US20030208095A1 - Particulate supports for oxidative dehydrogenation - Google Patents

Particulate supports for oxidative dehydrogenation Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20030208095A1
US20030208095A1 US10139484 US13948402A US2003208095A1 US 20030208095 A1 US20030208095 A1 US 20030208095A1 US 10139484 US10139484 US 10139484 US 13948402 A US13948402 A US 13948402A US 2003208095 A1 US2003208095 A1 US 2003208095A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
catalyst
support
method
metals
discrete structures
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10139484
Inventor
Lisa Budin
Joe Allison
Sriram Ramani
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ConocoPhillips Co
Original Assignee
ConocoPhillips Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J23/00Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00
    • B01J23/38Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of noble metals
    • B01J23/54Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of noble metals combined with metals, oxides or hydroxides provided for in groups B01J23/02 - B01J23/36
    • B01J23/56Platinum group metals
    • B01J23/64Platinum group metals with arsenic, antimony, bismuth, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, polonium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, technetium or rhenium
    • B01J23/652Chromium, molybdenum or tungsten
    • B01J23/6522Chromium
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J23/00Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00
    • B01J23/38Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of noble metals
    • B01J23/48Silver or gold
    • B01J23/52Gold
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J23/00Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00
    • B01J23/38Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of noble metals
    • B01J23/54Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of noble metals combined with metals, oxides or hydroxides provided for in groups B01J23/02 - B01J23/36
    • B01J23/56Platinum group metals
    • B01J23/62Platinum group metals with gallium, indium, thallium, germanium, tin or lead
    • B01J23/622Platinum group metals with gallium, indium, thallium, germanium, tin or lead with germanium, tin or lead
    • B01J23/626Platinum group metals with gallium, indium, thallium, germanium, tin or lead with germanium, tin or lead with tin
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C5/00Preparation of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbons containing the same number of carbon atoms
    • C07C5/42Preparation of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbons containing the same number of carbon atoms by dehydrogenation with a hydrogen acceptor
    • C07C5/48Preparation of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbons containing the same number of carbon atoms by dehydrogenation with a hydrogen acceptor with oxygen as an acceptor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J21/00Catalysts comprising the elements, oxides, or hydroxides of magnesium, boron, aluminium, carbon, silicon, titanium, zirconium, or hafnium
    • B01J21/02Boron or aluminium; Oxides or hydroxides thereof
    • B01J21/04Alumina
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J37/00Processes, in general, for preparing catalysts; Processes, in general, for activation of catalysts
    • B01J37/02Impregnation, coating or precipitation
    • B01J37/0201Impregnation
    • B01J37/0205Impregnation in several steps
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J37/00Processes, in general, for preparing catalysts; Processes, in general, for activation of catalysts
    • B01J37/02Impregnation, coating or precipitation
    • B01J37/024Multiple impregnation or coating
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C2521/00Catalysts comprising the elements, oxides or hydroxides of magnesium, boron, aluminium, carbon, silicon, titanium, zirconium or hafnium
    • C07C2521/02Boron or aluminium; Oxides or hydroxides thereof
    • C07C2521/04Alumina
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C2523/00Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group C07C2521/00
    • C07C2523/16Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group C07C2521/00 of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, polonium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, technetium or rhenium
    • C07C2523/24Chromium, molybdenum or tungsten
    • C07C2523/26Chromium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C2523/00Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group C07C2521/00
    • C07C2523/38Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group C07C2521/00 of noble metals
    • C07C2523/40Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group C07C2521/00 of noble metals of the platinum group metals
    • C07C2523/42Platinum

Abstract

A catalyst useful for the production of olefins from alkanes via oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) is disclosed. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a catalyst for use in ODH processes includes a base metal, a promoter metal, and a support comprising a plurality of discrete structures. A base metal is herein defined as a non-Group VIII metal, with the exception of iron, cobalt and nickel. Suitable base metals include Group IB-VIIB metals, Group IIIA-VA metals, Lanthanide metals, iron, cobalt and nickel. Suitable promoter metals include Group VIII metals (i.e. platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, and iridium). In some embodiments the support is fabricated from a refractory material. Suitable refractory support materials include alumina, stabilized aluminas, zirconia, stabilized zirconias (PSZ), titania, yttria, silica, niobia, and vanadia.

Description

    STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
  • Not applicable. [0001]
  • CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • Not applicable. [0002]
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • This invention relates to oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst compositions and a method of using such catalysts in the presence of hydrocarbons. More particularly this invention relates to compositions of supported catalysts for the production of olefins by oxidative dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons in short-contact time reactors (SCTRs). [0003]
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • Dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons is an important commercial process. Dehydrogenation is the process used to convert aliphatics to olefins, mono-olefins to di-olefins, cycloalkanes to aromatics, alcohols to aldehydes and ketones, aliphatics and olefins to oxygenates, etc., by removing hydrogen chemically. In more practical terms, this process is responsible for products such as detergents, gasolines, pharmaceuticals, plastics, polymers, synthetic rubbers and many others. In addition, there is significant commercial use of the process for making many of the precursors for the above-mentioned products. For example, polyethylene is made from ethylene, which is made from the dehydrogenation of ethane (i.e. aliphatic to olefin). More ethylene is produced in the U.S. than any other organic chemical. Thus, it is easy to appreciate the significance of the dehydrogenation process to industry. [0004]
  • Traditionally, the dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons has been carried out using steam cracking or non-oxidative dehydrogenation processes. Thermal or steam cracking is an extremely energy intensive process that requires temperatures in excess of 800° C. About 1.4×10[0005] 15 BTU's (equivalent to burning 1.6 trillion ft3 of natural gas) are consumed annually to produce ethylene. In addition, much of the reactant (ethane) is lost as coke deposition. Non-oxidative dehydrogenation is dehydrogenation whereby no molecular oxygen is added.
  • Oxidative dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons (ODH) with short contact time reactors is an alternative to traditional steam cracking and non-oxidative dehydrogenation processes. During an ODH reaction, oxygen is co-fed with saturated hydrocarbons balanced with an inert gas at a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of about 50,000 to 1,000,000 hr[0006] −1. The oxygen may be fed as pure oxygen, air, oxygen-enriched air, oxygen mixed with a diluent, and so forth. Oxygen in the desired amount may be added in the feed to the dehydrogenation zone and oxygen may also be added in increments to the dehydrogenation zone. The contact time of the reactants with the catalyst is typically in the 10 to 200 ms range. At 1 bar pressure with monolith-supported catalysts, the reaction temperature is typically between 800-1100° C.
  • The capital costs for olefin production via ODH are significantly less than with the traditional processes, because ODH uses simple fixed bed reactor designs and high volume throughput. In addition, ODH is an autothermal process and requires no or very little energy to initiate the reaction. Energy savings over traditional, endothermal processes can be significant if the heat produced with ODH is recaptured and recycled. Often, the trade-off for saving money in commercial processes is loss of yield or selectivity, however, the ODH reactions are comparable to steam cracking in selectivity and conversion. [0007]
  • The benefits of ODH are not new. ODH processes have been studied on the laboratory scale for some time. The conventional ODH reactions involve the use of platinum-and-chromium containing catalysts. [0008]
  • Platinum and chromium oxide-based monolith catalysts were used for ethylene production with SCTRs in U.S. Pat. No. 6,072,097 and WO Pub. No. 00/43336, respectively. The monolith used in these catalysts were ceramic domes with 20-100 pores per linear inch. The domes were comprised of Al[0009] 2O3, SiO2, Mg-stabilized ZrO2 (PSZ) or Y-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ). Ethylene yield with these reactors was about 50-55%.
  • U.S. Pat. No. 6,072,097 describes the use of Pt-coated monolith catalysts for ODH reactions in SCTRs. Pt in the range of 0.2-10% total weight of catalyst was claimed effective for ODH. Further impregnation of Sn or Cu on the Pt-coated surface (at Sn:Pt or Cu:Pt ratios of 0.5:1-7:1) promoted the ODH reactions. The light-off temperature with this type of catalysts was about 220° C., with reduced or no preheat after the light-off procedure. Light-off temperature is herein defined as the minimum temperature of the gases entering the catalyst zone at which the catalyst reaches a chemically active state so as to initiate a self-sustaining reaction between hydrocarbon(s) and oxygen (or oxygen containing gas), as indicated by an increase in the temperature of the gases exiting the catalyst zone. [0010]
  • WO Patent No. 0043336 describes the use of Cr, Cu, Mn or their mixed oxide-loaded monolith as the primary ODH catalysts promoted with less than 0.1% Pt. In addition, small amounts of Mn, Mg, Ni, Fe and Ag were used as promoters. Light-off temperature with these catalysts was about 350° C., with or without reduced preheat after the light-off procedure. [0011]
  • Despite a vast amount of research effort in this field, there is still a great need to identify effective catalyst systems for olefin synthesis, so as to maximize the value of the olefins produced and thus maximize the process economics. In addition, to ensure successful operation on a commercial scale, the ODH process must be able to achieve a high conversion of the hydrocarbon feedstock at high gas hourly space velocities, while maintaining high selectivity of the process to the desired products. [0012]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • In order to operate at very high flow rates, high pressure and using short contact time reactors, catalysts should be highly active, have excellent mechanical strength, resistance to rapid temperature fluctuations and thermal stability at oxidative dehydrogenation reaction temperatures. [0013]
  • The present invention provides a catalyst system for use in ODH that allows high conversion of the hydrocarbon feedstock at high gas hourly space velocities, while maintaining high selectivity of the process to the desired products. For the purposes of this disclosure, all listed metals are identified using the CAS naming convention. [0014]
  • In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a catalyst for use in ODH processes includes a base metal, a promoter metal, and a support comprising a plurality of discrete structures. A base metal is herein defined as a non-Group VIII metal, with the exception of iron, cobalt and nickel. Suitable base metals include Group IB-VIIB metals, Group IIIA-VA metals, Lanthanide metals, iron, cobalt and nickel. Suitable promoter metals include Group VIII metals (i.e. platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, and iridium). In some embodiments the support is fabricated from a refractory material. Suitable refractory support materials include alumina, stabilized aluminas, zirconia, stabilized zirconias (PSZ), titania, yttria, silica, niobia, and vanadia. [0015]
  • In accordance with another preferred embodiment of the present invention, a method for converting gaseous hydrocarbons to olefins includes contacting a preheated alkane and oxygen stream with a catalyst containing a base metal, a promoter metal, and a support comprising a plurality of discrete structures, sufficient to initiate the oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkane (the preheat temperature being between 75° C. and 800° C.), maintaining a contact time of the alkane with the catalyst for less than 200 milliseconds, and maintaining oxidative dehydrogenation favorable conditions. [0016]
  • These and other embodiments, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent with reference to the following description. [0017]
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • A new family of oxidative dehydrogenation catalysts having a base metal, a promoter metal, and a support comprising a plurality of discrete structures, or a particulate support, is described in the following representative examples. These catalysts are capable of catalytically converting C[0018] 1-C10 hydrocarbons to olefins. They are preferably supported on any of various three-dimensional structures such as particulates including, but not limited to, balls, extrudates, powders, pills, and pellets. The inventors demonstrate that new particulate structures, when prepared as described in the following examples, are highly active oxidative dehydrogenation catalysts with sufficient mechanical strength to withstand high pressures and temperatures and permit a high flow rate of reactant and product gases when employed on-stream in a short contact time reactor for olefin production. Without wishing to be restricted to a particular theory, the inventors believe that the high surface area of the particulate-shaped catalysts provide improved heat and mass transfer in the catalytic reaction zone. Additionally, it is believed that the particulate-shaped catalysts provide ease of loading, decreased gas channeling, increased mechanical and thermal strength, and overall flexibility in catalyst design, as compared to conventional monolithic catalysts.
  • In some embodiments, Group VIII promoters and base metals are placed on refractory supports and used as catalysts for converting alkanes to alkenes via ODH. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, light alkanes and O[0019] 2 are converted to the corresponding alkenes using novel promoted base metal catalysts.
  • Catalysts [0020]
  • The present catalysts preferably include a base metal, a Group VIII promoter metal, and a support comprising a plurality of discrete structures. Suitable base metals include Group IB-VIIB metals, Group IIIA-VA metals, Lanthanide metals, iron, cobalt and nickel. In some embodiments the support is fabricated from a refractory material. Suitable refractory support materials include alumina, stabilized aluminas, zirconia, stabilized zirconias (PSZ), titania, yttria, silica, niobia, and vanadia. In a preferred embodiment, the support is alumina, zirconia, or a combination thereof. [0021]
  • The present catalysts are preferably provided in the form of a plurality of distinct or discrete structures or particulates. The terms “distinct” or “discrete” structures or units, as used herein, refer to nonmonolithic supports in the form of divided materials such as granules, beads, pills, pellets, cylinders, trilobes, extrudates, spheres or other rounded shapes, or other manufactured configurations. Alternatively, the particulate material may be in the form of irregularly shaped particles. Preferably at least a majority (i.e., >50%) of the particles or distinct structures have a maximum characteristic length (i.e., longest dimension) of less than six millimeters, preferably less than three millimeters, and most preferably less than 1.5 millimeters. While the catalytic materials can be self-supporting, they are preferably provided as a surface layer on a particulate support. [0022]
  • In a preferred embodiment, the catalyst supports are coated with active metal components such as Group VIII promoters, base metals, and any combinations thereof. The coating may be achieved by any of a variety of methods known in the art, such as physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, electrolysis metal deposition, electroplating, melt impregnation, and chemical salt impregnation, followed by reduction. [0023]
  • Preferred catalyst systems in accordance with the present invention include Pt- or Pd-promoted Cr, Sn, Mn or Au metals supported on alumina granules or spheres. A more preferred catalyst system is Pt-promoted Cr supported on 35-50 mesh Alumina granules (see Examples). [0024]
  • Preferably, a millisecond contact time reactor, such as are known and described in the art, is used. By way of example only, operation of a millisecond contact time reactor is disclosed in detail in co-owned and co-pending U.S. patent Ser. No. 09/688,571, filed Oct. 16, 2000 and entitled “Metal Carbide Catalysts and Process for Producing Synthesis Gas,” which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Use of a millisecond contact time reactor for the commercial scale conversion of light alkanes to corresponding alkenes will reduce capital investment and increase alkene production significantly. It has been discovered that an ethylene yield of 59% or higher in a single pass through the catalyst bed is achievable. This technology has the potential to achieve yields above those of the conventional technology at a much lower cost. The need for steam addition, as is currently required in the conventional cracking technology, is also eliminated by the present process. Nonetheless, in some embodiments of the present invention, the use of steam may be preferred. There is minimal coking in the present process and therefore little unit down time and loss of valuable hydrocarbon feedstock. Furthermore, the present novel catalysts improve the yield of the process to the desired alkene by 5% at atmospheric pressure and 3-7 standard liters per minute (SLPM) flowrate conditions. [0025]
  • In some embodiments, ODH is carried out using the hydrocarbon feed mixed with an appropriate oxidant and possibly steam. Appropriate oxidants may include, but are not limited to air, oxygen-enriched air, I[0026] 2, O2, N2O and SO2. Use of the oxidant prevents coke deposition and aids in maintaining the reaction. Steam, on the other hand, may be used to activate the catalyst, remove coke from the catalyst, or serve as a diluent for temperature control.
  • Without further elaboration, it is believed that one skilled in the art can, using the description herein, utilize the present invention to its fullest extent. The following Examples are to be construed as illustrative, and not as limiting the disclosure in any way whatsoever. [0027]
  • EXAMPLES
  • In the following examples, the supports were purchased from Sud-Chemie or NorPro Corporation. In a first layer, the base metal coatings were added by an incipient wetness technique, wherein incipient wetness of the supports was achieved using aqueous solutions of a soluble metal salts such as nitrate, acetate, chlorides, acetylacetonate or the like. In a second layer, the Group VIII promoter coatings were similarly added by an incipient wetness technique. For higher metal loading, the process may be repeated until desired loading is achieved, with intermediate calcination after adding the aqueous solutions of the catalytic metals. [0028]
  • While the following examples were prepared by an incipient wetness technique, any technique known to those skilled in the art may be alternatively used. The final catalysts tested were in the form of {fraction (1/16)}″-{fraction (1/10)}″ spheres or 35-50 mesh granules, with an operating pressure approximately equal to atmospheric pressure. Results are shown below in Table 1. [0029]
    TABLE 1
    Catalyst Amount Ethane/Oxygen
    (metals in of Preheat Total molar Catalyst % % %
    wt % of Catalyst Temp Flowrate ratio (10% N2 Temp Ethane Oxygen % C2H4 C2H4
    Ex. catalyst) (g) (° C.) (GHSV, h−1) dilution used) (° C.) Conv. Conv. selectivity yield
    A 0.05% Pt, 0.4 350 430,300 2.1 904 83.3 97.6 71.3 59.4
    2.7% Cr 717,200 2.1 910 83.8 97.3 65.7 55.0
    on 35-50 1,004,100 2.1 914 81.1 96.0 64.5 52.3
    mesh 0.8 350 223,800 2.1 891 83.1 98.7 64.8 53.9
    Alumina 372,950 2.1 921 84.0 98.2 62.5 52.6
    granules 1.9 350 148,000 2.1 895 84.8 98.8 56.2 47.6
    B 2% Pt, 0.8 350 147,200 1.8 952 91.6 98.3 57.9 53.0
    0.4% Au 147,200 2.1 916 79.8 97.0 64.9 52.0
    on {fraction (1/10)}″ 245,300 1.8 978 92.6 98.1 55.3 51.2
    Alumina 1.9 75,000 1.8 918 89.5 98.1 59.2 53.0
    spheres 124,300 1.8 955 91.5 98.3 55.7 51.0
    C 0.1% Pt, 2 350 248,600 1.9 919 91.5 98.4 59.1 54.0
    1.5% Sn 248,600 2.1 903 85.0 97.4 63.7 54.1
    on {fraction (1/16)}″ 248,600 2.4 866 73.1 96.4 67.5 49.3
    Alumina 300 248,600 2.1 876 81.6 97.2 64.9 53.0
    spheres
    D 0.5% Pt, 2 300 164,100 2.0 862 85.7 98.8 65.2 55.9
    1.5% Sn 248,600 2.0 892 87.7 99.0 62.2 54.6
    on {fraction (1/16)}″
    Alumina
    spheres
  • From Example A, it can be seen that as the amount of catalyst decreases at a constant gas flowrate of 5 SLPM and Fuel/Oxygen ratio of 2.1, ethylene yield increases from 47.6% to 55.0%, indicating that these conditions promote the short contact time ODH reaction. Without wishing to be bound by any specific theory, the inventors believe that this improved performance appears to be a function of weight hourly space velocity (WHSV). On the other hand, at a constant catalyst weight of 0.4 gram, an increase of gas flowrate (i.e., GHSV) results in a decrease of ethylene yield from 59.4% to 52.3%. However, this decrease was smaller when 0.8 gram of catalyst was used. It is believed that combining the optimum catalyst weight and flowrates would result in higher ethylene yields than reported here. [0030]
  • From Example C, it can be seen that as the fuel/oxygen ratio increases, ethane and oxygen conversions decrease and ethylene selectivity increases. For this case, a ratio of 2:1 appears to be optimal, but it must be noted that this is a function of other parameters such as flowrate and preheat temperature. [0031]
  • Comparing Examples C and D, the increased Pt loading in Example D appears to result in slightly higher ethylene yield. Overall, these examples illustrate the improved ethylene yields that can be achieved by using particulate supports for ODH catalysts. Without wishing to be bound by any theory, it is believed that the significantly higher ethylene yields seen with Example A, even though the Pt loading was low, could be due to the higher surface area and smaller particle size of the granular support. The results indicate that further optimization of the support structure, catalyst composition and process variables would lead to improved ethylene yields. [0032]
  • Process Conditions [0033]
  • Any suitable reaction regime can be applied in order to contact the reactants with the present catalyst. One suitable regime is a fixed bed reaction regime, in which the catalyst is retained within a reaction zone in a fixed arrangement. Catalysts may be employed in the fixed bed regime, using fixed bed reaction techniques well known in the art. Preferably a millisecond contact time reactor is employed. Several schemes for carrying out oxidative dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons in a short contact time reactor have been described in the literature and one of ordinary skill in the art will understand the operation of short contact time reactors and the applicability of the present invention thereto. [0034]
  • Accordingly, a feed stream comprising a hydrocarbon feedstock and an oxygen-containing gas is contacted with one of the above-described catalysts in a reaction zone maintained at conversion-promoting conditions effective to produce an effluent stream comprising alkenes. The hydrocarbon feedstock may be any gaseous hydrocarbon having a low boiling point, such as ethane, natural gas, associated gas, or other sources of light hydrocarbons having from 1 to 10 carbon atoms. In addition, hydrocarbon feeds including naphtha and similar feeds may be employed. The hydrocarbon feedstock may be a gas arising from naturally occurring reserves of ethane. Preferably, the feed comprises at least 50% by volume alkanes (<C[0035] 10).
  • The hydrocarbon feedstock is contacted with the catalyst as a gaseous phase mixture with an oxygen-containing gas, preferably pure oxygen. The oxygen-containing gas may also comprise steam and/or methane in addition to oxygen. Alternatively, the hydrocarbon feedstock is contacted with the catalyst as a mixture with a gas comprising steam and/or methane. [0036]
  • The process is operated at atmospheric or superatmospheric pressures, the latter being preferred. The pressures may be from about 80 kPa to about 32,500 kPa, preferably from about 130 kPa to about 5,000 kPa. The preheat temperature of the present invention occurs at temperatures of from about 75° C. to about 800° C., preferably from about 150° C. to about 700° C., and most preferably from 150° C. to about 350° C. when an alumina granular or spherical support with metal loading is used. The hydrocarbon feedstock and the oxygen-containing gas are preferably pre-heated before contact with the catalyst. The hydrocarbon feedstock and the oxygen-containing gas are passed over the catalyst at any of a variety of space velocities. [0037]
  • Gas hourly space velocities (GHSV) for the present process, stated as normal liters of gas per kilogram of catalyst per hour, are from about 20,000 to at least about 100,000,000 hr[0038] −1, preferably from about 50,000 to about 1,000,000 hr−1. Preferably the catalyst is employed in a millisecond contact time reactor. The process preferably includes maintaining a catalyst residence time of no more than 200 milliseconds for the reactant gas mixture. Residence time is inversely proportional to space velocity, and high space velocity indicates low residence time on the catalyst. An effluent stream of product gases, including alkenes, CO, CO2, H2, H2O, and unconverted alkanes emerge from the reactor.
  • In some embodiments, unconverted alkanes may be separated from the effluent stream of product gases and recycled back into the feed. [0039]
  • In some embodiments the use of steam may be employed. As mentioned above, steam may be used to activate the catalyst, remove coke from the catalyst, or serve as a diluent for temperature control. [0040]
  • While the preferred embodiments of the invention have been shown and described, modifications thereof can be made by one skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and teachings of the invention. The embodiments described herein are exemplary only, and are not intended to be limiting. Many variations and modifications of the invention disclosed herein are possible and are within the scope of the invention. For example, the present invention may be incorporated into a gas to liquids plant (GTL) or may stand alone. Accordingly, the scope of protection is not limited by the description set out above, but is only limited by the claims which follow, that scope including all equivalents of the subject matter of the claims. The disclosures of all patents and publications cited herein are incorporated by reference in their entireties. [0041]

Claims (29)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. A catalyst for use in oxidative dehydrogenation processes comprising:
    a base metal;
    a promoter metal; and
    a support comprising a plurality of discrete structures,
    wherein said base metal and promoter metal are coated on said support.
  2. 2. The catalyst of claim 1 wherein the discrete structures are particulates.
  3. 3. The catalyst of claim 2 wherein the plurality of discrete structures comprises at least one geometry chosen from the group consisting of powders, particles, granules, spheres, beads, pills, rings, pellets, balls, noodles, cylinders, extrudates and trilobes.
  4. 4. The catalyst of claim 1 wherein at least a majority of the discrete structures each have a maximum characteristic length of less than six millimeters.
  5. 5. The catalyst of claim 4 wherein the majority of the discrete structures each have a maximum characteristic length of less than about three millimeters.
  6. 6. The catalyst of claim 1 wherein the support is selected from the group consisting of alumina, stabilized aluminas, zirconia, stabilized zirconias (PSZ), titania, yttria, silica, niobia, and vanadia.
  7. 7. The catalyst of claim 6 wherein the support comprises alumina, zirconia, or a combination thereof.
  8. 8. The catalyst of claim 1 wherein the base metal is selected from the group consisting of Group IB-VIIB metals, Group IIIA-VA metals, Lanthanide metals, iron, cobalt or nickel.
  9. 9. The catalyst of claim 8 wherein the base metal is Cr.
  10. 10. The catalyst of claim 8 wherein the preheat temperature is below 700° C.
  11. 11. The catalyst of claim 1 wherein the promoter metal is selected from the group consisting of Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt, Os, and Ir.
  12. 12. The catalyst of claim 11 wherein the promoter metal loading is less than 3% the total weight of the catalyst.
  13. 13. The catalyst of claim 11 wherein the promoter metal is Pt.
  14. 14. The catalyst of claim 11 wherein the preheat temperature is below 350° C.
  15. 15. A method for converting gaseous hydrocarbons to olefins comprising:
    heating a feed stream comprising an alkane and an oxidant to a temperature of approximately 75° C. to 800° C.;
    contacting the feed stream with a catalyst comprising a base metal, a promoter metal, and support comprising a plurality of discrete structures;
    maintaining a contact time of the alkane with the catalyst for less than 200 milliseconds; and
    maintaining oxidative dehydrogenation favorable conditions.
  16. 16. The method of claim 15 wherein the oxidant comprises an oxygen containing gas.
  17. 17. The method of claim 16 wherein the oxidant is essentially pure oxygen.
  18. 18. The method of claim 15 wherein the feed stream is heated to a temperature below 700° C.
  19. 19. The method of claim 15 wherein the feed stream is heated to a temperature below 350° C.
  20. 20. The catalyst of claim 15 wherein at least a majority of the discrete structures each have a maximum characteristic length of less than six millimeters.
  21. 21. The catalyst of claim 20 wherein the majority of the discrete structures each have a maximum characteristic length of less than about three millimeters.
  22. 22. The catalyst of claim 15 wherein the support is selected from the group consisting of alumina, stabilized aluminas, zirconia, stabilized zirconias (PSZ), titania, yttria, silica, niobia, and vanadia.
  23. 23. The method of claim 15 wherein the feed stream is contacted with the catalyst at a gas hourly space velocity of at least 20,000 hr−1.
  24. 24. The method of claim 15 wherein the feed stream is contacted with the catalyst at a gas hourly space velocity up to 100,000,000 hr−1.
  25. 25. The method of claim 15 wherein the feed stream is maintained at a pressure in excess of 80 kPa while contacting the catalyst.
  26. 26. The method of claim 25 wherein the pressure is up to about 32,500 kPa.
  27. 27. The method of claim 25 wherein the pressure is between 130-5,000 kPa.
  28. 28. The method of claim 15 wherein the contact time of the alkane and catalyst is less than 50 milliseconds.
  29. 29. An oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst comprising a base metal, a promoter metal, and a support comprising a plurality of discrete structures.
US10139484 2002-05-06 2002-05-06 Particulate supports for oxidative dehydrogenation Abandoned US20030208095A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10139484 US20030208095A1 (en) 2002-05-06 2002-05-06 Particulate supports for oxidative dehydrogenation

Applications Claiming Priority (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10139484 US20030208095A1 (en) 2002-05-06 2002-05-06 Particulate supports for oxidative dehydrogenation
JP2004503424A JP2005532316A (en) 2002-05-06 2003-05-05 Particulate carrier for the oxidative dehydrogenation
PCT/US2003/013940 WO2003095400A1 (en) 2002-05-06 2003-05-05 Particulate supports for oxidative dehydrogenation
CA 2483429 CA2483429A1 (en) 2002-05-06 2003-05-05 Particulate supports for oxidative dehydrogenation
CN 03810160 CN1649807A (en) 2002-05-06 2003-05-05 Particulate supports for oxidative dehydrogenation
RU2004136155A RU2004136155A (en) 2002-05-06 2003-05-05 A process for converting gaseous hydrocarbons to olefins

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20030208095A1 true true US20030208095A1 (en) 2003-11-06

Family

ID=29269559

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10139484 Abandoned US20030208095A1 (en) 2002-05-06 2002-05-06 Particulate supports for oxidative dehydrogenation

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (1) US20030208095A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2005532316A (en)
CN (1) CN1649807A (en)
CA (1) CA2483429A1 (en)
RU (1) RU2004136155A (en)
WO (1) WO2003095400A1 (en)

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040068153A1 (en) * 2002-10-08 2004-04-08 Conoco Inc. Rare earth metals as oxidative dehydrogenation catalysts
WO2004033082A2 (en) * 2002-10-08 2004-04-22 Conocophillips Company Oxidative dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons using catalysts with trace promoter metal loading
US20040158112A1 (en) * 2003-02-10 2004-08-12 Conocophillips Company Silicon carbide-supported catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons
US20050113247A1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2005-05-26 Conocophillips Company Copper modified catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation
US20090321318A1 (en) * 2008-06-27 2009-12-31 Wei Pan Hydrocarbon Dehydrogenation with Zirconia
US20090325784A1 (en) * 2008-06-27 2009-12-31 Wei Pan Hydrocarbon Dehydrogenation with Zirconia
US20090325791A1 (en) * 2008-06-27 2009-12-31 Wei Pan Hydrocarbon Dehydrogenation with Zirconia
US20100331590A1 (en) * 2009-06-25 2010-12-30 Debarshi Majumder Production of light olefins and aromatics
US8574522B2 (en) 2010-04-15 2013-11-05 China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation Process for selective oxidative dehydrogenation of a hydrogen-containing CO mixed gas
CN103480359A (en) * 2013-09-26 2014-01-01 中国海洋石油总公司 Preparation method for light alkane dehydrogenation catalyst with non-uniformly distributed active components

Families Citing this family (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102007034284A1 (en) * 2007-07-20 2009-01-22 Leibniz-Institut Für Katalyse E.V. An Der Universität Rostock A method for the catalytic N2O reduction with simultaneous production of hydrogen and light alkenes
CN102068990B (en) * 2010-11-25 2012-11-28 西安交通大学 Nano carbon-covered alumina support-based preparation process of dehydrogenation catalyst
RU2528830C1 (en) * 2013-07-10 2014-09-20 ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ НАУКИ ИНСТИТУТ ОРГАНИЧЕСКОЙ ХИМИИ им. Н.Д. ЗЕЛИНСКОГО РОССИЙСКОЙ АКАДЕМИИ НАУК (ИОХ РАН) Method of producing ethylene
RU2528829C1 (en) * 2013-07-10 2014-09-20 ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ НАУКИ ИНСТИТУТ ОРГАНИЧЕСКОЙ ХИМИИ им. Н.Д. ЗЕЛИНСКОГО РОССИЙСКОЙ АКАДЕМИИ НАУК (ИОХ РАН) Method of producing ethylene
CN106588539A (en) * 2016-11-24 2017-04-26 中国石油大学(华东) Method for preparing ethylene by using modification type platinum catalyst for catalyzing oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane

Citations (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4363748A (en) * 1982-02-02 1982-12-14 El Paso Products Company Catalyst composition for producing tertiary-butylstyrene
US4652687A (en) * 1986-07-07 1987-03-24 Uop Inc. Process for the dehydrogenation of dehydrogenatable hydrocarbons
US4658076A (en) * 1985-03-19 1987-04-14 Phillips Petroleum Company Composition of matter and method of oxidative conversion of organic compounds therewith
US4658074A (en) * 1965-05-28 1987-04-14 Petro-Tex Chemical Corporation Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process
US4658077A (en) * 1985-06-07 1987-04-14 Phillips Petroleum Company Composition of matter and method of oxidative conversion of organic compounds therewith
US4665261A (en) * 1985-06-21 1987-05-12 Atlantic Richfield Company Hydrocarbon conversion process using a molten salt
US4665259A (en) * 1985-08-28 1987-05-12 The Standard Oil Company Methane conversion process using phosphate-containing catalysts
US4751336A (en) * 1985-02-28 1988-06-14 Amoco Corporation Conversion of a lower alkane
US4754093A (en) * 1985-02-28 1988-06-28 Amoco Corporation Conversion of a lower alkane
US4769509A (en) * 1985-07-25 1988-09-06 Atlantic Richfield Company Reducible metal oxide compositions containing zirconium
US4769508A (en) * 1984-12-18 1988-09-06 Atlantic Richfield Company Alkali promoted manganese oxide compositions containing titanium
US4774380A (en) * 1983-08-12 1988-09-27 Atlantic Richfield Company Alkali promoted manganese oxide compositions containing zirconium
US4861936A (en) * 1983-08-12 1989-08-29 Atlantic Richfield Company Boron-promoted reducible metal oxides and methods of their use
US5068485A (en) * 1990-03-16 1991-11-26 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Activation of methane by transition metal-substituted aluminophosphate molecular sieves
US5081324A (en) * 1989-01-11 1992-01-14 Amoco Corporation Lower alkane conversion
US5105045A (en) * 1985-06-07 1992-04-14 Phillips Petroleum Company Method of oxidative conversion
US5108979A (en) * 1991-02-25 1992-04-28 Intercat, Inc. Synthetic spinels and processes for making them
US5196634A (en) * 1991-10-11 1993-03-23 Amoco Corporation Hydrocarbon conversion
US5198596A (en) * 1991-10-11 1993-03-30 Amoco Corporation Hydrocarbon conversion
US5210357A (en) * 1985-06-07 1993-05-11 Phillips Petroleum Company Composition of matter and method of oxidative conversion of organic compounds therewith
US5276237A (en) * 1991-12-20 1994-01-04 Amoco Corporation Membrane and use thereof in oxidative conversion
US5321187A (en) * 1992-03-05 1994-06-14 Intevep, S.A. Catalyst for the direct conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons and method for the preparation of same
US5593935A (en) * 1993-08-14 1997-01-14 Johnson Matthey Public Limited Company Catalysts
US5639929A (en) * 1995-04-17 1997-06-17 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Oxidative dehydrogenation process
US5654491A (en) * 1996-02-09 1997-08-05 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Process for the partial oxidation of alkanes
US5877381A (en) * 1995-06-30 1999-03-02 Nitto Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Particulate catalyst for use in a fluidized bed
US5905180A (en) * 1996-01-22 1999-05-18 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process and catalyst
US6267864B1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2001-07-31 Nanomaterials Research Corporation Field assisted transformation of chemical and material compositions
US6281378B1 (en) * 1995-06-08 2001-08-28 Nippon Shokubai Co., Ltd. Vanadium-containing catalysts, process for manufacturing and use of the same
US20020006374A1 (en) * 1999-11-05 2002-01-17 Kostantinos Kourtakis Chromium-based catalysts and processes for converting hydrocarbons to synthesis gas
US20020009406A1 (en) * 2000-02-18 2002-01-24 Kostantinos Kourtakis Chromium-rare earth based catalysts and process for converting hydrocarbons to synthesis gas

Patent Citations (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4658074A (en) * 1965-05-28 1987-04-14 Petro-Tex Chemical Corporation Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process
US4363748A (en) * 1982-02-02 1982-12-14 El Paso Products Company Catalyst composition for producing tertiary-butylstyrene
US4774380A (en) * 1983-08-12 1988-09-27 Atlantic Richfield Company Alkali promoted manganese oxide compositions containing zirconium
US4861936A (en) * 1983-08-12 1989-08-29 Atlantic Richfield Company Boron-promoted reducible metal oxides and methods of their use
US4769508A (en) * 1984-12-18 1988-09-06 Atlantic Richfield Company Alkali promoted manganese oxide compositions containing titanium
US4751336A (en) * 1985-02-28 1988-06-14 Amoco Corporation Conversion of a lower alkane
US4754093A (en) * 1985-02-28 1988-06-28 Amoco Corporation Conversion of a lower alkane
US4658076A (en) * 1985-03-19 1987-04-14 Phillips Petroleum Company Composition of matter and method of oxidative conversion of organic compounds therewith
US4658077A (en) * 1985-06-07 1987-04-14 Phillips Petroleum Company Composition of matter and method of oxidative conversion of organic compounds therewith
US5105045A (en) * 1985-06-07 1992-04-14 Phillips Petroleum Company Method of oxidative conversion
US5210357A (en) * 1985-06-07 1993-05-11 Phillips Petroleum Company Composition of matter and method of oxidative conversion of organic compounds therewith
US4665261A (en) * 1985-06-21 1987-05-12 Atlantic Richfield Company Hydrocarbon conversion process using a molten salt
US4769509A (en) * 1985-07-25 1988-09-06 Atlantic Richfield Company Reducible metal oxide compositions containing zirconium
US4665259A (en) * 1985-08-28 1987-05-12 The Standard Oil Company Methane conversion process using phosphate-containing catalysts
US4652687A (en) * 1986-07-07 1987-03-24 Uop Inc. Process for the dehydrogenation of dehydrogenatable hydrocarbons
US5081324A (en) * 1989-01-11 1992-01-14 Amoco Corporation Lower alkane conversion
US5068485A (en) * 1990-03-16 1991-11-26 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Activation of methane by transition metal-substituted aluminophosphate molecular sieves
US5108979A (en) * 1991-02-25 1992-04-28 Intercat, Inc. Synthetic spinels and processes for making them
US5312795A (en) * 1991-10-11 1994-05-17 Amoco Corporation Hydrocarbon conversion
US5198596A (en) * 1991-10-11 1993-03-30 Amoco Corporation Hydrocarbon conversion
US5328883A (en) * 1991-10-11 1994-07-12 Amoco Corporation Hydrocarbon conversion
US5196634A (en) * 1991-10-11 1993-03-23 Amoco Corporation Hydrocarbon conversion
US5276237A (en) * 1991-12-20 1994-01-04 Amoco Corporation Membrane and use thereof in oxidative conversion
US5321187A (en) * 1992-03-05 1994-06-14 Intevep, S.A. Catalyst for the direct conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons and method for the preparation of same
US5593935A (en) * 1993-08-14 1997-01-14 Johnson Matthey Public Limited Company Catalysts
US5639929A (en) * 1995-04-17 1997-06-17 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Oxidative dehydrogenation process
US6281378B1 (en) * 1995-06-08 2001-08-28 Nippon Shokubai Co., Ltd. Vanadium-containing catalysts, process for manufacturing and use of the same
US5877381A (en) * 1995-06-30 1999-03-02 Nitto Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Particulate catalyst for use in a fluidized bed
US5905180A (en) * 1996-01-22 1999-05-18 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process and catalyst
US6072097A (en) * 1996-01-22 2000-06-06 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process and catalyst
US5654491A (en) * 1996-02-09 1997-08-05 Regents Of The University Of Minnesota Process for the partial oxidation of alkanes
US6267864B1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2001-07-31 Nanomaterials Research Corporation Field assisted transformation of chemical and material compositions
US20020006374A1 (en) * 1999-11-05 2002-01-17 Kostantinos Kourtakis Chromium-based catalysts and processes for converting hydrocarbons to synthesis gas
US20020009406A1 (en) * 2000-02-18 2002-01-24 Kostantinos Kourtakis Chromium-rare earth based catalysts and process for converting hydrocarbons to synthesis gas

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20040068153A1 (en) * 2002-10-08 2004-04-08 Conoco Inc. Rare earth metals as oxidative dehydrogenation catalysts
WO2004033082A2 (en) * 2002-10-08 2004-04-22 Conocophillips Company Oxidative dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons using catalysts with trace promoter metal loading
WO2004033082A3 (en) * 2002-10-08 2004-08-12 Conocophillips Co Oxidative dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons using catalysts with trace promoter metal loading
US20040158112A1 (en) * 2003-02-10 2004-08-12 Conocophillips Company Silicon carbide-supported catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons
US20050113247A1 (en) * 2003-11-21 2005-05-26 Conocophillips Company Copper modified catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation
US7067455B2 (en) * 2003-11-21 2006-06-27 Conocophillips Company Copper modified catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation
US20090325784A1 (en) * 2008-06-27 2009-12-31 Wei Pan Hydrocarbon Dehydrogenation with Zirconia
US20090321318A1 (en) * 2008-06-27 2009-12-31 Wei Pan Hydrocarbon Dehydrogenation with Zirconia
US20090325791A1 (en) * 2008-06-27 2009-12-31 Wei Pan Hydrocarbon Dehydrogenation with Zirconia
US8431761B2 (en) * 2008-06-27 2013-04-30 Uop Llc Hydrocarbon dehydrogenation with zirconia
US8404104B2 (en) 2008-06-27 2013-03-26 Uop Llc Hydrocarbon dehydrogenation with zirconia
US20100331590A1 (en) * 2009-06-25 2010-12-30 Debarshi Majumder Production of light olefins and aromatics
US8574522B2 (en) 2010-04-15 2013-11-05 China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation Process for selective oxidative dehydrogenation of a hydrogen-containing CO mixed gas
CN103480359A (en) * 2013-09-26 2014-01-01 中国海洋石油总公司 Preparation method for light alkane dehydrogenation catalyst with non-uniformly distributed active components

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
CN1649807A (en) 2005-08-03 application
JP2005532316A (en) 2005-10-27 application
WO2003095400A1 (en) 2003-11-20 application
CA2483429A1 (en) 2003-11-20 application
RU2004136155A (en) 2005-06-27 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4486547A (en) Indium-containing dehydrogenation catalyst
US6402989B1 (en) Catalytic partial oxidation process and promoted nickel based catalysts supported on magnesium oxide
US5439859A (en) Process and catalyst for dehydrogenation of organic compounds
US4801573A (en) Catalyst for production of hydrocarbons
US4762956A (en) Novel catalyst and process for hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons
US6566573B1 (en) Autothermal process for the production of olefins
US5712217A (en) Supported catalyst with mixed lanthanum and other rare earth oxides
US6100304A (en) Processes and palladium-promoted catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
US5733518A (en) Process and catalyst for dehydrogenation of organic compounds
US4914075A (en) Dehydrogenation catalyst composition
US6872753B2 (en) Managing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a gas to liquid plant to control the H2/CO ratio in the Fischer-Tropsch reactor feed
US5744419A (en) Process for the preparation of an improved supported catalyst, containing nickel and cobalt, with or without noble metals, useful for the oxidative conversion of methane, natural gas and biogas to syngas
US4477595A (en) Liquid hydrocarbon synthesis using supported ruthenium catalysts
US6509000B1 (en) Low temperature process for the production of hydrogen
US4962078A (en) Cobalt-titania catalysts, process utilizing these catalysts for the preparation of hydrocarbons from synthesis gas, and process for the preparation of said catalysts
US6072097A (en) Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process and catalyst
US6365543B1 (en) Process for the production of an oxidation catalyst on-line
US5128377A (en) Cobalt-titania catalysts, process utilizing these catalysts for the preparation of hydrocarbons from synthesis gas, and process for the preparation of said catalysts (C-2448)
US6509292B1 (en) Process for selective hydrogenation of acetylene in an ethylene purification process
US4861930A (en) Combination process for the conversion of a C2 -C6 aliphatic hydrocarbon
US6488907B1 (en) Catalytic partial oxidation processes and catalysts with diffusion barrier coating
EP0030110A1 (en) Process for the production of an oxygenated hydrocarbon product containing ethanol
US20030144566A1 (en) Catalyst, its preparation and its use in a dehydrogenation process
US6383977B1 (en) Catalysts for producing acetic acid from ethane oxidation, processes of making the same and methods of using same
US6646158B1 (en) Catalytic oxidation of alkanes to corresponding acids

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: CONOCO, INC., TEXAS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BUDIN, LISA M.;ALLISON, JOE D.;RAMANI, SRIRAM;REEL/FRAME:013033/0674

Effective date: 20020523

AS Assignment

Owner name: CONOCOPHILLIPS COMPANY, TEXAS

Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:CONOCO INC.;REEL/FRAME:015795/0508

Effective date: 20021231