US20030201480A1 - Trench capacitors with reduced polysilicon stress - Google Patents

Trench capacitors with reduced polysilicon stress Download PDF

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US20030201480A1
US20030201480A1 US10/441,887 US44188703A US2003201480A1 US 20030201480 A1 US20030201480 A1 US 20030201480A1 US 44188703 A US44188703 A US 44188703A US 2003201480 A1 US2003201480 A1 US 2003201480A1
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node electrode
trench
collar
top surface
formed
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US6872620B2 (en
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Dureseti Chidambarrao
Rajarao Jammy
Jack Mandelman
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Dureseti Chidambarrao
Rajarao Jammy
Mandelman Jack A.
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L27/00Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate
    • H01L27/02Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier
    • H01L27/04Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being a semiconductor body
    • H01L27/10Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being a semiconductor body including a plurality of individual components in a repetitive configuration
    • H01L27/105Devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate including semiconductor components specially adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying or switching and having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier; including integrated passive circuit elements with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier the substrate being a semiconductor body including a plurality of individual components in a repetitive configuration including field-effect components
    • H01L27/108Dynamic random access memory structures
    • H01L27/10844Multistep manufacturing methods
    • H01L27/10847Multistep manufacturing methods for structures comprising one transistor one-capacitor memory cells
    • H01L27/1085Multistep manufacturing methods for structures comprising one transistor one-capacitor memory cells with at least one step of making the capacitor or connections thereto
    • H01L27/10861Multistep manufacturing methods for structures comprising one transistor one-capacitor memory cells with at least one step of making the capacitor or connections thereto the capacitor being in a substrate trench
    • H01L27/10867Multistep manufacturing methods for structures comprising one transistor one-capacitor memory cells with at least one step of making the capacitor or connections thereto the capacitor being in a substrate trench with at least one step of making a connection between transistor and capacitor, e.g. buried strap

Abstract

A Deep Trench (DT) capacitor in a semiconductor substrate has an isolation collar formed on trench sidewalls above the DT bottom. An outer plate is formed below the collar. Capacitor dielectric is formed on DT walls below the collar. An node electrode is formed in the DT, recessed below the DT top. The collar is recessed in the DT. A combined poly/counter-recrystallizing species cap is formed over the node electrode with a peripheral strap. The cap may be formed after formed a peripheral divot of a recessed collar, followed by forming an intrinsic poly strap in the divot and doping with a counter-recrystallization species, e.g. Ge, into the node electrode and the strap. Alternatively, the node electrode is recessed followed by codeposition of poly and Ge or another counter-recrystallization species to form the cap and strap.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention [0001]
  • This invention relates to integrated circuit devices and more particularly to deep trench capacitors and methods of manufacture thereof. [0002]
  • 2. Description of Related Art [0003]
  • In trench capacitors, dislocations have been found to occur that have been closely associated with stress from polysilicon reorientation/recrystallization. Dislocations are of utmost concern in DRAM and eDRAM products using trench capacitors, since dislocations which occur in the vicinity of the strap outdiffusion are responsible for increased junction leakage and degraded retention time. During standard thermal processing, when the polysilicon in the trench recrystallizes and grain growth occurs, it shrinks (because the loss of grain boundaries from growth reduces the volume). As a result of such shrinkage, the polysilicon experiences significant tensile stresses. This in turn passes significant stresses from the polysilicon into the neighboring structure surrounding the trench, so much so that dislocations are punched out into the silicon active area which then can cause degraded data retention and other problems. [0004]
  • Although the use of pure germanium (Ge) or Silicon Germanium (Si/Ge) doped polysilicon has been proposed as a fill material for trench capacitors, the prior art teaches the use of germanium or germanium doped polysilicon filling the entire trench, which is not employed in this invention. See commonly assigned U.S. Pat. No. 6,180,480 of Economikos et al. for “Germanium or Silicon-Germanium Deep Trench Fill by Melt-Flow Process”. [0005]
  • Loh et al. U.S. Pat. No. 5,998,253 for “Method for Forming a Dopant Outdiffusion Control Structure Including Selectively Grown Silicon Nitride in a Trench Capacitor of a DRAM Cell” forms a buried strap for coupling a trench capacitor to a doped junction of a transistor. The strap is composed of intrinsic (undoped) or lightly doped polysilicon, which is again different from the teachings of the present invention. [0006]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • An advantage of this invention is that it reduces dislocation formation with very little process overhead. [0007]
  • The method and structure of this invention are adapted to being readily integrated into all the various Deep Trench (DT) applications for both planar and vertical DRAM/eDRAM applications. [0008]
  • Heretofore, in the absence of this invention it would have been required that germanium dopant should be introduced in situ because the very high dose required (>1E17 atoms/cm[0009] 2) is impractical to achieve using implantation.
  • In accordance with the method of this invention, a trench capacitor is formed having a top surface, a deep trench in a doped semiconductor substrate. The trench has a bottom, sidewalls and a top extending through the top surface of the substrate. A collar for isolation is formed on trench sidewalls substantially above the bottom. An outer plate of the trench capacitor is formed in the substrate at the bottom of the trench below the collar. A dielectric layer of the trench capacitor is formed on trench sidewalls below the collar. An inner node electrode of the trench capacitor is formed in the trench recessed below the top of the trench. The inner node electrode has an inner node electrode top surface. The method includes the processing steps of etching back the collar below the trench top surface, etching the capacitor inner node electrode below the top of the collar, and codepositing polysilicon and a counter-recrystallizing species over the collar and the inner node electrode top surface to form the cap and the strap. [0010]
  • Preferably, the trench capacitor is formed in a semiconductor substrate having a top surface. A trench formed in a doped semiconductor substrate has a bottom, sidewalls and a top extending through the top surface of the substrate. A collar for isolation is formed on the sidewalls of the trench substantially above the bottom thereof. An outer plate of the trench capacitor is formed in the substrate alongside the trench below the collar. A dielectric layer of the trench capacitor is formed on the walls of the trench below the collar. An inner node electrode of the trench capacitor is formed in the trench recessed below the top of the trench, the inner node electrode having an inner node electrode top surface. There is a recessed collar below the trench top surface. There is a recessed inner node electrode surface below the top of the collar. [0011]
  • Preferably, there is a codeposit of polysilicon and a counter-recrystallizing species in the inner node electrode and the strap. [0012]
  • Preferably, the capacitor includes a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species formed in at least one of the group consisting of the inner node electrode and the buried strap. [0013]
  • Preferably, the counter-recrystallizing species formed in the inner node electrode and the buried strap are formed with a dose more than about[0014]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • The foregoing and other aspects and advantages of this invention are explained and described below referring to the accompanying drawings, wherein: [0015]
  • FIGS. [0016] 1A-1J show sectional views which illustrate the process steps leading to the formation of a deep trench capacitor in accordance with a first embodiment of the device and process of this invention.
  • FIGS. [0017] 2A-2E show sectional views which illustrate the process steps leading to the formation of a deep trench capacitor in accordance with a second embodiment of the device and process of this invention.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • This invention seeks to avoid high tensile stress from polysilicon reorientation/recrystallization which is described above. During the deep trench process there is always a “built-in mask” when the buried strap polysilicon is deposited (due to the presence of the pad layers). Thus, we employ stress counter-doping by implanting materials composed of atoms of (Ge, Si, or any N+ implant from column IVA onwards in the periodic table, e.g. Sn, Pb, P, As, Sb, Bi, S, Se, Te, Po, Br, I, At) into the polysilicon in the deep trench in the vicinity of the strap. [0018]
  • This stress counterdoping implant then adds more material, to a local region of the polysilicon in the trench, to allow for a compressive counterbalance to the polysilicon reorientation/recrystallization. This implant also hinders grain boundary motion and growth by providing significant numbers of pinning sites. [0019]
  • Although the stress counterdoping implant doses have to be reasonably high, i.e. doses on the order of 1E15 atoms/cm[0020] 2 to provide enough counterbalance of the tensile stress, it is quite reasonable to achieve with available ion implanters and is acceptable for required throughput.
  • The stress counterdoping can be done even during an in situ process. However, for this aspect of the invention, a disposable spacer may be needed to protect the upper sidewalls of the trench (which will later serve as the gated surface of the vertical MOSFET) to prevent the material from going into the silicon active area. [0021]
  • This same stress counterdoping ion implant process can be used throughout the various polysilicon steps in the deep trench in both the planar and vertical DT (Deep Trench) DRAM and eDRAM applications. [0022]
  • FIGS. [0023] 1A-1J are sectional schematic diagrams which illustrate a process of forming a deep trench capacitor 10 in a portion of a substrate 6, e.g. a semiconductor chip which contains a vertical DRAM cell. The process involves the introduction of local germanium (Ge) doping as shown by FIG. 11 into an inner, storage node electrode 18 composed of doped polysilicon of the capacitor 10 in the vicinity of the strap 24 (FIGS. 1G-1J) in the substrate 6.
  • FIG. 1J shows the product of performing the following steps: [0024]
  • (a) Initial Processing Steps [0025]
  • (i) Referring to FIG. 1A, the result of the of performing initial steps of manufacturing in forming a deep trench capacitor [0026] 10 in the substrate 6 of a microcircuit device. The process starts with the formation of a pad oxide layer 19 on the surface of the substrate 6 followed by forming both a silicon nitride mask 20 and a hard oxide mask 17, followed by etching a deep trench 7 in the substrate 6 in which a microcircuit device is being formed. The silicon nitride mask 20, the pad oxide 19 and the deep trench 7 are etched down to the P-well 11 through the opening 17′ in the resist hard oxide mask 17. Standard lithography techniques are employed. Optionally, a pad oxide/pad nitride/oxide stack or just a pad nitride could be used.
  • Preferably, the deep trench capacitor [0027] 10 is formed in the substrate 6 which is preferably composed of a doped silicon semiconductor material.
  • Note that the deep trench [0028] 7 is shown broken away for convenience of illustration, since the deep trench 7 is preferably too deep to be illustrated on the page with the scale employed in the drawing.
  • (ii) Next, a thin film, silicon nitride liner [0029] 8 was conformally deposited on all surfaces of the deep trench 7. (As can be seen, the portions of the silicon nitride liner 8 above the recessed photoresist 9 have been removed prior to the stage of processing illustrated by FIG. 1A.)
  • (iii) Then the photoresist [0030] 9 was deposited into the deep trench 7 and recessed (as shown) to provide a desired depth of the bottom of the isolation collar 16 which has not yet been formed in FIG. 1A, but which is shown in FIGS. 1B-1J.
  • (iv) Then a portion of the silicon nitride liner [0031] 8 of step (ii) which was exposed above the recessed photoresist 9 was etched away, thereby exposing the upper, silicon sidewalls of the P-well 11 in the upper portion of the deep trench 7.
  • (v) Next, referring to FIG. 1B the product of FIG. 1A is shown after the remaining portion of the recessed photoresist [0032] 9 was removed leaving all of the silicon nitride liner 8 exposed in the deep trench 7.
  • (vi) Then only the exposed silicon surfaces of the P-well [0033] 11 in the deep trench 7 above the silicon nitride liner 8 were oxidized thereby forming an isolation collar 16 composed of silicon oxide. Thus the isolation collar 16 extends from the top surface of the remaining portions of the silicon nitride liner 8 up to the top of the deep trench 7, as is shown by FIG. 1B.
  • (vii) FIG. 1C shows the product of FIG. 1B after stripping the remaining portions of the silicon nitride liner [0034] 8 from the lower portion of the deep trench 7, exposing the lower silicon surfaces of the substrate 6 in the deep trench 7, below the isolation collar 16.
  • (viii) FIG. 1D shows the product of FIG. 1C after the step of doping an N+ doped outer plate electrode [0035] 12, i.e. an N+ doped region at the bottom of the deep trench 7 thereby forming the outer electrode of the deep trench capacitor 10, where the substrate 6 was exposed to the opening defined by the portion of the deep trench 7 below the isolation collar 16 followed by formation of a thin film layer comprising the node dielectric 14, preferably composed of a thin layer of silicon nitride and silicon oxide stack, of the deep trench capacitor 10.
  • First, the doping of the N+ doped, outer plate electrode [0036] 12 may be performed by depositing an Arsenic-doped Silicon Gas (ASG) dopant source (that has been removed) into the deep trench 7. Then the dopant is driven by diffusion from the deep trench 7 into the substrate 6 to form the outer plate electrode 12, i.e. the outer electrode of the capacitor.
  • Alternately, arsenic gas phase doping may be used to dope outer plate electrode [0037] 12.
  • Next, as can be seen in FIG. 1D, the ASG dopant source was removed from the deep trench [0038] 7. Before removal of the ASG dopant source, a drive-in step was performed, during which the dopant was diffused to form the N+ doped outer plate electrode 12.
  • In any event, the N+ doped outer plate electrode [0039] 12 was formed by doping as the arsenic diffused into the exposed portion of the substrate 6 on the lower portion of the deep trench 7, while the P-well 11 is masked by the isolation collar 16 in the upper portion of the deep trench 7.
  • (ix) Next, as shown in FIG. 1D, the thin film, node dielectric [0040] 14, which as is conventional is formed of a thick silicon nitride/silicon oxide stack on the exposed surfaces of the N+ doped outer plate electrode 12 at the bottom of the deep trench 7, below the isolation collar 16. Ultimately, as noted above, the node dielectric 14 will comprise the dielectric between the two plates of the deep trench capacitor 10 which is being formed in the substrate 6, with the N+ outer plate electrode 12 comprising the outer plate of that capacitor 10.
  • (x) FIG. 1E shows the product of FIG. 1D after deposition of the inner, storage node electrode [0041] 18 of the capacitor 10, which comprises an N+ doped polysilicon node or plug which initially filled trench 7 to the top. However in FIG. 1E, the inner, storage node electrode 18 is shown after the doped polysilicon (18) was recessed (by etching) to the depth at which the strap 24 is to be located (as shown in FIGS. 1G-1J As stated above, the top of the inner, storage node electrode 18 of the capacitor 10 is located in the vicinity of the strap 24. The N+ doped polysilicon inner, storage node electrode 18 of the capacitor 10 is located on the opposite side of node dielectric 14 from the outer plate electrode 12 which surrounds the lower end of the node dielectric 14 and the inner, storage node electrode 18.
  • xi) FIG. 1F shows the product of FIG. 1E after etching the upper portion of the exposed silicon oxide of the isolation collar [0042] 16 which is not protected by the inner, storage node electrode 18.
  • The etching step continues beyond the point at which the sidewalls of the P-well [0043] 11 in the deep trench 7 are exposed thereby recessing the isolation collar 16 below the top of inner, storage node electrode 18. This step forms a peripheral divot 23 (recess) in the top of the isolation collar 16 which extends well below the top of the inner, storage node electrode 18 of the capacitor 10, i.e. the N+ doped polysilicon 18 in the trench 7.
  • (xii) Next, as shown further in FIG. 1F, a thin Si[0044] 3N4 etch stop barrier layer 22 (e.g. having a thickness of about 0.7 nm) is formed on the exposed the walls of the deep trench 7, i.e. the sidewalls of the P-well 11, so the thin SiN diffusion/etch stop barrier layer 22 extends from the top of the deep trench 7 down to the base of the divot 23 along the sidewalls of the P-well 11 reaching to the recessed top of the isolation collar 16.
  • (xiii) FIG. 1G shows the product of FIG. 1F after the buried strap [0045] 24 has been formed by deposition of intrinsic polysilicon into the deep trench 7 in a Buried Strap Polysilicon Etchback (BSPE) process. Then the excess intrinsic (undoped) polysilicon was etched back producing the buried strap 24 which filled the divot 23 to be coplanar with the top surface of the capacitor inner, storage node electrode 18.
  • Strap [0046] 24 comprises a region (filling the divot 23) located on the periphery of the top of the inner, storage node electrode 18, which in a finished microcircuit device will electrically interconnect the bulk of the cap 21 (as well as the inner, storage node electrode 18 therebelow) with the strap outdiffusion region 26 shown in phantom in FIG. 1J, which will be formed by outdiffusion of N+ dopant from the inner, storage node electrode 18 during annealing of the micro-circuit device 6 subsequent to the processing steps of this invention.
  • Thus, after microcircuit device [0047] 6 has been processed into a finished product the strap 24 will interconnect the bulk of the cap 21 and the inner, storage node electrode 18 with the strap outdiffusion region 26 shown in phantom in FIG. 1J.
  • (b) Form Spacers [0048]
  • FIG. 1H shows the product of FIG. 1G after depositing a blanket of a bulk layer of silicon oxide into the deep trench [0049] 7 covering etch stop barrier layer 22, by a process such as CVD that initially had filled the deep trench 7. Then the bulk layer of silicon oxide was etched back to form disposable/sacrificial protective sidewall spacers 25.
  • The sidewall spacers [0050] 25 (CVD oxide, resist) are formed to prevent contamination of the upper sidewalls of the P-well 11, during the later step of implanting a counterdopant 28 comprising a counter-recrystallizing species which is described below in connection with FIG. 11.
  • (c) Implant of Counter-Recrystallizing Species [0051]
  • FIG. 11 shows the product of FIG. 1H after formation of a cap [0052] 21 in the top surface of capacitor inner, storage node electrode 18 by implantation of the counterdopant 28 (i.e. the counter-recrystallizing species). The implanting of counter-doping ions 28 occurs as the counterdopant 21 passes through the upper, open portion of the deep trench 7 into the top surface of the (N+ doped polysilicon) inner, storage node electrode 18 creating a counterdoped polysilicon cap 21 on the surface of inner, storage node electrode 18. As shown, the cap 21 has been doped with the counterdopant species 28, e.g. Germanium (Ge), to form the cap 21 which is the top, counterdoped portion of the inner, storage node electrode 18. In general, the energy of ion implantation of the counterdopant species 28 must be small.
  • In the case of Ge counterdopant [0053] 28, the Ge is implanted at a low energy, e.g. about 5 keV to about 10 keV. The counterdopant species 28 is implanted with as high a dose as the manufacturing process and implanters allow (e.g.1E15 ions/cm2-1E16 ions/cm2). For example, a relatively heavy dose (>1E15 atoms/cm2) of the counter-recrystallizing species (Ge) is implanted into the recessed N+ doped polysilicon fill of the inner, storage node electrode 18. This creates a heavily doped SiGe localized region in the vicinity of the strap 24, that inhibits recrystallization, counter-balancing of the normally encountered tensile stress.
  • (d) Strip Disposable Spacers [0054]
  • FIG. 1J shows the product of FIG. 11 after the step of stripping the disposable spacers [0055] 25 from the deep trench 7 by a conventional, selective subtractive process for removal of silicon oxide without damaging the remaining structure, as will be well understood by those skilled in the art. As stated above, FIG. 1J shows the strap outdiffusion region 26 in phantom which was formed by outdiffusion of N+ dopant from the inner, storage node electrode 18 during annealing of the micro-circuit device 6 subsequent to the processing steps of this invention.
  • The remainder of the process of forming a deep trench fill and further processing to produce bit-line and word-line formations, which is then followed by the Back-End Of the Line (BEOL) processing are standard, as will be well understood by those skilled in the art. [0056]
  • Standard processing follows, which includes formation of Trench Top Oxide (TTO), gate dielectric, gate conductor, isolation end higher levels of wiring (WLs and BLs and higher) and interlevel dielectrics. [0057]
  • In an alternate embodiment of FIGS. [0058] 2A-2E, the polysilicon used to form the cap and strap on the top surface of the inner node electrode may be deposited in situ, e.g. comprising cap-strap polysilicon doped with germanium. In situ germanium doped buried-strap polysilicon is deposited and recessed to remove the cap-strap polysilicon from the sidewalls. This creates a heavily doped SiGe localized region in the vicinity of the strap, which inhibits recrystallization and counterbalances the normally encountered tensile stress.
  • Standard processing follows, which includes formation of trench top oxide (TTO), gate dielectric, gate conductor, isolation and higher levels of wiring (WLs and BLs and higher) and interlevel dielectrics. [0059]
  • Second Embodiment [0060]
  • FIGS. [0061] 2A-2E illustrate the process steps for forming a second embodiment of a deep trench capacitor 110 manufactured in accordance with a second processing sequence in accordance with this invention, which is a modification of the process of FIGS. 1A-1J.
  • FIG. 2A is similar to FIG. 1F with like reference numbers identifying like elements in the drawings. The capacitor [0062] 110 is formed in the substrate 106 of a microcircuit device and the deep trench 107 has the N+ doped electrode comprising the outer capacitor plate electrode 12 formed at the bottom of the substrate 106. The node dielectric layer 14 is formed on the surface of the inner, storage node electrode 12. The isolation collar 16 is formed on the walls of the deep trench 107 bridging from the inner, storage node electrode 18 up along the sidewalls of the P-well 11.
  • As in FIG. 1F, the isolation collar [0063] 16 of FIG. 2A has been etched back until it is substantially recessed below the top of the inner, storage node electrode 18 and thereby forming the peripheral divot 23 comprising a recess forming a strap opening in the top of the isolation collar 16, which extends well below the top of the inner, storage node electrode 18, i.e. N+ doped polysilicon 18 in the trench 107.
  • In addition, the thin Si[0064] 3N4 etch stop barrier layer 22 (e.g. having a thickness of about 0.7 nm) has been formed on the exposed the walls of the deep trench 107, i.e. the sidewalls of the P-well 11. Thus, the thin SiN diffusion/etch stop barrier layer 22 extends from the top of the deep trench 7 down into the divot 23 along the sidewalls of the P-well 11 reaching to the recessed top of the isolation collar 16.
  • In FIG. 2B, the device [0065] 106 of FIG. 2A is shown after performing a step in which the process of the second embodiment diverges from the process of the first embodiment in that the top surface of the inner, storage node electrode 18 has been etched back to a lower level thereby forming a recess 27 below the top level of the isolation collar 16 in the deep trench 107.
  • In FIG. 2C, the device of FIG. 2B is shown after a blanket deposition of a combination comprising a germanium (Ge) doped polysilicon layer [0066] 121 instead of intrinsic (undoped) polysilicon which in this case is deposited covering the pads 20 and overfilling the trench 107 and of course filling the recess 27 thereby covering the top of the inner, storage node electrode 18.
  • FIG. 2D shows the device of FIG. 2C after planarizing of the silicon germanium layer [0067] 121 to the top of the deep trench 107, uncovering the top surface of the silicon nitride pads 20.
  • FIG. 2E shows the device of FIG. 2D after etching back the silicon germanium layer [0068] 121 to form a cap 121 generally similar to the cap of FIG. 1J except that the divot space for a strap on the periphery of the cap 121 has been filled by cap 121. However there is a strap 124 formed in cap 121, which comprises the region on the periphery of the cap 121.
  • After processing the microcircuit device formed on substrate [0069] 106 into a finished product, the strap 124 will interconnect the bulk of the cap 121 and the inner, storage node electrode 18 with the strap outdiffusion region 126 shown in phantom in FIG. 2E.
  • The strap outdiffusion region [0070] 126 is formed by outdiffusion of N+ dopant from the inner, storage node electrode 118 through the cap 121 into the closest region 126 of the P-well 11 during annealing of the microcircuit device formed on substrate 106, subsequent to the processing steps of this invention.
  • Note that control of the strap opening (divot [0071] 23) is subject to controllability of two recesses which (while not easily done) is feasible.
  • While this invention has been described in terms of the above specific embodiment(s), those skilled in the art will recognize that the invention can be practiced with modifications within the spirit and scope of the appended claims, i.e. that changes can be made in form and detail, without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly all such changes come within the purview of the present invention and the invention encompasses the subject matter of the claims which follow. [0072]

Claims (49)

Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new and desirable to be secured by Letters Patent is as follows:
1. In a method of forming a trench capacitor in a semiconductor substrate having a top surface, a collar for isolation formed on the sidewalls of the trench, an outer capacitor plate formed in the substrate below the collar, a node dielectric formed on the walls of the trench below the collar, and an node electrode formed in the trench over the node dielectric, including the steps comprising:
etching back the collar forming a lowered collar top within the trench, and
forming a cap of polysilicon and a counter-recrystallizing species on top of the node electrode while concomitantly forming a strap on the edge of the cap.
2. The method of claim 1 including forming a combination of silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the inner, node electrode and the buried strap by a step selected from the steps as follows:
(a) implanting a counter-recrystallizing dopant into the node electrode, and
(b) codepositing the counter-recrystallizing dopant with polysilicon.
3. The method of claim 1 including the steps prior to forming the cap comprising:
etching back the collar below the node electrode thereby forming a recess about the edge of the top of the node electrode,
forming a diffusion/etch stop barrier on the sidewalls of the trench above the etched back collar reaching down along the recess,
forming an intrinsic, undoped, polysilicon buried strap in the recess, and
forming silicon with a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
4. The method of claim 3 wherein the counter-recrystallizing species is implanted into the node electrode top surface and into the buried strap.
5. The method of claim 3 with implanting of the counter-recrystallizing species into the node electrode and buried strap with a dose more than about 1E15 atoms/cm2.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein a cap is formed by the steps comprising:
etching the node electrode below the lowered top of the collar, and
depositing silicon with a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein prior to forming the cap the collar is etched back below the node electrode top surface thereby forming a recess about the edge of the of the node electrode top surface a follows:
forming an intrinsic, undoped, polysilicon buried strap in the recess, and
forming a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
8. In a method of forming a trench capacitor in a semiconductor substrate having a top surface, with a cap doped with a counter-recrystallizing species formed on the top of the capacitor node electrode, a trench in a doped semiconductor substrate having a bottom, sidewalls and a top extending through the top surface of the substrate, a collar for isolation formed on the sidewalls of the trench with a collar bottom substantially above the bottom of the trench, an outer plate of the capacitor formed in the substrate at the bottom of the trench below the collar, a node dielectric of the capacitor comprising a layer formed on the walls of the trench below the collar, an inner, storage node electrode of the capacitor formed in the trench, recessed below the top of the trench with the inner, storage node electrode having an inner, storage node electrode top surface, including the steps comprising:
etching back the collar forming a lowered collar top within the trench, and
forming a cap of a combination of polysilicon and a counter-recrystallizing species on top of the capacitor inner, storage node electrode while concomitantly forming a strap on the edge of the cap.
9. The method of claim 8 including combining silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the inner, storage node electrode top and the buried strap by a step selected from the steps as follows:
(a) implanting a counter-recrystallizing dopant into the inner, storage node electrode top surface, and
(b) codepositing the counter-recrystallizing dopant with polysilicon.
10. The method of claim 9 including the steps prior to forming the cap comprising:
etching back the collar below the inner, storage node electrode top surface thereby forming a divot recessed about the edge of the top of the polysilicon capacitor node electrode,
forming a diffusion/etch stop barrier on the sidewalls of the trench above the etched back collar reaching down along the divot,
forming an intrinsic, undoped, polysilicon buried strap in the divot, and
forming a combination of silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode and the buried strap.
11. The method of claim 9 wherein the counter-recrystallizing species is implanted into the node electrode and into the buried strap.
12. The method of claim 9 wherein the counter-recrystallizing species is implanted into the node electrode top surface and into the buried strap with a dose greater than about 1E15 atoms/cm2.
13. The method of claim 8 wherein a cap is formed by the steps comprising:
etching the node electrode below the lowered top of the collar, and
codepositing silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
14. The method of claim 8 including etching back the collar below the node electrode top surface before forming the cap to form a divot recessed on the edge of the node electrode top surface, by the steps comprising:
forming an intrinsic, undoped, polysilicon buried strap in the divot, and
forming a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
15. In a method of forming a trench capacitor in a semiconductor substrate having a top surface, a trench in a doped semiconductor substrate having a bottom, sidewalls and a top extending through the top surface of the substrate, a collar for isolation formed on the sidewalls of the trench substantially above the bottom thereof, an node electrode of the trench capacitor formed in the substrate at the bottom of the trench below the collar, a dielectric layer of the trench capacitor comprising a thin film formed on the walls of the trench below the collar, an node electrode of the trench capacitor formed in the trench recessed below the top of the trench having a node electrode top with an node electrode top surface, and the collar having been etched back below the node electrode top surface thereby forming a divot recessed about the edge of the of the node electrode top surface the processing step including forming a combination of silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
16. The method of claim 15 including the steps prior to forming the cap comprising:
etching back the collar below the node electrode top surface thereby forming the divot,
forming a diffusion/etch stop barrier on the sidewalls of the trench above the etched back collar reaching down along the divot recessed, and
forming an intrinsic, undoped, polysilicon buried strap in the divot recessed.
17. The method of claim 15 wherein a cap is formed by the steps comprising:
etching to recess the node electrode top surface below the lowered top of the collar, and
codepositing silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
18. The method of claim 15 wherein prior to forming the cap, the collar is etched back below the node electrode top surface to form a divot recessed about the edge of the of the node electrode top surface, including the step comprising forming a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
19. A method of forming a trench capacitor in a semiconductor substrate having a top surface, a trench in a doped semiconductor substrate having a bottom, sidewalls and a top extending through the top surface of the substrate, a collar for isolation formed on the sidewalls of the trench substantially above the bottom thereof, an outer plate of the trench capacitor formed in the substrate at the bottom of the trench below the collar, a dielectric layer of the trench capacitor formed on the walls of the trench below the collar, an node electrode of the trench capacitor formed in the trench recessed below the top of the trench, the node electrode having an node electrode top surface, including by the following steps:
etching back the collar below the trench top surface,
etching the capacitor node electrode below the top of the collar, and
codepositing polysilicon and a counter-recrystallizing species over the collar and the node electrode top surface to form the cap and the strap.
20. The method of claim 19 wherein the counter-recrystallizing species is implanted into node electrode and the buried strap with a dose above about 1E15 atoms/cm2.
21. The method of claim 19 including forming a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
22. The method of claim 19 including:
forming a diffusion/etch stop barrier on the sidewalls of the trench above the etched back collar, and
forming the counter-recrystallizing species in the node electrode top surface and in the buried strap with a dose greater than about 1E15 atoms/cm2.
23. The method of claim 19 including forming a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
24. A trench capacitor in a semiconductor substrate having a top surface,
a recessed collar for isolation formed on the sidewalls of the trench,
an outer capacitor plate formed in the substrate below the collar,
a node dielectric formed on the walls of the trench below the collar,
an node electrode formed in the trench over the node dielectric, and
a cap including polysilicon and a counter-recrystallizing species formed on top of the node electrode juxtaposed with a strap on the edge of the cap.
25. The capacitor of claim 24 including combination of silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species formed in at least one of the group consisting of the inner, node electrode and the buried strap selected from as follows:
(a) the node electrode including a counter-recrystallizing dopant, and
(b) polysilicon codeposited with a counter-recrystallizing dopant.
26. The capacitor of claim 24 comprising:
the collar being recessed below the node electrode in the form of a recess about the edge of the top of the node electrode,
an intrinsic, undoped, polysilicon buried strap in the recess, and
a silicon being combined with a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
27. The capacitor of claim 26 with the counter-recrystallizing species implanted into the node electrode top surface and implanted into the buried strap.
28. The capacitor of claim 24 with:
the node electrode recessed below the lowered top of the collar, and
a codeposit of silicon with a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
29. The capacitor of claim 24 wherein the collar is recessed below the node electrode top surface to form a recess about the edge of the of the node electrode top surface as follows:
an intrinsic, undoped, polysilicon buried strap formed in the recess, and
a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species formed in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
30. A trench capacitor formed in a substrate formed of a doped semi-conductor having a top surface, with a cap doped with a counter-recrystallizing species formed on the top of the capacitor node electrode, a trench formed in the semiconductor substrate having a bottom, sidewalls and a top extending through the top surface of the substrate, a collar for isolation formed on the sidewalls of the trench with a collar bottom substantially above the bottom of the trench, an outer plate of the capacitor formed in the substrate at the bottom of the trench below the collar, a node dielectric of the capacitor comprising a layer formed on the walls of the trench below the collar, an inner, storage node electrode of the capacitor formed in the trench, recessed below the top of the trench with the inner, storage node electrode having an inner, storage node electrode top surface, comprising:
the collar recessed within the trench, and
a cap of a combination of polysilicon and a counter-recrystallizing species formed on top of the capacitor inner, storage node electrode and a strap formed on the edge of the cap.
31. The capacitor of claim 30 including a combination of silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species formed in at least one of the group consisting of the inner, storage node electrode top and the buried strap formed in one of the configurations selected from the group consisting of as follows:
(a) a counter-recrystallizing dopant implanted into the inner, storage node electrode top surface, and
(b) a codeposit of counter-recrystallizing dopant and polysilicon.
32. The capacitor of claim 31 comprising:
a recessed collar below the inner, storage node electrode top surface in the form of a divot recessed about the edge of the top of the polysilicon capacitor node electrode,
an intrinsic, undoped, polysilicon buried strap formed in the divot, and
a combination of silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species formed in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode and the buried strap.
33. The capacitor of claim 30 wherein the counter-recrystallizing species is implanted into the node electrode and into the buried strap.
34. The capacitor of claim 30 comprising:
the node electrode recessed below the lowered top of the collar, and
a combination of silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species forming at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode and the buried strap.
35. The capacitor of claim 30 wherein the cap the collar for isolation is recessed below the node electrode top surface comprising a divot positioned about the edge of the of the node electrode top surface, comprising:
an intrinsic, undoped, polysilicon buried strap formed in the divot, and
a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species formed in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
36. A trench capacitor in a semiconductor substrate having a top surface, a trench in a doped semiconductor substrate having a bottom, sidewalls and a top extending through the top surface of the substrate, a collar for isolation formed on the sidewalls of the trench substantially above the bottom thereof, an node electrode of the trench capacitor formed in the substrate at the bottom of the trench below the collar, a dielectric layer of the trench capacitor comprising a thin film formed on the walls of the trench below the collar, an node electrode of the trench capacitor formed in the trench recessed below the top of the trench having a node electrode top with a top surface, and the collar having been recessed below the node electrode top surface thereby formed a divot recessed about the edge of the of the node electrode top surface, including a combination of silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species formed in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
37. The capacitor of claim 36 including an intrinsic, undoped, polysilicon buried strap formed in the divot.
38. The capacitor of claim 36 comprising:
the node electrode top surface is recessed below the lowered top of the collar, and
a codeposit of silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
39. The capacitor of claim 36 wherein a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species is formed in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
40. A trench capacitor formed in a semiconductor substrate having a top surface, a trench in a doped semiconductor substrate having a bottom, sidewalls and a top extending through the top surface of the substrate, a collar for isolation formed on the sidewalls of the trench substantially above the bottom thereof, an outer plate of the trench capacitor formed in the substrate at the bottom of the trench below the collar, a dielectric layer of the trench capacitor formed on the walls of the trench below the collar, an node electrode of the trench capacitor formed in the trench recessed below the top of the trench, the node electrode having an node electrode top surface, including:
a recessed collar below the node electrode top surface forming a peripheral divot around the top surface of the node electrode,
an intrinsic polysilicon region formed in the divot,
a recessed node electrode surface below the top of the collar, and
a deposit of a counter-recrystallizing species in the node electrode.
41. The capacitor of claim 40 including a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species formed in the node electrode.
42. The capacitor of claim 40 with the counter-recrystallizing species was implanted into the node electrode and with a dose more than about 1E15 atoms/cm2.
43. The capacitor of claim 40 including an intrinsic, undoped, polysilicon buried strap formed in the divot.
44. The capacitor of claim 40 comprising:
the node electrode top surface is recessed below the lowered top of the collar, and
a codeposit of silicon and a counter-recrystallizing species in at least one of the group consisting of node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
45. The capacitor of claim 40 wherein a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species is formed in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
46. A trench capacitor formed in a semiconductor substrate having a top surface, a trench in a doped semiconductor substrate having a bottom, sidewalls and a top extending through the top surface of the substrate, a collar for isolation formed on the sidewalls of the trench substantially above the bottom thereof, an outer plate of the trench capacitor formed in the substrate at the bottom of the trench below the collar, a dielectric layer of the trench capacitor formed on the walls of the trench below the collar, a doped polysilicon node electrode of the trench capacitor formed in the trench recessed below the top of the trench, the node electrode having an node electrode top surface, including:
a recessed collar below the trench top surface,
a recessed node electrode surface below the top of the collar, and
a codeposit of polysilicon and a counter-recrystallizing species in the node electrode and the strap.
47. The capacitor of claim 46 including a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species formed in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode and the buried strap.
48. The capacitor of claim 46 with the counter-recrystallizing species formed in the node electrode and the buried strap with a dose more than about 1E15 atoms/cm2.
49. The capacitor of claim 46 including a combination of polysilicon and germanium as a counter-recrystallizing species formed in at least one of the group consisting of the node electrode top surface and the buried strap.
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