US20040025894A1 - Smoking articles - Google Patents

Smoking articles Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20040025894A1
US20040025894A1 US10/389,087 US38908703A US2004025894A1 US 20040025894 A1 US20040025894 A1 US 20040025894A1 US 38908703 A US38908703 A US 38908703A US 2004025894 A1 US2004025894 A1 US 2004025894A1
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
wrapper
smoking article
according
fuel source
aerosol generating
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10/389,087
Inventor
John Beven
David Dittrich
Colin Greig
Richard Hook
Kevin McAdam
Rosmary O'Reilly
Original Assignee
Beven John Lawson
Dittrich David John
Greig Colin Campbell
Hook Richard Geoffrey
Mcadam Kevin Gerard
O'reilly Rosmary Elizabeth
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB9417970A priority Critical patent/GB9417970D0/en
Priority to GB9417970.2 priority
Priority to GB9515836.6 priority
Priority to GBGB9515836.6A priority patent/GB9515836D0/en
Priority to US08/793,524 priority patent/US6095152A/en
Priority to US09/577,919 priority patent/US6578584B1/en
Application filed by Beven John Lawson, Dittrich David John, Greig Colin Campbell, Hook Richard Geoffrey, Mcadam Kevin Gerard, O'reilly Rosmary Elizabeth filed Critical Beven John Lawson
Priority to US10/389,087 priority patent/US20040025894A1/en
Publication of US20040025894A1 publication Critical patent/US20040025894A1/en
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A24TOBACCO; CIGARS; CIGARETTES; SMOKERS' REQUISITES
    • A24FSMOKERS' REQUISITES; MATCH BOXES
    • A24F47/00Smokers' requisites not provided for elsewhere, e.g. devices to assist in stopping or limiting smoking
    • A24F47/002Simulated smoking devices, e.g. imitation cigarettes
    • A24F47/004Simulated smoking devices, e.g. imitation cigarettes with heating means, e.g. carbon fuel
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A24TOBACCO; CIGARS; CIGARETTES; SMOKERS' REQUISITES
    • A24BMANUFACTURE OR PREPARATION OF TOBACCO FOR SMOKING OR CHEWING; TOBACCO; SNUFF
    • A24B15/00Chemical features or treatment of tobacco; Tobacco substitutes
    • A24B15/10Chemical features of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes
    • A24B15/16Chemical features of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes of tobacco substitutes
    • A24B15/165Chemical features of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes of tobacco substitutes comprising as heat source a carbon fuel or an oxidized or thermally degraded carbonaceous fuel, e.g. carbohydrates, cellulosic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A24TOBACCO; CIGARS; CIGARETTES; SMOKERS' REQUISITES
    • A24DCIGARS; CIGARETTES; TOBACCO SMOKE FILTERS; MOUTHPIECES FOR CIGARS OR CIGARETTES; MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO SMOKE FILTERS OR MOUTHPIECES
    • A24D1/00Cigars; Cigarettes
    • A24D1/02Cigars; Cigarettes with special covers

Abstract

The invention relates to a smoking article (1) having a high proportion of non-combustible, inorganic material and a relatively low level of visible sidestream. The smoking article comprises a substantially non-combustible, wrapper (5) which extends along the full length of the smoking material rod and enwraps a combustible fuel source (6) and aerosol generating means (7), both of which extend substantially along the length of the smoking material rod. Various suitable fuel source system and aerosol generating systems are described. The article has a visible burn line which advances along the article and produces an ash which can be removed by the smoker in the normal way.

Description

  • The present invention relates to smoking articles, and in particular to smoking articles which have an other than conventional structure and combustion regime, yet which have the outward appearance similar to a conventional smoking article. [0001]
  • Many attempts have been made to produce a smoking article which provides the smoker with an aerosol which is similar to tobacco smoke. Some ideas have centred on generating an aerosol vapour from an aerosol generating means by heating the aerosol generating means with a surrounding fuel source, such as cut tobacco. Smoke from the fuel source is prevented by a smoke barrier from reaching the smoker's mouth, whilst the aerosol vapour can pass to the smoker. These can be seen in U.S. Pat. No. 3,258,015 (Ellis) and U.S. Pat. No. 3,356,094 (Ellis). The first of these proposed a smoking article having an outer cylinder of fuel with good smouldering, characteristics, preferably cut tobacco or reconstituted tobacco, surrounding a metal tube containing tobacco, reconstituted tobacco or other source of nicotine and water vapour. A substantial disadvantage of this article was the ultimate protrusion of the metal tube as the tobacco fuel was consumed. Other disadvantages include the formation of substantial tobacco pyrolysis products and substantial tobacco sidestream smoke. This design was later modified in the second patent mentioned above by employing a tube made out of a material such as inorganic salts or an epoxy bonded ceramic, which became frangible on heating and was discharged as an ash by the smoker. In this invention also there are substantial tobacco pyrolysis products and, because of the combustion of tobacco, visible sidestream smoke. [0002]
  • Aerosol inhalation devices such as European Patent Applications, Publication Nos. 0 174 645 and 0 339 690 describe means of using heat transfer from a fuel element to physically separate aerosol generating means. The main feature of these inventions is that the aerosol generating means is always physically separate from the fuel element and is always heated by heat transfer from a heat conducting member, never burned. To this end the fuel element is always short, located to one end of the smoking article and kept out of direct contact with the aerosol generating means. [0003]
  • Other and mainly more recent devices have included GB 1 185 867 (Synectics), U.S. Pat. No. 5,060,667 (Strubel) and EPA 0 405 190 (R. J. Reynolds). In all of these devices the patentee has arranged the fuel element as an annulus around aerosol generating means. [0004]
  • GB 1 185 857 provided a substantially inorganic smoke of readily absorbable silts to the smoker and produced an ash which could be removed in normal fashion by the smoker. However, the smoking article is presumed to have given off an amount of visible sidestream smoke because of the cellulosic components within individual items of the smoking article. [0005]
  • U.S. Pat. No. 5,060,667 provided a co-axially arranged tobacco-containing fuel element encircled by a metallic heat transfer tube with a flange portion at the end to be lit in order to prevent smoke from the burning tobacco from passing through the flavour source material circumscribing the heat transfer tube. Only aerosol from the flavour source material passes to the smoker. The device does not burn down and tobacco material is combusted, as well as providing the flavour source material, thereby producing visible sidestream smoke and utilising a high percentage of a costly item such as tobacco. [0006]
  • EPA 0 405 190 seeks to provide a smoking article which provides the user with the pleasures of smoking by heating without burning tobacco. Most of the articles comprise an annular carbonaceous fuel segment, a physically separate aerosol generating means disposed concentrically within the fuel segment, a barrier member between the fuel segment and the aerosol generating means, which substantially precludes fluid flow radially therethrough and which is disposable as the smoking article is smoked, and a mouthend segment. As the fuel source is disposed annularly around the aerosol generating means it is advantageous to surround the fuel source longitudinally with an insulating sleeve which may then be wrapped with a conventional wrapper. One alternative embodiment is postulated which comprises a coaxial carbonaceous fuel source of slow burning rate encircled along its longitudinal length by an insulation member, which in turn is encircled along its length by tobacco wrapped in a paper wrapper. The tobacco is only heated and not burnt, as in the other embodiments, but unlike the other embodiments of EPA 0 405 190 the device cannot burn down as tobacco would then be burnt. No actual practical embodiment is described and thus this embodiment appears to be an armchair, or paper, proposal. The patentees appear to have had some difficulty in reducing to practice this particular concept. This concept also utilises considerable amounts of expensive tobacco, to provide the aerosol source material, which the smoker never truly experiences. [0007]
  • U.S. Pat. No. 2,998,012 discloses a smoking article having a non-combustible wrapper of woven, glass fibres with one or more adhesive materials, calcium carbonate to prevent flaming, propylene glycol as a plasticiser and a diatomaceous earth to render the wrapper impermeable and cooler to the touch. A disadvantage of this construction is that the wrapper still maintains a predominantly fibrous characteristic of woven glass fibres. Such a wrapper would be unnaceptable for a commercial smoking article. U.S. Pat. No. 4,961,438 discloses a smoking device which does not burn down along its length which by means of a smouldering heat source heating air drawn into the device liberates aerosol from an aerosol forming material disposed on a substrate. The wrapper of the device is a non-combustible tube having high heat conductivity. Such high heat conductivity is undesirable for a commercial smoking article. The wrapper of the present invention seeks to overcome these deficiencies. [0008]
  • It is an object of the present invention to provide a smoking article which does not produce substantial tobacco pyrolysis products. [0009]
  • It is a further object of the present invention to provide a smoking article which exhibits very little visible sidestream smoke, and considerably less visible sidestream smoke than prior proposed conventional smoking articles comprising tobacco rods of cut tobacco wrapped in a paper wrapper containing a visible sidestream reducing compound or being visible sidestream reducing paper. [0010]
  • It is another object of the invention to fulfil the above objectives whilst maintaining a substantially conventional outward appearance of a smoking article as we know the same today. [0011]
  • It is also an object of the invention to preserve the physical elements of the smoking process, including the ashing of a cigarette to produce an ash which can be removed by the smoker in the normal way. [0012]
  • The present invention provides a smoker article having a smoking material rod comprising a substantially non-combustible wrapper extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod and enwrapping a combustible fuel source extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod and aerosol generating means extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod. [0013]
  • As used herein the terms ‘smoking material rod’ or ‘smoking material’ are merely intended to mean that part of the smoking article which is contained within the substantially non-combustible wrapper and should not have imported therein any association as to the combustibility or otherwise of individual components of the rod of the smoking material. [0014]
  • The present invention further provides a smoking article having a smoking material rod comprising a substantially non-combustible wrapper extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod and enwrapping a combustible fuel source extending substantially along the full length of the smoking material rod, and aerosol generating means being disposed between the fuel source and the wrapper and extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod. [0015]
  • The present invention provides a substantially non-combustible smoking article wrapper comprised of predominantly non-combustible inorganic filler material, a binder, optionally a plasticiser, and optionally a small amount of cellulosic fibre material. [0016]
  • Preferably the non-combustible inorganic filler material is a particulate material and even more preferably is a non-metallic material. [0017]
  • This invention also provides a method of producing a substantially non-combustible smoking article wrapper comprising predominantly non-combustible inorganic filler material and a binder, the method comprising producing a mixture of the non-combustible inorganic filler material and a binder, extruding the mixture to provide a hollow tube, and contacting the hollow tube with a material which causes the hollow tube to set rapidly. [0018]
  • The material which causes the hollow tube to set rapidly may be a water scavenging substance which removes water contained in the extrudate. Alternatively the material may be a solution which renders a soluble binder in the mixture insoluble, or a hydrophilic substance which removes water from an aqueous-containing mixture. [0019]
  • The present invention also provides a smoking article fuel source of substantially the whole length of a smoking article, the fuel source comprising carbonaceous material, an inorganic non-combustible binder and optionally a burn promoter. [0020]
  • The present invention provides a smoking article fuel source of substantially the whole length of a smoking article, the fuel source comprising carbon, non-combustible inorganic filler material, organic binder, optionally plasticiser and optionally inorganic binder. [0021]
  • The present invention provides smoking article aerosol generating means comprising a non-combustible inorganic filler material, aerosol forming means, and an organic or inorganic binder. [0022]
  • The present invention also provides a smoking article aerosol generating means comprising an organic filler material, aerosol forming means, an organic binder and optionally a non-combustible inorganic filler material. [0023]
  • The present invention provides a smoking article aerosol generating fuel source comprising a non-combustible inorganic filler material, aerosol forming means, an organic or inorganic binder and carbon. [0024]
  • The present invention further provides a smoking article aerosol generating fuel source comprising organic filler material, optionally a non-combustible inorganic filler material, aerosol forming means, organic binder and carbon. [0025]
  • Substantially Non-Combustible Wrapper [0026]
  • Preferably the substantially non-combustible wrapper is comprised of predominantly non-combustible inorganic filler material. The term ‘predominantly’ as used herein means at least about 65% and usually 70%. The inorganic filler material advantageously yields very little or substantially no visible sidestream smoke when the smoking article is lit. Preferably the non-combustible wrapper comprises at least 80%, and more preferably at least 90% inorganic filler material by weight of the wrapper. Advantageously the non-combustible inorganic filler material is one or more of perlite, vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, colloidal silica, chalk, magnesium oxide, magnesium sulphate, magnesium carbonate or other low density, non-combustible inorganic filler materials known to those skilled in the art. [0027]
  • The non-combustible wrapper may comprise a small amount of cellulosic fibre material. Preferably the fibre material comprises less than 10%, more preferably less than 5%, and even more preferably less than 2% by weight of the non-combustible wrapper. Most advantageously the fibre material is not present in the wrapper. [0028]
  • Preferably the wrapper comprises a binder and/or a plasticiser. These components may be present at up to 30% by weight of the wrapper. Advantageously the binder is not present at more than 25% by weight of the wrapper. The exact proportions will depend on the taste characteristics, acceptable visible sidestream smoke emission and strength of the desired product, and the processing techniques used. The binder may be present at about 8-10% by weight of the wrapper, although it may be present at about 5% or less by weight of the wrapper. The binder may be organic binders, for example, cellulose derivatives, such as sodium carboxymethylcellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose or cellulose ethers, alginic binders including soluble alginates such as ammonium alginate, sodium alginate, sodium calcium alginate, calcium ammonium alginate, potassium alginate, magnesium alginate, triethanol-amine alginate and propylene glycol alginate or insoluble alginates which can be rendered soluble by the addition of solubilising agents, such as ammonium hydroxide. Examples of these include aluminium, copper, zinc and silver alginates. Alginates which are initially soluble but which, during processing, undergo treatment to render them insoluble in the final product may also be used, e.g. sodium alginate going to calcium alginate (see below). Other organic binders include gums such as gum arabic, gum ghatti, gum tragacanth, Karaya, locust bean, acacia, guar, quince seed or xanthan gum, or gels such as agar, agarose, carrageenans, fucoidan and furcellaran. Pectins and pectinaceous materials can also be used as binders. Starches can also be used as organic binders. Other suitable gums can be selected by reference to handbooks, such as Industrial Gums, Ed. Whistler (Academic Press). Combinations of the above may also be used. Inorganic non-combustible binders, such as potassium silicate, magnesium oxide in combination with potassium silicate, or some cements, for example, and mixtures thereof, may be used. [0029]
  • The wrapper, although not giving much, if any, visible sidestream smoke, does produce ash of an acceptable colour and quality. The smoking article also has a visible burn line which advances along the article and enables the smoker to determine whether the article is alight and to monitor the smoking process. The visible burn line may be formed as a result of burning the organic binder. Alternatively, colour changing compounds can be included in the wrapper composition. Colourants which give the wrapper an other than white colour may also be included. These colourants may also change colour as heating occurs, providing a visible burn line, e.g. CuSO4.5H[0030] 2O.
  • The nature of the binder selected will also determine the permeability of the outer wrapper. Binders, such as sodium carboxymethylcellulose and propylene glycol alginate, have been found to be particularly-effective at producing an outer wrapper sufficiently permeable to sustain combustion of the fuel source within the wrapper. The latter binder gave the more permeable outer for the same outer wrapper composition. Hydration time of some binders can play a part in determining the efficacy of the binders. Conventionally understood strong binders such as hydroxypropylcellulose can be used at lower levels to increase the wrapper permeability but this has to be balanced against the strength of the wrapper. [0031]
  • The plasticiser may be present in the wrapper at up to 20% by weight thereof. The plasticiser is preferably present at about 10% or less, preferably 5% or less, by weight of the wrapper. The plasticiser may be glycerol, propylene glycol, or low melting point fats or oils for example. Depending on the method of production selected for the wrappers, the plastisicer may be absent from the wrapper composition. The plasticiser helps in the drying stages of the wrapper to prevent shape distortion, particularly if direct heat, e.g. hot air, is the drying medium. The amount of plasticiser, binder or other organic filler material will affect the appearance of the burn line, i.e. the burn line width, and the amount of visible sidestream of the article. Preferably the width of the burn line is not greater than 10 mm, is preferably not more than 5 mm and more preferably is between 2-3 mm in width. The width of the burn line depends on the composition of the burnable material in the article. [0032]
  • The wrapper may comprise materials which provide an odour to any sidestream smoke which may come from the article. Suitable deodorisers include citronellal, vanillin and geraniol, for example. [0033]
  • The wrapper may be formed by producing a thick slurry of the wrapper components, coating the slurry about a rotating mandrel, and removing excess moisture by physical or chemical means. Alternatively, the slurry may be cast as a sheet on a drum or band caster, or extruded as a hollow tube, through a ‘torpedo’ die-head, for example, which has a solid central section, or extruded as a sheet material. The slurry could be sprayed, coated or pumped onto a suitably shaped fuel/aerosol assembly. [0034]
  • The extrusion process is suitably carried out at a pressure which does not detrimentally affect the wrapper permeability and is suitably not greater than 3-4 bar (300-400 kPa) at the extruder die of a ram extruder, for example, and not more than 9 bar (900 kPa) for an APV Baker Perkins screw extruder. The extrusion process may require foaming to occur at the die exit to produce a cellular structure, in which case greater pressure can be exerted, at the die, whilst retaining permeability. [0035]
  • After extrusion or coating the hollow extrudate or coated mandrel is suitably subjected to heat at or exit the die to drive off excess moisture. The wrapper slurry may comprise a heat activated binder, such as potassium silicate, magnesium oxide, or hydroxypropylcellulose at temperatures above 40-50° C., for example. Subjecting the coated mandrel or hollow extrudate to heat would activate the binder causing the wrapper to set. Infra-red or microsave heating is advantageous as direct heating, e.g. the use of hot air blowers, can affect the shape of the extrudate, especially at temperatures of greater than 100° C. [0036]
  • Extrusion may be carried out using a single or double screw extruder, a ram extruder or slurry pump. [0037]
  • The wrapper suitably has a thickness within the range of 0.1-1.0 mm, although 2-3 mm may be desirable. The thickness required depends on the weight and permeability of the wrapper. Thus, a dense thin wrapper or a thick low density wrapper could be provided, depending on the composition of the wrapper materials. [0038]
  • Alternative setting methods for the wrapper include the use of water scavenging substances. These substances remove water from the wrapper slurry thereby, in effect, drying the wrapper. For example, light magnesium oxide can be in the wrapper slurry mixture at up to 45% by weight of the dry slurry constituents, depending on the residence time in the extruder and the temperature in the extruder. The addition of magnesium oxide can also have advantageous visible sidestream reducing effects. Alternatively, the wrapper material can be extruded into an ethanol bath, or other strongly hydrophilic substance, the ethanol scavenging the water from the extrudate. A further alternative is the precipitation of an insoluble alginate from a soluble alginate in the extruded wrapper. This can be achieved by, for example, extruding a hollow tube of, for example, sodium alginate-containing wrapper material into a bath of simple electrolyte(s), for example, 1.0M calcium chloride solution. The calcium ions substitute for the sodium ions and cause the extrudate to set extremely quickly. In the latter two methods, spraying of the water scavenger onto the extrudate or wrapper sheet may be carried out instead of passing the extrudate into a bath. [0039]
  • Some precipitation can be achieved by adding a sub-critical level of a precipitating agent into the extruder barrel, then completely precipitating the structure by raising the level of the precipitating agent post extrusion. Other precipitation methods include precipitation of the extrudate into a highly ionic electrolyte bath or into a water miscible non-solvent for the alginate. [0040]
  • A further method includes, as briefly mentioned above with respect to the binders, use of a conventionally insoluble alginate as the binding material by rendering it soluble with a solubilising agent and then setting of the wrapper structure by removal of the solubilising agent or addition of a sequestering agent. [0041]
  • These methods may be used sequentially, e.g. the wrapper may be set by precipitating a soluble alginate containing wrapper material in a bath containing calcium ions. The extrudate may be subsequently passed into a bath of water scavenging agent, such as ethanol, and then heated to drive off liquid residues. Alternatively, after setting the wrapper may be dried using the methods described above. [0042]
  • These methods are particularly effective for achieving a good shape to the extrudate because of the speed of the reaction and the lack of volume reduction in the processes, particularly the drying stages. [0043]
  • The wrapper may have a rigid structure, although we have found that flexible wrappers can be produced using sodium alginate as the binder, which is then precipitated to form calcium alginate and then slowly dried. Flexibility is advantageous in terms of the increased robustness of the product during machine and manual handling. [0044]
  • The wrapper suitably has a air permeability within the range of 1-300 Coresta Units (cc/min//cm[0045] 2/10 cm WG). Permeability can be controlled by a number of methods, such as coating an extrudate with a film forming or other permeability reducing agent. Alternatively, sacrificial molecules can be introduced into the wrapper mixture, which molecules can be removed after the formation of the structure by moderate temperature or chemical reaction to increase the permeability of the wrapper structure.
  • Alternatively, the wrapper may be a cellulose-based wrapper, such as conventional cigarette paper, which has been treated to prevent the wrapper from burning and thereby producing visible sidestream smoke. Preferably the treated wrapper will char and therefore provide a visible burn line. The paper should also produce an ash which can be knocked off by the smoker. [0046]
  • The ashing characteristics of the wrapper should be such that, unburnt, the wrapper is strong enough or flexible enough to resist digital pressure prior to, and during smoking, but upon thermal degradation of the wrapper the structure is considerably weakened, leaving an ash which can be readily disintegrated by pressure or a flicking movement. Some wrappers may require ash charring agents which char to leave some black residue to simulate conventional cigarette ash. [0047]
  • Fuel Source [0048]
  • Preferably the fuel source extends continuously from the mouth end of the smoking article to the lighting end thereof, excluding any filter or mouthpiece element. In the alternative, the fuel source may comprise a number of sections closely located so that burning of the fuel source does not cease. [0049]
  • Advantageously, the end of the article to be lit has the appearance of a conventional article. Suitably the end of the smoking article at the end to be lit is of a tobacco-like or dark colour, e.g. brown. [0050]
  • The fuel source may be provided by three distinct systems, but overlap may occur between them. In these systems the fuel source is physically discrete from the aerosol generating means. [0051]
  • When physically discrete from the aerosol generating means and in the form of a rod, in a first system the fuel source is suitably prepared from carbonaceous material by pyrolysing wood, such as rods of balsa wood, cotton, rayon, tobacco or other cellulosic containing material, which are prepared to a shape which is particularly useful in the present invention. In this system, the fuel source comprises at least 85% by weight pyrolysed carbonaceous material. Preferably the fuel source comprises at least 90% carbonaceous material. A burn promoter such as, for example, potassium nitrate, potassium citrate or potassium chlorate, is also advantageously present at 10% or less by weight of the fuel source. Other suitable burn promoters would be known to those skilled in the art. Alternatives for an almost wholly carbon-containing system include the use of carbon fibres or carbon aerogels. [0052]
  • The term ‘carbon’ as used herein can be taken to cover a material which is substantially solely carbon and any carbon precursors, such as carbonaceous material. As used herein the term carbonaceous includes material which has been pyrolysed, which material preferably contains carbon, although some incomplete combustion products may still be present. Ready pyrolysed coconut fibre may, for example, be the carbonaceous material from which carbon is derived. [0053]
  • In a second system, the fuel source may be a substantially inorganic system and comprise an inorganic, non-combustible binder, selected from the list outlined above with respect to the wrapper, for example, Portland cement, or potassium silicate. The binder may be present within the range of 10-65% by weight of the fuel source. The binder is advantageously present in an amount of less than 40% by weight of the fuel source. The fuel source may also comprise 5-20% of a burn promoter, preferably less than 10%, by weight of the fuel source. The fuel source may comprise 5-70% carbon, advantageously at least 55% carbon, and more suitably at least 60% carbon by weight of the fuel source. However, we have found that acceptable combustion characteristics can still be maintained with about 30% carbon, 60% inorganic, non-combustible binder and less than about 10% burn promoter when the fuel source is provided as a rod. A proportion of inorganic, non-combustible filler in the range of 0-60% may also be incorporated in this alternative to reduce the density of the fuel source or to improve the strength of the fuel source. [0054]
  • The fuel source in this instance may, for example, be a shaped rod of carbon having a porous structure to sustain continuous combustion throughout the length of the fuel source. Shaping techniques which do not disadvantageously lose water during shaping of the rod are preferred. Shaping of a thick slurry comprising carbon and a binder within a hollow tube and removing the shaped rod from the tube after a curing or setting stage is one method of fuel source production. Alternatively, an extrusion process may be used. [0055]
  • In the third system, the fuel source is a partially organic system and comprises 15-70% carbon, 84-5% non-combustible inorganic filler material such as, for example, one or more of the inorganic filler materials listed above with respect to the wrapper, 0-5% plasticiser, such as one or more of low melting point fats or low melting point oils, and 1-20% organic binder, such as cellulosic, alginic or pectinaceous binders, for example, and/or the other organic binders described above with respect to the wrapper. A mixture of inorganic or organic binders may be used, the inorganic binder being present within the range of 0-20% by weight of the fuel source. The plasticiser is included to improve the mechanical strength and flexibility of the fuel source and the amount present together with the amount of organic binder, should not provide a significant quantity of mainstream smoke. A high level of organic binder might be utilisable if the binder produces a low level of mainstream smoke, i.e. particulate matter. The amount of carbon is subject to the type and amount of binder and/or filler utilised, thus the range above should not be considered too limiting. The amount of carbon required will also depend on the composition of the outer wrapper. Furthermore, at low levels of carbon usage the outer wrapper will need to be more permeable than at higher carbon levels. Most suitably the carbon is present in the range of 25-35%. [0056]
  • Extrusion may be a low pressure extrusion through a nozzle using a driving force not substantially greater than atmospheric pressure, or a high pressure extrusion process. Foaming of the extrudate to achieve a cellular structure may be required, particularly in the second and third systems, depending on final product design. In the second system, foaming could be achieved by the introduction of air entraining agents instead of a proportion of the inorganic, non-combustible binder and/or the inorganic filler, if present. The air-entraining agents can be powdered or liquid additives or porous particulate materials. In the third system when foaming is required it may be achieved by the presence of, for example, a polysaccharide expansion medium such as starch, and the expanding effect of water under high temperature and pressure. The expansion medium would replace the binder or the plasticiser or inorganic filler, if present. Alternative expansion mediums, such as pullulan or other polysaccharides, including cellulose derivatives, may be used. Other agents capable of causing foaming may be solid foaming agents, such as sodium bicarbonate, inorganic salts and organic acids providing in situ gaseous agents; propane or isobutane as organic gaseous agents; nitrogen, carbon dioxide or air as inorganic gaseous agents; and volatile liquid foaming agents, such as ethanol and acetone, for example. Polysaccharide expansion mediums are preferred because of their ease of usage and safety aspects. [0057]
  • Extrusion may produce thin elongate strands, which may be longitudinally arranged, or more solid thicker rods, preferably co-axially located within the smoking material rod. In the first two alternatives, i.e. the pyrolysed structure and the inorganic system, a central rod could be replaced by several thinner strands. Extruded sheet may also be produced, then shredded to produce cut filler similar to cut tobacco filler. These processes are all suitable for the production of the fuel source, the aerosol generating means and the combined aerosol generating fuel source to be described later. Band casting, heated drum casting and other sheet making techniques can also be used. [0058]
  • In all of the above fuel source alternatives, except in the pyrolysed rod embodiment, 0-2% fibre is optional. This also applies to those methods of preparation of aerosol generating means which involve casting or paper making techniques. [0059]
  • Aerosol Generating Means [0060]
  • The aerosol generating means may be provided by three distinct systems, but overlap may occur between them. [0061]
  • The first system may be a substantially inorganic system comprising 95-30% inorganic, non-combustible binder, such as those binders described above with respect to the fuel source, 0-65% non-combustible inorganic filler material, such as those materials described above with respect to the fuel source, and 5-30% aerosol forming means, as described below. [0062]
  • The second system may be a partially inorganic system comprising 1-25% organic binder, 45-94% non-combustible inorganic filler material and 5-30% aerosol forming means. The third system may be a partially organic system comprising 1-25% organic binder, 1-94% organic filler material, 0-93% inorganic filler material and 5-30% aerosol forming means. Preferably the aerosol forming means comprises 5-25% by weight of the mixture. These systems are intended to be substantially non-combustible. The inorganic filler material is therefore selected, in combination with the proportions of the other materials, to provide substantially non-combustible aerosol generating means. Some inorganic fillers, such as perlite, magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide, readily serve to render the aerosol generating means non-combustible. Other fillers, such as chalk, at some incorporation levels, do not detract from the combustibility of the aerosol generating means and as such are unsuitable at those levels. [0063]
  • The organic filler material is preferably a material other than tobacco and may include inorganic salts of organic acids, or polysaccharide material, and should provide smoke with an acceptable taste characteristic. [0064]
  • These two systems represent two ends of a spectrum in which inorganic and organic components of the binder and filler material can be gradually substituted for one another. The third system may also incorporate an amount of expansion medium, such as described above, as part of the organic filler material. An example of foamed aerosol generating means comprises 20% organic binder, 20% aerosol forming means, 15% starch as an expansion medium and 45% inorganic filler material. The aerosol generating means may also comprise flavouring means. [0065]
  • A small amount of fibre material may also be required in the above systems to assist in the formation of a sheet, depending on the manner of manufacture. [0066]
  • The aerosol generating means preferably comprises aerosol forming means, such as polyhydric alcohols, glycerol, propylene glycol and triethylene glycol, for example, or esters such as triethyl citrate or triacetin, or high boiling point hydrocarbons. [0067]
  • Flavouring agents in the smoking material rod are designed to contribute towards an aerosol which has a unique but very acceptable taste and flavour characteristic to the aerosol smoke. The taste and flavour may not necessarily be designed to imitate tobacco smoke taste and flavour. Flavouring agents may include tobacco extract flavours, menthol, vanillin, toffee, chocolate or cocoa flavours, for example. Colouring means, such as food grade dyes, for example, or colourants such as liquorice, caramel or malt, or extracts thereof, may be used to darken the colour of the filler material. The presence of vermiculite or other inorganic material, such as iron oxide, may also give a darker colour to the filler material of the smoking article. [0068]
  • Flavouring agents may also be incorporated on or into a substrate, which may be the aerosol generating means and/or the fuel source, at a location close to or at the mouth end of the smoking material rod of the smoking article, or along the length of the smoking material rod provided that they are not affected by combustion temperatures. The percentages given above are given without the addition of any flavouring agent. These percentages will be consequently reduced by the addition of flavouring agents. Where inorganic or organic filler material is present in the aerosol generating means or fuel source, the percentages of these elements would be decreased as flavourants increased. Where filler material is not present, either the carbon or aerosol forming means would be consequently reduced as the flavourants increased. [0069]
  • As mentioned above, the aerosol generating means may be formed by conventional paper-making techniques or by extrusion techniques. The sheet material may be cut or rolled. The inorganic filler materials of these systems can be used in the system mixtures without pre-treatment stages before providing a complete aerosol generating mixture. [0070]
  • Aerosol Generating Fuel Source [0071]
  • As described above both of the fuel source and the aerosol generating means are kept substantially separate from one another, each forming a distinct area of either fuel source or aerosol generating means. In some instances though it may be advantageous to combine the two elements. This can be done by mixing physically discrete fuel source and aerosol generating material or by producing a totally combined aerosol generating fuel source. In the first case, a preferred embodiment is mixing the fuel source as cut filler material with aerosol generating means as cut filler material. Thus, an aerosol generating fuel source comprising a mixture of physically discrete individual cut filler material is provided, which filler material extends the full length of the smoking material rod. This embodiment is particularly advantageous in that it can be made in a manner very similar to conventional cigarette making procedures by providing a mixture of cut filler material to a cigarette making machine. In the second case, carbon is added to the aerosol generating means composition. [0072]
  • The aerosol generating fuel source may be provided by three distinct systems, but overlap may occur between them. The first system is a predominantly inorganic system comprising 0-35% inorganic filler material, 5-30% aerosol forming means, 30-60% inorganic binder, 30-65% carbon and 0-10% burn promoter. The aerosol forming means is selected from the group outlined above with respect to the aerosol generating means. The other components are also to be selected from the respective groups outlined above with respect to the other elements of the invention. This also applies to the systems described below. [0073]
  • The second system is a partially inorganic system comprising 86-0% inorganic filler material, 5-30% aerosol forming means, 1-25% organic binder and 8-60% carbon. [0074]
  • The third system is a more organic system comprising 93-0% organic filler material, 0-93% inorganic filler material, 5-30% aerosol forming means, 1-25% organic binder and 1-60% carbon. The more organic system may be foamed by the presence of an expansion medium and/or expansion agent, at the levels described above. [0075]
  • Preferably the aerosol forming means comprises 5-25% by weight of the mixture. [0076]
  • The binders and aerosol forming means for the above aerosol generating fuel sources may be any one or more of the binders or aerosol forming means exemplified above. [0077]
  • With the increase in organic components and the respective increase in sidestream, the permeability of the outer wrapper must be controlled to reduce the visible sidestream given off by this fuel source composition or, as described below, sidestream reducing agents can be added to the wrapper to reduce the amount of particulate matter forming the sidestream smoke. The thickness of the outer wrapper can also be varied to reduce visible sidestream smoke. [0078]
  • Structure of Article [0079]
  • The smoking article may be provided in a number of physical structures. In all three fuel source systems the fuel source may be provided as a longitudinally extending rod, strands or filaments, advantageously located co-axially of the smoking article. The rods, strands or filaments can be of various shapes, e.g. round, square, star or polygonal, all of which may be hollow or solid, and may be co-axially clustered. In the second and third system the fuel source may also be a sheet material which can be cut to produce shreds. Material of the third system may also be rolled to the desired shape. [0080]
  • When the fuel source is provided as a central rod of either carbonised wood or an extruded rod of the second or third fuel systems, i.e. a cement/carbon fuel source or the partially organic fuel system, the aerosol generating means may be an annulus of cut aerosol generating material or a roll of such material, rolled to provide a sufficient annular density to support the fuel rod, while still allowing air to be drawn through the article by the smoker. [0081]
  • A preferred option is to provide the rod filler material as a cut filler material. In one case, there may be provided a central core of cut fuel material surrounded by an annulus of cut aerosol generating material. This arrangement can also be provided with the aerosol generating means as the core material and the fuel source as the annulus material. Known techniques for producing co-axial structures for cut filler material can be used, e.g. providing a small dimension first wrapped rod which is fed to a further garniture and cut filler material is arranged around the first rod. [0082]
  • In the alternative, if an aerosol generating fuel source is provided, discrete cut aerosol generating means may be intimately mixed with discrete cut fuel source material. [0083]
  • The overall percentages of mixed cut fuel source material and cut aerosol generating material preferably falls within the range of 30-35% carbon, 5-10% binder, 0-2% fibre, 5-10% plasticiser and 40-60% inorganic material. This range may be comprised of the individual sheets of material having the following compositions: [0084]
  • Fuel source: 60-70% carbon, 7% propylene glycol alginate binder, 1% fibre and 32-22% perlite inorganic material. [0085]
  • Aerosol generating means: 7% propylene glycol alginate binder, 1% fibre, 15% glycerol plasticiser and 77% perlite inorganic material. [0086]
  • These materials would typically be mixed in the ratio of 1:1. Other ratios of mixing could be used to give the desired overall range of components described above. [0087]
  • If the aerosol generating means and fuel source are actually combined together chemically, the sheet material may be cut and provided within the outer wrapper as cut filler material. It may be desirable to increase the proportion of fuel material in a further combined sheet material, and to provide this material as a central region of higher carbon density surrounded by a less carbon-containing combined cut sheet material. [0088]
  • When the fuel and aerosol components are produced by extrusion methods, they may be provided as rods, strands or filaments. A coaxial core of several strands (or rods or filaments) may be provided of fuel material surrounded by an annulus of gathered strands of aerosol generating means. The vice versa arrangement is also possible as above. A further arrangement is the intimate inter-mixing of strands of discrete fuel source and aerosol generating means within the outer wrapper. The rods, strands or filaments may also be comprised of the chemically combined aerosol generating fuel source material. These extruded rods, strands or filaments may all be somewhat foamed, if desired. [0089]
  • Where foaming to provide a cellular structure is desired, a core of foamed fuel source may be surrounded by an annulus of foamed aerosol generating means. This may be produced by co-extrusion techniques using cross-head dies, for example. The vice versa arrangement is also possible. It is also possible in all of the above structural embodiments that only one of the core or annulus material is foamed. [0090]
  • Smoking Article [0091]
  • Advantageously the smoking article incorporates a filter element which may be conventional fibrous cellulose acetate, polypropylene or polyethylene material or gathered paper material. Multiple filter elements may also be utilised. Filter elements having particular pressure drop characteristics, such as the filter sold by Filtrona and known as The Ratio Filter, may also be utilised. Disposed upon or within the material of the filter element may be further flavouring materials, as described above, which are released or eluted from the filter element by the aerosol generated by the heated or burnt aerosol generation means. [0092]
  • Disposed about the fuel source at the mouthend thereof and/or between the fuel source and the filter element may be a firebreak; The firebreak may suitably comprise a more densely packed region of the material comprising the aerosol generating means. Preferably the firebreak also comprises aerosol forming means to enhance the delivery of aerosol to the smoker, as well as protecting the smoker from potentially over-hot smoke as the length of the smoking article decreases. Alternatively, the firebreak may comprise a band of burn retarding material on the exterior of the wrapper, for example. The firebreak may be substantially combustible or substantially non-combustible material. [0093]
  • The proportions of the non-inorganic materials are selected to give a smoking article which exhibits extremely low visible sidestream smoke. A conventional smoking article comprises cut tobacco wrapped in a paper wrapper. A smoking article which exhibits low visible sidestream smoke is required to give a reduction of at least 30% in rate of sidestream particulate matter, known as NFDPM (nicotine free, dry particulate matter) emission, in order for there to be a reduction in visible sidestream which is visible to the naked eye. European Patent Application, Publication No. 0 404 580 describes a smoking article having a paper wrapper which is extremely effective in reducing visible sidestream smoke. Reductions in visible sidestream particulate matter of up to 60% against control cigarettes without the inventive papers are achievable with smoking articles incorporating the paper according to that application. When smoking articles according to the present invention and cigarettes according to EPA-0 404 580 are smoked head to head, smoking articles according to the present invention have even less visible sidestream than the cigarettes of EPA 0 404 580. Smoking articles of the present invention are thus effective to provide visible sidestream reductions far greater than any other smoking article available at the present time. [0094]
  • Smoking articles according to the present invention preferably comprise at least 50% by weight of the article as inorganic material.[0095]
  • In order that the present invention may be easily understood and readily carried into effect, reference will now be made, by way of example to the following diagrammatic drawings, in which: [0096]
  • FIG. 1 shows, in longitudinal cross-section, a smoking article according to the present invention, [0097]
  • FIG. 1[0098] a shows, in axial cross-section, another embodiment of a smoking article according to FIG. 1,
  • FIG. 2 shows, in longitudinal cross-section, a further smoking article according to the present invention, [0099]
  • FIG. 3 shows, in longitudinal cross-section a yet further embodiment according to the present invention, and [0100]
  • FIG. 4 shows another embodiment of the present invention in longitudinal cross-section.[0101]
  • One embodiment of a smoking article of the present invention is depicted in FIG. 1 of the drawings hereof. FIG. 1 shows a cigarette [0102] 1 comprising a smoking material rod 2 and a filter element 3. The filter element 3 is composed of conventional fibrous cellulose acetate tow but may be of any other type of fibrous material with conventional pressure drop and filtration efficiency, or a high pressure drop, low filtration efficiency, non-fibrous material, if appropriate. The filter element 3 is attached to the smoking material rod 2 by a tipping wrapper 4. The filter element 3 may be ventilated, either using ventilation perforations produced by laser for example, or by means of the natural permeability of the tipping wrapper 4 and any underlying plugwrap. The smoking material rod 2 comprises an exterior wrapper 5, a co-axially located combustible fuel source 6 and cut smoking material 7 disposed between the fuel source 6 and the wrapper 5.
  • The exterior wrapper [0103] 5 comprises 1% fibre, 4% propylene glycol alginate as a combustible binder, 5% glycerol as a plastisicer and 90% perlite as an inorganic non-combustible filler material. The exterior wrapper 5 has a white colour, is about 1 mm in thickness, and looks very similar to the paper wrapper of a conventional smoking article, or cigarette.
  • The co-axial fuel source [0104] 6 was produced in accordance with the first fuel system above by pyrolysing a circular rod of balsa wood having a diameter of about 4 mm. The shape of the balsa wood rod is ideal for the purpose of providing an elongate, circular fuel source. The pyrolysed rod has an acceptable strength and is quite robust when surrounded by the cut smoking material 7. The density of the initial rod, and also in its final form, is important. We have found that if the fuel source is too dense after pyrolysation insufficient oxygen reaches the interior thereof and therefore the fuel source will not continue to burn. On the other hand, if the density of the pyrolysed fuel source is too low then the fuel source combusts too actively and thus too rapidly. Balsa and ash have been found to be the more suitable woods for use in this invention, though other wood species may be found to be appropriate.
  • The smoking material [0105] 7 is an aerosol generating means consisting of a high proportion of non-combustible, inorganic material, namely 80% perlite, 12% glycerol aerosol forming means, 7% propylene glycol alginate binder and 1% fibre, i.e. the partially inorganic system. The smoking material is produced by forming a slurry of the components and making a reconstituted sheet in accordance with standard sheet making techniques. The sheet of reconstituted inorganic material is then cut to provide cut filler material 7 and is disposed about the pyrolysed balsa wood fuel source 6.
  • At the mouth end of the smoking article there is located a region [0106] 9 of aerosol generating means onto which has been deposited flavouring agents, such as vanilla and toffee, for example. More of these flavouring agents were disposed within the filter element 3.
  • In operation, the cigarette [0107] 1 is lit and the cigarette burns along the fuel source length producing very little visible sidestream smoke. The visible sidestream smoke produced is derived from the organic components in the smoking article and is most visible at the end of a puff. The substantially non-combustible wrapper chars to produce a frangible, white ash, similar to conventional cigarette ash and which can be tapped off by the smoker, as required. The non-combustible exterior wrapper 5 upon charring also produces a dark burn line which advances along the smoking article as burning progresses. The smoking article burns back along the fuel source 6. As burning occurs an aerosol is produced from the aerosol-generating cut smoking material 7, which aerosol is drawn into the smoker's mouth. The aerosol, in this instance, is predominantly glycerol and water but also comprises vanilla and toffee flavours. Other flavours such as tobacco extracts, nicotine compounds, or other tobacco-like flavours, give the aerosol an acceptable taste and quality but without burning any tobacco material. Additional flavour material is also carried on the filter element, which material is designed to be released upon the approach of ‘smoke’ or aerosol from the burning aerosol-generating smoking material rod 2, Filter flavourant is not always required if sufficient flavour material is held in the aerosol generating means.
  • FIG. 1[0108] a shows a very similar embodiment to FIG. 1 except that in this cigarette, instead of the smoking material rod 2 incorporating cut smoking material 7, the smoking material 7′ is present as a rolled sheet 8 of smoking material which is rolled about the longitudinal length of the fuel source 6. The rolled sheet 8 of the smoking material 7′ is attached by a line or band of adhesive, such as propylene glycerol alginate, extending along the length of the fuel source 6. The rolled sheet 8 of smoking material must be rolled to allow air to pass to the burning coal of the cigarette 1.
  • The smoking article [0109] 10 depicted in FIG. 2 has a similar structural arrangement to that of FIG. 1. Identical elements of the cigarette 11 have been given the reference numerals of FIG. 1 increased by ten.
  • In this embodiment the wrapper [0110] 15 comprised 1% fibre, 4.5% propylene glycol alginate and 94.5% perlite inorganic, non-combustible filler material. No plasticiser was present in the wrapper.
  • The fuel source [0111] 16 of this embodiment is comprised of combustible material held together with a non-combustible binder. The fuel source 16 comprises carbon in the form of pyrolysed coconut fibre, Portland cement and a small amount of potassium nitrate burn promoter in the ratio of 8:4:1 respectively. The fuel source 16 was produced by hydrating the cement with a 1.3M solution of potassium nitrate sufficient to form a slurry, adding the powdered carbon to the slurry with a small amount of detergent to ‘wet’ the carbonaceous material, and additional water to provide a slurry of mud-like consistency. A rod of fuel material was formed by shaping the slurry mixture within a hollow tube, the shaped rod being expelled from within the tube once the rod had sufficient mechanical strength after a period of drying, curing or setting. Any excess moisture is driven off by heating after removal from the hollow tube. The fuel source 16 had a diameter of about 4 mm. Surrounded by filler material 17 the fuel source 16 is quite robust and is well able to withstand normal handling in the packing process and by the consumer.
  • In this embodiment, cocoa flavour was provided at a downstream location of the aerosol generation means [0112] 17 and within the filter element 13.
  • The smoking article [0113] 20 depicted in FIG. 3 is a further refinement of the embodiment of FIG. 2. Reference numerals referring to identical elements have again been increased by ten. In this cigarette 21 the smoking material rod 22 comprises cut smoking material 27 disposed about a carbon fuel source 26. The exterior wrapper 25 is composed of two layers. An inner layer 40 is composed of the wrapper material described in FIGS. 1 and 2. An outer layer 41 is comprised of a coating of a visible sidestream reducing filler, such as magnesium oxide bound by a small amount of propylene glycol alginate. The proportions of the wrapper in total were 79.5% perlite, 1% fibre, 4.5% propylene glycol alginate and 15% magnesium oxide. The magnesium oxide coating is capable of further reducing the visible sidestream smoke emanating from the smoking article 10 of FIG. 2, for example. Indeed, the visible sidestream smoke from smoking article 20 is virtually non-existent. However, the exterior wrapper 25 still produces a dark burn line, the advance of which enables the smoker to determine whether the cigarette 21 is, in fact, alight and to thereby monitor the progress of combustion.
  • In the alternative to a coating of visible sidestream reducing filler, the visible sidestream reducing filler may be included in the wrapper furnish to form a single wrapper. A typical composition of the treated wrapper [0114] 25 consists of 87.5% perlite inorganic material, 4% propylene glycol alginate binder, 7.5% magnesium oxide visible sidestream reducing filler and 1% fibre. Levels of 15% magnesium oxide have been used effectively with 80% perlite.
  • In this embodiment, tobacco extract flavours were disposed within the filter element [0115] 23.
  • The drawing of FIG. 4 shows a further embodiment of the invention in which reference numerals which refer to the same features as in FIG. 3 have been increased by ten. The smoking material rod [0116] 32 of cigarette 31 comprised a wrapper 35 enclosing cut smoking material which is also combined with fuel means to provide an aerosol generating fuel source 37. The aerosol generating fuel source 37 together comprises a lengthwise extending fuel source and lengthwise aerosol extending generation means. The aerosol generating fuel source 37 comprises 55% carbon (pyrolysed coconut fibre), 12% glycerol aerosol forming means, 7% propylene glycol alginate binder, 1% fibre and 25% perlite inorganic material, i.e. the partially inorganic system. This material is produced using the reconstituted sheet method described above and casting either on a drum or band caster. At one end of the aerosol generating fuel source 37 there was applied chocolate and mint flavours. Flavour material was also present in the filter element 33.
  • Examples of another aerosol generating fuel source from the second aerosol generating fuel source system were also producers which comprised as little as 10% carbon and 70% perlite inorganic material. The other proportions remained the sane as above. [0117]
  • The wrapper [0118] 35 in this embodiment had the composition of 4.5% propylene glycol alginate binder and 94.5% perlite inorganic non-combustible filler material in one instance. In another instance, the wrapper had the composition of 4% propylene glycol alginate, 5% glycerol plasticiser and 90% perlite.
  • All of the aerosol generating compositions described above may be modified in colour by replacing up to 10% of the inorganic filler material with a colourant, such as caramel or liquorice or extracts thereof. [0119]
  • The percentages given in this specification are on a dry weight basis. The amount of water required to make a suitable slurry of solid components amounting to 500 g (including glycerol) is usually about 1200 ml. [0120]
  • The following tables give further details of embodiments prepared to illustrate the invention. [0121]
  • Table 1 gives details regarding the influence of material formulation on the physical properties of the outer. [0122]
  • A slurry was prepared from hydrated binder and inorganic material to the recipe given in Table 1. Outer wrappers were made from the slurry to a length of 70 mm and 0.5 mm wall thickness by use of a ram extruder. The outer wrappers were dried at exit from the extruder die by use of two intra-red heaters placed 5-10 cm from the extrudate. The physical properties of the outer wrappers are detailed in Table 1. [0123]
  • Table [0124] 2 gives details regarding the influence of process conditions on the efficiency of setting outer wrappers using calcium chloride solution.
  • A slurry was prepared from 10 g sodium alginate, 45 g chalk and 45 g perlite in 200 ml of water. A ram extruder was filled with the slurry and the outer wrappers were prepared by extrusion of the slurry through an 8 mm outer diameter, 7 mm inner diameter torpedo die into calcium chloride solution. Firmness of the outer was judged subjectively by a panel of three individuals, on a ten point scale running from 1 (indicating that the extrudate was completely unchanged by immersion in the bath) to 10 (indicating that the extrudate was completely set and rigid). [0125]
  • The Table illustrates that as the number of uses of the bath is increased, the firmness of the outer wrapper decreases. The firmness of the outer wrapper increases as the concentration of the electrolyte solution increases and as immersion time increases. [0126]
  • Table 3 gives details of the combustion limits of carbon and glycerol based aerosol generating fuel sources using a single strand of extruded material of 1.00 mm diameter. [0127]
  • Table 4 shows the effect of binder type on the combustion characteristics of a variety of carbon and glycerol based aerosol generating fuel sources using single strands of extruded material of 1.00 mm diameter. Some binders are more combustible then others and therefore influence the proportions of material used in the aerosol generating fuel source. [0128]
  • Table 5 shows the effect of filler type on the combustion characteristics of a variety of carbon and glycerol based aerosol generating fuel sources using single strands of extruded material of 1.00 mm diameter. Some inorganic filler materials facilitate combustion of a range of aerosol generating fuel source mixtures. Chalk is the preferred filler over the ranges illustrated. This table should not necessarily be taken to indicate that the fillers used in mixtures outside these illustrated ranges would not burn. [0129]
  • The tests performed for Tables 3, 4 and 5 were performed on single strands smouldering in free air rather than on a number of strands within an outer wrapper in order to exclude any influence on the combustion of the strands due to the properties of the outer wrapper. [0130]
  • Table 6 gives smoke yields from filter-tipped cigarettes which had the following construction: [0131]
  • A 5 mm filter was obtained from a State Express International cigarette, the filter comprising fibrous cellulose acetate of 2.8 filament denier of Y cross-section, 34,000 total denier and having a pressure drop of 13 mm WG. [0132]
  • The substantially non-combustible outer wrapper was extruded using a ram extruder through an 8 mm outer diameter, 7 mm inner diameter torpedo die and the aerosol generating fuel source was extruded as 1.00 mm diameter strands from a ram extruder, the strands being gathered together and inserted into dried extruded outer wrappers. The cigarette rod length, i.e. excluding the filter element, was 67 mm. One cigarette of each was smoked under standard machine smoking conditions in which a 35 cm[0133] 3 puff of two seconds duration is taken every minute.
  • The first five examples of Table 4 illustrate that carbon fuel strands will burn without producing significant levels of total particulate matter (TPM) even with organic material (PGA) in the fuel strands. [0134]
  • The cigarettes according to the invention have very low visible sidestream smoke levels. However, the nature of the sidestream smoke from the inventive articles does not render the conventional fishtail sidestream measuring apparatus described in Analyst, October 1988, Volume 113, pp 1509-1513 a suitable measuring apparatus. We are thus unable to provide yield details in this respect. [0135]
    TABLE 1
    Influence of Material Formulation on the Physical Properties of the Outer.
    Energy
    % Total required Whiteness
    % % % Binder Plasticiser solids Water Permeability to crush of outer
    Perlite Chalk Binder Type (Glycerol) (g) (g) (CU) outer (J) (DE)
    85 15 PGA 100 300 94
    22.5 67.5 10 PGA 100 200 14 5.3 6.6
    90 10 PGA 100 200 3.8 5.2 9.2
    80 20 PGA 100 200 77 4.6
    80 20 PGA 100 200 0.6 9.6
    97.5 2.5 PGA 100 70 6.5 9.2
    95 5 PGA 100 40 4.5 9.5
    75 25 PGA 100 500 110.7
    75 25 PGA 100 260
    90 10 PGA 100 200
    90 10 HEC 100 150 cnm 5.2 3.7
    45 45 10 HEC 100 130 57
    45 45 10 AA 100 120 21
    90 10 AA 100 135 160
    88 10 PGA 2 100 180 185
    85 10 PGA 5 100 160 145
    80 10 PGA 10 100 140 215
    70 10 PGA 20 100 135 105
    72 8 PGA 20 100 120 cnm
    75 5 PGA 20 100 115 cnm
    77.5 2.5 PGA 20 100 110
    90 10 SCMC 100 14
    95 5 SCMC 100 70 17.5 4.4
    97.5 2.5 SCMC 100 110 34 3.8
    85 15 SCMC 100 2.9
    77.5 9 13.5 SCMC 100 100 12
    85 5 10 PGA 100 161 9.3
    70 20 10 PGA 100 120 9.2
    65 25 10 PGA 100 79
    40 50 10 PGA 100 19.5 12
    45 45 10 HPC 100 95 111
    90 10 NaA 100 160 65
    45 45 10 NaA 100 120 6
    90 10 NaCaA 100 205 70.7
    45 45 10 NaCaA 100 190
    90 10 Karaya 100 175 285
    gum
    45 45 10 Karaya 100 130 cnm
    gum
    90 10 Locust 100 150 295
    bean
    gum
    45 45 10 Locust 100 130 60
    bean
    gum
    45 45 10 Acacia 100 8
    gum
  • [0136]
    TABLE 2
    Influence of Process Conditions on the Efficiency of Setting Outer
    Wrappers using Calcium Chloride solution.
    Calcium chloride Immersion Number of uses of Subjective
    solution strength time in the bath prior to firmness
    (M 1−1) bath(s) this measurement of outer.
    0 0 0 1
    1 2 0 4
    1 4 0 6.5
    1 6 0 7.5
    1 8 0 8
    1 10 0 8
    1 60 0 9.5
    0.1 10 0 2.5
    0.5 10 0 4.7
    1 10 0 6.7
    2 10 0 7.7
    1 10 1 7
    1 10 2 6
    1 10 3 6
    1 10 4 5
    1 10 5 5
    1 10 6 4
    1 10 7 3.6
    1 10 8 3
  • [0137]
    TABLE 3
    Combustion Limits of Carbon and Glycerol
    Based Aerosol Generating Fuel Source (as single strand)
    Fuel Combustions that burn Fuel Combustions that do not burn
    % % % % % % % %
    Carbon Glycerol PGA Chalk Carbon Glycerol PGA Chalk
    0 10 10 80
    4 10 10 76
    5 20 10 65 5 20 10 65
    7 20 10 63
    8 26 10 56 8 5 10 77
    8 30 10 52 8 10 10 72
    8 15 10 67
    8 21.5 10 60.5
    9 15 10 66
    9 20 10 61
    10 15.5 10 64.5 10 0 10 80
    10 10 10 70
    11 15 10 64 11 3 10 76
    11 20 10 59 11 11 10 68
    11 21 10 58
    11 30 10 49
    12 8 10 70 12 0 10 78
    12 9 10 69 12 6 10 72
    12 10 10 68 12 7 10 71
    12 11 10 67
    13 20 10 57
    15 6 10 69 15 0 10 75
    15 20 10 55 15 3 10 72
    20 6 10 64 20 0 10 70
    20 10 10 60 20 3 10 67
    30 0 10 60
    30 3 10 57
    30 6 10 54
    50 0 10 40
  • [0138]
    TABLE 4
    Influence of binder type on the combustion characteristics of
    various aerosol generating fuel source mixtures.
    Binder Type
    Propylene Hydroxy
    Glycol Sodium Calcium Propyl
    Alginate Alginate Alginate Pectin Cellulose
    8% Carbon No Yes No No Yes
    11% Glycerol
    71% Chalk
    10% Binder
    12% Carbon Yes Yes No Yes Yes
    11% Glycerol
    67% Chalk
    10% Binder
    16% Carbon Yes Yes No Yes No
    11% Glycerol
    63% Chalk
    10% Binder
    8% Carbon Yes Yes No Yes Yes
    11% Glycerol
    61% Chalk
    20% Binder
    32% Carbon Yes Yes No Yes Yes
    11% Glycerol
    57% Chalk
    20% Binder
    16% Carbon Yes Yes No Yes Yes
    11% Glycerol
    53% Chalk
    20% Binder
    8% Carbon Yes No No Yes
    11% Glycerol
    51% Chalk
    30% Binder
    12% Carbon Yes No No Yes
    11% Glycerol
    47% Chalk
    30% Binder
    16% Carbon Yes No No Yes
    11% Glycerol
    43% Chalk
    30% Binder
  • [0139]
    TABLE 5
    Influence of inorganic, filler type on the combustion characteristics of
    various aerosol generating and source mixtures.
    Filler Type
    Magnesium Calcium Magnesium
    Perlite Oxide Bentonite Chalk Sulphate hydroxide Kieselguhr
    Fuel Mixture
    18.2% Carbon, No No No Yes No No Yes
    11.4% PGA,
    12.5% Glycerol,
    58% Filler
    16.3% Carbon, No No No Yes No No Yes
    10.2% PGA,
    11.2% Glycerol,
    62.2% Filler
    15.8% Carbon, No No No Yes No No
    13.2% PGA,
    14.5% Glycerol,
    56.5% Filler
    14.8% Carbon, No No Yes No No No
    9.3% PGA,
    10.2% Glycerol,
    65.7% Filler
    13.9% Carbon, No No Yes No No No
    11.6% PGA,
    12.8% Glycerol,
    61.6% Filler
    12.5% Carbon, No Yes No No No
    10.4% PGA,
    11.5% Glycerol,
    65.6% Filler
    10.5% Carbon, No No No Yes No No
    13.2% PGA,
    14.5% Glycerol,
    61.8% Filler
    9.3% Carbon, No No No No No
    11.6% PGA,
    12.8% Glycerol,
    66.3% Filler
    8.3% Carbon, No No No No
    10.4% PGA,
    11.5% Glycerol,
    69.8% Filler
  • [0140]
    TABLE 6
    Smoke yields from filter tipped cigarettes illustrating the invention
    Weight % % Sodium Weight % % % % PGA Puff TPM Glycerol
    (g) Perlite Alginate (g) Carbon Glycerol Chalk Binder number (mg) (mg)
    0.6035 90 10 0.5865 12 0 78 10 DNB 0.0 0
    0.4025 90 10 0.7255 15 0 75 10 5 0.0 0
    0.4535 90 10 0.7291 20 0 70 10 10 0.2 0
    0.4774 90 10 0.6896 30 0 60 10 6 0.0 0
    0.3812 90 10 0.5973 50 0 40 10 5 0.1 0
    0.6001 90 10 0.6847 8 5 77 10 DNB 0.0 0
    0.6344 90 10 0.7186 12 6 72 10 7 4.3 2
    0.6555 90 10 0.7691 15 6 69 10 7 3.3 1
    0.6777 go 10 0.6818 20 6 64 10 8 3.0 <1
    0.4730 90 10 0.7691 30 6 54 10 6 2.2 <1
    0.6312 90 10 0.6530 40 6 44 10 8 1.9 <1
    0.5103 90 10 0.4808 12 8 70 10 9 1.3 <1
    0.5845 90 10 0.6990 4 10 76 10 DNB 0 0
    0.6219 90 10 0.7192 8 10 72 10 6 3.8 2
    0.5060 90 10 0.6780 10 10 70 10 DNB 0 0
    0.4872 90 10 0.6916 11 10 69 10 5 4.3 3
    0.6035 90 10 0.5865 12 10 68 10 DNB 0 0
    0.5665 90 10 0.6215 9 15 66 10 8 5.7 2
    0.4838 90 10 0.7133 10 15.5 64.5 10 7 5.4 3
    0.5161 90 10 0.7092 11 15 64 10 6 7.5 3
    0.6103 90 10 0.6443 8 21.5 60.5 10 6 6.4 3
    0.4461 90 10 0.7446 8 26 56 10 6 12.7 6

Claims (93)

1. A smoking article having a smoking material rod comprising a substantially non-combustible wrapper extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod and enwrapping smoking material, said smoking material comprising a combustible fuel source extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod and aerosol generating means extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod, characterised in that said wrapper is comprised of predominantly non-combustible, particulate, inorganic filler material, a binder, optionally a plasticiser, and optionally a small amount of cellulosic fibre material, and said inorganic filler material is at least 65% by weight of said wrapper.
2. A smoking article having a smoking material rod comprising a substantially non-combustible wrapper extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod and enwrapping smoking material, said smoking material comprising a combustible fuel source extending substantially along the full length of the smoking material rod, and aerosol generating means being disposed between the fuel source and the wrapper and extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod, characterised in that said wrapper is comprised of predominantly non-combustible, particulate, inorganic filler material, a binder, optionally a plasticiser, and optionally a small amount of cellulosic fibre material, and said inorganic filler material is at least 65% by weight of said wrapper.
3. A smoking article according to claims 1 or 2, wherein the fuel source and/or the aerosol generating means comprise longitudinally extending rods, strands or filaments.
4. A smoking article according to claims 1 or 2, wherein the fuel source comprises cut filler material.
5. A smoking article according to claims 1 or w, wherein the fuel source and/or the aerosol generating means comprise a rolled sheet.
6. A smoking article according to any one of claims 1 to 4 wherein the aerosol generating means is cut filler material.
7. A smoking article according to any one of claims 1-4 or wherein the fuel source and the aerosol generating means both comprise cut filler material.
8. A smoking article according to claim 7, wherein the cut filler materials are intimately mixed.
9. A smoking material according to claim 1 or 2, wherein aerosol generating means and the fuel source are combined to provide an aerosol generating fuel source.
10. A smoking article as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the aerosol generating means and the fuel source comprise a core and annulus arrangement.
11. A smoking article according to any one of claims 1-10, wherein the aerosol generating means and the duel source comprise a core and annulus arrangement of foamed components.
12. A smoking article according to claim 1 or 2, wherein one of the fuel source or aerosol generating means is foamed.
13. A smoking article according to any one of claims 1 to 12, wherein the smoking article further comprises a filter element.
14. A smoking article according to any one of claims 1 to 13, wherein at least 50% by weight of the article is inorganic material.
15. A smoking article according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the wrapper has the features of any one of claims 20 to 42.
16. A smoking article according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the fuel source has the features of any one of claims 43 to 58.
17. A smoking article according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the aerosol generating means has the features of any one of claims 59 to 72.
18. A smoking article according to claim 9, wherein the aerosol generating fuel source has the features of any one of claims 73 to 85.
19. A smoking article produced according to the method of any one of claims 86 to 95.
20. A substantially non-combustible smoking article wrapper comprised of predominantly non-combustible, particulate, inorganic filler material, a binder, optionally a plasticiser, and optionally a small amount of cellulosic fibre material, said inorganic filler material being at least 65% by weight of said wrapper.
21. A substantially non-combustible smoking article wrapper according to claim 20, wherein said non-combustible inorganic filler material is a non-metallic material.
22. A wrapper according to any one of claims 20 or 21, herein said non-combustible inorganic filler material is one or more of perlite, vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, colloidal silica, chalk, magnesium oxide, magnesium sulphate, magnesium carbonate, or other low density, non-combustible inorganic filler materials.
23. A wrapper according to claim 20, wherein the inorganic filler material comprises at least 90% by weight of the wrapper.
24. A wrapper according to claim 24, wherein the inorganic filler material comprises at least 80% by weight of the wrapper.
25. A wrapper according to claim 24, wherein the inorganic filler material comprises at least 90% by weight of the wrapper.
26. A wrapper according to any one of claims 20 to 25, wherein the wrapper comprises less than 10% fibre material by weight of, the wrapper.
27. A wrapper according to any one of claims 20 to 26, wherein the wrapper comprises a binder and/or a plasticiser at up to 30% by weight of the wrapper.
28. A wrapper according to claim 27, wherein the binder is not present at more than 25% by weight of the wrapper.
29. A wrapper according to claim 27 or 28, wherein the binder is present at about 8-10% by weight of the wrapper.
30. A wrapper according to claim 27 or 28, wherein the binder is present at about 5% or less by weight of the wrapper.
31. A wrapper according to any one of claims 27 to 30, wherein the binder is an organic binder selected from one or more of the classes of cellulose derivatives, cellulose ethers, alginic binders, gums, gels, pectins or starches.
32. A wrapper according to claim 31, wherein the organic binder is one or more of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hyroxyethyl cellulose, ammonium alginate, sodium alginate, sodium calcium alginate, calcium ammonium alginate, potassium alginate, magnesium alginate, triethanol-amine alginate, propyliene glycol aluminate, aliminium alginate, copper alginate, zinc alginate, silver alginate, gum arabic, gum ghatti, gum tragacanth, Karaya gum, locust bean gum, acacia gum, guar gum, quince seed gum, xanthan gum, agar, agarose, carrageenans, fucoidan or furcelleran.
33. A wrapper according to any one of claims 27 to 30, wherein the binder is an inorganic, non-combustible binder.
34. A wrapper according to claim 33, wherein the binder is ore or more of potassium silicate, magnesium oxide in combination with potassium silicate, or cement.
35. A wrapper according to claim 27, wherein the plasticiser is present at up to 20% by weight or the wrapper.
36. A wrapper according to claim 35, wherein the plasticiser is present at about 10% no less by weight of the wrapper.
37. A wrapper according to claim 36, wherein the plasticiser is present at about 5% or less by weight of the wrapper.
38. A wrapper according to any one of claims 27 to 37, wherein the plasticiser is one or more of glycerol, propylene glycol, low melting point fats or low melting point oils.
39. A wrapper according to any one of claims 20 to 38, wherein the permeability of said wrapper is within the range of 1-150 Coresta Units.
40. A wrapper according to any one of claims 20 to 39, wherein the wrapper comprises a deodoriser selected from citronellal, geraniol or vanillin.
41. A smoking article fuel source of substantially the whole length of a smoking article, the fuel source comprising carbonaceous material, an inorganic non-combustible binder and optionally a burn promoter.
42. A smoking article according to claim 41, wherein said inorganic non-combustible binder comprises one or more of potassium silicate, magnesium oxide in combination with potassium silicate or cement, such as Portland cement.
43. A smoking article fuel source according to claim 41 or 42, wherein said inorganic non-combustible binder is present within the range of 10-65% by weight of the fuel source.
44. A smoking article fuel source according to claim 43, wherein the binder is present at less than 40% by weight of the fuel source.
45. A smoking article fuel source according to any one or claims 41 to 44, wherein the fuel source comprises 5-20% by weight thereof of a burn promoter.
46. A smoking article fuel source according to any one of claims 41 to 45, wherein the fuel source comprises 25-70% carbon by weight thereof.
47. A smoking article fuel source according to claim 46, wherein the fuel source comprises at least 55% carbon weight thereof.
48. A smoking article fuel source according to claim 41, wherein the fuel source comprises about 30% carbon, 60% inorganic, non-combustible binder and less than about 10% burn promoter.
49. A smoking article fuel source of substantially the whole length of a smoking article, the fuel source comprising 15-70% carbon, 84-5% non-combustible inorganic filler material, 0-5% plasticiser, 1-20% organic binder and 0-20% inorganic binder, the plasticiser comprising one or more of low melting point fats or low melting point oils.
50. A smoking article fuel source according to claim 49, wherein carbon is present within the range of 25-35% by weight of the fuel source.
51. A smoking article fuel source according to any one of claims 49 or 50, wherein the non-combustible inorganic filler material comprises one or more of perlite, vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, colloidal silica, chalk, magnesium oxide, magnesium sulphate, magnesium carbonate or other low density, non-combustible inorganic filler materials.
52. A smoking article fuel source according to any one of claims 49 to 51, wherein the organic binder is selected from one or more of the classes of cellulose derivatives, cellulose ethers, alginic binders, gums, gels, pectins or starches.
53. A smoking article fuel source according to claim 52, wherein the organic binder is sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, ammonium alginate, sodium alginate, sodium calcium alginate, calcium ammonium alginate, potassium alginate, magnesium alginate, triethanol-amine alginate, propylene glycol alginate, aluminium alginate, copper alginate, zinc alginate, silver alginate, gum arabic, gum ghatti, gum tragacanth, Karaya gum, locust bean gum, acacia gum, guar gum, quince seed gum, xanthan gum, agar, agarose, carrageenans, fucoidan or furcelleran.
54. A smoking article fuel source according to any one of claims 49 to 51, wherein the inorganic binder is one or more of potassium silicate, magnesium oxide in combination with potassium silicate or cement.
55. A smoking article aerosol generating means comprising a non-combustible inorganic filler material, aerosol forming means, and an organic or inorganic binder.
56. A smoking article aerosol generating means according to claim 55, wherein the aerosol generating means comprises 95-30% inorganic, non-combustible binder, 45-90% non-combustible inorganic filler material and 5-30% aerosol forming means.
57. A smoking article aerosol generating means according to claim. 55, wherein the aerosol generating means comprises 1-25% organic binder, 50-94% non-combustible inorganic filler material, and 5-30% aerosol forming means.
58. A smoking article aerosol generating means comprising an organic filler material, aerosol forming means, an organic binder and optionally a non-combustible inorganic filler material.
59. A smoking article aerosol generating means according to claim 58, wherein the aerosol generating means comprises 1-25% organic binder, 1-94% organic filler material, 0-93% inorganic filler material and 5-30% aerosol forming means.
60. A smoking article aerosol generating means according to any one of claims 55 to 59, wherein the non-combustible inorganic filler material is one or more of perlite, vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, colloidal silica, chalk, magnesium oxide, magnesium sulphate, magnesium carbonate, dr other low density, non-combustible inorganic filler materials.
61. A smoking article aerosol generating means according to any one of claims 55-60, wherein the organic filler material comprises inorganic salts of organic acids, or polysaccharide material.
62. A smoking article aerosol generating means according to any one of claims 55-61, wherein the aerosol forming means comprises one or more of polyhydric alcohols, esters, or high boiling point hydrocarbons.
63. A smoking article generating means according to claim 62, wherein the aerosol forming means is one or more of glycerol, propylene glycol, triethylene glycol, triethyl citrate or triacetin.
64. A smoking article aerosol generating means according to any one of claims 55 to 63, wherein the organic binder is selected from one or more of the classes of cellulose derivatives, cellulose ethers, alginic binders, gums, gels, pectins or starches.
65. A smoking article aerosol generating means according to claim 64, wherein the organic binder is one or more of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, ammonium alginate, sodium alginate, sodium calcium alginate, calcium ammonium alginate, potassium alginate, magnesium alginate, triethanol-amine alginate, propylene glycol alginate, aluminium alginate, copper alginate, zinc alginate, silver alginate, gum arabic, gum ghatti, gum tragacanth, Karaya gum, locust bean gum, acacia gum, guar gum, quince seed gum, xanthan gum, agar, agarose, carrageenans, fucoidan or furcelleran.
66. A smoking article aerosol generating means according to claim 55 or 56, wherein the inorganic binder comprises one or more of one or more of potassium silicate, magnesium oxide in combination with potassium silicate, or cement.
67. A smoking article aerosol generating means according to claim 58 or 59 wherein the aerosol generating means comprises an expansion medium
68. A smoking article aerosol generating means according to any one of claims 55-67, wherein the aerosol generating means comprises flavouring agents.
69. A smoking article aerosol generating fuel source comprising a non-combustible inorganic filler material, aerosol forming means, an organic or inorganic binder carbon.
70. A smoking article aerosol generating fuel source according to claim 69, wherein the aerosol generating source comprises 0-35% inorganic filler material, 5-30% aerosol forming means, 30-60% inorganic binder, 30-65% carbon and 0-10% burn promoter.
71. A smoking article aerosol generating fuel source according to claim 69, wherein the aerosol generating fuel source comprises 86-0% inorganic filler material, 5-30% aerosol forming means, 1-25% organic binder and 8-60% carbon.
72. A smoking article aerosol generating fuel source comprising organic filler material, optionally a non-combustible inorganic filler material, aerosol forming means, organic binder and carbon.
73. A smoking article aerosol generating fuel source according to claim 72, wherein the aerosol generating fuel source comprises 93-0% organic filler material, 0-93% inorganic filler material, 5-30% aerosol forming means, 1-25% organic binder and 1-60% carbon.
74. A, smoking article aerosol generating fuel source according to any one of claims 69 to 73, wherein non-combustible inorganic filler material comprises one or more of perlite, vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, colloidal silica, chalk, magnesium oxide, magnesium sulphate, magnesium carbonate or other low density, non-combustible inorganic filler materials.
75. A smoking article aerosol generating fuel source according to any one of claims 72 to 74, wherein the organic filler material comprises inorganic salts of organic acids or polysaccharide material.
76. A smoking article aerosol generating fuel source according to any one of claims 69 to 75, wherein the aerosol forming means comprises one or more of polyhydric alcohols, esters, or high boiling point hydrocarbons.
77. A smoking article aerosol generating fuel source according to claim 76, wherein the aerosol forming means is one or more of glycerol, propylene glycol, triethylene glycol, triethyl citrate or triacetin.
78. A smoking article aerosol generating fuel source according to claim 69 or 70 wherein the inorganic binder comprises one or more of potassium silicate, magnesium oxide in combination with potassium silicate or cement.
79. A smoking article aerosol generating fuel source according to any one of claims 69 and 71 to 78, wherein the organic binder is selected from one or more of the classes of cellulose derivatives, cellulose ethers, alginic binders, gums, gels, pectins or starches.
80. A smoking article aerosol generating fuel source according to claim 79, wherein the organic binder is one or more of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, ammonium alginate, sodium alginate, sodium calcium alginate, calcium ammonium alginate, potassium alginate, magnesium alginate, triethanol-amine alginate, propylene glycol alginate, aluminium alginate, copper alginate, zinc alginate, silver alginate, gum arabic, gum ghatti, gum tragacanth, Karaya gum, locust bean gum, acacia gum, guar gum, quince seed gum, xanthan gum, agar, agarose, carrageenans, fucoidan or furcelleran.
81. A smoking article aerosol generating fuel source according to any one of claims 72 or 73, wherein the aerosol generating fuel source comprises an expansion medium.
82. A method of producing a substantially non-combustible smoking article wrapper comprising predominantly non-combustible inorganic filler material and a binder, the method comprising producing a mixture of the non-combustible inorganic filler material and a binder, extruding the mixture to provide a hollow tube, and contacting the hallow tube with a material which causes the hollow tube to set rapidly.
83. A method according to claim 82, wherein said material which causes said hollow tube to set is either a water scavenging substance which removes water contained in said tube, a solution which renders a soluble binder in said mixture of said tube insoluble, or a hydrophilic substance which removes water from an aqueous-containing mixture of said tube.
84. A method according to claim 82 or 83, wherein the extrusion process occurs at not more than 3-4 bar (300-400 kPa) at the extruder die of a ram extruder.
85. A method according to claim 82 or 83, wherein the extrusion process occurs at not more than 9 bar (900 kPa) when using a screw extruder.
86. A method according to claim 83, wherein the water scavenging substance is light magnesium oxide.
87. A method according to claim 83, wherein a soluble alginate is rendered insoluble by the addition of solubilising agents, such as ammonium hydroxide or calcium chloride.
88. A method according to claim 83, wherein the hydrophilic substance is ethanol.
89. A method according to any one of claims 82-88, wherein pre-extrusion a sub-critical level of precipitating agent is present in the extruder barrel and post extrusion the level of precipitating agent is increased to a critical level to cause complete precipitation.
90. A method according to claim 82, wherein the method comprises sequential application of said processes.
91. A method according to any one of claims 82 to 83, wherein the wrapper mixture comprises sacrificial molecules which can be removed after the formation of said wrapper by application of heat or chemical reaction.
92. A smoking article having a smoking material rod comprising a substantially non-combustible wrapper extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod and enwrapping a combustible fuel source extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod and aerosol generating means extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod.
93. A smoking article having a smoking material rod comprising a substantially non-combustible wrapper extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod and enwrapping a combustible fuel source extending substantially along the full length of the smoking material rod, and aerosol generating means being disposed between the fuel source and the wrapper and extending substantially along the length of the smoking material rod.
US10/389,087 1994-09-07 2003-03-14 Smoking articles Abandoned US20040025894A1 (en)

Priority Applications (7)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9417970A GB9417970D0 (en) 1994-09-07 1994-09-07 Smoking articles
GB9417970.2 1994-09-07
GB9515836.6 1995-08-02
GBGB9515836.6A GB9515836D0 (en) 1995-08-02 1995-08-02 Smoking articles
US08/793,524 US6095152A (en) 1994-09-07 1995-09-06 Smoking article with non-combustible wrapper, combustible fuel source and aerosol generator
US09/577,919 US6578584B1 (en) 1994-09-07 2000-05-24 Smoking article with non-combustible wrapper, combustible fuel source and aerosol generator
US10/389,087 US20040025894A1 (en) 1994-09-07 2003-03-14 Smoking articles

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/389,087 US20040025894A1 (en) 1994-09-07 2003-03-14 Smoking articles
US11/006,307 US20050115579A1 (en) 1994-07-09 2004-12-07 Smoking article aerosol generating means

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09/577,919 Continuation US6578584B1 (en) 1994-09-07 2000-05-24 Smoking article with non-combustible wrapper, combustible fuel source and aerosol generator

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/006,307 Division US20050115579A1 (en) 1994-07-09 2004-12-07 Smoking article aerosol generating means

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20040025894A1 true US20040025894A1 (en) 2004-02-12

Family

ID=26305572

Family Applications (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08/793,524 Expired - Lifetime US6095152A (en) 1994-09-07 1995-09-06 Smoking article with non-combustible wrapper, combustible fuel source and aerosol generator
US09/577,919 Expired - Fee Related US6578584B1 (en) 1994-09-07 2000-05-24 Smoking article with non-combustible wrapper, combustible fuel source and aerosol generator
US10/389,087 Abandoned US20040025894A1 (en) 1994-09-07 2003-03-14 Smoking articles
US11/006,307 Abandoned US20050115579A1 (en) 1994-07-09 2004-12-07 Smoking article aerosol generating means

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08/793,524 Expired - Lifetime US6095152A (en) 1994-09-07 1995-09-06 Smoking article with non-combustible wrapper, combustible fuel source and aerosol generator
US09/577,919 Expired - Fee Related US6578584B1 (en) 1994-09-07 2000-05-24 Smoking article with non-combustible wrapper, combustible fuel source and aerosol generator

Family Applications After (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11/006,307 Abandoned US20050115579A1 (en) 1994-07-09 2004-12-07 Smoking article aerosol generating means

Country Status (19)

Country Link
US (4) US6095152A (en)
EP (3) EP0956783B1 (en)
JP (1) JP3538201B2 (en)
CN (2) CN1165250C (en)
AT (2) AT319337T (en)
AU (1) AU696926B2 (en)
BR (1) BR9509160A (en)
CA (1) CA2196907C (en)
CZ (2) CZ294121B6 (en)
DE (3) DE69534858D1 (en)
DK (1) DK0781101T3 (en)
ES (1) ES2148549T3 (en)
GR (1) GR3034648T3 (en)
HU (1) HU227234B1 (en)
NZ (2) NZ292242A (en)
PT (1) PT781101E (en)
SG (1) SG67485A1 (en)
TR (1) TR199501100A2 (en)
WO (1) WO1996007336A2 (en)

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050066985A1 (en) * 2003-09-30 2005-03-31 Borschke August Joseph Smokable rod for a cigarette
US20050066986A1 (en) * 2003-09-30 2005-03-31 Nestor Timothy Brian Smokable rod for a cigarette
US20060196516A1 (en) * 2005-02-28 2006-09-07 Mingwu Cui Use of chlorate, sulfur or ozone to reduce tobacco specific nitrosamines
US20060231114A1 (en) * 2005-04-19 2006-10-19 Oglesby Robert L Smoking articles and wrapping materials therefor
US20080295854A1 (en) * 2006-03-31 2008-12-04 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded papers, smoking articles and methods
US20110023901A1 (en) * 2009-07-30 2011-02-03 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded paper, smoking article and method
US20110271971A1 (en) * 2010-05-06 2011-11-10 Billy Tyrone Conner Segmented smoking article with stitch-bonded substrate
CN102821625A (en) * 2010-03-26 2012-12-12 菲利普莫里斯生产公司 Smoking article with heat resistant sheet material
US9271524B1 (en) 2007-09-07 2016-03-01 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Tobacco having reduced tobacco specific nitrosamine content
US9302522B2 (en) 2010-12-13 2016-04-05 Altria Client Services Llc Process of preparing printing solution and making patterned cigarette wrappers
US9668516B2 (en) 2012-05-16 2017-06-06 Altria Client Services Llc Banded cigarette wrapper with opened-area bands

Families Citing this family (102)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
AT319337T (en) * 1994-09-07 2006-03-15 British American Tobacco Co A smoking article
DE19703003A1 (en) 1997-01-28 1998-07-30 Bat Cigarettenfab Gmbh Cigarette with reduced staining and reduced sidestream smoke
US5996589A (en) * 1998-03-03 1999-12-07 Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation Aerosol-delivery smoking article
CA2331822C (en) * 1998-05-12 2005-05-10 Japan Tobacco Inc. Cigarette filter wrapper paper, cigarette filter, and filter-tipped cigarette
GB9928853D0 (en) 1999-12-07 2000-02-02 British American Tobacco Co Improvements relating to smoking articles
US6606999B2 (en) * 2001-03-27 2003-08-19 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Reduced ignition propensity smoking article
US7011096B2 (en) * 2001-08-31 2006-03-14 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Oxidant/catalyst nanoparticles to reduce carbon monoxide in the mainstream smoke of a cigarette
US20040025895A1 (en) * 2001-08-31 2004-02-12 Ping Li Oxidant/catalyst nanoparticles to reduce tobacco smoke constituents such as carbon monoxide
US6769437B2 (en) * 2002-04-08 2004-08-03 Philip Morris Incorporated Use of oxyhydroxide compounds for reducing carbon monoxide in the mainstream smoke of a cigarette
JP4388379B2 (en) * 2002-04-12 2009-12-24 フィリップ・モーリス・プロダクツ・ソシエテ・アノニム Partially reduced nanoparticle additive for reducing the amount of carbon monoxide and / or nitric oxide in mainstream smoke of a cigarette
GB0209690D0 (en) 2002-04-27 2002-06-05 British American Tobacco Co Improvements relating to smoking articles and smokable filler materials therefor
US6782892B2 (en) * 2002-08-30 2004-08-31 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Manganese oxide mixtures in nanoparticle form to lower the amount of carbon monoxide and/or nitric oxide in the mainstream smoke of a cigarette
ES2297480T3 (en) * 2003-06-13 2008-05-01 Philip Morris Products S.A. Cigarette wrapper printed with catalyst.
US9107452B2 (en) * 2003-06-13 2015-08-18 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Catalyst to reduce carbon monoxide in the mainstream smoke of a cigarette
US7165553B2 (en) * 2003-06-13 2007-01-23 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Nanoscale catalyst particles/aluminosilicate to reduce carbon monoxide in the mainstream smoke of a cigarette
UY28364A1 (en) * 2003-06-13 2005-01-31 Philip Morris Prod comminuted catalytically cut filler snuff and methods for filling the same role
US7152609B2 (en) * 2003-06-13 2006-12-26 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Catalyst to reduce carbon monoxide and nitric oxide from the mainstream smoke of a cigarette
US7243658B2 (en) * 2003-06-13 2007-07-17 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Nanoscale composite catalyst to reduce carbon monoxide in the mainstream smoke of a cigarette
GB0324525D0 (en) 2003-10-21 2003-11-26 British American Tobacco Co Smoking articles and smokable filler material therefor
US20060032510A1 (en) * 2003-10-27 2006-02-16 Philip Morris Usa Inc. In situ synthesis of composite nanoscale particles
US7677254B2 (en) * 2003-10-27 2010-03-16 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Reduction of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide in smoking articles using iron oxynitride
US8006703B2 (en) 2003-10-27 2011-08-30 Philip Morris Usa Inc. In situ synthesis of composite nanoscale particles
US20050166935A1 (en) * 2003-10-27 2005-08-04 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Reduction of carbon monoxide in smoking articles using transition metal oxide clusters
US7509961B2 (en) * 2003-10-27 2009-03-31 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Cigarettes and cigarette components containing nanostructured fibril materials
US7950400B2 (en) 2003-10-27 2011-05-31 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Tobacco cut filler including metal oxide supported particles
US8701681B2 (en) 2003-10-27 2014-04-22 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Use of oxyhydroxide compounds in cigarette paper for reducing carbon monoxide in the mainstream smoke of a cigarette
US7934510B2 (en) * 2003-10-27 2011-05-03 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Cigarette wrapper with nanoparticle spinel ferrite catalyst and methods of making same
US7640936B2 (en) * 2003-10-27 2010-01-05 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Preparation of mixed metal oxide catalysts from nanoscale particles
US7712471B2 (en) * 2003-10-27 2010-05-11 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Methods for forming transition metal oxide clusters and smoking articles comprising transition metal oxide clusters
WO2005046363A2 (en) 2003-11-07 2005-05-26 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Tobacco compositions
US8627828B2 (en) 2003-11-07 2014-01-14 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Llc Tobacco compositions
US7422795B2 (en) * 2004-06-21 2008-09-09 E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Polytrimethylene ether ester elastomer flexible films
US7878211B2 (en) * 2005-02-04 2011-02-01 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Tobacco powder supported catalyst particles
US8151806B2 (en) * 2005-02-07 2012-04-10 Schweitzer-Mauduit International, Inc. Smoking articles having reduced analyte levels and process for making same
US10188140B2 (en) 2005-08-01 2019-01-29 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article
US7647932B2 (en) * 2005-08-01 2010-01-19 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article
US7479098B2 (en) 2005-09-23 2009-01-20 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Equipment for insertion of objects into smoking articles
MX2008009585A (en) 2006-01-27 2009-01-15 British American Tobacco Co Method of preparing a rod for use in the preparation of a smoking article.
EP1993389B1 (en) 2006-03-10 2010-04-28 British American Tobacco (Investments) Limited Smoking article filter
US9220301B2 (en) 2006-03-16 2015-12-29 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article
US20070215167A1 (en) * 2006-03-16 2007-09-20 Evon Llewellyn Crooks Smoking article
JP5227793B2 (en) * 2006-04-11 2013-07-03 日本たばこ産業株式会社 Non-combustion smoking article
US7726320B2 (en) 2006-10-18 2010-06-01 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Tobacco-containing smoking article
US20090120450A1 (en) * 2007-07-03 2009-05-14 Schweitzer-Mauduit International, Inc. Smoking Articles Having Reduced Ignition Proclivity Characteristics
GB0718406D0 (en) * 2007-09-20 2007-10-31 British American Tobacco Co Smoking article with modified smoke delivery
WO2009084458A1 (en) * 2007-12-27 2009-07-09 Japan Tobacco Inc. Non-combustion type smoking article with carbonaceous heat source
FI121361B (en) * 2008-01-22 2010-10-29 Stagemode Oy Tobacco product and a process for its preparation
US8079369B2 (en) 2008-05-21 2011-12-20 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Method of forming a cigarette filter rod member
CN103222684B (en) 2008-05-21 2015-11-18 R.J.雷诺兹烟草公司 Apparatus and associated method for forming a filter assembly for smoking articles and smoking articles made therefrom
US8613284B2 (en) 2008-05-21 2013-12-24 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Cigarette filter comprising a degradable fiber
RU2536115C2 (en) * 2009-03-17 2014-12-20 Филип Моррис Продактс Са System of generating tobacco-based nicotine aerosol
RU2422181C2 (en) * 2009-05-25 2011-06-27 Владимир Викторович Куцель Low-temperature flameless aerosol-generating fire extinguishing composition and method of producing thereof
US20120017925A1 (en) 2010-06-30 2012-01-26 Sebastian Andries D Degradable cigarette filter
US8434498B2 (en) 2009-08-11 2013-05-07 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Degradable filter element
US8997755B2 (en) * 2009-11-11 2015-04-07 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Filter element comprising smoke-altering material
CN102425077B (en) * 2010-03-08 2013-04-24 云南恩典科技产业发展有限公司 Chromatic cigarette paper containing rhodiola root and preparation method thereof
CN102425078B (en) * 2010-03-08 2013-04-24 云南恩典科技产业发展有限公司 Rhodiola root-containing hand-rolling cigarette paper and its preparation method
CN102425076B (en) * 2010-03-08 2013-03-27 云南恩典科技产业发展有限公司 Cigarette paper containing rhodiola root and preparation method thereof
CN102002886B (en) * 2010-03-08 2012-05-09 云南恩典科技产业发展有限公司 Rhodiola rosea containing colorful hand-scrolled cigarette paper and preparation method thereof
CN101806011B (en) * 2010-03-25 2012-07-04 云南恩典科技产业发展有限公司 Cigarette paper containing rhodiola roots
CN101806012B (en) * 2010-03-25 2011-06-15 云南恩典科技产业发展有限公司 Manufacture method of cigarette paper containing rhodiola roots
US20110271968A1 (en) 2010-05-07 2011-11-10 Carolyn Rierson Carpenter Filtered Cigarette With Modifiable Sensory Characteristics
WO2012012053A1 (en) 2010-06-30 2012-01-26 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Biodegradable cigarette filter
US20120000481A1 (en) 2010-06-30 2012-01-05 Dennis Potter Degradable filter element for smoking article
US8950407B2 (en) 2010-06-30 2015-02-10 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Degradable adhesive compositions for smoking articles
US8720450B2 (en) 2010-07-30 2014-05-13 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Filter element comprising multifunctional fibrous smoke-altering material
US20120042885A1 (en) * 2010-08-19 2012-02-23 James Richard Stone Segmented smoking article with monolithic substrate
US20120125354A1 (en) 2010-11-18 2012-05-24 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Fire-Cured Tobacco Extract and Tobacco Products Made Therefrom
CN104284605B (en) 2012-03-19 2018-02-23 R.J.雷诺兹烟草公司 A method for processing tobacco extract and tobacco pulp products prepared therefrom
US20120152265A1 (en) 2010-12-17 2012-06-21 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Tobacco-Derived Syrup Composition
US9107453B2 (en) 2011-01-28 2015-08-18 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Tobacco-derived casing composition
US8893725B2 (en) 2011-01-28 2014-11-25 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Polymeric materials derived from tobacco
US9192193B2 (en) 2011-05-19 2015-11-24 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Molecularly imprinted polymers for treating tobacco material and filtering smoke from smoking articles
US20120305015A1 (en) 2011-05-31 2012-12-06 Sebastian Andries D Coated paper filter
NZ619159A (en) 2011-06-02 2015-09-25 Philip Morris Products Sa Combustible heat source for a smoking article
US9149070B2 (en) 2011-07-14 2015-10-06 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Segmented cigarette filter for selective smoke filtration
US8973588B2 (en) 2011-07-29 2015-03-10 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Plasticizer composition for degradable polyester filter tow
US10064429B2 (en) 2011-09-23 2018-09-04 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Mixed fiber product for use in the manufacture of cigarette filter elements and related methods, systems, and apparatuses
GB201116777D0 (en) * 2011-09-29 2011-11-09 British American Tobacco Co Smokeable element
US20130085052A1 (en) 2011-09-29 2013-04-04 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Apparatus for Inserting Microcapsule Objects into a Filter Element of a Smoking Article, and Associated Method
US20130125907A1 (en) 2011-11-17 2013-05-23 Michael Francis Dube Method for Producing Triethyl Citrate from Tobacco
US20130255702A1 (en) 2012-03-28 2013-10-03 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article incorporating a conductive substrate
US9345268B2 (en) * 2012-04-17 2016-05-24 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Method for preparing smoking articles
US10004259B2 (en) 2012-06-28 2018-06-26 Rai Strategic Holdings, Inc. Reservoir and heater system for controllable delivery of multiple aerosolizable materials in an electronic smoking article
AU2013285466B2 (en) * 2012-07-04 2016-11-10 Philip Morris Products S.A. Combustible heat source with improved binding agent
US9179709B2 (en) 2012-07-25 2015-11-10 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Mixed fiber sliver for use in the manufacture of cigarette filter elements
US8881737B2 (en) 2012-09-04 2014-11-11 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Electronic smoking article comprising one or more microheaters
US9854841B2 (en) 2012-10-08 2018-01-02 Rai Strategic Holdings, Inc. Electronic smoking article and associated method
EP3108760B1 (en) 2012-12-28 2018-02-07 Philip Morris Products S.a.s. Heating assembly for an aerosol generating system
US8910640B2 (en) 2013-01-30 2014-12-16 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Wick suitable for use in an electronic smoking article
WO2014140168A2 (en) * 2013-03-13 2014-09-18 TAVERNE, Georges Cigarette-like smoking article
CN103263077B (en) * 2013-04-24 2014-12-03 湖北中烟工业有限责任公司 Method for preparing cigarette flaky carbonaceous heat source materials by calcium salt
JP6235127B2 (en) * 2013-08-13 2017-11-22 フィリップ・モーリス・プロダクツ・ソシエテ・アノニム Smoking article comprising a blind combustible heat source
EP3057452A1 (en) * 2013-10-14 2016-08-24 Philip Morris Products S.a.s. Heated aerosol-generating articles comprising improved rods
CN103750535B (en) * 2014-01-22 2015-12-02 红云红河烟草(集团)有限责任公司 A method for preparing a non-tobacco cigarette combustion heating block
CN103892442B (en) * 2014-03-28 2016-09-07 广东中烟工业有限责任公司 A non-burning cigarette and method of use
US20160073686A1 (en) 2014-09-12 2016-03-17 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Tobacco-derived filter element
US20170157106A1 (en) 2015-12-03 2017-06-08 Niconovum Usa, Inc. Multi-phase delivery compositions and products incorporating such compositions
US20170238607A1 (en) * 2016-02-24 2017-08-24 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article comprising aerogel
CN105725255B (en) * 2016-03-23 2017-08-04 河南中烟工业有限责任公司 A method of increasing the whiteness of the method of cigarette ash
WO2018162515A1 (en) * 2017-03-08 2018-09-13 Philip Morris Products S.A. Aerosol-generating article and method for manufacturing a rod of aerosol-forming substrate
US20190087302A1 (en) 2017-09-20 2019-03-21 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Products Product use and behavior monitoring instrument

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5095152A (en) * 1990-11-21 1992-03-10 Union Camp Corporation Novel heptamethyl indane compound
US5129408A (en) * 1990-08-15 1992-07-14 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Cigarette and smokable filler material therefor
US5148821A (en) * 1990-08-17 1992-09-22 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Processes for producing a smokable and/or combustible tobacco material
US5303720A (en) * 1989-05-22 1994-04-19 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article with improved insulating material
US5396911A (en) * 1990-08-15 1995-03-14 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Substrate material for smoking articles
US5660903A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-08-26 E. Khashoggi Industries Sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5736180A (en) * 1993-12-21 1998-04-07 Peiffer; Bernd Spice impregnated edible wrapping foil
US6095152A (en) * 1994-09-07 2000-08-01 British-American Tobacco Company Limited Smoking article with non-combustible wrapper, combustible fuel source and aerosol generator

Family Cites Families (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2890704A (en) * 1954-11-10 1959-06-16 William R Lamm Cigarette
US2998012A (en) * 1957-01-23 1961-08-29 William R Lamm Cigarette and wrapper therefor
US3356094A (en) * 1965-09-22 1967-12-05 Battelle Memorial Institute Smoking devices
US4008723A (en) * 1970-03-23 1977-02-22 Imperial Chemical Industries Limited Smoking mixture
US3996945A (en) * 1975-04-07 1976-12-14 Mcdowell James A Extinguisher for cigarettes or cigars
US5067499A (en) * 1984-09-14 1991-11-26 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article
US4793365A (en) * 1984-09-14 1988-12-27 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article
US4938238A (en) * 1985-08-26 1990-07-03 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article with improved wrapper
US4776355A (en) * 1986-06-24 1988-10-11 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Smoking articles
US4779631A (en) * 1987-03-06 1988-10-25 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Wrappers for specialty smoking devices
US4854367A (en) * 1987-08-28 1989-08-08 Ashland Oil, Inc. Refractory compositions and evaporative pattern casting process using same
US5090426A (en) * 1989-03-16 1992-02-25 Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation Smoking article
US4961438A (en) * 1989-04-03 1990-10-09 Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation Smoking device
US4955397A (en) * 1989-07-10 1990-09-11 Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation Cigarette
US5074321A (en) * 1989-09-29 1991-12-24 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Cigarette
EP0419975A3 (en) * 1989-09-29 1991-08-07 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Cigarette and smokable filler material therefor
US4967774A (en) * 1989-10-11 1990-11-06 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article with improved means for retaining the fuel element
US5060667A (en) * 1990-08-16 1991-10-29 Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation Smoking article
US5203355A (en) * 1991-02-14 1993-04-20 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Cigarette with cellulosic substrate
EP0700257B1 (en) * 1993-05-28 1998-08-12 BROWN &amp; WILLIAMSON TOBACCO CORPORATION Smoking article
US5588446A (en) * 1993-06-02 1996-12-31 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Cigarette with improved cellulosic substrate
GB9605117D0 (en) * 1996-03-07 1996-05-08 British American Tobacco Co Smokable filler material for smoking articles

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5303720A (en) * 1989-05-22 1994-04-19 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking article with improved insulating material
US5129408A (en) * 1990-08-15 1992-07-14 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Cigarette and smokable filler material therefor
US5396911A (en) * 1990-08-15 1995-03-14 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Substrate material for smoking articles
US5148821A (en) * 1990-08-17 1992-09-22 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Processes for producing a smokable and/or combustible tobacco material
US5095152A (en) * 1990-11-21 1992-03-10 Union Camp Corporation Novel heptamethyl indane compound
US5660903A (en) * 1992-08-11 1997-08-26 E. Khashoggi Industries Sheets having a highly inorganically filled organic polymer matrix
US5736180A (en) * 1993-12-21 1998-04-07 Peiffer; Bernd Spice impregnated edible wrapping foil
US6095152A (en) * 1994-09-07 2000-08-01 British-American Tobacco Company Limited Smoking article with non-combustible wrapper, combustible fuel source and aerosol generator

Cited By (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20090151739A1 (en) * 2003-09-30 2009-06-18 August Joseph Borschke Smokable Rod for a Cigarette
US20050066986A1 (en) * 2003-09-30 2005-03-31 Nestor Timothy Brian Smokable rod for a cigarette
US7753056B2 (en) 2003-09-30 2010-07-13 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smokable rod for a cigarette
US20050066985A1 (en) * 2003-09-30 2005-03-31 Borschke August Joseph Smokable rod for a cigarette
US7503330B2 (en) 2003-09-30 2009-03-17 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smokable rod for a cigarette
US7992575B2 (en) 2005-02-28 2011-08-09 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Use of chlorate, sulfur or ozone to reduce tobacco specific nitrosamines
US20060196516A1 (en) * 2005-02-28 2006-09-07 Mingwu Cui Use of chlorate, sulfur or ozone to reduce tobacco specific nitrosamines
US20060231114A1 (en) * 2005-04-19 2006-10-19 Oglesby Robert L Smoking articles and wrapping materials therefor
US7600518B2 (en) * 2005-04-19 2009-10-13 R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Smoking articles and wrapping materials therefor
US8844540B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2014-09-30 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded papers, smoking articles and methods
US20110155158A1 (en) * 2006-03-31 2011-06-30 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded Papers, Smoking Articles and Methods
US9161570B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2015-10-20 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded papers, smoking articles and methods
US8939156B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2015-01-27 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded papers, smoking articles and methods
US8925556B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2015-01-06 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded papers, smoking articles and methods
US8905043B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2014-12-09 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded papers, smoking articles and methods
US20080295854A1 (en) * 2006-03-31 2008-12-04 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded papers, smoking articles and methods
US8707967B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2014-04-29 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded papers, smoking articles and methods
US8733370B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2014-05-27 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded papers, smoking articles and methods
US8833377B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2014-09-16 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded papers, smoking articles and methods
US10028524B2 (en) 2006-03-31 2018-07-24 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded papers, smoking articles and methods
US9271524B1 (en) 2007-09-07 2016-03-01 U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company Tobacco having reduced tobacco specific nitrosamine content
US8701682B2 (en) 2009-07-30 2014-04-22 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded paper, smoking article and method
US20110023901A1 (en) * 2009-07-30 2011-02-03 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Banded paper, smoking article and method
US20130146075A1 (en) * 2010-03-26 2013-06-13 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Smoking article with heat resistant sheet material
US8915255B2 (en) * 2010-03-26 2014-12-23 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Smoking article with heat resistant sheet material
CN102821625A (en) * 2010-03-26 2012-12-12 菲利普莫里斯生产公司 Smoking article with heat resistant sheet material
US9730468B2 (en) 2010-03-26 2017-08-15 Philip Morris Usa Inc. Smoking article with heat resistant sheet material
US8839799B2 (en) * 2010-05-06 2014-09-23 R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Segmented smoking article with stitch-bonded substrate
US20110271971A1 (en) * 2010-05-06 2011-11-10 Billy Tyrone Conner Segmented smoking article with stitch-bonded substrate
US9302522B2 (en) 2010-12-13 2016-04-05 Altria Client Services Llc Process of preparing printing solution and making patterned cigarette wrappers
US9668516B2 (en) 2012-05-16 2017-06-06 Altria Client Services Llc Banded cigarette wrapper with opened-area bands

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
AU696926B2 (en) 1998-09-24
JP3538201B2 (en) 2004-06-14
DK781101T3 (en)
JPH10507629A (en) 1998-07-28
CZ67997A3 (en) 1999-09-15
US20050115579A1 (en) 2005-06-02
WO1996007336A3 (en) 1996-08-08
SG67485A1 (en) 1999-09-21
BR9509160A (en) 1997-11-25
CN1165250C (en) 2004-09-08
CZ294121B6 (en) 2004-10-13
HUT77044A (en) 1998-03-02
CA2196907A1 (en) 1996-03-14
AT319337T (en) 2006-03-15
GR3034648T3 (en) 2001-01-31
WO1996007336A2 (en) 1996-03-14
DE69518247T2 (en) 2000-11-23
EP0956783A1 (en) 1999-11-17
ES2148549T3 (en) 2000-10-16
AT195057T (en) 2000-08-15
NZ292242A (en) 1999-10-28
US6095152A (en) 2000-08-01
PT781101E (en) 2001-01-31
CA2196907C (en) 2000-05-02
EP0781101A2 (en) 1997-07-02
CN1507818A (en) 2004-06-30
DK0781101T3 (en) 2000-09-04
CZ298668B6 (en) 2007-12-12
EP1600066A2 (en) 2005-11-30
AU3396795A (en) 1996-03-27
EP0956783B1 (en) 2006-03-08
DE69518247D1 (en) 2000-09-07
EP0781101B1 (en) 2000-08-02
HU227234B1 (en) 2010-11-29
NZ337552A (en) 2001-01-26
CN1161635A (en) 1997-10-08
TR199501100A2 (en) 1996-06-21
DE69534858D1 (en) 2006-05-04
US6578584B1 (en) 2003-06-17

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
KR910008188B1 (en) Smoking article
US5211684A (en) Catalyst containing smoking articles for reducing carbon monoxide
US4924888A (en) Smoking article
US4044777A (en) Synthetic smoking product
EP2328428B1 (en) Method for preparing fuel element for smoking article
AU622243B2 (en) Heat source for a smoking article
CN1037318C (en) Airosol generating composition of smoke product base material, smoke base material and cigarette
US4942888A (en) Cigarette
CN1044437C (en) The smoking article
US4044778A (en) Cigarettes
DK174292B1 (en) A smoking article
CA1305387C (en) Smoking article producing smoke-like aerosol
FI84550C (en) An apparatus Foer framstaella in that the rods Foer anvaendning at framstaellning of cigarrettliknande roekningsprodukter.
EP0352108B1 (en) Carbon heat source
US3738374A (en) Cigar or cigarette having substitute filler
AU756450B2 (en) Smoking article and smoking material therefor
DK171264B1 (en) A smoking article with improved fuel element
US4881556A (en) Low CO smoking article
US4941486A (en) Cigarette having sidestream aroma
US4146040A (en) Cigarettes
RU2587786C2 (en) Combustible heat source for smoking product
JP2928388B2 (en) Smoking article
US5415186A (en) Substrates material for smoking articles
AU2001264076B2 (en) Smokable filler material containing a fruit material
AU2007226406B2 (en) Smoking article filter