Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Method of dynamically determining real-time multimedia streaming rate over a communications networks

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20030198184A1
US20030198184A1 US09945020 US94502001A US2003198184A1 US 20030198184 A1 US20030198184 A1 US 20030198184A1 US 09945020 US09945020 US 09945020 US 94502001 A US94502001 A US 94502001A US 2003198184 A1 US2003198184 A1 US 2003198184A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
rate
data
byte
server
network
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US09945020
Inventor
Joe Huang
Phillip Sherwood
Chun-Jen Tsai
Szu-Wei Wang
Yuqi Yao
Thomas Zeng
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
PacketVideo Network Solutions Inc
Original Assignee
PacketVideo Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W28/00Network traffic or resource management
    • H04W28/16Central resource management; Negotiation of resources or communication parameters, e.g. negotiating bandwidth or QoS [Quality of Service]
    • H04W28/18Negotiating wireless communication parameters
    • H04W28/22Negotiating communication rate
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L1/00Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received
    • H04L1/0001Systems modifying transmission characteristics according to link quality, e.g. power backoff
    • H04L1/0002Systems modifying transmission characteristics according to link quality, e.g. power backoff by adapting the transmission rate
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L29/00Arrangements, apparatus, circuits or systems, not covered by a single one of groups H04L1/00 - H04L27/00 contains provisionally no documents
    • H04L29/02Communication control; Communication processing contains provisionally no documents
    • H04L29/06Communication control; Communication processing contains provisionally no documents characterised by a protocol
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L47/00Traffic regulation in packet switching networks
    • H04L47/10Flow control or congestion control
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L47/00Traffic regulation in packet switching networks
    • H04L47/10Flow control or congestion control
    • H04L47/19Flow control or congestion control at layers above network layer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L47/00Traffic regulation in packet switching networks
    • H04L47/10Flow control or congestion control
    • H04L47/30Flow control or congestion control using information about buffer occupancy at either end or transit nodes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L65/00Network arrangements or protocols for real-time communications
    • H04L65/80QoS aspects
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand]
    • H04N21/20Servers specifically adapted for the distribution of content, e.g. VOD servers; Operations thereof
    • H04N21/23Processing of content or additional data; Elementary server operations; Server middleware
    • H04N21/238Interfacing the downstream path of the transmission network, e.g. adapting the transmission rate of a video stream to network bandwidth; Processing of multiplex streams
    • H04N21/23805Controlling the feeding rate to the network, e.g. by controlling the video pump
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand]
    • H04N21/20Servers specifically adapted for the distribution of content, e.g. VOD servers; Operations thereof
    • H04N21/23Processing of content or additional data; Elementary server operations; Server middleware
    • H04N21/24Monitoring of processes or resources, e.g. monitoring of server load, available bandwidth, upstream requests
    • H04N21/2401Monitoring of the client buffer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand]
    • H04N21/40Client devices specifically adapted for the reception of or interaction with content, e.g. set-top-box [STB]; Operations thereof
    • H04N21/43Processing of content or additional data, e.g. demultiplexing additional data from a digital video stream; Elementary client operations, e.g. monitoring of home network, synchronizing decoder's clock; Client middleware
    • H04N21/442Monitoring of processes or resources, e.g. detecting the failure of a recording device, monitoring the downstream bandwidth, the number of times a movie has been viewed, the storage space available from the internal hard disk
    • H04N21/44209Monitoring of downstream path of the transmission network originating from a server, e.g. bandwidth variations of a wireless network
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand]
    • H04N21/60Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand] using Network structure or processes specifically adapted for video distribution between server and client or between remote clients; Control signaling specific to video distribution between clients, server and network components, e.g. to video encoder or decoder; Transmission of management data between server and client, e.g. sending from server to client commands for recording incoming content stream; Communication details between server and client
    • H04N21/61Network physical structure; Signal processing
    • H04N21/6106Network physical structure; Signal processing specially adapted to the downstream path of the transmission network
    • H04N21/6125Network physical structure; Signal processing specially adapted to the downstream path of the transmission network involving transmission via Internet
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand]
    • H04N21/60Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand] using Network structure or processes specifically adapted for video distribution between server and client or between remote clients; Control signaling specific to video distribution between clients, server and network components, e.g. to video encoder or decoder; Transmission of management data between server and client, e.g. sending from server to client commands for recording incoming content stream; Communication details between server and client
    • H04N21/63Control signaling related to video distribution between client, server and network components; Network processes for video distribution between server and clients or between remote clients, e.g. transmitting basic layer and enhancement layers over different transmission paths, setting up a peer-to-peer communication via Internet between remote STB's; Communication protocols; Addressing
    • H04N21/637Control signals issued by the client directed to the server or network components
    • H04N21/6377Control signals issued by the client directed to the server or network components directed to server
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand]
    • H04N21/60Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand] using Network structure or processes specifically adapted for video distribution between server and client or between remote clients; Control signaling specific to video distribution between clients, server and network components, e.g. to video encoder or decoder; Transmission of management data between server and client, e.g. sending from server to client commands for recording incoming content stream; Communication details between server and client
    • H04N21/63Control signaling related to video distribution between client, server and network components; Network processes for video distribution between server and clients or between remote clients, e.g. transmitting basic layer and enhancement layers over different transmission paths, setting up a peer-to-peer communication via Internet between remote STB's; Communication protocols; Addressing
    • H04N21/643Control signaling related to video distribution between client, server and network components; Network processes for video distribution between server and clients or between remote clients, e.g. transmitting basic layer and enhancement layers over different transmission paths, setting up a peer-to-peer communication via Internet between remote STB's; Communication protocols; Addressing using dedicated Communication protocols
    • H04N21/6437Real-time Transport Protocol [RTP]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand]
    • H04N21/60Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television, VOD [Video On Demand] using Network structure or processes specifically adapted for video distribution between server and client or between remote clients; Control signaling specific to video distribution between clients, server and network components, e.g. to video encoder or decoder; Transmission of management data between server and client, e.g. sending from server to client commands for recording incoming content stream; Communication details between server and client
    • H04N21/65Transmission of management data between client and server
    • H04N21/658Transmission by the client directed to the server
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N7/00Television systems
    • H04N7/16Analogue secrecy systems; Analogue subscription systems
    • H04N7/173Analogue secrecy systems; Analogue subscription systems with two-way working, e.g. subscriber sending a programme selection signal
    • H04N7/17309Transmission or handling of upstream communications
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L29/00Arrangements, apparatus, circuits or systems, not covered by a single one of groups H04L1/00 - H04L27/00 contains provisionally no documents
    • H04L29/02Communication control; Communication processing contains provisionally no documents
    • H04L29/06Communication control; Communication processing contains provisionally no documents characterised by a protocol
    • H04L29/0602Protocols characterised by their application
    • H04L29/06027Protocols for multimedia communication
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
    • H04W28/00Network traffic or resource management
    • H04W28/02Traffic management, e.g. flow control or congestion control
    • H04W28/10Flow control between communication endpoints
    • H04W28/14Flow control between communication endpoints using intermediate storage

Abstract

The invention provides a method for a multimedia server to dynamically adjust the data rate that is streamed over an error-prone bandwidth-varying wireless network to a mobile multimedia client in a client-server architecture. The method enables multimedia applications to efficiently utilize the available (yet time-varying) wireless channel bandwidth and helps prevent interruption in the streaming due to client buffer underflow and packet loss due to network buffer overflow, hence significantly improving the multimedia streaming performance.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to the field of wireless multimedia communications, and more particularly, to a method of dynamically adjusting the multimedia data rate for streaming over an end-to-end communication network.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART
  • [0002]
    Multimedia communication through wireless interface allows a user to communicate from mobile locations in multiple formats, e.g., voice/audio, data, image, and full motion video. However, today's second-generation cellular telephony networks such as CDMA-IS95A (Code Division Multiple Access), TDMA-IS136 (Time Division Multiple Access), and GSM (Global System for Mobile), typically support data rate less than 15 kbps (kbits/sec), suitable for compressed speech, but too little for multimedia information. Since multimedia communication is envisioned to be a significant component of future wireless communication services, various two-and-half and third generation wireless standards and technologies such as GPRS (General Packet Radio Service), CDMA IS-95B, CDMA2000 1x, CDMA2000 1xEV (EVolution) and W-CDMA (Wideband CDMA), have been designed to have the capability of providing higher speed data services, ranging from more than 100 kbps (kbits/sec) to several Mbps (mbits/sec).
  • [0003]
    Future wireless multimedia applications will have to work over an open, layered, Internet-style network with a wired backbone and wireless extensions. Therefore, common protocols will have to be used for the transmission across the wireline and wireless portions of the network. Reliable delivery transport protocols, such as Transport Control Protocol (TCP) can introduce significant delay by re-transmitting data packets until they are acknowledged as correctly received. On the other hand, Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP), as more fully discussed in Schulzrinne et al., “RTP: A transport protocol for real time applications.” Internet draft, draft-ietf-avt-rtp-new-07.ps, March, 2000, is specifically defined by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to support real-time data delivery for multimedia applications. RTP is generally used in conjunction with UDP (User Datagram Protocol), which is a “best-efforts”, connectionless protocol. Moreover, RTP includes a sub-component know as Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP), which is used to convey performance information between a server and a client. Compressed media of any kind, along with other data types, can be transported, multiplexed, and synchronized by using the services provided by the RTP/UDP/IP stack. This approach has a high potential to become an industry standard protocol for real-time data delivery for multimedia applications.
  • [0004]
    Real-time multimedia streaming enables users to view or listen to rich multimedia content soon after the end user begins receiving the streaming data, without having to download the whole multimedia file first. On the other hand, transmission of real-time multimedia streams is complicated compared to file download due to the delay-sensitive nature of the real-time data. For example, if the real-time data arrives after its due time relative to other portion of the multimedia presentation, the presentation will either be stalled until the right section comes in or suffer from distortion if the late data is simply discarded. This issue is most serious when the access medium is a wireless network.
  • [0005]
    Radio transmission over a wireless channel is highly prone to errors due to multi-path effects, shadowing, and interference. Link layer retransmissions that are commonly used in wireless communication systems to correct the corrupted data can result in high transmission delay and jitter. Secondly, the wireless channel bandwidth can vary significantly over time. The reason is that the amount of bandwidth that is assigned to a user can be a function of the signal strength and interference level that such user receives since more processing gain or heavier channel coding is needed to protect the data under low signal strength or high interference conditions. As a user travels through different parts of the cell with varying signal strengths due to radio wave propagation path loss and fading, different bandwidths may be dynamically assigned to the user. In addition, depending on the quality of service (QoS) capability of the wireless network, multi-user sharing of the wireless channel with heterogeneous data types can also lead to significant channel bandwidth variation. Lastly, data transmission can be interrupted completely depending on wireless network implementation, e.g., cell reselection/handoff process, resulting in transmission gaps ranging from a fraction of a second to several seconds. This unpredictability of available wireless channel bandwidth introduces high delay jitter for the multimedia streaming data.
  • [0006]
    To provide a margin for delivery jitter, multimedia streaming systems often delay start of playback at the beginning of the stream to build up a buffer of data (this buffer is often referred to as the jitter buffer). Since the data in the buffer must flow out at the predefined playtime, the jitter buffer must be continually refilled in order for the multimedia stream to continue to play without interruption. If the buffer empties completely and playback stalls, a condition known as underflow, it is necessary to refill the jitter buffer before playback can continue. The unpredictable stopping and starting of playback that results can seriously disrupt the user experience and limit the viability of multimedia distribution over wireless networks. Although automatic QoS control in wireless networks may help alleviate this problem in the future, it may take years before mature QoS control will be widely deployed commercially.
  • [0007]
    Another approach to the problem is to dynamically adjust the multimedia streaming quality and data rate in response to network conditions, henceforth termed “dynamic rate control”. Compared to approaches relying on QoS control (e.g., resource reservation and/or admission control), dynamic rate control approach has the advantage of better utilizing the available network resources and enhancing the inter-protocol fairness between TCP and non-TCP protocols (i.e., “TCP friendly”).
  • [0008]
    Fundamentally, dynamic rate control is facilitated by the nature of some existing multimedia applications, which may allow the media rate and quality to be adjusted over a wide range. A prominent example is the scalability features provided by the MPEG-4 (Motion Picture Experts Group) video coding standards, including temporal scalability, spatial scalability (including, SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) scalability), and FGS (fine-granularity scalability). A scalable encoder generates a bit-stream that allows decoding an appropriate subset of the bit-stream based on the available bandwidth and the capability of the decoder. As more bandwidth becomes available, more of the bit-stream can be delivered, resulting in a higher quality multimedia presentation.
  • [0009]
    A variety of dynamic rate control algorithms have been proposed for use in the wireline Internet. Most of these techniques regulate the streaming data rate at the server by detecting network congestion based on packet loss. Examples of such work can be found in Buss et al., “Dynamic QoS control of multimedia applications based on RTP,” Computer Communications, vol.19, no.1, pp.49-58, January 1996; Bolot et al., “Experience with rate control mechanisms for packet video in the Internet,” Computer Communication Review, vol. 28, no.1, January 1998; Sisalem et al., “The direct adjustment algorithm: A TCP-friendly adaptation scheme”, Quality of Future Internet Services Workshop, Berlin, Germany, Sep. 25-27, 2000; and Padhye et al., “A model based TCP-friendly rate control protocol,” Proc. International Workshop on Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV), Basking Ridge, N.J., June 1999. In order to be “TCP-friendly”, these schemes either use control algorithms similar to TCP or based the adaptation behavior on an empirical analytical model of TCP. Typically, the rate adjustment procedure follows an AIMD (Additive Increase, Multiplicative Decrease) principle. That is, the sender additively increases the rate when no loss is detected and multiplicatively decreases the rate when sufficient amount of loss is detected. Consequently, the rate adjustment basically follows a saw-tooth pattern and the multimedia presentation quality may not be very smooth.
  • [0010]
    In general, these schemes use packet loss as the main indicator of available network bottleneck bandwidth. However, regulating the send rate based on packet loss caused by network buffer overflow will tend to maximize the buffer occupancy and queuing delay at the bottleneck element of the network. In the case of wireless multimedia streaming, the wireless access network may very well be the bottleneck of the end-to-end network. Use of packet loss-based rate control in wireless networks with highly variable channel bandwidth tends to fill up the data buffers in the wireless access network and introduce significant delay in the multimedia streaming data, resulting in high probability in player buffer underflow and stalled playback. A second problem is that loss based rate control intentionally induce packet loss as they increase the data rate in the additive mode to explore available network bandwidth. These lost packets may be automatically retransmitted at the transport or application layer, resulting in high delay jitter. If lost packets are not retransmitted, the quality of the multimedia presentation will be degraded. A final problem is that packet loss in wireless networks can originate at multiple sources, including the air link as well as the wireless network buffer. Packet loss-based rate control may misinterpret the significance of packet loss under these circumstances and perform poorly as a result.
  • [0011]
    Recently, a few schemes have been proposed that use the total amount of buffered/queued data on the transmission path as a means to adjust the send rate. Yano et al., “A rate control for continuous media transmission based on backlog estimation from end-to-end delay,” http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/˜yano/pubs/corbed-pv99/; and Jacobs et al., “Real-time dynamic shaping and control for Internet video applications,” Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, Princeton, N.J., June, 1997, describe such schemes. Here, the basic goal is to control the total amount of data buffered in the network at a constant, desired level. However, simply trying to maintain a constant amount of data in the network buffer does not guarantee that the send rate can track the channel bandwidth variation effectively in a wireless environment with high bandwidth variation. Indeed, the work presented in Yano et al. only studies constant bandwidth scenarios. Moreover, neither buffer size control nor bandwidth tracking are performed very effectively using the algorithm proposed by Jacobs et al.
  • [0012]
    Another important issue of the buffer based dynamic rate control algorithms is the accuracy of the buffered data estimation. While Jacobs et al. do not address how the amount of buffered data can be estimated at all, Yano et al. use the round trip time (RTT) and the average throughput to perform the estimation. Unfortunately, the estimation method used by Yano et al. is not accurate for wireless streaming applications because the uplink delay, which can range from a fraction of a second to a few seconds in wireless systems, has not been taken into account, resulting in a significant overestimation of the buffered data. Lastly, a given buffer level setting for one multimedia stream is frequently not optimal for other multimedia streams. The issue of how to find the desired buffer level is not addressed in the prior art. Therefore, for streaming of multimedia over wireless networks, there exists a need for a method to effectively track the wireless channel bandwidth variation and at the same time control the amount of data buffered in the network to reduce the delay jitter and adjust to packet loss caused by bandwidth variations and network buffer overflow.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0013]
    The present invention involves a novel framework to dynamically adjust the streaming multimedia data rate to track network throughput variation, while also trying to maintain a target amount of data in the wireline/wireless network buffer to control delay jitter and avoid network buffer overflow. By defining a pair of user-definable tuning parameters, the framework allows modification of the rate control algorithms to focus more on tracking the network throughput variation or on maintaining a target amount of buffered data. The invention also supports dynamic adjustment of the tuning parameters to allow the algorithm to self-adjust its focus between bandwidth tracking and network buffer control, depending on the current estimation of the amount of buffered data.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0014]
    The current invention provides a method of dynamically determining a streaming data rate in a communications network. Other features and advantages of the invention will be understood and appreciated by those of ordinary skill in the art upon consideration of the following detailed description, appended claims and accompanying drawings of preferred embodiments, where:
  • [0015]
    [0015]FIG. 1 is a simplified block diagram illustrating a communications network in which the method according to principles of the present invention is operable;
  • [0016]
    [0016]FIG. 2 is a simplified flowchart illustrating the present method;
  • [0017]
    [0017]FIGS. 3 and 4 are more detailed flowcharts illustrating the steps of FIG. 2; and
  • [0018]
    [0018]FIG. 5 is a graphical illustration of a dynamic data rate set point algorithm according to principles of the present invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0019]
    [0019]FIG. 1 is a simplified example of a communications network in which the method according to principles of the present invention is operable. In this environment, we assume that the transport protocol for multimedia data (e.g., RTP/RTCP protocol) contains a “periodic” feedback report (FR), which contains the necessary information to facilitate the rate control process (including, for example, information that can be used to estimate the channel throughput, network buffer occupation, and information regarding packet loss status). The feedback report may be sent from the client at a fixed interval (denoted TFR), at a random interval (with mean TFR) calculated based on a predefined probability distribution function, or upon the trigger of the first data packet arrival a fixed interval (target TFR) after the send time of the last FR. The feedback information conveyed in the FR, along with the information available to the server itself, are used to determine the multimedia streaming data rate.
  • [0020]
    [0020]FIG. 2 shows a flowchart of the steps involved in dynamically determining and adjusting a data rate set point in accordance with principles of the present invention. An initial rate of streaming is determined 100 and the server will attempt to stream at that rate until the data rate set point is adjusted. Next a real time system clock is updated 200 and then it is determined whether a new FR has arrived 300. If a FR has arrived, a first and second timer, Timer 1 and Timer 2, respectively, are reset 400. The amount of data (in bytes) residing in the wireline/wireless network buffer (denoted BYTEBUFFERED) is then estimated 500 for the instant that the server received the new FR from the mobile client. Next, the data rate set point is calculated 600 based on the estimated BYTEBUFFERED for the particular received FR, from the previous step. Ideally, FRs should be received “periodically” (with reasonable variation) and the data rate set point can be determined accordingly by repeating steps 200-600, as illustrated in FIG. 2.
  • [0021]
    However, the transmissions typically are carried out over error prone networks, which can result in missing FRs. The present invention can account for this in the following manner. Referring back to step 300, if it was determined that the next FR has not been received, then it is determined how long it's been since the reception of the most recent FR. It is first determined if Timer 2 has expired 700, and if so, streaming is paused 800, and then the system returns to the step of updating the clock 200 and repeats the steps. However, if Timer 2 has not expired, it is determined whether Timer 1 has expired 900. If Timer 1 has expired, then the server will gradually change the data rate set point 1000, and then operation will continue by updating the clock 200, and repeating the above described process. If on the other hand, Timer 1 has not expired, then nothing is done 1100 and streaming will continue as it had been until the clock is updated 200 and the steps repeated. Thus, in accordance with the principles of the present invention, if it was determined that the next FR has not been received after a certain time since the reception of the most recent FR, i.e. Timer 1 expires, the server will gradually change the data rate set point. In addition, if the next FR has not been received after a second timer (Timer 2>Timer 1) expires, the system will pause streaming of data.
  • [0022]
    Referring now to FIG. 3, the process of estimating the amount of data in the network buffer is delineated as follows. The estimation is preferably based on the difference between the cumulative number of bytes sent from the server and that received by the client 510. This value is then adjusted by the bytes in transition during the uplink delay of the FR and is referred to as the uplink delay compensation 520. The uplink delay compensation can be computed from the estimated uplink delay and either the most recent instantaneous receive rate or a averaged receive rate calculated using the information reported in the FR. Alternatively, the compensation can also be estimated as the amount of data sent out by the server during the past estimated uplink delay period. Lastly, the packets that are lost due to network buffer overflow do not occupy network buffers and should be discounted 530. Thus, the estimated value is further adjusted by a packet loss compensation value. The packet loss compensation value can be computed as an accumulative amount of data lost from the beginning of the streaming which can be computed from the number of packets lost reported in the FR and either a short term or long term average packet size.
  • [0023]
    The steps involved in calculating the data rate set point 600 will now be described in further detail. Referring now to FIG. 4, in general, the streaming data rate set point is calculated as {a pre-adjustment streaming data rate set point} minus {an excess send rate (which is in effect the previous streaming data rate minus the most recent estimated received data rate)} plus {(the difference between BYTEBUFFERED and a target byte count (termed BYTETARGET) divided by the (mean/target) FR interval) multiplied by a tuning parameter} 620, 640. The present invention provides for tune-up and tune-down parameters. Which tuning parameter utilized is determined based on whether BYTEBUFFERED≧BYTETARGET 610. Finally, an upper and lower bound is imposed on the calculated data rate 630, 650. Here, BYTETARGET can be determined on a per stream basis by the multimedia server based on multimedia source encoding rate, client jitter buffer depth, and wireless network characteristics. In a preferred embodiment, the value of BYTETARGET is proportional to the product of the encoding source rate and the client jitter buffer depth. The proportional “scaling constant” can be determined for each type of wireless network separately.
  • [0024]
    The pair of tuning parameters, denoted TUNE_UP % and TUNE_DOWN %, provide a transition between the throughput tracking and network buffer size control (TUNE_UP % is used when BYTEBUFFERED is lower than BYTETARGET and TUNE_DOWN % is used when BYTEBUFFERED is higher than BYTETARGET). The fact that this framework allows TUNE_UP % and TUNE_DOWN % to be designed separately gives the designer room to customize the rate control algorithm. One may want to choose TUNE_UP %>TUNE_DOWN % to aggressively explore the available channel bandwidth or one may choose the opposite to reduce the probability of network buffer overflow and player buffer underflow. Moreover, when TUNE_UP % and TUNE_DOWN % are close to 100%, the algorithm will tryto maintain a “constant” network buffer size. On the other hand, when TUNE_UP % and TUNE_DOWN % are close to 0%, the algorithm will shift gear to track the network throughput. The reasons are explained as follows:
  • [0025]
    First note that the excess send rate, or the previous streaming data rate minus the most recent estimated received data rate, is conceptually equivalent to the increase in the BYTEBUFFERED during the last FR interval divided by the last FR interval. Secondly, when TUNE_UP % and TUNE_DOWN % are close to 100%, the combination of the current BYTEBUFFERED and the increase of BYTEBUFFERED during the last FR interval gives a predicted value of BYTEBUFFERED if both network throughput and streaming data rate were to remain the same for the next FR interval. Therefore, adding to the pre-adjustment streaming data rate set point a value equal to the difference between BYTETARGET and the predicted BYTEBUFFERED divided by the (mean/target) FR interval ideally produces the desired target buffered byte count in the next FR interval.
  • [0026]
    On the other hand, when TUNE_UP % and TUNE_DOWN % are close to 0% (i.e., ignoring the effect of the third term), the pre-adjustment streaming data rate set point minus the excess send rate closely follows the wireline/wireless network throughput. The reason is that the pre-adjustment streaming data rate set point basically cancels the previous streaming data rate, leaving only the most recent estimated received data rate. Hence the proposed scheme tracks the network throughput variation. Note that, in an alternative embodiment, we can simply use the most recent estimated received data rate to replace the pre-adjustment streaming data rate set point minus the excess send rate, although the buffer control is more accurate with the preferred embodiment.
  • [0027]
    Our studies show that setting TUNE UP % and TUNE DOWN % too high or trying to control the BYTEBUFFERED too hard prevents the server from tracking the throughput variation smoothly and can result in jerky rate adjustment. On the other hand, setting TUNE UP % and TUNE DOWN % too low weakens server's ability to control the network buffer size and can result in player rebuffering and/or packet loss. Moreover, although tracking the network throughput effectively normally indicates that wireless channel bandwidth is efficiently utilized, this is not always the case. For example, when the streaming data rate is sufficiently lower than the available channel bandwidth, network buffer will not accumulate and the measured throughput will follow the streamed data rate, which is lower than the available bandwidth. In this case, by tracking the network throughput alone, multimedia applications will not be able to fully explore the available bandwidth and provide the best performance.
  • [0028]
    For the reasons above, the values of TUNE_UP % and TUNE_DOWN % need to be carefully tuned to properly balance between throughput tracking and buffer size control. Within the scope of this invention, these two values can be determined either statically or dynamically. In the static case, TUNE_UP % and TUNE_DOWN % are simply a predefined set of constants. In the dynamic case, the values of TUNE_UP % and TUNE_DOWN % are determined based on the status of BYTEBUFFERED relative to BYTETARGET. In general, the more BYTEBUFFERED falls below the target buffer size, the higher the value of TUNE_UP % should be used and the more BYTEBUFFERED exceeds the target buffer size, the higher the value of TUNE_DOWN % should be used. In the design of a specific algorithm, the values of the tuning parameters can be changed based on a set of buffer thresholds BYTEi (i=1 . . . M); different tuning parameter values are used when BYTEBUFFERED falls into different regions partitioned by the thresholds, i.e., TUNE_UP %=TUNE_UP %_i and TUNE_DOWN %=TUNE_DOWN %_i when (BYTEi−1<BYTEBUFFERED<BYTEi). As a simple example, one can first choose a set of values for TUNE_UP % and TUNE_DOWN % as default. When BYTEBUFFERED falls below a minimum threshold (BYTEmin), a higher value of TUNE_UP % can be used to promote a better utilization of the available channel bandwidth. On the other hand, when BYTEBUFFERED reaches beyond a maximum threshold (BYTEmax), a higher value of TUNE_DOWN % can be used to prevent excessive packet queuing delay and network buffer overflow.
  • [0029]
    Another way to implement the dynamic adjustment concept is to define the TUNE_UP % and TUNE_DOWN % as a continuous function of BYTEBUFFERED, therefore, changing the tuning parameters every time a new BYTEBUFFERED is estimated. For example, let
  • TUNE_UP %={a+(1−a)[1/−(BYTEBUFFERED/BYTETARGET)b]}×100% BYTEBUFFERED<BYTETARGET   Eqn. 1
  • TUNE_DOWN %={c+(1−c)[1−(BYTETARGET/BYTEBUFFERED)d]}×100% BYTEBUFFERED>BYTETARGET   Eqn. 2
  • [0030]
    where a, b, c, d (with 0<a, c<1 and b, d>0) are design parameters. Note that a hybrid algorithm involving both thresholds and continuous function can certainly be designed within the proposed framework.
  • [0031]
    The description in previous paragraphs tacitly assumes that the feedback report (FR) can be “periodically” (with reasonable variation) delivered to the server to facilitate rate set point update. However, since FR is sent over the error-prone wireless channels, it is possible that sometimes FR may be lost. Moreover, when a client travels behind a building or into a radio coverage hole, the radio signal between the base station and the mobile client will be blocked, resulting in a transmission gap. If the transmission gap is sufficiently long, the multimedia call for the shadowed client may be disconnected automatically or by the user intentionally. Since the uplink channel is blocked, the server is not aware that the client has been disconnected and continues to stream the multimedia data to the disconnected mobile client. Once the client comes out of the shadow, it may try to reconnect and start a new streaming session. In this case, the server may send two multimedia streams to the same client, jamming the available bandwidth and resulting in poor performance. On the other hand, if for some reason, the multimedia call can still be maintained during a long transmission gap, the amount of data in the wireless network buffer will increase very fast (since the effective channel throughput is very low) and may result in significant packet loss due to network buffer overflow. This scenario can occur in the cell reselection/hand-off process in some wireless networks when a mobile client moves from one base station to another.
  • [0032]
    To avoid building up too many data bytes in the wireline/wireless network buffers due to lost FRs, the server can gradually decrease the data rate set point if the next FR has not been received within a specified period. In addition, if the server does not receive FR over an extended period of time due to the presence of a long transmission gap, then the server can pause the streaming (i.e., data rate set point=0) until either a new FR is received or eventually a timeout is reached when the server tears down the stream.
  • [0033]
    When streaming is first resumed after pause, the streaming data rate set point can still be calculated based on the proposed framework. Note that, in this case, both the pre-adjustment streaming data rate set point and the previous streaming data rate are zero, therefore, the pre-adjustment streaming data rate set point minus the excess send rate becomes the most recent estimated received data rate.
  • [0034]
    A preferred embodiment of carrying out the method in accordance with principles of the present invention will now be described in further detail. In the preferred embodiment, we assume that the multimedia server utilizes RTP/RTCP on top of UDP/IP for data delivery. The feedback information conveyed in the RTCP packets, along with the information available to the server itself, are used to determine the multimedia streaming data rate. In particular, we use the RTCP receiver report (RR) as the example feedback report mechanism in the following description. In this case, the feedback report interval (TFR) is termed TRTCP. The network diagram associated with this preferred embodiment is given in FIG. 1.
  • [0035]
    Here, SR denotes the sender report defined in the RTP/RTCP protocol.
  • [0036]
    As described hereinabove, BYTEBUFFERED is estimated based on the RTCP reported information, and the estimated one-way uplink delay (UD), the server can calculate the estimated amount of data buffered in the wireline/wireless network (BYTEBUFFERED), at the instant when the server received the nth RTCP receiver report TR(n) as follows:
  • BYTEBUFFERED(n)=max(0, BYTESENT(0, T R(n))−BYTEREC(0, T S(n))−BYTEUP COMP(n)−BYTELOST(0, n)).   Eqn. 3
  • [0037]
    BYTEUP COMP(n) is the uplink delay compensation, which can be calculated as:
  • BYTEUP COMP(n)=UD(n)*RATEREC(T S(n−1),T S(n))) Eqn. 4
  • [0038]
    i.e., estimated byte count that the client should have received during the one-way uplink delay period. Here,
  • RATEREC(T S(n−1),T S(n))=[BYTEREC(T S(n−1),T S(n))/(T S(n)−T S(n−1))]  Eqn. 5
  • [0039]
    is the received data rate between RR n−1 and n.
  • [0040]
    In an alternative embodiment, the uplink delay compensation can be calculated as:
  • BYTEUP COMP(n)=BYTESENT(T R(n)−UD(n),T R(n))),   Eqn. 6
  • [0041]
    Which is the number of bytes sent from the server between time TR(n)−UD(n) and TR(n).
  • [0042]
    BYTELOST in Eqn. 3 can be calculated as:
  • BYTELOST(0,n)=BYTELOST(0, n−1)+PL(n−1,n)*[BYTESENT(T R(n−1),T R(n))/PSENT(T R(n−1),T R(n))]  Eqn. 7
  • [0043]
    and is the estimated byte count for the number of packets lost up to nth RR, where
  • [0044]
    TR(n) is the instant when the server received the nth RTCP RR;
  • [0045]
    TS(n) is the send client time of nth RR when the nth RTCP RR is sent by the client (the index “n” does not include lost RTCP reports);
  • [0046]
    UD(n) is the estimated one-way uplink delay upon the reception of nth RTCP RR;
  • [0047]
    BYTESENT(0, TR(n)) is the accumulative number of bytes sent from the server up to the reception of nth RR;
  • [0048]
    BYTEREC(0, TS(n)) is the accumulative number of bytes received by the client up to the time of sending of nth RR;
  • [0049]
    BYTESENT(TR(n−1),TR(n)): is the number of bytes sent from the server between receiving RR n−1 and n;
  • [0050]
    BYTEREC(TS(n−1),TS(n)) is the number of bytes received by the client between sending RR n−1 and n;
  • [0051]
    PL(n−1n) is the number of packets lost between RR n−1 and n. PL(n−1,n) can be determined as PL(n−1,n)=PLCUM(n)−PLCUM(n−1), where PLCUM(n) is the cumulative number of packets lost reported in nth RR; and
  • [0052]
    PSENT(TR(n−1),TR(n)): is the number of packets sent from the server between receiving RR n−1 and n.
  • [0053]
    In the above described calculation, the value of the uplink delay can be static (determined empirically based on measurements) or can be dynamically estimated.
  • [0054]
    The following is a preferred technique for estimating the uplink delay. Assume that the client and server clock (Tclient and Tserver) are off by ΔT. That is,
  • T server =T client −ΔT   Eqn. 8
  • [0055]
    When the nth RTCP RR messages are sent from client to server during the stream, each will experience a new uplink delay, UD(n)
  • UD(n)=T R(n)−T S(n)+ΔT   Eqn. 9a
  • [0056]
    where TR(n) is the server time stamp when the nth RTCP receiver report is received by the server and TS(n) is the client time stamp when the nth RTCP receiver report is sent by the client (the value “n” does not include lost RTCP reports). Since we can also write UD(n−1)=TR(n−1)−TS(n−1)+ΔT, an iterative relation of the one-way uplink delay can be written as
  • UD(n)=UD(n−1)+ΔUD(n)   Eqn. 9b
  • [0057]
    where ΔUD(n)=(TR(n)−TR(n−1))−(TS(n)−TS(n−1)) is the uplink jitter.
  • [0058]
    The initial uplink delay can be estimated as a fraction of the round trip time (RTT). Estimation of RTT using RTCP sender and receiver reports is known to those skilled in the art and can be found in Schulzrinne et al.
  • UD(1)=UPLINK_DELAY %*RTT for n=1,
  • [0059]
    where UPLINK_DELAY % is a predefined parameter, the value of which can be determined empirically from field test experience. Moreover, the uplink delay at any instance should not be less than 0, nor should it be larger than the round trip time RTT. Therefore, we have
  • UD(n)=min(RTT, max(UD(n−1)+ΔUD(n), 0)) for n>1   Eqn. 9c
  • [0060]
    Turning to the data rate set point, a preferred method of calculating the data rate set point will now be described. Let BYTETARGET be the target for the total buffered byte count between the server and the client (user defined) and RATESETPOINT be the current data rate set point used by the server. The server calculates the new data rate set point when a RTCP report is received as follows:
  • [0061]
    For n=1, (start of streaming)
  • RATESETPOINT(0)=RATEINITIAL
  • [0062]
    where RATEINITIAL is the data rate set point determined by server at start of streaming (server calculation).
  • [0063]
    For n>=1,
    For n>=,
    If BYTEBUFFERED (n) >=BYTETARGET,then
    RATESETPOINT(TR(n)) = RATESETPOINT(TR(n)−δ) − RATEEXCESS(n) Eqn. 10a
    + TUNE_DOWN%(n) * RATEREQ(n);
    but, if BYTEBUFFERED (n)<BYTETARGET, then
    RATESETPOINT(TR(n)) = RATESETPOINT(TR(n)−δ) − RATEEXCESS(n) Eqn. 10b
    + TUNE_UP%(n) * RATEREQ(n),
  • [0064]
    where RATESETPOINT(TR(n)−δ) is the pre-adjustment streaming data rate set point and TR(n)−δ represents the time instant right before the server receives the nth RTCP receiver report (TR(n)).
  • [0065]
    RATEEXCESS in Eqns. 10 above is the current excess send rate (i.e., the amount the send rate exceeds the receive rate, including packet loss),and can be calculated as:
  • RATEEXCESS(n)=[BYTEBUFFERED(n)−BYTEBUFFERED(n−1)]/[T S(n)−T S(n−1)]
  • [0066]
    Additionally, RATEREQ is the required send rate change to achieve the target network buffer size in the next RTCP interval, and is preferably calculated as:
  • RATEREQ(n)=[BYTETARGET−BYTEBUFFERED(n)]/T RTCP.
  • [0067]
    BYTETARGET is determined on a per stream basis by the multimedia server based on multimedia source encoding rate (RATESOURCE), client jitter buffer depth (BUFFERCLIENT), and wireless network characteristics. An example implementation is BYTETARGET=SCALETARGET*RATESOURCE*BUFFERCLIENT, where SCALETARGET is a predefined scaling coefficient, the value of which can vary with wireless network characteristics.
  • [0068]
    As discussed hereinabove, the value of the tuning parameters TUNE_UP % and TUNE_DOWN % can be dynamically determined based on minimum and maximum buffer size thresholds, BYTETUNE MIN and BYTETUNE MAX, where BYTETUNE MIN<BYTETARGET<BYTETUNE MAX. In the preferred embodiment,
    if BYTEBUFFERED > BYTE TUNE MIN
    then TUNE_UP% = TUNE_UP%_LOW
    else TUNE_UP% = TUNE_UP%_HIGH; and
    if BYTEBUFFERED < BYTETUNE MAX
    then TUNE_DOWN% = TUNE_DOWN%_LOW
    else TUNE_DOWN% = TUNE_DOWN%_HIGH.
  • [0069]
    Finally, it is preferable to impose an upper bound and lower bound on the streaming rate set point. Thus, we have:
  • RATESETPOINT(T R(n))=max(RATEMIN, min(RATEMAX, RATESETPOINT(T R(n)))
  • [0070]
    where
  • [0071]
    RATEMAX is the maximum data rate set point settable by server (determined by server based on multimedia source encoding range and/or wireless network capability), and
  • [0072]
    RATEMIN is the minimum data rate set point settable by server (determined by server based on multimedia source encoding range and/or wireless network capability).
  • [0073]
    In addition to the above discussed factors, missing RTCP receiver reports need to be addressed in determining the data rate set point. If all RTCP reports are received by the server correctly and have similar uplink delays, then ideally the data rate set point will remain constant between two consecutive RTCP reports, i.e., RATESETPOINT(TR(n)−δ)=RATESETPOINT(TR(n−1)). However, since RTCP receiver reports are sent over the unreliable UDP/IP channel via error-prone wireless networks, it is possible that several consecutive RTCP receiver reports may be lost (i.e., not received by the server). In order to avoid building up too many bytes in the wireline/wireless buffers due to the missing RTCP reports, the server can reduce the data rate set point gradually according to the following algorithm.
  • [0074]
    The server sets up a timer (denoted TIMER) for each streaming session. At time 0 (start of streaming), the server resets TIMER to zero. The server then resets TIMER to zero when a RTCP report is received at the expected time (i.e., at TR(n)). When the TIMER reaches k*TRTCP and every TRTCP increment after k*TRTCP (i.e., m*TRTCP for m=k+1,k+2, . . . ), the server reduces the data rate set point as follows:
  • RATESETPOINT(after)=RATESETPOINT(before)−RATE_DELAY %*(RATESETPOINT(before)−RATEMIN)   Eqn. 11
  • [0075]
    where RATE_DELAY % is a user-adjustable constant (from 0% to 100%) defined by the server. Note that, due to the rate set point reduction, RATESETPOINT(TR(n)−δ) will be smaller than RATESETPOINT(TR(n−1)) whenever TR(n)−TR(n−1)>k*TRTCP. Referring to FIG. 5, an exemplary graphical illustration of the dynamic data rate set point reduction process according to principles of the present invention is provided. Moreover, if the server does not receive any RR from the client for a certain period, TPAUSE(>k*TRTCP) seconds, the server can pause streaming. The reception of a first new RR will trigger the server to restart streaming. Otherwise, streaming will be discontinued after missing RRs for a total period of TSTOP(>TPAUSE) seconds. This condition constitutes a timeout. The values of k, TPAUSE and TSTOP are predefined.
  • [0076]
    The foregoing descriptions of specific embodiments of the present invention have been presented for purposes of illustration and description. They are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed, and obviously many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching. The embodiments were chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and its practical application, to thereby enable others skilled in the art to best utilize the invention and various embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. The disclosures and the description herein are purely illustrative and are not intended to be in any sense limiting. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the claims appended hereto and their equivalents.

Claims (37)

What is claimed is:
1. A method of dynamically determining a multimedia streaming data rate between multiple points in a communications network in which one or more points send data, servers, and one or more points receive data, clients, the method comprising the steps of:
estimating an amount of data buffered in the network, BYTEBUFFERED, at a time a feedback report, FR, is received from the client; and
calculating a streaming data rate set point based on the estimated BYTEBUFFERED and other information from the server.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of estimating BYTEBUFFERED comprises:
determining the difference between an accumulative number of bytes sent from the server and an accumulative number of bytes received by the client;
adjusting the determined difference by an uplink delay compensation value; and
adjusting the determined difference by an estimated amount of accumulative packets lost.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein the uplink delay compensation value is computed as the amount of data sent out by the server during a most previous uplink delay period.
4. The method of claim 2, wherein the uplink delay compensation value is computed from an estimated uplink delay and either a most recent instantaneous receive rate or an averaged receive rate calculated from the information reported in FR.
5. The method of claim 2, wherein the value of the uplink delay can be static or can be dynamically estimated.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein a dynamic determination of the uplink delay comprises the steps of:
determining the initial value based on initial round trip time, RTT, estimation;
iterative correction based on measured uplink jitter; and
setting an upper bound and lower bound.
7. The method of claim 2, wherein the packet loss compensation value is computed as the accumulative amount of data bytes lost from the beginning of the streaming.
8. The method of claim 2, wherein the packet loss compensation value is computed from the number of packets lost reported in the FR and either a short term or long term average packet size.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein the other information includes any combination of a pre-adjustment data rate set point, a target byte count, BYTETARGET, a most recent estimated received data rate, a previous server streaming data rate, an excess send rate, a required send rate change and a tuning parameter.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein the step of calculating the streaming data rate set point includes:
calculating the streaming data rate set point as the most recent estimated received data rate plus the required send rate change multiplied by the tuning parameter.
11. The method of claim 9, wherein the step of calculating the streaming data rate set point includes:
calculating the streaming data rate set point as the pre-adjustment data rate set point minus the excess send rate plus the required send rate change multiplied by the tuning parameter.
12. The method of claim 9, wherein the step of calculating the streaming data rate set point further includes imposing an upper and lower bound on the data rate set point.
13. The method of claim 12, wherein the upper and lower bounds imposed on the data rate set point are determined by the server based on a multimedia source encoding range or capabilities of the communications network.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein the upper and lower bounds imposed on the data rate set point are determined on a per stream basis by the server.
15. The method of claim 9, wherein the received data rate is calculated as the bytes received within a period between receiving a last and current FR divided by a FR report interval.
16. The method of claim 9, wherein the required send rate change is calculated as the difference between BYTETARGET and BYTEBUFFERED divided by a FR report interval.
17. The method of claim 9, wherein the excess send rate is calculated as the previous server streaming data rate minus the most recent estimated received data rate.
18. The method of claim 9, wherein the excess send rate is calculated as the estimated BYTEBUFFERED change within a period between receiving a last and a current FR divided by a FR report interval.
19. The method of claim 9, wherein the tuning parameter is determined based on a comparison between BYTEBUFFERED and BYTETARGET.
20. The method of claim 9, wherein BYTETARGET is determined by the server based on a multimedia source encoding rate, a client jitter buffer depth, or characteristics of the communications network.
21. The method of claim 20, wherein BYTETARGET is determined on a per stream basis by the server.
22. The method of claim 9, wherein the tuning parameter is user definable so as to customize the data rate set point calculation process.
23. The method of claim 22, wherein the data rate set point calculation process is customized in order to efficiently utilize an available bandwidth of the communications network.
24. The method of claim 9, wherein the tuning parameter can be determined either statically or dynamically.
25. The method of claim 24, wherein a static determination of the tuning parameter comprises setting the tuning parameter as a predefined set of constants.
26. The method of claim 24, wherein a dynamic determination of the tuning parameter comprises defining the tuning parameter based on a set of buffer threshold values.
27. The method of claim 24, wherein a dynamic determination of the tuning parameter comprises defining the tuning parameter as a function of BYTEBUFFERED.
28. The method of claim 1 wherein the method further comprises steps of:
gradually changing the data rate set point by the server if a next FR is not received from the client at an expected time; and
if the server does not receive FR over an extended period of time due to the presence of a long transmission gap, then pausing the streaming until either a new FR is received or eventually a timeout is reached, and when streaming is first resumed after pausing, the streaming data rate set point is calculated as a most recent estimated receive data rate plus a required send rate change multiplied by a tuning parameter.
29. The method of claim 28, wherein the step of gradually changing the data rate set point includes gradually increasing the data rate set point.
30. The method of claim 28, wherein the step of gradually changing the data rate set point includes gradually decreasing the data rate set point.
31. The method of claim 30, wherein the step of gradually decreasing the data rate set point includes:
calculating a decreased data rate set point as an immediately prior data rate set point minus a scaled difference between the prior data rate set point and a minimum data rate set point.
32. The method of claim 31, wherein the difference between the prior data rate set point and the minimum data rate set point is scaled by a rate delay parameter which is an adjustable percentage value defined by the server.
33. The method of claim 1, wherein the communications network utilizes Real-Time Transport Protocol/Real-Time Control Protocol (RTP/RTCP) on top of User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol (UDP/IP) for data delivery.
34. The method of claim 1, wherein the communications network is a wireless network.
35. The method of claim 1, wherein the FR may be sent from the client at a fixed interval, TFR, at a random interval having a mean TFR calculated based on a predefined probability distribution function, or upon the trigger of a first data packet arrival a fixed interval, target TFR, after the send time of the last FR.
36. A method for dynamically adjusting a data transmission rate between two points in a communications network, the method comprising steps of:
estimating an amount of data buffered in the network, BYTEBUFFERED, at a time a feedback report, FR, is received from a client;
calculating a data rate set point based on the estimated BYTEBUFFERED and other information from a server; and
imposing an upper and lower bound on the data rate set point, to establish minimum and maximum data rate set points, respectively.
37. A method for dynamically adjusting a multimedia data rate between two points in a communications network, the method comprising steps of:
estimating an amount of data buffered in the network, BYTEBUFFERED, at a time a feedback report, FR, is received from the client;
calculating a data rate set point based on the estimated BYTEBUFFERED and other information from the server;
imposing an upper and lower bound on the data rate set point, to establish minimum and maximum data rate set points, respectively; and
gradually changing the data rate set point by the server if a next FR has not been received from the client within a specified time period.
US09945020 2001-08-31 2001-08-31 Method of dynamically determining real-time multimedia streaming rate over a communications networks Abandoned US20030198184A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09945020 US20030198184A1 (en) 2001-08-31 2001-08-31 Method of dynamically determining real-time multimedia streaming rate over a communications networks

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09945020 US20030198184A1 (en) 2001-08-31 2001-08-31 Method of dynamically determining real-time multimedia streaming rate over a communications networks

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20030198184A1 true true US20030198184A1 (en) 2003-10-23

Family

ID=29216235

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09945020 Abandoned US20030198184A1 (en) 2001-08-31 2001-08-31 Method of dynamically determining real-time multimedia streaming rate over a communications networks

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US20030198184A1 (en)

Cited By (93)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020078218A1 (en) * 2000-12-15 2002-06-20 Ephraim Feig Media file system supported by streaming servers
US20030063324A1 (en) * 2001-09-07 2003-04-03 Tatsuo Takaoka Method of controlling a data transmission and communication apparatus that transmits image data in burst mode using the user datagram protocol
US20030067872A1 (en) * 2001-09-17 2003-04-10 Pulsent Corporation Flow control method for quality streaming of audio/video/media over packet networks
US20030157975A1 (en) * 2002-02-19 2003-08-21 Deutsche Telekom Ag Method and system for providing information and for communication in vehicles
US20030215225A1 (en) * 2002-05-20 2003-11-20 Junya Kaku Data output apparatus
US20030231655A1 (en) * 2002-06-18 2003-12-18 Kelton James R. Dynamically adjusting data rate of wireless communications
US20040008726A1 (en) * 2002-07-08 2004-01-15 Frank Kelly Method and system for providing load-sensitive bandwidth allocation
US20040037320A1 (en) * 2002-08-21 2004-02-26 Dickson Scott M. Early transmission and playout of packets in wireless communication systems
US20040044720A1 (en) * 2002-08-31 2004-03-04 Kyung-Hun Jang Method and apparatus for dynamically controlling a real-time multimedia data generation rate
US20040057420A1 (en) * 2002-09-23 2004-03-25 Nokia Corporation Bandwidth adaptation
US20040057446A1 (en) * 2002-07-16 2004-03-25 Nokia Corporation Method for enabling packet transfer delay compensation in multimedia streaming
US20040057412A1 (en) * 2002-09-25 2004-03-25 Nokia Corporation Method in a communication system, a communication system and a communication device
WO2004030433A2 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-04-15 Nokia Corporation Multimedia streming in a network with a bottleneck link
US20040139215A1 (en) * 2003-01-10 2004-07-15 Damon Lanphear Stochastic adaptive streaming of content
US20040218531A1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2004-11-04 Cherian Babu Kalampukattussery Flow control between fiber channel and wide area networks
US20050044229A1 (en) * 2003-08-20 2005-02-24 Brown Scott K. Managing access to digital content sources
US20050138197A1 (en) * 2003-12-19 2005-06-23 Venables Bradley D. Queue state mirroring
US20050141858A1 (en) * 2003-12-25 2005-06-30 Funai Electric Co., Ltd. Transmitting apparatus and transceiving system
US20050163124A1 (en) * 2002-01-15 2005-07-28 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method and system for converting data
US20050163059A1 (en) * 2003-03-26 2005-07-28 Dacosta Behram M. System and method for dynamic bandwidth estimation of network links
WO2005081465A1 (en) * 2004-02-20 2005-09-01 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Method, apparatus and computer program product for controlling data packet transmissions
US20060029037A1 (en) * 2004-06-28 2006-02-09 Truvideo Optimization of streaming data throughput in unreliable networks
US20060039350A1 (en) * 2004-08-18 2006-02-23 Wecomm Limited Data transmission over a network
WO2006063875A1 (en) * 2004-12-16 2006-06-22 International Business Machines Corporation Usage consciousness in http/html for reducing unused data flow across a network
US20060184697A1 (en) * 2005-02-11 2006-08-17 Microsoft Corporation Detecting clock drift in networked devices through monitoring client buffer fullness
KR100648654B1 (en) 2004-10-04 2006-11-23 아이에스티 인터내셔널 인코포레이티드 Method for clientless rate control for streaming video and Apparatus thereof
WO2006127165A1 (en) * 2005-05-26 2006-11-30 Symbol Technologies, Inc. Rf utilization calculation and reporting method for 802.11 wireless local area networks
WO2006127391A2 (en) 2005-05-23 2006-11-30 Microsoft Corporation Flow control for media streaming
US20070174866A1 (en) * 2003-12-30 2007-07-26 Aol Llc Rule-based playlist engine
EP1856911A1 (en) * 2005-03-07 2007-11-21 Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) Multimedia channel switching
US20070286213A1 (en) * 2003-12-15 2007-12-13 Gabor Fodor Method and Arrangement for Adapting to Variations in an Available Bandwidth to a Local Network
US20080101466A1 (en) * 2006-11-01 2008-05-01 Swenson Erik R Network-Based Dynamic Encoding
US7373413B1 (en) * 2000-06-28 2008-05-13 Cisco Technology, Inc. Devices and methods for minimizing start up delay in transmission of streaming media
US20080133744A1 (en) * 2006-12-01 2008-06-05 Ahn Shin Young Multimedia data streaming server and method for dynamically changing amount of transmitting data in response to network bandwidth
US20080147874A1 (en) * 2002-03-05 2008-06-19 Sony Corporation Data stream-distribution system and method therefor
US20080184128A1 (en) * 2007-01-25 2008-07-31 Swenson Erik R Mobile device user interface for remote interaction
GB2446195A (en) * 2007-02-01 2008-08-06 Wecomm Ltd Data Transmission
US20080192710A1 (en) * 2007-02-14 2008-08-14 Krishna Balachandran Method of providing feedback to a media server in a wireless communication system
US20080192711A1 (en) * 2007-02-14 2008-08-14 Krishna Balachandran Proxy-based signaling architecture for streaming media services in a wireless communication system
WO2008100387A1 (en) * 2007-02-14 2008-08-21 Lucent Technologies Inc. Content rate control for streaming media servers
US20080316959A1 (en) * 2007-06-19 2008-12-25 Rainer Bachl Method of transmitting scheduling requests over uplink channels
WO2009008829A1 (en) 2007-07-09 2009-01-15 Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ) Adaptive rate control in a communications system
US7561527B1 (en) * 2003-05-02 2009-07-14 David Katz Bidirectional forwarding detection
US20090198830A1 (en) * 2008-02-06 2009-08-06 Inventec Corporation Method of adjusting network data sending speed according to data processing speed at client
US20090202067A1 (en) * 2008-02-07 2009-08-13 Harris Corporation Cryptographic system configured to perform a mixed radix conversion with a priori defined statistical artifacts
US20090207734A1 (en) * 2004-09-23 2009-08-20 Harris Corporation Adaptive bandwidth utilization for telemetered data
US7590064B1 (en) * 2004-07-20 2009-09-15 Nortel Networks Limited Method and system of flow control in multi-hop wireless access networks
US20090279690A1 (en) * 2008-05-08 2009-11-12 Harris Corporation Cryptographic system including a mixed radix number generator with chosen statistical artifacts
US20100036962A1 (en) * 2008-08-08 2010-02-11 Gahm Joshua B Systems and Methods of Reducing Media Stream Delay
US20100036963A1 (en) * 2008-08-08 2010-02-11 Gahm Joshua B Systems and Methods of Adaptive Playout of Delayed Media Streams
US20100054228A1 (en) * 2008-08-29 2010-03-04 Harris Corporation Multi-tier ad-hoc network communications
US20100161761A1 (en) * 2008-12-22 2010-06-24 Industrial Technology Research Institute Method for audio and video control response and bandwidth adaptation based on network streaming applications and server using the same
US20100189063A1 (en) * 2009-01-28 2010-07-29 Nec Laboratories America, Inc. Methods and systems for rate matching and rate shaping in a wireless network
US20100199152A1 (en) * 2009-02-03 2010-08-05 Cisco Technology, Inc. Systems and Methods of Deferred Error Recovery
US7778326B1 (en) 2003-12-23 2010-08-17 At&T Intellectual Property Ii, L.P. System and method for dynamically determining multimedia transmission based on communication bandwidth
US20110002460A1 (en) * 2009-07-01 2011-01-06 Harris Corporation High-speed cryptographic system using chaotic sequences
US20110002366A1 (en) * 2009-07-01 2011-01-06 Harris Corporation Rake receiver for spread spectrum chaotic communications systems
US20110002463A1 (en) * 2009-07-01 2011-01-06 Harris Corporation Permission-based multiple access communications systems
US20110122971A1 (en) * 2006-03-16 2011-05-26 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method for transmitting/receiving feedback information in a multi-antenna system supporting multiple users, and feedback system supporting the same
US20110222584A1 (en) * 2010-03-11 2011-09-15 Harris Corporation Hidden markov model detection for spread spectrum waveforms
US20110243029A1 (en) * 2010-03-30 2011-10-06 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. Method For Measuring Throughput For a Packet Connection
US20110243077A1 (en) * 2010-03-31 2011-10-06 Fujitsu Limited Base station apparatus, base radio transmission method in base station apparatus, and radio communication system
US20120226756A1 (en) * 2009-11-16 2012-09-06 Jan Erik Lindquist Method, apparatus and computer program product for standby handling in a streaming media receiver
US20120269062A1 (en) * 2009-11-18 2012-10-25 Cho Kyung-Rae Apparatus and method for controlling data transmission in a wireless communication system
US20120278512A1 (en) * 2011-04-29 2012-11-01 International Business Machines Corporation System, Method and Program Product to Schedule Transfer of Data
US8312551B2 (en) 2007-02-15 2012-11-13 Harris Corporation Low level sequence as an anti-tamper Mechanism
US8341312B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2012-12-25 International Business Machines Corporation System, method and program product to manage transfer of data to resolve overload of a storage system
US8351484B2 (en) 2008-12-29 2013-01-08 Harris Corporation Communications system employing chaotic spreading codes with static offsets
US8369376B2 (en) 2009-07-01 2013-02-05 Harris Corporation Bit error rate reduction in chaotic communications
US8369377B2 (en) 2009-07-22 2013-02-05 Harris Corporation Adaptive link communications using adaptive chaotic spread waveform
US8379689B2 (en) 2009-07-01 2013-02-19 Harris Corporation Anti-jam communications having selectively variable peak-to-average power ratio including a chaotic constant amplitude zero autocorrelation waveform
US8385385B2 (en) 2009-07-01 2013-02-26 Harris Corporation Permission-based secure multiple access communication systems
US8406276B2 (en) 2008-12-29 2013-03-26 Harris Corporation Communications system employing orthogonal chaotic spreading codes
US8406352B2 (en) 2009-07-01 2013-03-26 Harris Corporation Symbol estimation for chaotic spread spectrum signal
US8428103B2 (en) 2009-06-10 2013-04-23 Harris Corporation Discrete time chaos dithering
US8428102B2 (en) 2009-06-08 2013-04-23 Harris Corporation Continuous time chaos dithering
US8457077B2 (en) 2009-03-03 2013-06-04 Harris Corporation Communications system employing orthogonal chaotic spreading codes
US8509284B2 (en) 2009-06-08 2013-08-13 Harris Corporation Symbol duration dithering for secured chaotic communications
US8611530B2 (en) 2007-05-22 2013-12-17 Harris Corporation Encryption via induced unweighted errors
US8626943B2 (en) 2007-08-24 2014-01-07 Alcatel Lucent Content ate selection for media servers with proxy-feedback-controlled frame transmission
US20140122652A1 (en) * 2012-10-26 2014-05-01 Motorola Solutions, Inc. Systems and methods for sharing bandwidth across multiple video streams
US20140143402A1 (en) * 2011-08-01 2014-05-22 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Method, apparatus, and system for implementing adaptive application performance
US20140247733A1 (en) * 2013-03-04 2014-09-04 Qualcomm Incorporated Buffer size reporting for irat measurements in high speed data networks
US8848909B2 (en) 2009-07-22 2014-09-30 Harris Corporation Permission-based TDMA chaotic communication systems
US8862758B1 (en) * 2003-09-11 2014-10-14 Clearone Communications Hong Kong, Limited System and method for controlling one or more media stream characteristics
US20150043333A1 (en) * 2013-08-07 2015-02-12 Blackberry Limited Media rate adaption using a median filter
US9247260B1 (en) 2006-11-01 2016-01-26 Opera Software Ireland Limited Hybrid bitmap-mode encoding
US9325765B2 (en) 2012-12-05 2016-04-26 Industrial Technology Research Institute Multimedia stream buffer and output method and multimedia stream buffer module
GB2487140B (en) * 2009-08-21 2016-06-22 Univ Hong Kong Chinese Devices and methods for scheduling transmission time of media data
US20160198199A1 (en) * 2013-08-01 2016-07-07 Telefonaktebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ) Method and apparatus for controlling streaming of video content
US20160267919A1 (en) * 2013-11-15 2016-09-15 Tencent Technology (Shenzhen) Company Limited Audio processing method and apparatus
US20160277522A1 (en) * 2015-03-20 2016-09-22 Qualcomm Incorporated Detecting playback buffer underrun at sink device to improve streaming media quality over bluetooth
WO2017074362A1 (en) * 2015-10-28 2017-05-04 Nokia Solutions And Networks Oy Multi-level data rate control for wireless networks

Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5434848A (en) * 1994-07-28 1995-07-18 International Business Machines Corporation Traffic management in packet communications networks
US6058106A (en) * 1997-10-20 2000-05-02 Motorola, Inc. Network protocol method, access point device and peripheral devices for providing for an efficient centrally coordinated peer-to-peer wireless communications network
US6292834B1 (en) * 1997-03-14 2001-09-18 Microsoft Corporation Dynamic bandwidth selection for efficient transmission of multimedia streams in a computer network
US20020010938A1 (en) * 2000-05-31 2002-01-24 Qian Zhang Resource allocation in multi-stream IP network for optimized quality of service
US6405256B1 (en) * 1999-03-31 2002-06-11 Lucent Technologies Inc. Data streaming using caching servers with expandable buffers and adjustable rate of data transmission to absorb network congestion
US6442140B1 (en) * 1999-01-04 2002-08-27 3Com Corporation Method for automatic setup of missing RM cell count parameter CRM in an ATM traffic management descriptor
US20030018794A1 (en) * 2001-05-02 2003-01-23 Qian Zhang Architecture and related methods for streaming media content through heterogeneous networks
US6590885B1 (en) * 1998-07-10 2003-07-08 Malibu Networks, Inc. IP-flow characterization in a wireless point to multi-point (PTMP) transmission system
US6643496B1 (en) * 1998-03-31 2003-11-04 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha System, method, and apparatus for adjusting packet transmission rates based on dynamic evaluation of network characteristics
US6697567B1 (en) * 1999-05-24 2004-02-24 Renesas Technology Corp. Dynamic image encoding apparatus
US6701372B2 (en) * 1997-08-22 2004-03-02 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Data communication apparatus and method
US6765931B1 (en) * 1999-04-13 2004-07-20 Broadcom Corporation Gateway with voice

Patent Citations (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5434848A (en) * 1994-07-28 1995-07-18 International Business Machines Corporation Traffic management in packet communications networks
US6292834B1 (en) * 1997-03-14 2001-09-18 Microsoft Corporation Dynamic bandwidth selection for efficient transmission of multimedia streams in a computer network
US6701372B2 (en) * 1997-08-22 2004-03-02 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Data communication apparatus and method
US6058106A (en) * 1997-10-20 2000-05-02 Motorola, Inc. Network protocol method, access point device and peripheral devices for providing for an efficient centrally coordinated peer-to-peer wireless communications network
US6643496B1 (en) * 1998-03-31 2003-11-04 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha System, method, and apparatus for adjusting packet transmission rates based on dynamic evaluation of network characteristics
US6590885B1 (en) * 1998-07-10 2003-07-08 Malibu Networks, Inc. IP-flow characterization in a wireless point to multi-point (PTMP) transmission system
US6442140B1 (en) * 1999-01-04 2002-08-27 3Com Corporation Method for automatic setup of missing RM cell count parameter CRM in an ATM traffic management descriptor
US6405256B1 (en) * 1999-03-31 2002-06-11 Lucent Technologies Inc. Data streaming using caching servers with expandable buffers and adjustable rate of data transmission to absorb network congestion
US6765931B1 (en) * 1999-04-13 2004-07-20 Broadcom Corporation Gateway with voice
US6697567B1 (en) * 1999-05-24 2004-02-24 Renesas Technology Corp. Dynamic image encoding apparatus
US20020010938A1 (en) * 2000-05-31 2002-01-24 Qian Zhang Resource allocation in multi-stream IP network for optimized quality of service
US20030018794A1 (en) * 2001-05-02 2003-01-23 Qian Zhang Architecture and related methods for streaming media content through heterogeneous networks

Cited By (180)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7644176B2 (en) 2000-06-28 2010-01-05 Cisco Technology, Inc. Devices and methods for minimizing start up delay in transmission of streaming media
US20080222302A1 (en) * 2000-06-28 2008-09-11 Cisco Technology, Inc. Devices and methods for minimizing start up delay in transmission of streaming media
US7373413B1 (en) * 2000-06-28 2008-05-13 Cisco Technology, Inc. Devices and methods for minimizing start up delay in transmission of streaming media
US7213075B2 (en) * 2000-12-15 2007-05-01 International Business Machines Corporation Application server and streaming server streaming multimedia file in a client specific format
US20020078218A1 (en) * 2000-12-15 2002-06-20 Ephraim Feig Media file system supported by streaming servers
US20030063324A1 (en) * 2001-09-07 2003-04-03 Tatsuo Takaoka Method of controlling a data transmission and communication apparatus that transmits image data in burst mode using the user datagram protocol
US20030067872A1 (en) * 2001-09-17 2003-04-10 Pulsent Corporation Flow control method for quality streaming of audio/video/media over packet networks
US7274661B2 (en) * 2001-09-17 2007-09-25 Altera Corporation Flow control method for quality streaming of audio/video/media over packet networks
US20050163124A1 (en) * 2002-01-15 2005-07-28 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method and system for converting data
US7558603B2 (en) * 2002-02-19 2009-07-07 Deutsche Telekom Ag Method and system for providing information and for communication in vehicles
US20030157975A1 (en) * 2002-02-19 2003-08-21 Deutsche Telekom Ag Method and system for providing information and for communication in vehicles
US7526567B2 (en) * 2002-03-05 2009-04-28 Sony Corporation Data stream-distribution system and method therefor
US20080147874A1 (en) * 2002-03-05 2008-06-19 Sony Corporation Data stream-distribution system and method therefor
US7512311B2 (en) * 2002-05-20 2009-03-31 Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. Data output apparatus and method with managed buffer
US20030215225A1 (en) * 2002-05-20 2003-11-20 Junya Kaku Data output apparatus
US7423990B2 (en) * 2002-06-18 2008-09-09 Vixs Systems Inc. Dynamically adjusting data rate of wireless communications
US20030231655A1 (en) * 2002-06-18 2003-12-18 Kelton James R. Dynamically adjusting data rate of wireless communications
US20040008726A1 (en) * 2002-07-08 2004-01-15 Frank Kelly Method and system for providing load-sensitive bandwidth allocation
US7336967B2 (en) * 2002-07-08 2008-02-26 Hughes Network Systems, Llc Method and system for providing load-sensitive bandwidth allocation
US20040057446A1 (en) * 2002-07-16 2004-03-25 Nokia Corporation Method for enabling packet transfer delay compensation in multimedia streaming
US6985459B2 (en) * 2002-08-21 2006-01-10 Qualcomm Incorporated Early transmission and playout of packets in wireless communication systems
US20040037320A1 (en) * 2002-08-21 2004-02-26 Dickson Scott M. Early transmission and playout of packets in wireless communication systems
US20040044720A1 (en) * 2002-08-31 2004-03-04 Kyung-Hun Jang Method and apparatus for dynamically controlling a real-time multimedia data generation rate
US20040057420A1 (en) * 2002-09-23 2004-03-25 Nokia Corporation Bandwidth adaptation
US7346007B2 (en) * 2002-09-23 2008-03-18 Nokia Corporation Bandwidth adaptation
US20040057412A1 (en) * 2002-09-25 2004-03-25 Nokia Corporation Method in a communication system, a communication system and a communication device
US8161158B2 (en) * 2002-09-25 2012-04-17 Nokia Corporation Method in a communication system, a communication system and a communication device
WO2004030433A2 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-04-15 Nokia Corporation Multimedia streming in a network with a bottleneck link
US7190670B2 (en) * 2002-10-04 2007-03-13 Nokia Corporation Method and apparatus for multimedia streaming in a limited bandwidth network with a bottleneck link
WO2004030433A3 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-07-22 Nokia Corp Multimedia streming in a network with a bottleneck link
US20040139215A1 (en) * 2003-01-10 2004-07-15 Damon Lanphear Stochastic adaptive streaming of content
US6968387B2 (en) * 2003-01-10 2005-11-22 Realnetworks, Inc. Stochastic adaptive streaming of content
US20050163059A1 (en) * 2003-03-26 2005-07-28 Dacosta Behram M. System and method for dynamic bandwidth estimation of network links
US7747255B2 (en) * 2003-03-26 2010-06-29 Sony Corporation System and method for dynamic bandwidth estimation of network links
US7397764B2 (en) * 2003-04-30 2008-07-08 Lucent Technologies Inc. Flow control between fiber channel and wide area networks
US20040218531A1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2004-11-04 Cherian Babu Kalampukattussery Flow control between fiber channel and wide area networks
US7561527B1 (en) * 2003-05-02 2009-07-14 David Katz Bidirectional forwarding detection
US20050044229A1 (en) * 2003-08-20 2005-02-24 Brown Scott K. Managing access to digital content sources
US9866624B2 (en) 2003-08-20 2018-01-09 Oath Inc. Managing access to digital content sources
US9071655B2 (en) 2003-08-20 2015-06-30 Aol Inc. Managing access to digital content sources
US8291062B2 (en) 2003-08-20 2012-10-16 Aol Inc. Managing access to digital content sources
US8862758B1 (en) * 2003-09-11 2014-10-14 Clearone Communications Hong Kong, Limited System and method for controlling one or more media stream characteristics
US8804532B2 (en) 2003-12-15 2014-08-12 Unwired Planet, Llc Method and arrangement for adapting to variations in an available bandwidth to a local network
US20070286213A1 (en) * 2003-12-15 2007-12-13 Gabor Fodor Method and Arrangement for Adapting to Variations in an Available Bandwidth to a Local Network
US20050138197A1 (en) * 2003-12-19 2005-06-23 Venables Bradley D. Queue state mirroring
US7814222B2 (en) * 2003-12-19 2010-10-12 Nortel Networks Limited Queue state mirroring
US8031771B2 (en) 2003-12-23 2011-10-04 At&T Intellectual Property Ii, L.P. System and method for dynamically determining multimedia transmission based on communication bandwidth
US7778326B1 (en) 2003-12-23 2010-08-17 At&T Intellectual Property Ii, L.P. System and method for dynamically determining multimedia transmission based on communication bandwidth
US20100303094A1 (en) * 2003-12-23 2010-12-02 Yihsiu Chen System and method for dynamically determining multimedia transmission based on communication bandwidth
US9001885B2 (en) 2003-12-23 2015-04-07 At&T Intellectual Property Ii, L.P. System and method for dynamically determining multimedia transmission based on communication bandwidth
US8667178B2 (en) * 2003-12-25 2014-03-04 Funai Electric Co., Ltd. Transmitting apparatus for transmitting data and transceiving system for transmitting and receiving data
US20050141858A1 (en) * 2003-12-25 2005-06-30 Funai Electric Co., Ltd. Transmitting apparatus and transceiving system
US20070174866A1 (en) * 2003-12-30 2007-07-26 Aol Llc Rule-based playlist engine
US8544050B2 (en) 2003-12-30 2013-09-24 Aol Inc. Rule-based playlist engine
WO2005081465A1 (en) * 2004-02-20 2005-09-01 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Method, apparatus and computer program product for controlling data packet transmissions
US7796517B2 (en) * 2004-06-28 2010-09-14 Minghua Chen Optimization of streaming data throughput in unreliable networks
US20110002236A1 (en) * 2004-06-28 2011-01-06 Minghua Chen Optimization of streaming data throughput in unreliable networks
US8379535B2 (en) 2004-06-28 2013-02-19 Videopression Llc Optimization of streaming data throughput in unreliable networks
US20060029037A1 (en) * 2004-06-28 2006-02-09 Truvideo Optimization of streaming data throughput in unreliable networks
US7590064B1 (en) * 2004-07-20 2009-09-15 Nortel Networks Limited Method and system of flow control in multi-hop wireless access networks
US9590723B2 (en) 2004-07-20 2017-03-07 Apple Inc. Method and system of flow control in multi-hop wireless access networks
US20100034148A1 (en) * 2004-07-20 2010-02-11 Nortel Networks Limited Method and system of flow control in multi-hop wireless access networks
US20060039350A1 (en) * 2004-08-18 2006-02-23 Wecomm Limited Data transmission over a network
US7974199B2 (en) * 2004-09-23 2011-07-05 Harris Corporation Adaptive bandwidth utilization for telemetered data
US20090207734A1 (en) * 2004-09-23 2009-08-20 Harris Corporation Adaptive bandwidth utilization for telemetered data
KR100648654B1 (en) 2004-10-04 2006-11-23 아이에스티 인터내셔널 인코포레이티드 Method for clientless rate control for streaming video and Apparatus thereof
WO2006063875A1 (en) * 2004-12-16 2006-06-22 International Business Machines Corporation Usage consciousness in http/html for reducing unused data flow across a network
US20060136421A1 (en) * 2004-12-16 2006-06-22 Muthukrishnan Sankara S Usage consciousness in HTTP/HTML for reducing unused data flow across a network
US7461162B2 (en) 2004-12-16 2008-12-02 International Business Machines Corporation Usage consciousness in HTTP/HTML for reducing unused data flow across a network
US20060184697A1 (en) * 2005-02-11 2006-08-17 Microsoft Corporation Detecting clock drift in networked devices through monitoring client buffer fullness
EP1856911A4 (en) * 2005-03-07 2010-02-24 Ericsson Telefon Ab L M Multimedia channel switching
EP1856911A1 (en) * 2005-03-07 2007-11-21 Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) Multimedia channel switching
EP1891502A4 (en) * 2005-05-23 2009-11-11 Microsoft Corp Flow control for media streaming
US7743183B2 (en) 2005-05-23 2010-06-22 Microsoft Corporation Flow control for media streaming
EP1891502A2 (en) * 2005-05-23 2008-02-27 Microsoft Corporation Flow control for media streaming
WO2006127391A2 (en) 2005-05-23 2006-11-30 Microsoft Corporation Flow control for media streaming
US7430198B2 (en) 2005-05-26 2008-09-30 Symbol Technologies, Inc. RF utilization calculation and reporting method for 802.11 wireless local area networks
US20060268728A1 (en) * 2005-05-26 2006-11-30 Carl Mower RF utilization calculation and reporting method for 802.11 wireless local area networks
WO2006127165A1 (en) * 2005-05-26 2006-11-30 Symbol Technologies, Inc. Rf utilization calculation and reporting method for 802.11 wireless local area networks
US20110122971A1 (en) * 2006-03-16 2011-05-26 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method for transmitting/receiving feedback information in a multi-antenna system supporting multiple users, and feedback system supporting the same
US8315346B2 (en) * 2006-03-16 2012-11-20 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Method for transmitting/receiving feedback information in a multi-antenna system supporting multiple users, and feedback system supporting the same
US9247260B1 (en) 2006-11-01 2016-01-26 Opera Software Ireland Limited Hybrid bitmap-mode encoding
US8711929B2 (en) * 2006-11-01 2014-04-29 Skyfire Labs, Inc. Network-based dynamic encoding
US20080101466A1 (en) * 2006-11-01 2008-05-01 Swenson Erik R Network-Based Dynamic Encoding
US20080133744A1 (en) * 2006-12-01 2008-06-05 Ahn Shin Young Multimedia data streaming server and method for dynamically changing amount of transmitting data in response to network bandwidth
US20080181498A1 (en) * 2007-01-25 2008-07-31 Swenson Erik R Dynamic client-server video tiling streaming
US8630512B2 (en) 2007-01-25 2014-01-14 Skyfire Labs, Inc. Dynamic client-server video tiling streaming
US20080184128A1 (en) * 2007-01-25 2008-07-31 Swenson Erik R Mobile device user interface for remote interaction
GB2446195A (en) * 2007-02-01 2008-08-06 Wecomm Ltd Data Transmission
GB2446195B (en) * 2007-02-01 2011-07-27 Wecomm Ltd Data transmission
US20080212471A1 (en) * 2007-02-01 2008-09-04 Wecomm Limited Data Transmission
US7821943B2 (en) * 2007-02-01 2010-10-26 Wecomm Limited Data transmission
US8081609B2 (en) 2007-02-14 2011-12-20 Alcatel Lucent Proxy-based signaling architecture for streaming media services in a wireless communication system
US20140297726A1 (en) * 2007-02-14 2014-10-02 Alcatel-Lucent Usa, Inc. Content rate control for streaming media servers
WO2008100387A1 (en) * 2007-02-14 2008-08-21 Lucent Technologies Inc. Content rate control for streaming media servers
US8812673B2 (en) 2007-02-14 2014-08-19 Alcatel Lucent Content rate control for streaming media servers
US20080192710A1 (en) * 2007-02-14 2008-08-14 Krishna Balachandran Method of providing feedback to a media server in a wireless communication system
US9203886B2 (en) * 2007-02-14 2015-12-01 Alcatel Lucent Content rate control for streaming media servers
JP2010518783A (en) * 2007-02-14 2010-05-27 アルカテル−ルーセント ユーエスエー インコーポレーテッド Method of providing feedback to the media server in a wireless communication system
US8180283B2 (en) 2007-02-14 2012-05-15 Alcatel Lucent Method of providing feedback to a media server in a wireless communication system
US20080192711A1 (en) * 2007-02-14 2008-08-14 Krishna Balachandran Proxy-based signaling architecture for streaming media services in a wireless communication system
WO2008100477A1 (en) 2007-02-14 2008-08-21 Lucent Technologies Inc. Method of providing feedback to a media server in a wireless communication system
KR101099800B1 (en) * 2007-02-14 2011-12-27 알카텔-루센트 유에스에이 인코포레이티드 Method of providing feedback to a media server in a wireless communication system
WO2008100474A1 (en) * 2007-02-14 2008-08-21 Lucent Technologies Inc. Proxy-based signaling architecture for streaming media services in a wireless communication system
US8312551B2 (en) 2007-02-15 2012-11-13 Harris Corporation Low level sequence as an anti-tamper Mechanism
US8611530B2 (en) 2007-05-22 2013-12-17 Harris Corporation Encryption via induced unweighted errors
US20080316959A1 (en) * 2007-06-19 2008-12-25 Rainer Bachl Method of transmitting scheduling requests over uplink channels
US8625608B2 (en) * 2007-07-09 2014-01-07 Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ) Adaptive rate control in a communications system
US8942243B2 (en) * 2007-07-09 2015-01-27 Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ) Adaptive rate control in a communications system
CN101743725B (en) * 2007-07-09 2015-09-02 Lm爱立信电话有限公司 A method for adaptive rate control in a communication system, apparatus and system
US20100195521A1 (en) * 2007-07-09 2010-08-05 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ) Adaptive Rate Control in a Communications System
EP2165481A1 (en) * 2007-07-09 2010-03-24 Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (publ) Adaptive rate control in a communications system
JP2010533419A (en) * 2007-07-09 2010-10-21 テレフオンアクチーボラゲット エル エム エリクソン(パブル) Adaptive rate control in a communication system
US20140105026A1 (en) * 2007-07-09 2014-04-17 Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ) Adaptive Rate Control in a Communications System
EP2165481A4 (en) * 2007-07-09 2010-07-28 Ericsson Telefon Ab L M Adaptive rate control in a communications system
WO2009008829A1 (en) 2007-07-09 2009-01-15 Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ) Adaptive rate control in a communications system
US8626943B2 (en) 2007-08-24 2014-01-07 Alcatel Lucent Content ate selection for media servers with proxy-feedback-controlled frame transmission
US20090198830A1 (en) * 2008-02-06 2009-08-06 Inventec Corporation Method of adjusting network data sending speed according to data processing speed at client
US20090202067A1 (en) * 2008-02-07 2009-08-13 Harris Corporation Cryptographic system configured to perform a mixed radix conversion with a priori defined statistical artifacts
US8363830B2 (en) 2008-02-07 2013-01-29 Harris Corporation Cryptographic system configured to perform a mixed radix conversion with a priori defined statistical artifacts
US8320557B2 (en) 2008-05-08 2012-11-27 Harris Corporation Cryptographic system including a mixed radix number generator with chosen statistical artifacts
US20090279690A1 (en) * 2008-05-08 2009-11-12 Harris Corporation Cryptographic system including a mixed radix number generator with chosen statistical artifacts
US7886073B2 (en) * 2008-08-08 2011-02-08 Cisco Technology, Inc. Systems and methods of reducing media stream delay
US8015310B2 (en) 2008-08-08 2011-09-06 Cisco Technology, Inc. Systems and methods of adaptive playout of delayed media streams
US20100036962A1 (en) * 2008-08-08 2010-02-11 Gahm Joshua B Systems and Methods of Reducing Media Stream Delay
US20100036963A1 (en) * 2008-08-08 2010-02-11 Gahm Joshua B Systems and Methods of Adaptive Playout of Delayed Media Streams
US8325702B2 (en) 2008-08-29 2012-12-04 Harris Corporation Multi-tier ad-hoc network in which at least two types of non-interfering waveforms are communicated during a timeslot
US20100054228A1 (en) * 2008-08-29 2010-03-04 Harris Corporation Multi-tier ad-hoc network communications
US20100161761A1 (en) * 2008-12-22 2010-06-24 Industrial Technology Research Institute Method for audio and video control response and bandwidth adaptation based on network streaming applications and server using the same
US8554879B2 (en) * 2008-12-22 2013-10-08 Industrial Technology Research Institute Method for audio and video control response and bandwidth adaptation based on network streaming applications and server using the same
US8406276B2 (en) 2008-12-29 2013-03-26 Harris Corporation Communications system employing orthogonal chaotic spreading codes
US8351484B2 (en) 2008-12-29 2013-01-08 Harris Corporation Communications system employing chaotic spreading codes with static offsets
US20100189063A1 (en) * 2009-01-28 2010-07-29 Nec Laboratories America, Inc. Methods and systems for rate matching and rate shaping in a wireless network
US8345545B2 (en) * 2009-01-28 2013-01-01 Nec Laboratories America, Inc. Methods and systems for rate matching and rate shaping in a wireless network
US20100199152A1 (en) * 2009-02-03 2010-08-05 Cisco Technology, Inc. Systems and Methods of Deferred Error Recovery
US8239739B2 (en) 2009-02-03 2012-08-07 Cisco Technology, Inc. Systems and methods of deferred error recovery
US8457077B2 (en) 2009-03-03 2013-06-04 Harris Corporation Communications system employing orthogonal chaotic spreading codes
US8428102B2 (en) 2009-06-08 2013-04-23 Harris Corporation Continuous time chaos dithering
US8509284B2 (en) 2009-06-08 2013-08-13 Harris Corporation Symbol duration dithering for secured chaotic communications
US8428103B2 (en) 2009-06-10 2013-04-23 Harris Corporation Discrete time chaos dithering
US8363700B2 (en) 2009-07-01 2013-01-29 Harris Corporation Rake receiver for spread spectrum chaotic communications systems
US8428104B2 (en) 2009-07-01 2013-04-23 Harris Corporation Permission-based multiple access communications systems
US8379689B2 (en) 2009-07-01 2013-02-19 Harris Corporation Anti-jam communications having selectively variable peak-to-average power ratio including a chaotic constant amplitude zero autocorrelation waveform
US8385385B2 (en) 2009-07-01 2013-02-26 Harris Corporation Permission-based secure multiple access communication systems
US8340295B2 (en) 2009-07-01 2012-12-25 Harris Corporation High-speed cryptographic system using chaotic sequences
US8369376B2 (en) 2009-07-01 2013-02-05 Harris Corporation Bit error rate reduction in chaotic communications
US20110002366A1 (en) * 2009-07-01 2011-01-06 Harris Corporation Rake receiver for spread spectrum chaotic communications systems
US8406352B2 (en) 2009-07-01 2013-03-26 Harris Corporation Symbol estimation for chaotic spread spectrum signal
US20110002463A1 (en) * 2009-07-01 2011-01-06 Harris Corporation Permission-based multiple access communications systems
US20110002460A1 (en) * 2009-07-01 2011-01-06 Harris Corporation High-speed cryptographic system using chaotic sequences
US8848909B2 (en) 2009-07-22 2014-09-30 Harris Corporation Permission-based TDMA chaotic communication systems
US8369377B2 (en) 2009-07-22 2013-02-05 Harris Corporation Adaptive link communications using adaptive chaotic spread waveform
GB2487140B (en) * 2009-08-21 2016-06-22 Univ Hong Kong Chinese Devices and methods for scheduling transmission time of media data
US8868704B2 (en) * 2009-11-16 2014-10-21 Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ) Method, apparatus and computer program product for standby handling in a streaming media receiver
US20120226756A1 (en) * 2009-11-16 2012-09-06 Jan Erik Lindquist Method, apparatus and computer program product for standby handling in a streaming media receiver
US9197573B2 (en) * 2009-11-18 2015-11-24 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Apparatus and method for controlling data transmission in a wireless communication system
US20120269062A1 (en) * 2009-11-18 2012-10-25 Cho Kyung-Rae Apparatus and method for controlling data transmission in a wireless communication system
US8345725B2 (en) 2010-03-11 2013-01-01 Harris Corporation Hidden Markov Model detection for spread spectrum waveforms
US20110222584A1 (en) * 2010-03-11 2011-09-15 Harris Corporation Hidden markov model detection for spread spectrum waveforms
US20110243029A1 (en) * 2010-03-30 2011-10-06 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. Method For Measuring Throughput For a Packet Connection
US8665746B2 (en) * 2010-03-30 2014-03-04 Futurewei Technologies, Inc. Method for measuring throughput for a packet connection
US20110243077A1 (en) * 2010-03-31 2011-10-06 Fujitsu Limited Base station apparatus, base radio transmission method in base station apparatus, and radio communication system
US20120278512A1 (en) * 2011-04-29 2012-11-01 International Business Machines Corporation System, Method and Program Product to Schedule Transfer of Data
US9535616B2 (en) * 2011-04-29 2017-01-03 International Business Machines Corporation Scheduling transfer of data
US8495260B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2013-07-23 International Business Machines Corporation System, method and program product to manage transfer of data to resolve overload of a storage system
US8341312B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2012-12-25 International Business Machines Corporation System, method and program product to manage transfer of data to resolve overload of a storage system
US9285991B2 (en) * 2011-04-29 2016-03-15 International Business Machines Corporation System, method and program product to schedule transfer of data
US20160170665A1 (en) * 2011-04-29 2016-06-16 International Business Machines Corporation Scheduling transfer of data
US20140143402A1 (en) * 2011-08-01 2014-05-22 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Method, apparatus, and system for implementing adaptive application performance
US20140122652A1 (en) * 2012-10-26 2014-05-01 Motorola Solutions, Inc. Systems and methods for sharing bandwidth across multiple video streams
US9100698B2 (en) * 2012-10-26 2015-08-04 Motorola Solutions, Inc. Systems and methods for sharing bandwidth across multiple video streams
US9325765B2 (en) 2012-12-05 2016-04-26 Industrial Technology Research Institute Multimedia stream buffer and output method and multimedia stream buffer module
US20140247733A1 (en) * 2013-03-04 2014-09-04 Qualcomm Incorporated Buffer size reporting for irat measurements in high speed data networks
US20160198199A1 (en) * 2013-08-01 2016-07-07 Telefonaktebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ) Method and apparatus for controlling streaming of video content
US20150043333A1 (en) * 2013-08-07 2015-02-12 Blackberry Limited Media rate adaption using a median filter
US9379987B2 (en) * 2013-08-07 2016-06-28 Blackberry Limited Media rate adaption using a median filter
US9626985B2 (en) * 2013-11-15 2017-04-18 Tencent Technology (Shenzhen) Company Limited Audio processing method and apparatus
US20160267919A1 (en) * 2013-11-15 2016-09-15 Tencent Technology (Shenzhen) Company Limited Audio processing method and apparatus
US20160277522A1 (en) * 2015-03-20 2016-09-22 Qualcomm Incorporated Detecting playback buffer underrun at sink device to improve streaming media quality over bluetooth
WO2017074362A1 (en) * 2015-10-28 2017-05-04 Nokia Solutions And Networks Oy Multi-level data rate control for wireless networks

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US20080109865A1 (en) Dynamic adjustments of video streams
US7151749B2 (en) Method and System for providing adaptive bandwidth control for real-time communication
US20050021830A1 (en) Data communications method and system using buffer size to calculate transmission rate for congestion control
US20040148423A1 (en) Reactive bandwidth control for streaming data
US20040267956A1 (en) Method and device for proactive rate adaptation signaling
US20070071030A1 (en) Video packet shaping for video telephony
Jo et al. Synchronized one-to-many media streaming with adaptive playout control
US20020194361A1 (en) Data transmitting/receiving method, transmitting device, receiving device, transmiting/receiving system, and program
US20070165524A1 (en) Rate based congestion control for packet networks
US20030103243A1 (en) Transmission system
US20070097257A1 (en) Video source rate control for video telephony
US20050105471A1 (en) Adapative control method in real-time communication
US20070009015A1 (en) Adjustment of transmission data rate based on data errors and/or latency
US20070091815A1 (en) Methods and systems for adaptive encoding of real-time information in packet-switched wireless communication systems
US20090034610A1 (en) Video rate adaptation to reverse link conditions
US20130272121A1 (en) Systems and methods for application-aware admission control in a communication network
US20130163430A1 (en) Congestion induced video scaling
US20040071088A1 (en) Streaming media
US20070183323A1 (en) Selective redundancy for voice over internet transmissions
US20130298170A1 (en) Video streaming quality of experience recovery using a video quality metric
US7707303B2 (en) Method and devices for controlling retransmissions in data streaming
US20130286879A1 (en) Video streaming quality of experience degradation control using a video quality metric
US20060018266A1 (en) Roundtrip delay time measurement apparatus and method for variable bit rate multimedia data
US20050213502A1 (en) Method and system for controlling operation of a network, such as a WLAN, related network and computer program product therefor
US20040240390A1 (en) Method and apparatus for dynamic bandwidth adaptation

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: PACKETVIDEO CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:HUANG, JOE;SHERWOOD, PHILLIP GREG;TSAI, CHUN-JEN;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:012237/0518;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010919 TO 20011003

AS Assignment

Owner name: PACKETVIDEO NETWORK SOLUTIONS, INC., TEXAS

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:PACKETVIDEO CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:014154/0119

Effective date: 20031103