-07 Cytonix Corporation Method of sampling, amplifying and quantifying segment of nucleic acid, polymerase chain reaction assembly having nanoliter-sized sample chambers, and method of filling assembly
US6610499B1 (en) * 2000-08-31 2003-08-26 The Regents Of The University Of California Capillary array and related methods

Family Cites Families (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3554050A (en) 1969-06-30 1971-01-12 Teleflex Inc Motion transmitting remote control assembly
US5792426A (en) 1994-10-11 1998-08-11 Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft Vertreten Durch Das Ac-Laboratorium Spiez Der Gruppe Rustung Multi-well titerplate for instrumental analysis
WO1998028075A1 (en) 1996-12-20 1998-07-02 Imaging Research Inc. A micro-well plate for imaging of fluorescent, chemiluminescent, bioluminescent, and colorimetric assays
WO1999041007B1 (en) 1998-02-11 2000-01-13 Univ Houston Method and apparatus for chemical and biochemical reactions using photo-generated reagents
DE60028985D1 (en) 1999-09-17 2006-08-03 Millipore Corp Patterned porous structures
WO2001043870A3 (en) 1999-12-15 2002-02-21 Motorola Inc Column and row addressable high density biochip array
WO2001050131A1 (en) 2000-01-06 2001-07-12 Motorola, Inc. Three-dimensional network for biomolecule detection
GB0000896D0 (en) 2000-01-14 2000-03-08 Univ Glasgow Improved analytical chip
US20020055111A1 (en) * 2000-08-25 2002-05-09 Shiping Chen Three-dimensional probe carriers
JP4361271B2 (en) * 2000-10-10 2009-11-11 バイオトローブ・インコーポレイテツド Assay, synthesis, and instruments for storage, as well as methods of making, using, and operation
NL1016779C2 (en) 2000-12-02 2002-06-04 Cornelis Johannes Maria V Rijn Die, method for the manufacture of precision products with the aid of a mold, as well as precision products, in particular micro-sieves, and membrane filters, manufactured with such a mold.
US6670285B2 (en) * 2001-03-14 2003-12-30 International Business Machines Corporation Nitrogen-containing polymers as porogens in the preparation of highly porous, low dielectric constant materials
EP1267169B1 (en) 2001-05-21 2004-12-15 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Biochemical analysis unit and method for its production
DE20121709U1 (en) * 2001-10-08 2003-04-24 Mecadi Gmbh Chemicals Proc A carrier for parallel synthesis and analysis of DNA comprises a large number of wells, each at least partially filled by a shaped fluid-absorbent body, to prevent sample cross contamination
US7282241B2 (en) 2003-04-22 2007-10-16 International Business Machines Corporation Patterned, high surface area substrate with hydrophilic/hydrophobic contrast, and method of use
US7112617B2 (en) 2003-04-22 2006-09-26 International Business Machines Corporation Patterned substrate with hydrophilic/hydrophobic contrast, and method of use
US7056840B2 (en) 2003-09-30 2006-06-06 International Business Machines Corp. Direct photo-patterning of nanoporous organosilicates, and method of use

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5895263A (en) * 1996-12-19 1999-04-20 International Business Machines Corporation Process for manufacture of integrated circuit device
US6143496A (en) * 1997-04-17 2000-11-07 Cytonix Corporation Method of sampling, amplifying and quantifying segment of nucleic acid, polymerase chain reaction assembly having nanoliter-sized sample chambers, and method of filling assembly
US6610499B1 (en) * 2000-08-31 2003-08-26 The Regents Of The University Of California Capillary array and related methods

Cited By (97)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8066763B2 (en) 1998-04-11 2011-11-29 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Drug-releasing stent with ceramic-containing layer
US8303643B2 (en) 2001-06-27 2012-11-06 Remon Medical Technologies Ltd. Method and device for electrochemical formation of therapeutic species in vivo
US20030082588A1 (en) * 2001-07-13 2003-05-01 Viswanadham Garimella Method for immobilizing molecules onto surfaces
US7687437B2 (en) 2001-07-13 2010-03-30 Nanosphere, Inc. Method for immobilizing molecules onto surfaces
US20070292843A1 (en) * 2002-05-28 2007-12-20 Nanosphere, Inc. Method for attachment of silylated molecules to glass surfaces
US20070134714A1 (en) * 2002-05-28 2007-06-14 Nanosphere, Inc. Method for attachment of silylated molecules to glass surfaces
US20070172872A1 (en) * 2002-05-28 2007-07-26 Nanosphere, Inc. Method for attachment of silylated molecules to glass surfaces
US20070141615A1 (en) * 2002-05-28 2007-06-21 Nanosphere, Inc. Method for attachment of silylated molecules to glass surfaces
US20050233473A1 (en) * 2002-08-16 2005-10-20 Zyomyx, Inc. Methods and reagents for surface functionalization
US9005549B2 (en) 2003-01-17 2015-04-14 Greiner Bio-One Gmbh High throughput polymer-based microarray slide
US20060171856A1 (en) * 2003-01-17 2006-08-03 Heinrich Jehle High throughput polymer-based microarray slide
US6878616B1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2005-04-12 International Business Machines Corporation Low-k dielectric material system for IC application
US7015581B2 (en) 2003-11-21 2006-03-21 International Business Machines Corporation Low-K dielectric material system for IC application
WO2005105308A1 (en) * 2004-04-23 2005-11-10 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Functionalized porous supports for microarrays
EP1758981A4 (en) * 2004-05-28 2013-01-16 Wafergen Inc Apparatus and methods for multiplex analyses
US20100233698A1 (en) * 2004-05-28 2010-09-16 Wafergen, Inc. Apparatus and method for multiplex analysis
US9228933B2 (en) * 2004-05-28 2016-01-05 Wafergen, Inc. Apparatus and method for multiplex analysis
EP1758981A2 (en) * 2004-05-28 2007-03-07 Wafergen, Inc. Apparatus and methods for multiplex analyses
US9909171B2 (en) 2004-05-28 2018-03-06 Takara Bio Usa, Inc. Thermo-controllable high-density chips for multiplex analyses
US20060030037A1 (en) * 2004-05-28 2006-02-09 Victor Joseph Thermo-controllable high-density chips for multiplex analyses
US7833709B2 (en) * 2004-05-28 2010-11-16 Wafergen, Inc. Thermo-controllable chips for multiplex analyses
US20060030035A1 (en) * 2004-05-28 2006-02-09 Victor Joseph Thermo-controllable chips for multiplex analyses
WO2006082035A1 (en) 2005-02-01 2006-08-10 Greiner Bio-One Gmbh High throughput polymer-based microarray slide
US7560708B2 (en) * 2005-07-18 2009-07-14 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Luminescence sensor using multi-layer substrate structure
US20080197292A1 (en) * 2005-07-18 2008-08-21 Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V. Luminescence Sensor Using Multi-Layer Substrate Structure
EP1752222A1 (en) * 2005-07-27 2007-02-14 The Automation Partnership (Cambridge) Limited Sample tube
US20070036687A1 (en) * 2005-07-27 2007-02-15 Woods Peter W Sample tube
US8840660B2 (en) 2006-01-05 2014-09-23 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprostheses and methods of making the same
US8089029B2 (en) 2006-02-01 2012-01-03 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioabsorbable metal medical device and method of manufacture
US8246184B2 (en) 2006-02-09 2012-08-21 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Production of cavities that can be filled with a fluid material in an optical microtechnological component
US20090027767A1 (en) * 2006-02-09 2009-01-29 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Production of cavities that can be filled with a fluid material in an optical microtechnological component
US8574615B2 (en) 2006-03-24 2013-11-05 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices having nanoporous coatings for controlled therapeutic agent delivery
US20070224116A1 (en) * 2006-03-27 2007-09-27 Chandru Chandrasekaran Medical devices comprising a porous metal oxide or metal material and a polymer coating for delivering therapeutic agents
US8187620B2 (en) 2006-03-27 2012-05-29 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices comprising a porous metal oxide or metal material and a polymer coating for delivering therapeutic agents
US8048150B2 (en) 2006-04-12 2011-11-01 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis having a fiber meshwork disposed thereon
US8815275B2 (en) 2006-06-28 2014-08-26 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Coatings for medical devices comprising a therapeutic agent and a metallic material
US8771343B2 (en) 2006-06-29 2014-07-08 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices with selective titanium oxide coatings
US8052743B2 (en) 2006-08-02 2011-11-08 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis with three-dimensional disintegration control
US8353949B2 (en) 2006-09-14 2013-01-15 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices with drug-eluting coating
US8128689B2 (en) 2006-09-15 2012-03-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprosthesis with biostable inorganic layers
US8808726B2 (en) 2006-09-15 2014-08-19 Boston Scientific Scimed. Inc. Bioerodible endoprostheses and methods of making the same
US8057534B2 (en) 2006-09-15 2011-11-15 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprostheses and methods of making the same
US8052744B2 (en) 2006-09-15 2011-11-08 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices and methods of making the same
US8002821B2 (en) 2006-09-18 2011-08-23 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible metallic ENDOPROSTHESES
US7981150B2 (en) 2006-11-09 2011-07-19 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis with coatings
US8080055B2 (en) 2006-12-28 2011-12-20 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprostheses and methods of making the same
US8715339B2 (en) 2006-12-28 2014-05-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprostheses and methods of making the same
US20080176290A1 (en) * 2007-01-22 2008-07-24 Victor Joseph Apparatus for high throughput chemical reactions
US8252581B2 (en) 2007-01-22 2012-08-28 Wafergen, Inc. Apparatus for high throughput chemical reactions
US9951381B2 (en) 2007-01-22 2018-04-24 Takara Bio Usa, Inc. Apparatus for high throughput chemical reactions
US9132427B2 (en) 2007-01-22 2015-09-15 Wafergen, Inc. Apparatus for high throughput chemical reactions
WO2008109207A2 (en) * 2007-01-30 2008-09-12 The Regents Of The University Of California Methods and devices for biomolecular arrays
WO2008109207A3 (en) * 2007-01-30 2008-12-11 Univ California Methods and devices for biomolecular arrays
US9063133B2 (en) 2007-01-30 2015-06-23 The Regents Of The University Of California Methods and devices for biomolecular arrays
US8070797B2 (en) 2007-03-01 2011-12-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical device with a porous surface for delivery of a therapeutic agent
US8431149B2 (en) 2007-03-01 2013-04-30 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Coated medical devices for abluminal drug delivery
US8067054B2 (en) 2007-04-05 2011-11-29 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stents with ceramic drug reservoir layer and methods of making and using the same
US7976915B2 (en) 2007-05-23 2011-07-12 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis with select ceramic morphology
US9677194B2 (en) * 2007-06-18 2017-06-13 Illumina, Inc. Microfabrication methods for the optimal patterning of substrates
US20130096034A1 (en) * 2007-06-18 2013-04-18 Illumina, Inc. Microfabrication methods for the optimal patterning of substrates
US7942926B2 (en) 2007-07-11 2011-05-17 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis coating
US8002823B2 (en) 2007-07-11 2011-08-23 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis coating
US9284409B2 (en) 2007-07-19 2016-03-15 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis having a non-fouling surface
US7931683B2 (en) 2007-07-27 2011-04-26 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Articles having ceramic coated surfaces
US8815273B2 (en) 2007-07-27 2014-08-26 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Drug eluting medical devices having porous layers
US8221822B2 (en) 2007-07-31 2012-07-17 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical device coating by laser cladding
US8900292B2 (en) 2007-08-03 2014-12-02 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Coating for medical device having increased surface area
US8052745B2 (en) 2007-09-13 2011-11-08 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis
US20090118813A1 (en) * 2007-11-02 2009-05-07 Torsten Scheuermann Nano-patterned implant surfaces
US8029554B2 (en) 2007-11-02 2011-10-04 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Stent with embedded material
US8216632B2 (en) 2007-11-02 2012-07-10 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis coating
US7938855B2 (en) 2007-11-02 2011-05-10 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Deformable underlayer for stent
US9063410B2 (en) 2008-04-04 2015-06-23 Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives Method for making micron or submicron cavities
US8920491B2 (en) 2008-04-22 2014-12-30 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices having a coating of inorganic material
US8932346B2 (en) 2008-04-24 2015-01-13 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical devices having inorganic particle layers
US7998192B2 (en) 2008-05-09 2011-08-16 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprostheses
US8236046B2 (en) 2008-06-10 2012-08-07 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprosthesis
US8449603B2 (en) 2008-06-18 2013-05-28 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthesis coating
US20110180944A1 (en) * 2008-06-27 2011-07-28 Jean-Paul Cano Improved Method for Making Enclosures Filled with Liquid and Closed by a Membrane
US8477406B2 (en) 2008-06-27 2013-07-02 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives Method for making enclosures filled with liquid and closed by a membrane
US7985252B2 (en) 2008-07-30 2011-07-26 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Bioerodible endoprosthesis
US8382824B2 (en) 2008-10-03 2013-02-26 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical implant having NANO-crystal grains with barrier layers of metal nitrides or fluorides
EP2192081A1 (en) * 2008-11-27 2010-06-02 Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives Method of producing a retention array containing a functional fluid
US8192672B2 (en) 2008-11-27 2012-06-05 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Method for producing a retention matrix comprising a functional liquid
FR2938834A1 (en) * 2008-11-27 2010-05-28 Commissariat Energie Atomique A method of making a retention matrix and comprising a functional liquid
US20100133727A1 (en) * 2008-11-27 2010-06-03 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Method for producing a retention matrix comprising a functional liquid
US8231980B2 (en) 2008-12-03 2012-07-31 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Medical implants including iridium oxide
US8267992B2 (en) 2009-03-02 2012-09-18 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Self-buffering medical implants
US8071156B2 (en) 2009-03-04 2011-12-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprostheses
US8287937B2 (en) 2009-04-24 2012-10-16 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Endoprosthese
US9857367B2 (en) 2009-07-29 2018-01-02 Dynex Technologies, Inc. Sample plate systems and methods
US8668732B2 (en) 2010-03-23 2014-03-11 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Surface treated bioerodible metal endoprostheses
US9116269B2 (en) 2010-07-21 2015-08-25 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives Microstructure with walls of determined optical property and method for making microstructures
CN101915851A (en) * 2010-07-26 2010-12-15 北京航空航天大学 Diatom arrayed positioning and processing method for manufacturing biochip
US20130208371A1 (en) * 2012-02-13 2013-08-15 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd. Biological sensing structures and methods of forming the same
US9377401B2 (en) 2012-02-13 2016-06-28 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd. Biological sensing structures
US8846129B2 (en) * 2012-02-13 2014-09-30 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd. Biological sensing structures and methods of forming the same

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US6962822B2 (en) 2005-11-08 grant
US20050255707A1 (en) 2005-11-17 application
US20080132426A1 (en) 2008-06-05 application
WO2004014554A1 (en) 2004-02-19 application
US7651872B2 (en) 2010-01-26 grant
US7354777B2 (en) 2008-04-08 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6699665B1 (en) Multiple array system for integrating bioarrays
US6653151B2 (en) Dry deposition of materials for microarrays using matrix displacement
US7267948B2 (en) SERS diagnostic platforms, methods and systems microarrays, biosensors and biochips
US6956651B2 (en) Bioanalysis systems including optical integrated circuit
US6139831A (en) Apparatus and method for immobilizing molecules onto a substrate
US7164533B2 (en) Hybrid random bead/chip based microarray
US20020123134A1 (en) Active and biocompatible platforms prepared by polymerization of surface coating films
US6660233B1 (en) Analytical biochemistry system with robotically carried bioarray
US20070009968A1 (en) Photonic crystal biosensor structure and fabrication method
Barbulovic-Nad et al. Bio-microarray fabrication techniques—a review
US7060431B2 (en) Method of making and decoding of array sensors with microspheres
US6951682B1 (en) Porous coatings bearing ligand arrays and use thereof
US20010036674A1 (en) Chips having elevated sample surfaces
US6858394B1 (en) Composite arrays utilizing microspheres
US20020155490A1 (en) Particle based assay system
US20030073086A1 (en) Randomly ordered arrays and methods of making and using
US6867869B2 (en) Sensor platform, apparatus incorporating the platform, and process using the platform
US20060246573A1 (en) Bio-chip
US6707561B1 (en) Sensor platform, apparatus incorporating platform, and process using the platform
US5812272A (en) Apparatus and method with tiled light source array for integrated assay sensing
US6716629B2 (en) Apparatus for assay, synthesis and storage, and methods of manufacture, use, and manipulation thereof
US6818886B2 (en) Detection method
US20040175710A1 (en) Method for in situ, on-chip chemical synthesis
US7313308B2 (en) Optical analysis of molecules
US20070115469A1 (en) Applications of laser-processed substrate for molecular diagnostics

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, NEW Y

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:HART, MARK WHITNEY;KIM, HO-CHEOL;MILLER, ROBERT DENNIS;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:014031/0805;SIGNING DATES FROM 20020916 TO 20021010

CC Certificate of correction
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

AS Assignment

Owner name: GLOBALFOUNDRIES U.S. 2 LLC, NEW YORK

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:036550/0001

Effective date: 20150629

AS Assignment

Owner name: GLOBALFOUNDRIES INC., CAYMAN ISLANDS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GLOBALFOUNDRIES U.S. 2 LLC;GLOBALFOUNDRIES U.S. INC.;REEL/FRAME:036779/0001

Effective date: 20150910

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12