US20030106089A1 - Cotton fiber transcriptional factors - Google Patents

Cotton fiber transcriptional factors Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20030106089A1
US20030106089A1 US10285649 US28564902A US2003106089A1 US 20030106089 A1 US20030106089 A1 US 20030106089A1 US 10285649 US10285649 US 10285649 US 28564902 A US28564902 A US 28564902A US 2003106089 A1 US2003106089 A1 US 2003106089A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
lys
glu
ser
fiber
leu
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10285649
Inventor
Kevin McBride
David Stalker
Julie Pear
Luis Perez-Grau
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Monsanto Technology LLC
Original Assignee
Monsanto Technology LLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N9/00Enzymes; Proenzymes; Compositions thereof; Processes for preparing, activating, inhibiting, separating or purifying enzymes
    • C12N9/0004Oxidoreductases (1.)
    • C12N9/0071Oxidoreductases (1.) acting on paired donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen (1.14)
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07KPEPTIDES
    • C07K14/00Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof
    • C07K14/195Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from bacteria
    • C07K14/36Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from bacteria from Actinomyces; from Streptomyces (G)
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07KPEPTIDES
    • C07K14/00Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof
    • C07K14/415Peptides having more than 20 amino acids; Gastrins; Somatostatins; Melanotropins; Derivatives thereof from plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/63Introduction of foreign genetic material using vectors; Vectors; Use of hosts therefor; Regulation of expression
    • C12N15/79Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for eukaryotic hosts
    • C12N15/82Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for eukaryotic hosts for plant cells, e.g. plant artificial chromosomes (PACs)
    • C12N15/8216Methods for controlling, regulating or enhancing expression of transgenes in plant cells
    • C12N15/8222Developmentally regulated expression systems, tissue, organ specific, temporal or spatial regulation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/63Introduction of foreign genetic material using vectors; Vectors; Use of hosts therefor; Regulation of expression
    • C12N15/79Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for eukaryotic hosts
    • C12N15/82Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for eukaryotic hosts for plant cells, e.g. plant artificial chromosomes (PACs)
    • C12N15/8216Methods for controlling, regulating or enhancing expression of transgenes in plant cells
    • C12N15/8222Developmentally regulated expression systems, tissue, organ specific, temporal or spatial regulation
    • C12N15/823Reproductive tissue-specific promoters
    • C12N15/8233Female-specific, e.g. pistil, ovule
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/63Introduction of foreign genetic material using vectors; Vectors; Use of hosts therefor; Regulation of expression
    • C12N15/79Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for eukaryotic hosts
    • C12N15/82Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for eukaryotic hosts for plant cells, e.g. plant artificial chromosomes (PACs)
    • C12N15/8241Phenotypically and genetically modified plants via recombinant DNA technology
    • C12N15/8242Phenotypically and genetically modified plants via recombinant DNA technology with non-agronomic quality (output) traits, e.g. for industrial processing; Value added, non-agronomic traits
    • C12N15/8243Phenotypically and genetically modified plants via recombinant DNA technology with non-agronomic quality (output) traits, e.g. for industrial processing; Value added, non-agronomic traits involving biosynthetic or metabolic pathways, i.e. metabolic engineering, e.g. nicotine, caffeine
    • C12N15/825Phenotypically and genetically modified plants via recombinant DNA technology with non-agronomic quality (output) traits, e.g. for industrial processing; Value added, non-agronomic traits involving biosynthetic or metabolic pathways, i.e. metabolic engineering, e.g. nicotine, caffeine involving pigment biosynthesis
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/63Introduction of foreign genetic material using vectors; Vectors; Use of hosts therefor; Regulation of expression
    • C12N15/79Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for eukaryotic hosts
    • C12N15/82Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for eukaryotic hosts for plant cells, e.g. plant artificial chromosomes (PACs)
    • C12N15/8241Phenotypically and genetically modified plants via recombinant DNA technology
    • C12N15/8261Phenotypically and genetically modified plants via recombinant DNA technology with agronomic (input) traits, e.g. crop yield
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N9/00Enzymes; Proenzymes; Compositions thereof; Processes for preparing, activating, inhibiting, separating or purifying enzymes
    • C12N9/0004Oxidoreductases (1.)
    • C12N9/0069Oxidoreductases (1.) acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, i.e. oxygenases (1.13)
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N9/00Enzymes; Proenzymes; Compositions thereof; Processes for preparing, activating, inhibiting, separating or purifying enzymes
    • C12N9/88Lyases (4.)
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/11Specially adapted for crops
    • Y02A40/14Specially adapted for crops with increased yield
    • Y02A40/146Transgenic plants

Abstract

Novel DNA constructs are provided which may be used as molecular probes or inserted into a plant host to provide for modification of transcription of a DNA sequence of interest in cotton fiber, particularly in very early fiber development. The DNA constructs comprise a cotton fiber transcriptional initiation regulatory region associated with a gene which is expressed in cotton fiber.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0001]
    This invention relates to methods of using in vitro constructed DNA transcription or expression cassettes capable of directing fiber-tissue transcription of a DNA sequence of interest in plants to produce fiber cells having an altered phenotype, and to methods of providing for or modifying various characteristics of cotton fiber. The invention is exemplified by methods of using cotton fiber promoters for altering the a phenotype of cotton fiber, and cotton fibers produced by the method.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    In general, genetic engineering techniques have been directed to modifying the phenotype of individual prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, especially in culture. Plant cells have proven more intransigent than other eukaryotic cells, due not only to a lack of suitable vector systems but also as a result of the different goals involved. For many applications, it is desirable to be able to control gene expression at a particular stage in the growth of a plant or in a particular plant part. For this purpose, regulatory sequences are required which afford the desired initiation of transcription in the appropriate cell types and/or at the appropriate time in the plant's development without having serious detrimental effects on plant development and productivity. It is therefore of interest to be able to isolate sequences which can be used to provide the desired regulation of transcription in a plant cell during the growing cycle of the host plant.
  • [0003]
    One aspect of this interest is the ability to change the phenotype of particular cell types, such as differentiated epidermal cells that originate in fiber tissue, i.e. cotton fiber cells, so as to provide for altered or improved aspects of the mature cell type. Cotton is a plant of great commercial significance. In addition to the use of cotton fiber in the production of textiles, other uses of cotton include food preparation with cotton seed oil and animal feed derived from cotton seed husks.
  • [0004]
    Despite the importance of cotton as a crop, the breeding and genetic engineering of cotton fiber phenotypes has taken place at a relatively slow rate because of the absence of reliable promoters for use in selectively effecting changes in the phenotype of the fiber. In order to effect the desired phenotypic changes, transcription initiation regions capable of initiating transcription in fiber cells during development are desired. Thus, an important goal of cotton bioengineering research is the acquisition of a reliable promoter which would permit expression of a protein selectively in cotton fiber to affect such qualities as fiber strength, length or color.
  • RELEVANT LITERATURE
  • [0005]
    Cotton fiber-specific promoters are discussed in PCT publications WO 94/12014 and WO 95/08914, and John and Crow, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89:5769-5773, 1992. cDNA clones that are preferentially expressed in cotton fiber have been isolated. One of the clones isolated corresponds to mRNA and protein that are highest during the late primary cell wall and early secondary cell wall synthesis stages. John and Crow, supra.
  • [0006]
    U.S. Pat. No. 5,175,095 describes tomato transcriptional factors which can be used to direct the transciption of DNA in ovary tissue. The factors are expressed immediately prior to anthesis and through flowering.
  • [0007]
    A class of fruit-specific promoters expressed at or during anthesis through fruit development, at least until the beginning of ripening, is discussed in European Application 88.906296.4, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference. cDNA clones from tomato displaying differential expression during fruit development have been isolated and characterized (Mansson et al., Mol. Gen. Genet. (1985) 200:356-361: Slater et al., Plant Mol. Biol. (1985) 5:137-147). These studies have focused primarily on mRNAs which accumulate during fruit ripening. One of the proteins encoded-by the ripening-specific cDNAs has been identified as polygalacturonase (Slater et al., Plant Mol. Biol. (1985) 5:137-147).
  • [0008]
    A cDNA clone which encodes tomato polygalacturonase has been sequenced (Grierson et al., Nucleic Acids Research (1986) 14:8395-8603). Improvements in aspects of tomato fruit storage and handling through transcriptional manipulation of expression of the polygalacturonase gene have been reported (Sheehy et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1988) 85:8805-8809; Smith et al., Nature (1988) 334: 724-726).
  • [0009]
    Mature plastid mRNA for psbA (one of the components of photosystem II) reaches its highest level late in fruit development, whereas after the onset of ripening, plastid mRNAs for other components of photosystem I and II decline to nondetectable levels in chromoplasts (Piechulla et al., Plant Molec. Biol. (1986) 7:367-376). Recently, cDNA clones representing genes apparently involved in tomato pollen (McCormick et al., Tomato Biotechnology (1987) Alan R. Liss, Inc., NY) and pistil (Gasser et al., Plant Cell (1989), 1:15-24) interactions have also been isolated and characterized.
  • [0010]
    Other studies have focused on genes inducibly regulated, e.g. genes encoding serine proteinase inhibitors, which are expressed in response to wounding in tomato (Graham et al., J. Biol. Chem. (1985) 260:6555-6560: Graham et al., J. Biol. Chem. (1985) 260:6561-6554) and on mRNAs correlated with ethylene synthesis in ripening fruit and leaves after wounding (Smith et al., Planta (1986) 168: 94-100). Accumulation of a metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor protein has been reported in leaves of wounded potato plants (Graham et al., Biochem & BioPhys. Res Comm. (1981) 101: 1164-1170).
  • [0011]
    Genes which are expressed preferentially in plant seed tissues, such as in embryos or seed coats, have also been reported. See, for example, European Patent Application 87306739.1 (published as 0 255 378 on Feb. 3, 1988) and Kridl et al. (Seed Science Research (1991) 1:209-219).
  • [0012]
    In animals, the ras superfamily is subdivided into the subfamilies ras which is involved in controlling cell growth and division, rab/YPT members which control secretory processes, and rho which is involved in control of cytoskeletal organization (Bourne et al., (1991) Nature 349: 117-127), and number of homologous genes have now been identified in plants (for a review, see Terryn et al., (1993) Plant Mol. Biol. 22: 143-152). None have been found for the important ras subfamily, all but one of the genes identified have been members of the rab/YPT1 subfamily, and there is only one recent report of the cloning of a rho gene in pea (Yang and Watson(1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 8732-8736).
  • [0013]
    Little work has been done to characterize the functions of these genes in plants, although one recent report has shown that a small G protein from Arabidopsis can functionally complement a mutant form in yeast involved in vesicle trafficking, suggesting a similar function for the plant gene (Bednarek et al., (1994) Plant Physiol 104: 591-596).
  • [0014]
    In animals, two members of the rho subfamily, called Rac and Rho, have been shown to be involved in the regulation of actin organization (for a review, see Downward, (1992) Nature 359: 273-274).
  • [0015]
    Rac1 has been shown to mediate growth factor-induced membrane ruffling by influencing microfilament alignment on the plasma membrane (Ridley et al, (1992) Cell 70: 401-410), whereas RhoA regulates the formation of actin stress fibers associated with focal adhesions (Ridley and Hall, (1992) Cell 70: 389-399).
  • [0016]
    In yeast, the CDC42 gene codes for a rho-type protein which also regulates actin organization involved in the establishment of cell polarity required for the localized deposition of chitin in the bud scar (Adams et al., (1990) J Cell Biol 111: 131-143.
  • [0017]
    Disruption of gene function, either by temperature shifts with a CDC42-temperature-sensitive mutant in yeast (Adams et al., 1990), or by micro-injection into fibroblasts of mutant Rac or Rho proteins exibiting a dominant negative phenotype (Ridley et al., 1992; Ridley and Hall, 1992), leads to disorganization of the actin network.
  • [0018]
    In plants, control of cytoskeletal organization is poorly understood in spite of its importance for the regulation of patterns of cell division, expansion, and subsequent deposition of secondary cell wall polymers. The cotton fiber represents an excellent system for studying cytoskeletal organization. Cotton fibers are single cells in which cell elongation and secondary wall deposition can be studied as distinct events. These fibers develop synchronously within the boll following anthesis, and each fiber cell elongates for about 3 weeks, depositing a thin primary wall (Meinert and Delmer, (1984) Plant Physiol. 59: 1088-1097; Basra and Malik, (1984) Int Rev of Cytol 89: 65-113). At the time of transition to secondary wall cellulose synthesis, the fiber cells undergo a synchronous shift in the pattern of cortical microtubule and cell wall microfibril alignments, events which may be regulated upstream by the organization of actin (Seagull, (1990) Protoplasma 159: 44-59; and (1992) In: Proceedings of the Cotton Fiber Cellulose Conference, National Cotton Council of America, Memphis RN, pp 171-192.
  • [0019]
    Agrobacterium-mediated cotton transformation is described in Umbeck, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,004,863 and 5,159,135 and cotton transformation by particle bombardment is reported in WO 92/15675, published Sep. 17, 1992. Transformation of Brassica has been described by Radke et al. (Theor. Appl. Genet. (1988) 75;685-694; Plant Cell Reports (1992) 11:499-505.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0020]
    Novel DNA constructs and methods for their use are described which are capable of directing transcription of a gene of interest in cotton fiber, particularly early in fiber development and during secondary cell wall development. The novel constructs include a vector comprising a transcriptional and translational initiation region obtainable from a gene expressed in cotton fiber and methods of using constructs including the vector for altering fiber phenotype.
  • [0021]
    Two promoters are provided from genes involved in the regulation of cotton fiber development. One, Rac13, is from a protein in cotton which codes for an animal Rac protein homolog. Rac13, shows highly-enhanced expression during fiber development. This pattern of expression correlates well with the timing, of reorganization of the cytoskeleton, suggesting that the Rac13 cotton gene may, like its animal counterpart, be involved in the signal transduction pathway for cytoskeletal organization.
  • [0022]
    The other is a promoter from a cotton protein which is unrelated to published proteins, designated 4-4. 4-4 mRNA accumulates in fiber cells at day 17 post anthesis and continues to fiber maturity at days 35 post anthesis.
  • [0023]
    The methods of the present invention include transfecting a host plant cell of interest with a transcription or expression cassette comprising a cotton fiber promoter and generating a plant which is grown to produce fiber having the desired phenotype. Constructs and methods of the subject invention thus find use in modulation of endogenous fiber products, as well as production of exogenous products and in modifying the phenotype of fiber and fiber products. The constructs also find use as molecular probes. In particular, constructs and methods for use in gene expression in cotton embryo tissues are considered herein. By these methods, novel cotton plants and cotton plant parts, such as modified cotton fibers, may be obtained.
  • [0024]
    Also provided in the instant application are constructs and methods of use relating to modification of color phenotype in fiber tissues. Such constructs contain sequences for expression of genes involved in the production of colored compounds, such as anthocyanins, melanin or indigo, and also may contain sequences which provide for targeting of the gene products to particular locations in the plant cell, such as plastid organelles, or vacuoles. Plastid targeting is of particular interest for expression of genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways, while vacuolar targeting is of particular interest where the precursors required in synthesis of the pigment are present in vacuoles. Production of melanin, for example, may be enhanced by vacuolar targeting in plant tissues which accumulate tyrosine in vacuoles. Transcriptional initiation regions for expression of color-related genes will be selected on the basis of the tissue for which color modification is desired.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0025]
    [0025]FIG. 1 shows the DNA sequence encoding the structural protein from cDNA 4-4.
  • [0026]
    [0026]FIG. 2 shows the sequence to the promoter construct pCGN5606 made using genomic DNA from 4-4-6 genomic clone.
  • [0027]
    [0027]FIG. 3 shows the sequence to the 4-4 promoter construct pCGN5610.
  • [0028]
    [0028]FIG. 4 shows the cDNA sequence encoding the Rac13 gene expressed in cotton fiber.
  • [0029]
    [0029]FIG. 5 shows the sequence the promoter region from the rac13 gene.
  • [0030]
    [0030]FIG. 6 shows a restriction map for pCGN4735.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0031]
    In accordance with the subject invention, novel constructs and methods for their use are described which may be used as molecular probes or inserted into a plant host to provide for transcription of a nucleotide sequence of interest in fiber cells as compared with other plant cells, generally preferentially in fiber cells to produce cells and plant parts having an altered phenotype. Of particular interest is the period of at least one to three days prior to anthesis through flower senescence. One promoter was derived from the characterization of two distinct rac cDNA clones isolated from a cotton fiber cDNA library which code for homologs of animal Rac proteins. Using gene-specific probes, it was determined that amphidiploid cotton contains two genes that code for each of the two rac proteins, designated Rac13 and Rac9 respectively. The gene for Rac13 shows highly-enhanced expression in developing cotton fibers, with maximal expression occuring at the time of transition between primary and secondary wall synthesis. This is also the time at which reorganization of the cytoskeleton occurs, and thus the pattern of expression of Rac13 is consistent with its possible role, analogous to animal Rac, in the signal transduction pathway for cytoskeletal organization.
  • [0032]
    The constructs may include several forms, depending upon the intended use of the construct. Thus, the constructs include vectors, transcriptional cassettes, expression cassettes and plasmids. The transcriptional and translational initiation region (also sometimes referred to as a “promoter,”), preferably comprises a transcriptional initiation regulatory region and a translational initiation regulatory region of untranslated 5′ sequences, “ribosome binding sites,” responsible for binding mRNA to ribosomes and translational initiation. It is preferred that all of the transcriptional and translational functional elements of the initiation control region are derived from or obtainable from the same gene. In some embodiments, the promoter will be modified by the addition of sequences, such as enhancers, or deletions of nonessential and/or undesired sequences. By “obtainable” is intended a promoter having a DNA sequence sufficiently similar to that of a native promoter to provide for the desired specificity of transcription of a DNA sequence of interest. It includes natural and synthetic sequences as well as sequences which may be a combination of synthetic and natural sequences.
  • [0033]
    The vectors will comprise a nucleotide sequence comprising the transcriptional initiation regulatory regions of this invention associated. A transcriptional cassette for transcription of a nucleotide sequence of interest in cotton fiber will include in the direction of transcription, the cotton fiber transcriptional initiation region, a DNA sequence of interest, and a transcriptional termination region functional in the plant cell. When the cassette provides for the transcription and translation of a DNA sequence of interest it is considered an expression cassette. One or more introns may be also be present.
  • [0034]
    Other sequences may also be present, including those encoding transit peptides and secretory leader sequences as desired. The regulatory regions are capable of directing transcription in fiber cells from anthesis through flowering but direct little or no expression after the initial changes which occur at the time surrounding pollination and/or fertilization; transcription from these regulatory regions is not detectable at about three weeks after anthesis. Further, fiber-tissue transcription initiation regions of this invention are typically not readily detectable in other plant tissues. Transcription initiation regions from cotton fiber that are not fiber specific may find special application. Especially preferred are transcription initiation regions which are not found at stages of fiber development other than pre-anthesis through flowering. Transcription initiation regions capable of initiating transcription in other plant tissues and/or at other stages of fiber development, in addition to the foregoing, are acceptable insofar as such regions provide a significant expression level in cotton fiber at the defined periods of interest and do not negatively interfere with the plant as a whole, and, in particular, do not interfere with the development of fiber and/or fiber-related parts. Also of interest are cotton fiber promoters and/or promoter elements which are capable of directing transcription in specific cotton fibers such as outer pericarp tissue, inner core tissues, integuments, and the like.
  • [0035]
    The term “fiber” as used herein refers to the mature organ formed as the result of the development of the fiber wall of a flower and any other closely associated parts. See Weirer, T. E., 1, ed., Botany A Introduction to Plant Biology (6th ed.) (John Wiley & Sons, 1982); Tootill & Backmore, The Facts on File Dictionary of Botany (Market Home Books Ltd., 1984). By “modified fiber” is meant fiber having a detectably different phenotype from a nontransformed plant of the same species, for example, one not having the transcriptional cassette in question in its genome. The term “anthesis” refers herein to the period associated with flower opening and flowering. The term “flower senescence” refers herein to the period associated with flower death, including the loss of the (flower) petals, etc. Abercrombie, M., et al., A Dictionary of Biology (6th ed) (Penguin Books, 1973). Unopened flowers, or buds, are considered “pre-anthesis.” Anthesis begins with the opening of the flower petals, which represents asexually receptive portion of the reproductive cycle of the plant. Typically, flowering lasts approximately one week in the tested UCB82 tomato variety. In a plant like cotton, flowering lasts approximately two weeks and the fiber develops from the seed coat tissue. It is preferred that the transcriptional initiation regions of this invention do not initiate transcription for a significant time or to a significant degree prior to plant flower budding. Ideally, the level of transcription will be high for at least approximately one to three days and encompass the onset of anthesis (“pre-anthesis”).
  • [0036]
    Cotton fiber is a differentiated single epidermal cell of the outer integument of the ovule. It has four distinct growth phases; initiation, elongation (primary cell wall synthesis), secondary cell wall synthesis, and maturation. Initiation of fiber development appears to be triggered by hormones. The primary cell wall is laid down during the elongation phase, lasting up to 25 days postanthesis (DPA). Synthesis of the secondary wall commences prior to the cessation of the elongation phase and continues to approximately 40 DPA, forming a wall of almost pure cellulose. In addition to cotton fiber promoters, transcriptional initiation regions from genes expressed preferentially in seed tissues, and in particular seed coat tissues, are also of interest for applications where modification of cotton fiber cells is considered.
  • [0037]
    Downstream from, and under the regulatory control of, the cotton fiber transcriptional/translational initiation control region is a nucleotide sequence of interest which provides for modification of the phenotype of fiber. The nucleotide sequence may be any open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of interest, for example, an enzyme, or a sequence complementary to a genomic sequence, where the genomic sequence may be an open reading frame, an intron, a noncoding leader sequence, or any other sequence where the complementary sequence inhibits transcription, messenger RNA processing, for example, splicing, or translation. The nucleotide sequences of this invention may be synthetic, naturally derived, or combinations thereof. Depending upon the nature of the DNA sequence of interest, it may be desirable to synthesize the sequence with plant preferred codons. The plant preferred codons may be determined from the codons of highest frequency in the proteins expressed in the largest amount in the particular plant species of interest. Phenotypic modification can be achieved by modulating production either of an endogenous transcription or translation product, for example as to the amount, relative distribution, or the like, or an exogenous transcription or translation product, for example to provide for a novel function or products in a transgenic host cell or tissue. Of particular interest are DNA sequences encoding expression products associated with the development of plant fiber, including genes involved in metabolism of cytokinins, auxins, ethylene, abscissic acid, and the like. Methods and compositions for modulating cytokinin expression are described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,177,307, which disclosure is hereby incorporated by reference. Alternatively, various genes, from sources including other eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, including bacteria, such as those from Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA auxin and cytokinin biosynthetic gene products, for example, and mammals, for example interferons, may be used.
  • [0038]
    Other phenotypic modifications include modification of the color of plant parts developing from fiber integuments and/or core tissue, for example seed coat hairs, such as cotton fibers. Of interest are genes involved in production of melanin and genes involved in the production of indigo. Melanins are dark brown pigments found in animals, plants and microorganisms, any of which may serve as a source for sequences for insertion into the constructs of the present invention. Specific examples include the tyrosinase gene which can be cloned from Streptomyces antibioticus. The ORF438 encoded protein in S. antibioticus also is necessary for melanin production, and may provide a copper donor function. In addition, a tyrosinase gene can be isolated from any organism which makes melanin. The gene can be isolated from human hair, melanocytes or melanomas, cuttle fish and red roosters, among others. See, for example, EP Application No. 89118346.9 which discloses a process for producing melanins, their precursors and derivatives in microorganisms. Also, See, Bernan et al. Gene (1985) 37:101-110; and della-Cioppa et al. Bio/Technology (1990) 8:634-638.
  • [0039]
    Indigo may be obtained by use of genes encoding a mono-oxygenase such as xylene oxygenase which oxidizes toluene and xylene to (methyl) benzyl alcohol and also transforms indole to indigo. Cloning of the xylene oxygenase gene and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences are described in unexamined Japanese Patent Application Kokai:2-119777, published May 7, 1990. A dioxygenase such as naphthalene dioxygenase which also converts indole to indigo finds use; the naphthalene dioxygenase gene nahA is described in Science (1983) 222: 167. For cloning, nucleotide sequence in characterization of genes encoding naphthalene dioxygenase of Pseudomonas putida. See, Kurkela et al. Gene (1988) 73:355-362. A tryptophanase gene sequence can be used in conjunction with an oxygenase to increase the amount of indole available for conversion to indigo. Sources of tryptophanase gene sequences include E. coli (see, for example, Deeley et al. (1982) J. Bacteriol. 151 :942-951).
  • [0040]
    As demonstrated in the copending application to McBride et al., entitled “Use of Ovary Tissue Transcriptional Factors”, Ser. No. 08/480,178, filed on Jun. 7, 1995, the teachings of which are incorporated herein by reference, expression of ORF438 and tyrosinase genes from Streptomyces in transgenic tobacco plants using a 4-4 and rac promoter, and targeting the gene products to plastids by the action of transit peptides resulted in phenotypic modification of ovary derived and meristem derived tissues, including modification of color in meristematic regions and basal flower buds. A similar set of experiments in which no plastid targeting sequences were used in conjunction with the ORF438 and tyrosinase genes, no alteration of phenotype was observed. Presumably, the plants were not able to produce melanin due to deficiency of the required substrates in the plant cell cytosol.
  • [0041]
    Plastid targeting sequences (transit peptides) are available from a number of plant nuclear-encoded plastid proteins, such as the small subunit (SSU) of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, plant fatty acid biosynthesis related genes including acyl carrier protein (ACP), stearoyl-ACP desaturase, β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase and acyl-ACP thioesterase, or LHCPII genes. The encoding sequence for a transit peptide which provides for transport to plastids may include all or a portion of the encoding sequence for a particular transit peptide, and may also contain portions of the mature protein encoding sequence associated with a particular transit peptide. There are numerous, examples in the art of transit peptides which may be used to deliver a target protein into a plastid organelle. The particular transit peptide encoding sequence used in the instant invention is not critical, as long as delivery to the plastid is obtained.
  • [0042]
    As an alternative to using transit peptides to target pigment synthesis proteins to plastid organelles, the desired constructs may be used to transform the plastid genome directly. In this instance, promoters capable of providing for transcription of genes in plant plastids are desired. Of particular interest is the use of a T7 promoter to provide for high levels of transcription. Since plastids do not contain an appropriate polymerase for transcription from the T7 promoter, T7 polymerase may be expressed from a nuclear construct and targeted to plastids using transit peptides as described above. (See McBride et al. (1994) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 91:7301-7305; see also copending U.S. patent application entitled “Controlled Expression of Transgenic Constructs in Plant Plastids”, Ser. No. 08/472,719 filed Jun. 6, 1995, and copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/167,638, filed Dec. 14, 1993 and PCT/US94/14574 filed Dec. 12, 1994.) Tissue specific or developmentally regulated promoters may be useful for expression of the T7 polymerase in order to limit expression to the appropriate tissue or stage of development. For example, for flower color modification, the T7 polymerase may be expressed from a petal specific promoter to limit effects to the desired tissue.
  • [0043]
    Targeting of melanin synthesis genes to vacuoles is also of interest in plant tissues which accumulate the tyrosine substrate involved in melanin synthesis in vacuoles. The protein signal for targeting to vacuoles may be provided from a plant gene which is normally transported across the rough endoplasmic reticulum, such as the 32 amino acid N-terminal region of the metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor gene from tomato (Martineau et al. (1991) Mol. Gen. Genet. 228 :281-286). In addition to the signal sequence, vacuolar targeting constructs also encode a vacuolar localization signal (VLS) positioned at the carboxy terminus of the encoded protein. Appropriate signal sequences and VLS regions may be obtained from various other plant genes and may be similarly used in the constructs of this invention. Numerous vacuolar targetting peptides are known to the art, as are reviewed in Chrispeels et al., Cell (1992) 68:613-616.
  • [0044]
    Thus, it is recognized that constructs of the instant invention which provide sequences encoding genes involved in color production and sequences which provide for targeting of the gene products to appropriate cellular locations have broad application to modification of color in various plant tissues. Plant transcriptional initiation regions for use with these color modification constructs will depend upon the particular plant tissue to be modified. For cotton fiber modification the 4-4 and rac33 cotton fiber promoters may find use.
  • [0045]
    Also of interest are genes involved in production of colored pigments in plant tissues. The Maize Al gene which encodes a dihydroflavonol reductase, an enzyme of the anthocyanin pigmentation pathway is one such gene. In cells that express the Al gene, dihydrokempferol is converted to 2-8 alkylleucopelargonidin, which may be further metabolized to pelargonidin pigment by endogenous plant enzymes. Other anthocyanin or flavonoid type pigments may also be of interest for modification of cotton cell fibers, and have been suggested for use in plant flowers (for a review of plant flower color, see van Tunen et al., Plant Biotechnology Series, Volume 2 (1990) Developmental Regulation of Plant Gene Expression, D. Grierson ed.). Anthocyanin is produced by a progression of steps from cellular phenylalanine pools. The R anc C1 genes are maize regulatory proteins which are active by positively affecting upstream steps in the anthocyanin biosynthesis from these pools. The R gene is described in Perot and Cone (1989) Nucl. Acids Res., 17:8003, and the C1 gene is described in Paz-Ares et al (1987) EMBO, 6:3553-3558. Lloyd et al. (1992) Science, 258:1773-1775 discussed both genes.
  • [0046]
    Although cotton fibers in commercially grown varieties are primarily white in color, other naturally occurring cotton varieties have brown or reddish-brown fibers. Also a cotton line containing green colored fibers has been identified. The existence of these colored cotton lines suggests that the precursors required for the anthocyanin pigment pathways are present in cotton fibers cells, thus allowing further color phenotype modifications. Thus, the maize R and C1 genes could be used in enhancing the levels of of anthocyanin produced in fiber cells. As the R and C1 proteins are proteins with a positive control at the regulatory level on anthocyanin pigment precursor biosynthesis, these proteins are expressed in the nucleus, and not targetted to plastids or vacuoles.
  • [0047]
    For some applications, it is of interest to modify other aspects of structures developing from the fiber integument and related structures. For example, it is of interest to modify various aspects of cotton fibers, such as strength or texture of a fiber. Thus, the appropriate gene may be inserted in the constructs of the invention, including genes for PHB biosynthesis (see, Peoples et al. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) 264: 15298-15303 and Ibid. 15293-15397; Saxena, Plant Molecular Biology (1990) 15:673-683, which discloses cloning and sequencing of the cellulose synthase catalytic subunit gene; and Bowen et al. PNAS (1992) 89:519-523 which discloses chitin synthase genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. Various constructs and methods are disclosed for the use of hormones to effect changes to fiber quality in copending US patent application entitled “Cotton Modification Using Ovary-Tissue Transcriptional factors”, Ser. No. 08/397,652 filed Feb. 2, 1995, the teachings of which are incorporated herein by reference.
  • [0048]
    Transcriptional cassettes may be used when the transcription of an anti-sense sequence is desired. When the expression of a polypeptide is desired, expression cassettes providing for transcription and translation of the DNA sequence of interest will be used. Various changes are of interest; these changes may include modulation (increase or decrease) of formation of particular saccharides, hormones, enzymes, or other biological parameters. These also include modifying the composition of the final fiber or fiber, that is changing the ratio and/or amounts of water, solids, fiber or sugars. Other phenotypic properties of interest for modification include response to stress, organisms, herbicides, brushing, growth regulators, and the like. These results can be achieved by providing for reduction of expression of one or more endogenous products, particularly an enzyme or cofactor, either by producing a transcription product which is complementary (anti-sense) to the transcription product of a native gene, so as to inhibit the maturation and/or expression of the transcription product, or by providing for expression of a gene, either endogenous or exogenous, to be associated with the development of a plant fiber.
  • [0049]
    The termination region which is employed in the expression cassette will be primarily one of convenience, since the termination regions appear to be relatively interchangeable. The termination region may be native with the transcriptional initiation region, may be native with the DNA sequence of interest, may be derived from another source. The termination region may be naturally occurring, or wholly or partially synthetic. Convenient termination regions are available from the Ti-plasmid of A. tumefaciens, such as the octopine synthase and nopaline synthase termination regions. In some embodiments, it may be desired to use the 3′ termination region native to the cotton fiber transcription initiation region used in a particular construct.
  • [0050]
    As described herein, in some instances additional nucleotide sequences will be present in the constructs to provide for targeting of a particular gene product to specific cellular locations. For example, where coding sequences for synthesis of aromatic colored pigments are used in a construct, particularly coding sequences for enzymes which have as their substrates aromatic compounds such tyrosine and indole, it is preferable to include sequences which provide for delivery of the enzyme into plastids, such as an SSU transit peptide sequence. Also, for synthesis of pigments derived from tyrosine, such as melanin, targeting to the vacuole may provide for enhanced color modifications.
  • [0051]
    For melanin production, the tyrosinase and ORF438 genes from Streptomyces antibioticus (Berman et al. (1985) 37:101-110) are provided in cotton fiber cells for expression from a 4-4 and Rac13 promoter. In Streptomyces, the ORF438 and tyrosinase proteins are expressed from the same promoter region. For expression from constructs in a transgenic plant genome, the coding regions may be provided under the regulatory control of separate promoter regions. The promoter regions may be the same or different for the two genes. Alternatively, coordinate expression of the two genes from a single plant promoter may be desired. Constructs for expression of the tyrosinase and ORF438 gene products from 4-4 and rac promoter regions are described in detail in the following examples. Additional promoters may also be desired, for example plant viral promoters, such as CaMV 35S, can be used for constitutive expression of one of the desired gene products, with the other gene product being expressed in cotton fiber tissues from the 4-4 and rac promoter. In addition, the use of other plant promoters for expression of genes in cotton fibers is also considered, such as the Brassica seed promoters and the E6 gene promoter discussed above. Similarly, other constitutive promoters may also be useful in certain applications, for example the mas, Mac or DoubleMac, promoters described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,106,739 and by Comai et al., Plant Mol. Biol. (1990) 15:373-381). When plants comprising multiple gene constructs are desired, for example plants expressing the melanin genes, ORF438 and tyrosinase, the plants may be obtained by co-transformation with both constructs, or by transformation with individual constructs followed by plant breeding methods to obtain plants expressing both of the desired genes.
  • [0052]
    Color constructs which may find use in the methods of the instant application are described in copending U.S. patent application to McBride et al., supra. Constructs for melanin and indigo expression are described therein, as well as results showing melanin expression in plant cells.
  • [0053]
    A variety of techniques are available and known to those skilled in the art for introduction of constructs into a plant cell host. These techniques include transfection with DNA employing A. tumefaciens or A. rhizogenes as the transfecting agent, protoplast fusion, injection, electroporation, particle acceleration, etc. For transformation with Agrobacterium, plasmids can be prepared in E. coli which contain DNA homologous with the Ti-plasmid, particularly T-DNA. The plasmid may or may not be capable of replication in Agrobacterium, that is, it may or may not have a broad spectrum prokaryotic replication system such as does, for example, pRK290, depending in part upon whether the transcription cassette is to be integrated into the Ti-plasmid or to be retained on an independent plasmid. The Agrobacterium host will contain a plasmid having the vir genes necessary for transfer of the T-DNA to the plant cell and may or may not have the complete TDNA. At least the right border and frequently both the right and left borders of the T-DNA of the Ti- or Ri-plasmids will be joined as flanking regions to the transcription construct. The use of T-DNA for transformation of plant cells has received extensive study and is amply described in EPA Serial No. 120,516, Hoekema, In: The Binary Plant Vector System Offset-drukkerij Kanters B. V., Alblasserdam, 1985, Chapter V, Knauf, et al., Genetic Analysis of Host Range Expression by Agrobacterium, In: Molecular Genetics of the Bacteria-Plant Interaction, Puhler, A. ed., Springer-Verlag, N.Y., 1983, p. 245, and An, et al., EMBO J. (1985) 4:277-284.
  • [0054]
    For infection, particle acceleration and electroporation, a disarmed Ti-plasmid lacking particularly the tumor genes found in the T-DNA region) may be introduced into the plant cell. By means of a helper plasmid, the construct may be transferred to the A. tumefaciens and the resulting transfected organism used for transfecting a plant cell; explants may be cultivated with transformed A. tumefaciens or A. rhizogenes to allow for transfer of the transcription cassette to the plant cells. Alternatively, to enhance integration into the plant genome, terminal repeats of transposons may be used as borders in conjunction with a transposase. In this situation, expression of the transposase should be inducible, so that once the transcription construct is integrated into the genome, it should be relatively stably integrated. Transgenic plant cells are then placed in an appropriate selective medium for selection of transgenic cells which are then grown to callus, shoots grown and plantlets generated from the shoot by growing in rooting medium.
  • [0055]
    To confirm the presence of the transgenes in transgenic cells and plants, a Southern blot analysis can be performed using methods known to those skilled in the art. Expression products of the transgenes can be detected in any of a variety of ways, depending upon the nature of the product, and include immune assay, enzyme assay or visual inspection, for example to detect pigment formation in the appropriate plant part or cells. Once transgenic plants have been obtained, they may be grown to produce fiber having the desired phenotype. The fiber or fiber parts, such as cotton fibers may be harvested, and/or the seed collected. The seed may serve as a source for growing additional plants having the desired characteristics. The terms transgenic plants and transgenic cells include plants and cells derived from either-transgenic plants or transgenic cells.
  • [0056]
    The various sequences provided herein may be used as molecular probes for the isolation of other sequences which may be useful in the present invention, for example, to obtain related transcriptional initiation regions from the same or different plant sources. Related transcriptional initiation regions obtainable from the sequences provided in this invention will show at least about 60% homology, and more preferred regions will demonstrate an even greater percentage of homology with the probes. Of particular importance is the ability to obtain related transcription initiation control regions having the timing and tissue parameters described herein. For example, using the probe 4-4 and rac, at least 7 additional clones, have been identified, but not further characterized. Thus, by employing the techniques described in this application, and other techniques known in the art (such as Maniatis, et al., Molecular Cloning,—A Laboratory Manual (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) 1982), other transcription initiation regions capable of directing cotton fiber transcription as described in this invention may be determined. The constructs can also be used in conjunction with plant regeneration systems to obtain plant cells and plants; the constructs may also be used to modify the phenotype of a fiber and fibers produced thereby.
  • [0057]
    Various varieties and lines of cotton may find use in the described methods. Cultivated cotton species include Gossypium hirsutum and G. babadense (extra-long stable, or Pima cotton), which evolved in the New World, and the Old World crops G. herbaceum and G. arboreum.
  • [0058]
    The following examples are offered by way of illustration and not by limitation.
  • EXPERIMENTAL EXAMPLE 1 cDNA Libraries
  • [0059]
    Tissue Preparation for cDNA Synthesis
  • [0060]
    Leaf and root tissue were isolated from 8 inch tall greenhouse grown seedlings and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Flowers were collected at the rapidly expanding 3 day preanthesis stage and also frozen. Seed was collected from 21 day postanthesis locules which had been removed from the boll and frozen entire in liquid nitrogen. Once frozen, the fiber was removed from the seed and the denuded seed used for RNA isolation. All fibers were removed from the seed under liquid nitrogen and the fiber was ground to a powder prior to RNA isolation. Fibers were from bolls which had been tagged at anthesis.
  • [0061]
    DNA and RNA Manipulations
  • [0062]
    The lZapII cDNA library used for screening was prepared from cDNA derived from poly-A+ mRNA isolated from fibers of Gossypium hirsutum cultivar Acala SJ-2. The fibers were isolated from bolls harvested at approximately 21 dpa using field-grown plants in Israel.
  • [0063]
    Total RNA was isolated from 21 dpa seeds (G. hirsutum cv Coker 130 from which the fiber had been removed) using the method of Hughes and Galau ((1988) Plant Mol Biol Reporter, 6:253-257.) All other RNAs were prepared according to Hall et al. ((1978), Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 3196-3200), with the following modifications. After the second 2M LiCl wash, the pellet was dissolved in {fraction (1/10)} original volume of 10 mM Tris pH7.5 and brought to 35 mM potassium acetate pH6.5 and ½ volume EtOH was added slowly. The mixture was placed on ice for 15 minutes and then centrifuged at 20,000×g for 15 minutes at 4° C. The potassium acetate concentration was brought to 0.2M, 2½ volumes EtOH added and the RNA placed at −20° C. for several hours. The precipitate was centrifuged at 12,000×g for 30 minutes at 4° C. and the pellet was resuspended in diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water. Poly-A+ RNA was prepared from total mRNA utilizing an oligo(dT)-cellulose kit (Becton Dickenson) and following the manufacturer's protocol.
  • [0064]
    Cotton genomic DNA was prepared as follows. Four grams of young cotton leaf tissue (cv Coker 130) was ground to a powder in N2 and placed in an Oak Ridge tube with 0.4 g polyvinylpyrolidone and 20 mls extraction buffer (200 mM Ches/NaOH ph9.1, 200 mM NaCl, 100 mMEDTA/NaOH pH9.0, 2% SDS, 0.5% Na deoxycholate, 2% Nonidet NP-40, 20 mM B-mercaptoethanol) was added to sample, gently mixed and incubated at 65° C. in a shaking water bath for 10 minutes. 7.0 mls of 5M potassium acetate pH6.5 was added and carefully mixed. Incubation was carried out on ice for 30 minutes with gentle mixing every 5 minutes. The sample was centrifuged for 20 minutes at 21,000×g and the supernatant was filtered through Miracloth into another tube and centrifuged as before. The supernatant was again filtered through Miracloth into 15 mls of room temperature isopropanol in an Oak Ridge tube. After gentle mixing, the sample was incubated at room temperature for 10-60 minutes until the DNA precipitated. The DNA was spooled and allowed to air dry before being resuspended in 4 mls of TE on ice for 1 hour. CsCl was added to 0.97 g/ml final concentration and 300 ul 10mg/ml ethidium bromide was also added before filling VTi80 quick seal tubes. The sample was centrifuged overnight at 225,000×g overnight. The DNA was extracted with water saturated butanol and enough water was added to bring the volume to 4 mls before adding 2 volumes EtOH. The DNA was spooled, air dried and resuspended in 200 ul sterile water.
  • [0065]
    Northern and Southern Analysis For Northerns, 10 ug of total RNA was isolated from various tissues, separated by electrophoresis in 1.2% agarose-formaldehyde gels and transfered onto Nytran Plus membranes (Schleicher and Schuell). Hybridization conditions consisted of a solution containing 50% formamide(v/v), 5×SSC, 0.1% SDS, 5 mM EDTA, 10× Denhardts solution, 25 mM sodium phosphate pH6.5 and 250 ug/ml carrier DNA. Washes were performed in 2×SSC, 0.1% SDS at 42° C. 3 times for 30 minutes each time.
  • [0066]
    Cotton genomic DNA (12 ug) was digested with various restriction endonucleases, electrophoresed in 0.9% agarose gels and blotted onto Nytran Plus membranes. Hybridization and filter washing conditions for both the 3′ specific and full-length cDNA insert probes were as described for Northern analysis.
  • [0067]
    Probes derived from 3′-untranslated regions were synthesized via oligonucleotide primers from the Rac13 cDNA, corresponding to bases 600-619 and 843-864 (FIG. 4). Each set of primers was used in a polymerase chain reaction to synthesize copies of 3′-specific DNA sequences. These sequences were used as templates in the generation of single-stranded, 32P-labeled probes off the antisense strand in a polymerase chain reaction. The full-length cDNA inserts for Rac13 were used as templates for double stranded, random primed probes using the Prime-It kit (Stratagene).
  • EXAMPLE 2 Isolation of cDNA Clones from Cotton
  • [0068]
    cDNA to the 4-4 clone was isolated from the cotton fiber library described above, and shown to express in fiber but not other tissues. This sequence was not related to any known protein. Only 400 kb of encoding sequence was present in this clone, so the library was rescreened using the cDNA to obtain full-length clones. The full-length encoding sequence is provided in FIG. 1.
  • [0069]
    Another clone was sequenced which showed high homology to animal Rac proteins. This clone, designated Rac13, was not quite full-length, and the library was re-screened using this initial Rac13 DNA segment as probe. Of approximately 130,000 primary plaques screened, 56 screened positive; of these, 14 clones were isolated and sequenced. Of these 14 clones, 12 showed identical sequence homology to the original Rac13 clone and one of these cDNA clones encoded a full length Rac13. One other partial-length cDNA clone, designated Rac9, was clearly related, but distinct in DNA and amino acid sequence from Rac13. Re-screening of 150,000 plaques resulted in the isolation of 36 positive clones of which only two clones corresponded to the Rac9 sequence (both full-length clones), the remainder being Rac13. These results suggest that cotton contains genes for at least two distinct Rac proteins. Based upon the frequency of clone isolation, Rac13 is relatively highly-expressed and Rac9 less so in cotton fibers at 21 days post-anthesis (dpa), the age at which polyA+ mRNA was isolated for library construction.
  • [0070]
    [0070]FIG. 4 shows the DNA and deduced amino acid sequences for Rac13 full length. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequence of Rac13 with other small G-proteins showed that the cotton Rac proteins are very closely related to the Rho1 protein sequence deduced from a cDNA clone isolated recently from pea (Yang and Watson, supra). After the pea Rho1, mammalian Rac proteins show the highest homology with the cotton Rac proteins. Other proteins of the rho subfamily, such as the yeast CDC42 and human RhoA, are also clearly related to the cotton Rac genes. By contrast, the other small G-proteins of the Rab/YPT subfamily isolated from plants such as the example shown of the tobacco RAB5 protein, as well as the human Ras proteins, are least homologous to the cotton Rac proteins of all the small G-proteins compared. The cotton and pea proteins, as well as the mammalian Racs, all have pI's above 9, whereas those of other rho and ras proteins are in the range of 5.0-6.5.
  • EXAMPLE 3 Expression of Cotton Fiber Genes in Developing Fibers
  • [0071]
    Expression of the Rac13 and 4-4 genes was assessed using mRNA prepared from various cotton tissues and from fibers at different stages of development. Blots were hybridized with probes derived from 3′-untranslated regions of either the Rac13 or 4-4 genes. The gene for Rac13 exhibits highly-enhanced expression in fibers; virtually no detectable mRNA is present in leaves, roots, or flower parts, even under conditions of extended development time. Rac13 expression is detected in seeds at an age that corresponds to the highest expression levels observed in fiber tissue derived from seeds of this same age. The pattern of Rac13 expression in fibers is very dependent upon the developmental stage. Expression is very low during the stage of primary wall synthesis (0-14 dpa, see Meinert and Delmer, 1977), reaches a maximum during the transition to secondary wall synthesis (about 15-18 dpa), and declining during the stage of maximal secondary wall cellulose synthesis (about 24-28 dpa). 4-4 mRNA is begins to accumulate in fiber cells only at day 17 post anthesis and continues through fiber maturity at day 35 post anthesis. Levels peak at day 21 and remain high throughout fiber maturation to 35 days post anthesis. 4-4 mRNA is not detected in other cotton tissues, and is not detected in fiber tissue before onset at 17 days post anthesis.
  • EXAMPLE 4 Genomic DNA
  • [0072]
    cDNA for both the 4-4 and Rac13 was used to probe for genomic clones. For both, full length genomic DNA was obtained from a library made using the lambda dash 2 vector from Stratagene™, which was used to construct a genomic DNA library from cotton variety Coker 130 (Gossypium hirsutum cv. coker 130), using DNA obtained from germinating seedlings.
  • EXAMPLE 5 Preparation of 4-4 Promoter Constructs
  • [0073]
    PCGN5606
  • [0074]
    The pCGN5606 promoter construct comprises the 4-4 cotton fiber expression cassette in a first version, version I (FIG. 2). The sequences from nt1 to 65 and nt 5,494 to 5,547 correspond to fragments of the pBluescriptII polylinker where this cassette is cloned. Unique restriction enzyme sites present in these regions flanking the cassette allow the cloning of the fiber expression cassette into binary vectors including the PCGN 5138 and 1547 series.
  • [0075]
    The sequences from nt57 to 5,494 are contained in a lambda phage clone of a cotton Coker 130 genomic library. This clone is described in my notebook as lambda genomic clone 4-4(6). P462003 page 18 and following.
  • [0076]
    The region from nt 65 to nt 4,163 corresponds to the 5′ flanking region of the 4-4(6) gene. At nt 4,163 there is a NcoI restriction site sequence that corresponds to the first codon of the 4-4 (6)ORF.
  • [0077]
    The region from nucleotide 4,163 to 4,502 corresponds to part of the 4-4 (6)ORF. The sequence from nt 4,502 to 4,555 is a synthetic polylinker oligonucleotide that contains unique target sites for the restriction enzymes EcoRI, SmaI, SalI, NheI and Bg1II. This fragment from nt4,163 to 4,555 is a stuffer fragment and is left in place to facilitate the monitoring of cloning manipulations.
  • [0078]
    The genes to be expressed in cotton fiber cells using this cassette can be cloned between the NcoI restriction site and any of the polylinker sites. This operation will replace the stuffer fragment with the gene of interest. The region from nt 4,555 to 5,494 corresponds to the 940 nucleotides downstream of the stop codon and constitute the 3′ flanking region of the 4-4 (6) gene. There is a unique AscI restriction enzyme site at nt 5483.
  • [0079]
    pCGN5610
  • [0080]
    The pCGN5610 construct is a second version of a 4-4 cotton fiber expression cassette, version II, which is a modified version of pCGN5606. The two versions of the 4-4 cotton fiber expression cassette are designed to allow the cloning of tandem arrays of two fiber cassettes in one binary plasmid. The differences with respect to pCGN5606 are very minor and described below.
  • [0081]
    The XbaI restriction site in the region of nt 1 to 65 has been deleted by standard cloning manipulations. The polylinker region is in the reverse orientation of pCGN5606. There is a unique XbaI restriction enzyme site at nt5484. The sequences from nt1 to 57 and nt 5,494 to 5,518 of pCGN5610 correspond to fragments of the pBluescriptII polylinker where this cassette is cloned. Unique restriction enzyme sites present in these regions allow the cloning of the fiber expression cassette into binary vectors of the pCGN 5138 and 1547 series.
  • [0082]
    The sequences from nt57 to 5,494 are contained a lambda phage clone of a Coker 130 genomic library. This clone is described in my notebook as lambda genomic clone 4-4(6). The region from nt 57 to nt 4,155 corresponds to the 5′ flanking region. At nt 4,155 there is a NcoI restriction site sequence that corresponds to the first codon of the 4-4 ORF. The region from nucleotide 4,156 to 4,500 corresponds to part of the 4-4 ORF. This fragment from nt 4,156 to 4,550 is a stuffer fragment and is left in place to facilitate the monitoring of cloning manipulations. The sequence from nt 4,500 to 4,550 is a synthetic polylinker oligonucleotide containing unique target sites for the restriction enzymes Bg1II, NheI, SalI, SmaI and EcoRI.
  • [0083]
    The genes to be expressed in cotton fiber cells using this cassette can be cloned between the NcoI restriction site and any of the polylinker sites. This operation will replace the stuffer fragment with the gene of interest. The region from nt 4,550 to 5,494 corresponds to the 940 nucleotides downstream of the stop codon and constitute the 3′ flanking region of the 4-4 (6) gene.
  • EXAMPLE 6 Preparation of Rac13 Promoter Constructs
  • [0084]
    Genomic Clone
  • [0085]
    From a genomic clone designated 15-1, mapping was done with restriction endonucleases. The largest fragment with the Rac13 coding region was identified. Theis was a Pst fragment, and when subcloned in the Bluescript™ KS+ vector (BSKS+; Stratagene) was named pCGN4722. The insert had a length of 9.2 kb.
  • [0086]
    The region of the Pst fragment with the Rac13 coding sequence was identified. DNA sequence was determined for approximately 1.7 kb 5′ of the start codon and approximately 1.2 kb 3′ of the stop codon. The entire Rac coding region (exons and introns) was conveniently flanked by Nde1 sites.
  • [0087]
    pCGN4722 was digested with Xba1, and a 2.7 kb fragment was removed. Religation gave pCGN4730, which was then digested with Nde1, dropping out a 1.7 kb fragment containing the entire Rac coding region. Religation yielded pCGN4731.
  • [0088]
    A polylinker region was created using overlapping synthetic oligonucleotides which were PCR'ed using primers homologous to the 5′ and 3′ ends of the resynthesized section. The resulting product was digested with EcooR1 and Hind III and ligated into BSKS+ at eht EcoR1 and Hind III sites. The resulting plasmid was designated pCGN4733.
  • [0089]
    pCGN4731 and pCGN4633 were digested with Nde! and the Nde1 fragment containing the synthesized polylinker region from pCGN4733 was dropped in the Nde1 site of 4731, giveing pCGN4734. This last plasmid was digested with Sal and Xba, ans so was pCGN5133. pCGN5133 was the 9.2 kb pst fragment in BSKS+ where the polylinker sites flanking the insert were altered to different sites for ease of manipulation. The fragment from 4734 was then placed into the equivalent site of pCGN5143, giving pCGN4735.
  • [0090]
    A sequence for approximately 3 kb of the promoter construct pCGN4735 is provided in FIG. 5. The resynthesized sequence falls between the Nde1 sites located at bases 1706 and 1898 of the sequences. Thus, the sequence in FIG. 5 includes approximately 1.7 kb 5′ to the Nde1 site 5′ to the resynthesized polylinker region. There is a roughly 2.5 kb sequence 5′ from this sequence which is not provided in FIG. 5, relative to the total 9.2 kb insert. The sequence of FIG. 5 also includes approximately 1.1 kb 3′ to the 3′ Nde1 site. Approximately 3 kb which is most 3′ in the Rac13 insert is not provided in FIG. 5. A map for pCGN4735 is provided in FIG. 6.
  • EXAMPLE 7 Constructs for Pigment Synthesis Genes
  • [0091]
    Constructs which contain encoding sequences for plant or bacterial genes involved in biosynthesis of pigmented compounds, as well as sequences for directing transport of the encoded proteins into plastids or vacuoles are described in copending U.S. patent application to McBride et al., entitled “Use of Ovary Tissue Transcriptional Factors”, Ser. No. 08/480,178 filed on Jun. 7, 1995, the teachings of which are incorporated herein by reference. The targetting sequences are manipulated to be present on an NcoI/EcoRI fragment and may easily introduced into the 4-4 and rac transcriptional initiation regions for providing transcription in cotton fibers.
  • EXAMPLE 8 Cotton Transformation
  • [0092]
    Explant Preparation
  • [0093]
    Coker 315 seeds are surface disinfected by placing in 50% Clorox (2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution) for 20 minutes and rinsing 3 times in sterile distilled water. Following surface sterilization, seeds are germinated in 25×150 sterile tubes containing 25 mls ½×MS salts: ½×B5 vitamins: 1.5% glucose: 0.3% gelrite. Seedlings are germinated in the dark at 28° C. for 7 days. On the seventh day seedlings are placed in the light at 28±2° C.
  • [0094]
    Cocultivation and Plant Regeneration
  • [0095]
    Single colonies of A. Lumefaciens strain 2760 containing binary plasmids pCGN2917 and pCGN2926 are transferred to 5 ml of MG/L broth and grown overnight at 30° C. Bacteria cultures are diluted to 1×108 cells/ml with MG/L just prior to cocultivation. Hypocotyls are excised from eight day old seedlings, cut into 0.5-0.7 cm sections and placed onto tobacco feeder plates (Horsch et al. 1985). Feeder plates are prepared one day before use by plating 1.0 ml tobacco suspension culture onto a petri plate containing Callus Initiation Medium CIM without antibiotics (MS salts: B5 vitamins: 3% glucose: 0.1 mg/L 2,4-D: 0.1 mg/L kinetin: 0.3% gelrite, pH adjusted to 5.8 prior to autoclaving). A sterile filter paper disc (Whatman #1) was placed on top of the feeder cells prior to use. After all sections are prepared, each section was dipped into an A. tumefaciens culture, blotted on sterile paper towels and returned to the tobacco feeder plates.
  • [0096]
    Following two days of cocultivation on the feeder plates, hypocotyl sections are placed on fresh Callus Initiation Medium containing 75 mg/L kanamycin and 500 mg/L carbenicillin. Tissue was incubated at 28±2° C., 30 uE 16:8 light:dark period for 4 weeks. At four weeks the entire explant was transferred to fresh callus initiation medium containing antibiotics. After two weeks on the second pass, the callus was removed from the explants and split between Callus Initiation Medium and Regeneration Medium (MS salts: 40 mM KNO3: 10 mM NH4Cl:B5 vitamins:3% glucose:0.3% gelrite:400 mg/L carb:75 mg/L kanamycin).
  • [0097]
    Embryogenic callus was identified 2-6 months following initiation and was subcultured onto fresh regeneration medium. Embryos are selected for germination, placed in static liquid Embryo Pulsing Medium (Stewart and Hsu medium: 0.01 mg/l NAA: 0.01 mg/L kinetin: 0.2 mg/L GA3) and incubated overnight at 30° C. The embryos are blotted on paper towels and placed into Magenta boxes containing 40 mls of Stewart and Hsu medium solidified with Gelrite. Germinating embryos are maintained at 28±2° C. 50 uE m−2s−1 16:8 photoperiod. Rooted plantlets are transferred to soil and established in the greenhouse.
  • [0098]
    Cotton growth conditions in growth chambers are as follows: 16 hour photoperiod, temperature of approximately 80-85°, light intensity of approximately 500 μEinsteins. Cotton growth conditions in greenhouses are as follows: 14-16 hour photoperiod with light intensity of at least 400 82 Einsteins, day temperature 90-95° F., night temperature 70-75° F., relative humidity to approximately 80%.
  • [0099]
    Plant Analysis
  • [0100]
    Flowers from greenhouse grown Tl plants are tagged at anthesis in the greenhouse. Squares (cotton flower buds), flowers, bolls etc. are harvested from these plants at various stages of development and assayed for enzyme activity. GUS fluorometric and histochemical assays are performed on hand cut sections as described in co-pending application filed for Martineau et al., supra. For fiber color characteristics, plants are visually inspected, or northern or western analysis can be performed, if necessary.
  • [0101]
    As shown by the above results, expression of a gene of interest can be obtained in cells derived from fiber cells, including tomato fiber and cotton fibers, and expression of genes involved in synthesis of pigments combined with appropriate targeting sequences results in modification of color phenotype in the selected plant tissue.
  • [0102]
    All publications and patent applications cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication or patent application are specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.
  • [0103]
    Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail, by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity and understanding, it will be readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that certain changes and modifications may be made thereto, without departing from the spirit or scope of the appended claims.
  • 1 18 1 967 DNA Gossypium Hirsutum 1 ctttctattt ggttaaccat ggctcataac tttcgtcatc ctttcttcct tttccaactt 60 ttactcatta ctgtctcact aatgatcggt agccacaccg tctcgtcagc ggctcgacat 120 ttattccaca cacaaacaac ctcatcagag ctgccacaat tggcttcaaa atacgaaaag 180 cacgaagagt ctgaatacaa acagccaaaa tatcatgaag agtacccaaa acatgagaag 240 cctgaaatgt acaaggagga aaaacaaaaa ccctgcaaac atcatgaaga gtaccacgag 300 tcacgcgaat cgaaggagca cgaagagtac gataaagaaa aacccgattt ccccaaatgg 360 gaaaagccta aagagcacga gaaacacgaa gtcgaatatc cgaaaatacc cgagtacaag 420 gacaaacaag atgagaataa gaaacataaa gatgaagagt gccaggagtc acacgaatcg 480 aaagagcacg aagagtacga gaaagaaaaa cccgatttcc ccaaatggga aaagcctaaa 540 gggcacgaga aacataaagc cgaatatccg aaaatacctg agtgcaagga aaaactagat 600 gaggataagg aacataaaca tgagttccca aagcatgaaa aagaagagga gaagaaacct 660 gagaaaggca tagtaccctg agtgggttaa aatgcctgaa tggccgaagt ccatgtttac 720 tcagtctggc tcgagcacta agccttaagc catatgacac tggtgcatgt gccatcatca 780 tgcagtaatt tcatgggata ttgtaattat attgttaata aaaaagatgg tgagtgggaa 840 atgtgtgtgt gcattcatcc atgagcaatg ctgaatctct ttgcatgcat agagattctg 900 aatggttata gtttatgtta tatcgtttgt tctagtgaaa ttaattttga atgttgtatg 960 taatgtt 967 2 967 DNA Gossypium Hirsutum CDS (1)..(966) 2 ctt tct att tgg tta acc atg gct cat aac ttt cgt cat cct ttc ttc 48 Leu Ser Ile Trp Leu Thr Met Ala His Asn Phe Arg His Pro Phe Phe 1 5 10 15 ctt ttc caa ctt tta ctc att act gtc tca cta atg atc ggt agc cac 96 Leu Phe Gln Leu Leu Leu Ile Thr Val Ser Leu Met Ile Gly Ser His 20 25 30 acc gtc tcg tca gcg gct cga cat tta ttc cac aca caa aca acc tca 144 Thr Val Ser Ser Ala Ala Arg His Leu Phe His Thr Gln Thr Thr Ser 35 40 45 tca gag ctg cca caa ttg gct tca aaa tac gaa aag cac gaa gag tct 192 Ser Glu Leu Pro Gln Leu Ala Ser Lys Tyr Glu Lys His Glu Glu Ser 50 55 60 gaa tac aaa cag cca aaa tat cat gaa gag tac cca aaa cat gag aag 240 Glu Tyr Lys Gln Pro Lys Tyr His Glu Glu Tyr Pro Lys His Glu Lys 65 70 75 80 cct gaa atg tac aag gag gaa aaa caa aaa ccc tgc aaa cat cat gaa 288 Pro Glu Met Tyr Lys Glu Glu Lys Gln Lys Pro Cys Lys His His Glu 85 90 95 gag tac cac gag tca cgc gaa tcg aag gag cac gaa gag tac gat aaa 336 Glu Tyr His Glu Ser Arg Glu Ser Lys Glu His Glu Glu Tyr Asp Lys 100 105 110 gaa aaa ccc gat ttc ccc aaa tgg gaa aag cct aaa gag cac gag aaa 384 Glu Lys Pro Asp Phe Pro Lys Trp Glu Lys Pro Lys Glu His Glu Lys 115 120 125 cac gaa gtc gaa tat ccg aaa ata ccc gag tac aag gac aaa caa gat 432 His Glu Val Glu Tyr Pro Lys Ile Pro Glu Tyr Lys Asp Lys Gln Asp 130 135 140 gag aat aag aaa cat aaa gat gaa gag tgc cag gag tca cac gaa tcg 480 Glu Asn Lys Lys His Lys Asp Glu Glu Cys Gln Glu Ser His Glu Ser 145 150 155 160 aaa gag cac gaa gag tac gag aaa gaa aaa ccc gat ttc ccc aaa tgg 528 Lys Glu His Glu Glu Tyr Glu Lys Glu Lys Pro Asp Phe Pro Lys Trp 165 170 175 gaa aag cct aaa ggg cac gag aaa cat aaa gcc gaa tat ccg aaa ata 576 Glu Lys Pro Lys Gly His Glu Lys His Lys Ala Glu Tyr Pro Lys Ile 180 185 190 cct gag tgc aag gaa aaa cta gat gag gat aag gaa cat aaa cat gag 624 Pro Glu Cys Lys Glu Lys Leu Asp Glu Asp Lys Glu His Lys His Glu 195 200 205 ttc cca aag cat gaa aaa gaa gag gag aag aaa cct gag aaa ggc ata 672 Phe Pro Lys His Glu Lys Glu Glu Glu Lys Lys Pro Glu Lys Gly Ile 210 215 220 gta ccc tga gtg ggt taa aat gcc tga atg gcc gaa gtc cat gtt tac 720 Val Pro Val Gly Asn Ala Met Ala Glu Val His Val Tyr 225 230 235 240 tca gtc tgg ctc gag cac taa gcc tta agc cat atg aca ctg gtg cat 768 Ser Val Trp Leu Glu His Ala Leu Ser His Met Thr Leu Val His 245 250 255 gtg cca tca tca tgc agt aat ttc atg gga tat tgt aat tat att gtt 816 Val Pro Ser Ser Cys Ser Asn Phe Met Gly Tyr Cys Asn Tyr Ile Val 260 265 270 aat aaa aaa gat ggt gag tgg gaa atg tgt gtg tgc att cat cca tga 864 Asn Lys Lys Asp Gly Glu Trp Glu Met Cys Val Cys Ile His Pro 275 280 285 gca atg ctg aat ctc ttt gca tgc ata gag att ctg aat ggt tat agt 912 Ala Met Leu Asn Leu Phe Ala Cys Ile Glu Ile Leu Asn Gly Tyr Ser 290 295 300 tta tgt tat atc gtt tgt tct agt gaa att aat ttt gaa tgt tgt atg 960 Leu Cys Tyr Ile Val Cys Ser Ser Glu Ile Asn Phe Glu Cys Cys Met 305 310 315 320 taa tgt t 967 Cys 3 226 PRT Gossypium Hirsutum 3 Leu Ser Ile Trp Leu Thr Met Ala His Asn Phe Arg His Pro Phe Phe 1 5 10 15 Leu Phe Gln Leu Leu Leu Ile Thr Val Ser Leu Met Ile Gly Ser His 20 25 30 Thr Val Ser Ser Ala Ala Arg His Leu Phe His Thr Gln Thr Thr Ser 35 40 45 Ser Glu Leu Pro Gln Leu Ala Ser Lys Tyr Glu Lys His Glu Glu Ser 50 55 60 Glu Tyr Lys Gln Pro Lys Tyr His Glu Glu Tyr Pro Lys His Glu Lys 65 70 75 80 Pro Glu Met Tyr Lys Glu Glu Lys Gln Lys Pro Cys Lys His His Glu 85 90 95 Glu Tyr His Glu Ser Arg Glu Ser Lys Glu His Glu Glu Tyr Asp Lys 100 105 110 Glu Lys Pro Asp Phe Pro Lys Trp Glu Lys Pro Lys Glu His Glu Lys 115 120 125 His Glu Val Glu Tyr Pro Lys Ile Pro Glu Tyr Lys Asp Lys Gln Asp 130 135 140 Glu Asn Lys Lys His Lys Asp Glu Glu Cys Gln Glu Ser His Glu Ser 145 150 155 160 Lys Glu His Glu Glu Tyr Glu Lys Glu Lys Pro Asp Phe Pro Lys Trp 165 170 175 Glu Lys Pro Lys Gly His Glu Lys His Lys Ala Glu Tyr Pro Lys Ile 180 185 190 Pro Glu Cys Lys Glu Lys Leu Asp Glu Asp Lys Glu His Lys His Glu 195 200 205 Phe Pro Lys His Glu Lys Glu Glu Glu Lys Lys Pro Glu Lys Gly Ile 210 215 220 Val Pro 225 4 13 PRT Gossypium Hirsutum 4 Met Ala Glu Val His Val Tyr Ser Val Trp Leu Glu His 1 5 10 5 40 PRT Gossypium Hirsutum 5 Ala Leu Ser His Met Thr Leu Val His Val Pro Ser Ser Cys Ser Asn 1 5 10 15 Phe Met Gly Tyr Cys Asn Tyr Ile Val Asn Lys Lys Asp Gly Glu Trp 20 25 30 Glu Met Cys Val Cys Ile His Pro 35 40 6 32 PRT Gossypium Hirsutum 6 Ala Met Leu Asn Leu Phe Ala Cys Ile Glu Ile Leu Asn Gly Tyr Ser 1 5 10 15 Leu Cys Tyr Ile Val Cys Ser Ser Glu Ile Asn Phe Glu Cys Cys Met 20 25 30 7 5547 DNA Gossypium Hirsutum 7 actaaaggga acaaaagctg gagctccacc gcggtggcgg ccgctctaga actagtggat 60 cccccgtgga ctaaacaaaa catgggaaga tttgctgtaa aaaaataaaa gaagcttact 120 caataacact ttgtgaattg tatacaaaag actcaatgaa aaacaataac tcaatacact 180 ttttttcact gatttacatc ctttatatag gctgaaacta caacaacttt agctaaaaaa 240 ataggataac ctaatagcaa aatcacaatc agatattaaa ccatgatttt agctaaccat 300 ttaacaactt tattgaaact aatttgaata tttcatctgc tgatatgccc aagattttag 360 gccactaacc gatttggtgg tgaactttaa catgtcatgc atttgtaact gtttgaaaca 420 agttttttgc attattttac tatatgaact gtttgattag gttgagttac acactgagct 480 tgtaagctca ctcaaatttt tctaatttct aaggtgatca gcaaacttag gaccgggcgg 540 cgtacgagag ctcggattga ttttctagtt aataaataag acgatttatg tttttaaact 600 attatggact ttttggacta tgtaactgtt tgggacttta tttttgtttt ttatttgctt 660 tttttggatt tagtaattat tatttttaaa ctgcaaaatt atatgttttt acaaactaag 720 tcacagtttt caaaattcca taacttagaa tttttcgctg caaaataaag taatcattta 780 agtgtttttt ctgtaataaa ataaataaat aattttaacg agtattttcc taaaaattgg 840 aaattgattt accaaaatta gtatgtcaaa acacatgttt atatgttaca gggcgatatc 900 gtctaggcaa ataacatcta ggcggggttt ggagtgttac agggcgagtg ggctcatttt 960 gagtaagtat agttagggcc gagttttaga ttgcatattc aaggtcaaag attttgtaaa 1020 cttcgatgaa tgatatgtat gattgtccga ttaacgaaat atgttttttt cttttgtgtg 1080 tgttttatct cgtgtgataa gtatatagta tgttttattc caattcttat ggcatgtgac 1140 attgtggcta ttctaattaa attgatttgt tattattgaa atctgatgca tctgttctac 1200 aaagcatgga atctcatgcc tactgctttc tgttaaagat acgattgcaa gtttaacatg 1260 cttactattt tgattttgtc cttgcatgct atgtcacatt acatggggtt gggatgatat 1320 ggtaaggagg aagttttgac agtttaatga tttgcactat ctggtggttt aaccacatat 1380 ttgttatggc atcttgactg cggttatggt ggctcgaccg cccatatctg ttctggaaat 1440 ttatctgtga ctctggtggc attgtctaca attatttgtt ggtgtgtttt ggatggacga 1500 gtcgtgggga actctatttg gtgtgttgcg gagttgggta ggaaattttc gaaaaaaatt 1560 tgcattgtgt ttttctgaaa aatattgcat taacataatc atgcattctc aattttggtc 1620 aattgaacgt tataaaattc tctatgatat cctgatctgt ttattacatt atatgtgttt 1680 atgcttgagt taagtcaaac attgagattc atagctcacc caattattta atcatttcag 1740 gcaatctgca gacttaggat tggatggcgt tcaggagctt ggattggttt tctcacatca 1800 tattttatta aataattatt aattaaaatt tatggacttt tggactgtct gactaatttt 1860 cagaatttta ttttggtttt gggttttgtt gaatttttta gataattatt ttaaatattc 1920 tgcataattt ttctgttatt tgaaaaggat gttcgaattt tttttcaaaa ttgaaacgtt 1980 taagaatttt tactactgca aattcagaat aagtgaattt gttttttaga aagattaaat 2040 aagttagtat tacgattttt agtttgattt ggtggaaagt aatgtatgtt tttgaacata 2100 attatttgac aataattaag ttttctaggg aataaacgga aatatcttct tcttttttgt 2160 aaaattacta atgcaagaac aaacaacgtt ttggggagca aataatctag ctttaagtag 2220 tcagtgtaac tctcaaaatc tggtcataac ttctaggctg agtttgctgt gctacagtag 2280 taagtctata gaaacttacc tgacaaaacg acatgacgtc agggtcgaat ctacaacttt 2340 tcctttttct tcaattaaca tatggttgat tcaagttccg atctataata atttattacg 2400 atttatcaat ttcaattacc ttatatcatc ctattataaa tataagtcag ttcaattcag 2460 ttttcgaaag ttcccaaaaa ttttgaattt tattaaattt attccctaaa accgaaatag 2520 ttatatcttt caaatttaag tttcattttt caatccgatt tcaatttcat ccttttataa 2580 ctctctatta tctataatta cataaatttc aaattaattt tgaaatattt acactttagt 2640 ccctaagttc aaaactataa attttcactt tagaaattaa tcatttttca catctaagca 2700 tcaaatttaa ccaaatgaca caaatttcat gattagttag atcaagcttt tgagtcttca 2760 aaacataaaa attacaaaaa aaaaacaaac ttaaaatcat ttatcaattt gaacaacaaa 2820 gcttggccga atgctaagag cttaaaaatg gcttcttttg tttctttttg ttgcaaacgg 2880 tggagagaag agggaaatga agattgacca tattttttta ttatgtttta acatataata 2940 ttaataattt aatcataatt atactttggt gaatgtgaca gtggggagat acgtaaagta 3000 ttttaacatt atactttttg caagcagttg gctggtctac ccaagagtga tcaaagtttg 3060 agctgccttc aatgagccaa tttttgccca taatggataa aggcaatttg tttagttcaa 3120 ctgctcacag aataatgtta aaatgaaatt aaaataaggt ggcctggtca cacacacaaa 3180 aaaaaactaa tgttggttgg ttgaatttta tattacggaa tgtaatatta tattttaaaa 3240 taaaattatg ttatttagat tcttaatatt ttggagcatt ccatactata atttcgtaac 3300 ataatattaa aatatagtaa tataaagtgt aattaacttt aaattacaag cataatatta 3360 aattttgaat caattaattt ttatttctat tattttaatt aatttagtct attttttcaa 3420 aataaaattt aaatctaaat aaaaataatt tttccttaat gttgaaacaa ctcatgttat 3480 acttcaaaat tataagtatt atatttacct tgatgattta tttattagta tattaattct 3540 gattataatt atggtgggat acaatcgctt tccactaaat attttaacta tgatttataa 3600 atttatttca acatcgtata tttacttatt aatacataat ttatcataat tttatggaaa 3660 ttgagaccaa gaaacattaa gagaacaaat tctataacaa agacaattta gaaaaaaatg 3720 tacttttagg taattttaag tactcttaac caaacacaaa aattcaaatc aaatgaacta 3780 aataagataa tataacatac ggaacatctt acttgtaatc ttacattccc ataattttat 3840 tatgaaaaat aatcttatat tactcgaact aaatgttgtc acaaattatt atctaaataa 3900 agaaaaacac ttaattttta taacattttt tcatatattt gaaagattat attttgtata 3960 tttacgtaaa aatatttgac atagattgag caccttctta acataatccc accataagtc 4020 aagtatgtag atgagaaatt ggtacaaaca acgtggggcc aaatcccacc aaaccatctc 4080 tcattctctc ctataaaagg cttgctacac atagacaaca atccacacac aaatacacgt 4140 tcttttcttt ctatttgatt aaccatggct catagcattc gtcacccttt cttccttttc 4200 caacttttac tcataagtgt ctcactagtg accggtagcc acactgtttc ggcagcggct 4260 cgacgtttat tcgagacaca agcaacctca tcagagctcc cacaattggc ttcaaaatac 4320 gaaagcacga gagtctgaat acgaaaagcc agaatacaaa cagccaaagt atcacgaaga 4380 gtactcaaaa cttgagaagc ctgaaatgca aaaggaggaa aaacaaaaac cctgcaaaca 4440 gcatgaagag taccacgagt cacacgaatc aaaggagcaa aaagagtacg agaaagaaaa 4500 tctcgacgaa ttcccccggg cgtcgacggc tagcgaagat cttcgggccc gtcgagcctt 4560 gaatcatatg acactggtgc atgtgccatc atcatgcagt aatttcatgg tatatcgtaa 4620 tatatagtta ataaaaaaga tggtgattgg gaaatgtgtg tgtgcattcc tccatgcact 4680 aatggtgaat ctctttgcat acatagaaat tctaaatggt tatagtttat gttatagtgt 4740 atgttgtagt gaaattaatt ttaaatgttg tatctaatgt taacatcact tggcttgatt 4800 tatgttatgt tatgtatttt actttaatga tattgcatgt attgttaatt taacattgct 4860 tgatcattat actcttctac tattaattat aaatggcact gttttgttta aactttttac 4920 aagttaagac atgtataaat atatgacaat ataattacag gttttagttc aatgttagct 4980 atcttagtat gttattgatg atcttaatta catttaaaca aattccactt aaaattttaa 5040 taaataataa caaataatta ttgtaatata atacattaaa tgcaacaaaa aatgaaataa 5100 ataaaataaa atagcaaata attgttataa tattgtaata taatatgtac catattctta 5160 actgaaatag ggtctaacct ataatcccta aaatttcagt ttaaatattt ttatacctac 5220 catattatta gaactctttt taaatatatt aaaattttaa ttataccaat ttaattaaac 5280 tattaattat cttaactaaa atctaaaatt ttatttaacc tattaataaa ttcctaatta 5340 tcttatctaa tttaaaactc taattatcct aatttaattt aaattcttaa ttatcttaat 5400 ttgtaacctc ctccacccag ctagatgctg gacccgaatc cgggagatta catcggccat 5460 tgagatggcg tgatcagggt ttggcgcgcc ggtacccaat tcgccctata gtgagttcgt 5520 attacgcgcg ctcactgcgt ccggttt 5547 8 5547 DNA Gossypium Hirsutum CDS (4164)..(4502) 8 actaaaggga acaaaagctg gagctccacc gcggtggcgg ccgctctaga actagtggat 60 cccccgtgga ctaaacaaaa catgggaaga tttgctgtaa aaaaataaaa gaagcttact 120 caataacact ttgtgaattg tatacaaaag actcaatgaa aaacaataac tcaatacact 180 ttttttcact gatttacatc ctttatatag gctgaaacta caacaacttt agctaaaaaa 240 ataggataac ctaatagcaa aatcacaatc agatattaaa ccatgatttt agctaaccat 300 ttaacaactt tattgaaact aatttgaata tttcatctgc tgatatgccc aagattttag 360 gccactaacc gatttggtgg tgaactttaa catgtcatgc atttgtaact gtttgaaaca 420 agttttttgc attattttac tatatgaact gtttgattag gttgagttac acactgagct 480 tgtaagctca ctcaaatttt tctaatttct aaggtgatca gcaaacttag gaccgggcgg 540 cgtacgagag ctcggattga ttttctagtt aataaataag acgatttatg tttttaaact 600 attatggact ttttggacta tgtaactgtt tgggacttta tttttgtttt ttatttgctt 660 tttttggatt tagtaattat tatttttaaa ctgcaaaatt atatgttttt acaaactaag 720 tcacagtttt caaaattcca taacttagaa tttttcgctg caaaataaag taatcattta 780 agtgtttttt ctgtaataaa ataaataaat aattttaacg agtattttcc taaaaattgg 840 aaattgattt accaaaatta gtatgtcaaa acacatgttt atatgttaca gggcgatatc 900 gtctaggcaa ataacatcta ggcggggttt ggagtgttac agggcgagtg ggctcatttt 960 gagtaagtat agttagggcc gagttttaga ttgcatattc aaggtcaaag attttgtaaa 1020 cttcgatgaa tgatatgtat gattgtccga ttaacgaaat atgttttttt cttttgtgtg 1080 tgttttatct cgtgtgataa gtatatagta tgttttattc caattcttat ggcatgtgac 1140 attgtggcta ttctaattaa attgatttgt tattattgaa atctgatgca tctgttctac 1200 aaagcatgga atctcatgcc tactgctttc tgttaaagat acgattgcaa gtttaacatg 1260 cttactattt tgattttgtc cttgcatgct atgtcacatt acatggggtt gggatgatat 1320 ggtaaggagg aagttttgac agtttaatga tttgcactat ctggtggttt aaccacatat 1380 ttgttatggc atcttgactg cggttatggt ggctcgaccg cccatatctg ttctggaaat 1440 ttatctgtga ctctggtggc attgtctaca attatttgtt ggtgtgtttt ggatggacga 1500 gtcgtgggga actctatttg gtgtgttgcg gagttgggta ggaaattttc gaaaaaaatt 1560 tgcattgtgt ttttctgaaa aatattgcat taacataatc atgcattctc aattttggtc 1620 aattgaacgt tataaaattc tctatgatat cctgatctgt ttattacatt atatgtgttt 1680 atgcttgagt taagtcaaac attgagattc atagctcacc caattattta atcatttcag 1740 gcaatctgca gacttaggat tggatggcgt tcaggagctt ggattggttt tctcacatca 1800 tattttatta aataattatt aattaaaatt tatggacttt tggactgtct gactaatttt 1860 cagaatttta ttttggtttt gggttttgtt gaatttttta gataattatt ttaaatattc 1920 tgcataattt ttctgttatt tgaaaaggat gttcgaattt tttttcaaaa ttgaaacgtt 1980 taagaatttt tactactgca aattcagaat aagtgaattt gttttttaga aagattaaat 2040 aagttagtat tacgattttt agtttgattt ggtggaaagt aatgtatgtt tttgaacata 2100 attatttgac aataattaag ttttctaggg aataaacgga aatatcttct tcttttttgt 2160 aaaattacta atgcaagaac aaacaacgtt ttggggagca aataatctag ctttaagtag 2220 tcagtgtaac tctcaaaatc tggtcataac ttctaggctg agtttgctgt gctacagtag 2280 taagtctata gaaacttacc tgacaaaacg acatgacgtc agggtcgaat ctacaacttt 2340 tcctttttct tcaattaaca tatggttgat tcaagttccg atctataata atttattacg 2400 atttatcaat ttcaattacc ttatatcatc ctattataaa tataagtcag ttcaattcag 2460 ttttcgaaag ttcccaaaaa ttttgaattt tattaaattt attccctaaa accgaaatag 2520 ttatatcttt caaatttaag tttcattttt caatccgatt tcaatttcat ccttttataa 2580 ctctctatta tctataatta cataaatttc aaattaattt tgaaatattt acactttagt 2640 ccctaagttc aaaactataa attttcactt tagaaattaa tcatttttca catctaagca 2700 tcaaatttaa ccaaatgaca caaatttcat gattagttag atcaagcttt tgagtcttca 2760 aaacataaaa attacaaaaa aaaaacaaac ttaaaatcat ttatcaattt gaacaacaaa 2820 gcttggccga atgctaagag cttaaaaatg gcttcttttg tttctttttg ttgcaaacgg 2880 tggagagaag agggaaatga agattgacca tattttttta ttatgtttta acatataata 2940 ttaataattt aatcataatt atactttggt gaatgtgaca gtggggagat acgtaaagta 3000 ttttaacatt atactttttg caagcagttg gctggtctac ccaagagtga tcaaagtttg 3060 agctgccttc aatgagccaa tttttgccca taatggataa aggcaatttg tttagttcaa 3120 ctgctcacag aataatgtta aaatgaaatt aaaataaggt ggcctggtca cacacacaaa 3180 aaaaaactaa tgttggttgg ttgaatttta tattacggaa tgtaatatta tattttaaaa 3240 taaaattatg ttatttagat tcttaatatt ttggagcatt ccatactata atttcgtaac 3300 ataatattaa aatatagtaa tataaagtgt aattaacttt aaattacaag cataatatta 3360 aattttgaat caattaattt ttatttctat tattttaatt aatttagtct attttttcaa 3420 aataaaattt aaatctaaat aaaaataatt tttccttaat gttgaaacaa ctcatgttat 3480 acttcaaaat tataagtatt atatttacct tgatgattta tttattagta tattaattct 3540 gattataatt atggtgggat acaatcgctt tccactaaat attttaacta tgatttataa 3600 atttatttca acatcgtata tttacttatt aatacataat ttatcataat tttatggaaa 3660 ttgagaccaa gaaacattaa gagaacaaat tctataacaa agacaattta gaaaaaaatg 3720 tacttttagg taattttaag tactcttaac caaacacaaa aattcaaatc aaatgaacta 3780 aataagataa tataacatac ggaacatctt acttgtaatc ttacattccc ataattttat 3840 tatgaaaaat aatcttatat tactcgaact aaatgttgtc acaaattatt atctaaataa 3900 agaaaaacac ttaattttta taacattttt tcatatattt gaaagattat attttgtata 3960 tttacgtaaa aatatttgac atagattgag caccttctta acataatccc accataagtc 4020 aagtatgtag atgagaaatt ggtacaaaca acgtggggcc aaatcccacc aaaccatctc 4080 tcattctctc ctataaaagg cttgctacac atagacaaca atccacacac aaatacacgt 4140 tcttttcttt ctatttgatt aac cat ggc tca tag cat tcg tca ccc ttt ctt 4193 His Gly Ser His Ser Ser Pro Phe Leu 1 5 10 cct ttt cca act ttt act cat aag tgt ctc act agt gac cgg tag cca 4241 Pro Phe Pro Thr Phe Thr His Lys Cys Leu Thr Ser Asp Arg Pro 15 20 25 cac tgt ttc ggc agc ggc tcg acg ttt att cga gac aca agc aac ctc 4289 His Cys Phe Gly Ser Gly Ser Thr Phe Ile Arg Asp Thr Ser Asn Leu 30 35 40 atc aga gct ccc aca att ggc ttc aaa ata cga aag cac gag agt ctg 4337 Ile Arg Ala Pro Thr Ile Gly Phe Lys Ile Arg Lys His Glu Ser Leu 45 50 55 aat acg aaa agc cag aat aca aac agc caa agt atc acg aag agt act 4385 Asn Thr Lys Ser Gln Asn Thr Asn Ser Gln Ser Ile Thr Lys Ser Thr 60 65 70 caa aac ttg aga agc ctg aaa tgc aaa agg agg aaa aac aaa aac cct 4433 Gln Asn Leu Arg Ser Leu Lys Cys Lys Arg Arg Lys Asn Lys Asn Pro 75 80 85 90 gca aac agc atg aag agt acc acg agt cac acg aat caa agg agc aaa 4481 Ala Asn Ser Met Lys Ser Thr Thr Ser His Thr Asn Gln Arg Ser Lys 95 100 105 aag agt acg aga aag aaa atc tcgacgaatt cccccgggcg tcgacggcta 4532 Lys Ser Thr Arg Lys Lys Ile 110 gcgaagatct tcgggcccgt cgagccttga atcatatgac actggtgcat gtgccatcat 4592 catgcagtaa tttcatggta tatcgtaata tatagttaat aaaaaagatg gtgattggga 4652 aatgtgtgtg tgcattcctc catgcactaa tggtgaatct ctttgcatac atagaaattc 4712 taaatggtta tagtttatgt tatagtgtat gttgtagtga aattaatttt aaatgttgta 4772 tctaatgtta acatcacttg gcttgattta tgttatgtta tgtattttac tttaatgata 4832 ttgcatgtat tgttaattta acattgcttg atcattatac tcttctacta ttaattataa 4892 atggcactgt tttgtttaaa ctttttacaa gttaagacat gtataaatat atgacaatat 4952 aattacaggt tttagttcaa tgttagctat cttagtatgt tattgatgat cttaattaca 5012 tttaaacaaa ttccacttaa aattttaata aataataaca aataattatt gtaatataat 5072 acattaaatg caacaaaaaa tgaaataaat aaaataaaat agcaaataat tgttataata 5132 ttgtaatata atatgtacca tattcttaac tgaaataggg tctaacctat aatccctaaa 5192 atttcagttt aaatattttt atacctacca tattattaga actcttttta aatatattaa 5252 aattttaatt ataccaattt aattaaacta ttaattatct taactaaaat ctaaaatttt 5312 atttaaccta ttaataaatt cctaattatc ttatctaatt taaaactcta attatcctaa 5372 tttaatttaa attcttaatt atcttaattt gtaacctcct ccacccagct agatgctgga 5432 cccgaatccg ggagattaca tcggccattg agatggcgtg atcagggttt ggcgcgccgg 5492 tacccaattc gccctatagt gagttcgtat tacgcgcgct cactgcgtcc ggttt 5547 9 20 PRT Gossypium Hirsutum 9 His Ser Ser Pro Phe Leu Pro Phe Pro Thr Phe Thr His Lys Cys Leu 1 5 10 15 Thr Ser Asp Arg 20 10 88 PRT Gossypium Hirsutum 10 Pro His Cys Phe Gly Ser Gly Ser Thr Phe Ile Arg Asp Thr Ser Asn 1 5 10 15 Leu Ile Arg Ala Pro Thr Ile Gly Phe Lys Ile Arg Lys His Glu Ser 20 25 30 Leu Asn Thr Lys Ser Gln Asn Thr Asn Ser Gln Ser Ile Thr Lys Ser 35 40 45 Thr Gln Asn Leu Arg Ser Leu Lys Cys Lys Arg Arg Lys Asn Lys Asn 50 55 60 Pro Ala Asn Ser Met Lys Ser Thr Thr Ser His Thr Asn Gln Arg Ser 65 70 75 80 Lys Lys Ser Thr Arg Lys Lys Ile 85 11 5518 DNA Gossypium Hirsutum 11 actaaaggga acaaaagctg gagctccacc gcggtggcgg ccgctctagg atcccccgtg 60 gactaaacaa aacatgggaa gatttgctgt aaaaaaataa aagaagctta ctcaataaca 120 ctttgtgaat tgtatacaaa agactcaatg aaaaacaata actcaataca ctttttttca 180 ctgatttaca tcctttatat aggctgaaac tacaacaact ttagctaaaa aaataggata 240 acctaatagc aaaatcacaa tcagatatta aaccatgatt ttagctaacc atttaacaac 300 tttattgaaa ctaatttgaa tatttcatct gctgatatgc ccaagatttt aggccactaa 360 ccgatttggt ggtgaacttt aacatgtcat gcatttgtaa ctgtttgaaa caagtttttt 420 gcattatttt actatatgaa ctgtttgatt aggttgagtt acacactgag cttgtaagct 480 cactcaaatt tttctaattt ctaaggtgat cagcaaactt aggaccgggc ggcgtacgag 540 agctcggatt gattttctag ttaataaata agacgattta tgtttttaaa ctattatgga 600 ctttttggac tatgtaactg tttgggactt tatttttgtt ttttatttgc tttttttgga 660 tttagtaatt attattttta aactgcaaaa ttatatgttt ttacaaacta agtcacagtt 720 ttcaaaattc cataacttag aatttttcgc tgcaaaataa agtaatcatt taagtgtttt 780 ttctgtaata aaataaataa ataattttaa cgagtatttt cctaaaaatt ggaaattgat 840 ttaccaaaat tagtatgtca aaacacatgt ttatatgtta cagggcgata tcgtctaggc 900 aaataacatc taggcggggt ttggagtgtt acagggcgag tgggctcatt ttgagtaagt 960 atagttaggg ccgagtttta gattgcatat tcaaggtcaa agattttgta aacttcgatg 1020 aatgatatgt atgattgtcc gattaacgaa atatgttttt ttcttttgtg tgtgttttat 1080 ctcgtgtgat aagtatatag tatgttttat tccaattctt atggcatgtg acattgtggc 1140 tattctaatt aaattgattt gttattattg aaatctgatg catctgttct acaaagcatg 1200 gaatctcatg cctactgctt tctgttaaag atacgattgc aagtttaaca tgcttactat 1260 tttgattttg tccttgcatg ctatgtcaca ttacatgggg ttgggatgat atggtaagga 1320 ggaagttttg acagtttaat gatttgcact atctggtggt ttaaccacat atttgttatg 1380 gcatcttgac tgcggttatg gtggctcgac cgcccatatc tgttctggaa atttatctgt 1440 gactctggtg gcattgtcta caattatttg ttggtgtgtt ttggatggac gagtcgtggg 1500 gaactctatt tggtgtgttg cggagttggg taggaaattt tcgaaaaaaa tttgcattgt 1560 gtttttctga aaaatattgc attaacataa tcatgcattc tcaattttgg tcaattgaac 1620 gttataaaat tctctatgat atcctgatct gtttattaca ttatatgtgt ttatgcttga 1680 gttaagtcaa acattgagat tcatagctca cccaattatt taatcatttc aggcaatctg 1740 cagacttagg attggatggc gttcaggagc ttggattggt tttctcacat catattttat 1800 taaataatta ttaattaaaa tttatggact tttggactgt ctgactaatt ttcagaattt 1860 tattttggtt ttgggttttg ttgaattttt tagataatta ttttaaatat tctgcataat 1920 ttttctgtta tttgaaaagg atgttcgaat tttttttcaa aattgaaacg tttaagaatt 1980 tttactactg caaattcaga ataagtgaat ttgtttttta gaaagattaa ataagttagt 2040 attacgattt ttagtttgat ttggtggaaa gtaatgtatg tttttgaaca taattatttg 2100 acaataatta agttttctag ggaataaacg gaaatatctt cttctttttt gtaaaattac 2160 taatgcaaga acaaacaacg ttttggggag caaataatct agctttaagt agtcagtgta 2220 actctcaaaa tctggtcata acttctaggc tgagtttgct gtgctacagt agtaagtcta 2280 tagaaactta cctgacaaaa cgacatgacg tcagggtcga atctacaact tttccttttt 2340 cttcaattaa catatggttg attcaagttc cgatctataa taatttatta cgatttatca 2400 atttcaatta ccttatatca tcctattata aatataagtc agttcaattc agttttcgaa 2460 agttcccaaa aattttgaat tttattaaat ttattcccta aaaccgaaat agttatatct 2520 ttcaaattta agtttcattt ttcaatccga tttcaatttc atccttttat aactctctat 2580 tatctataat tacataaatt tcaaattaat tttgaaatat ttacacttta gtccctaagt 2640 tcaaaactat aaattttcac tttagaaatt aatcattttt cacatctaag catcaaattt 2700 aaccaaatga cacaaatttc atgattagtt agatcaagct tttgagtctt caaaacataa 2760 aaattacaaa aaaaaaacaa acttaaaatc atttatcaat ttgaacaaca aagcttggcc 2820 gaatgctaag agcttaaaaa tggcttcttt tgtttctttt tgttgcaaac ggtggagaga 2880 agagggaaat gaagattgac catatttttt tattatgttt taacatataa tattaataat 2940 ttaatcataa ttatactttg gtgaatgtga cagtggggag atacgtaaag tattttaaca 3000 ttatactttt tgcaagcagt tggctggtct acccaagagt gatcaaagtt tgagctgcct 3060 tcaatgagcc aatttttgcc cataatggat aaaggcaatt tgtttagttc aactgctcac 3120 agaataatgt taaaatgaaa ttaaaataag gtggcctggt cacacacaca aaaaaaaact 3180 aatgttggtt ggttgaattt tatattacgg aatgtaatat tatattttaa aataaaatta 3240 tgttatttag attcttaata ttttggagca ttccatacta taatttcgta acataatatt 3300 aaaatatagt aatataaagt gtaattaact ttaaattaca agcataatat taaattttga 3360 atcaattaat ttttatttct attattttaa ttaatttagt ctattttttc aaaataaaat 3420 ttaaatctaa ataaaaataa tttttcctta atgttgaaac aactcatgtt atacttcaaa 3480 attataagta ttatatttac cttgatgatt tatttattag tatattaatt ctgattataa 3540 ttatggtggg atacaatcgc tttccactaa atattttaac tatgatttat aaatttattt 3600 caacatcgta tatttactta ttaatacata atttatcata attttatgga aattgagacc 3660 aagaaacatt aagagaacaa attctataac aaagacaatt tagaaaaaaa tgtactttta 3720 ggtaatttta agtactctta accaaacaca aaaattcaaa tcaaatgaac taaataagat 3780 aatataacat acggaacatc ttacttgtaa tcttacattc ccataatttt attatgaaaa 3840 ataatcttat attactcgaa ctaaatgttg tcacaaatta ttatctaaat aaagaaaaac 3900 acttaatttt tataacattt tttcatatat ttgaaagatt atattttgta tatttacgta 3960 aaaatatttg acatagattg agcaccttct taacataatc ccaccataag tcaagtatgt 4020 agatgagaaa ttggtacaaa caacgtgggg ccaaatccca ccaaaccatc tctcattctc 4080 tcctataaaa ggcttgctac acatagacaa caatccacac acaaatacac gttcttttct 4140 ttctatttga ttaaccatgg ctcatagcat tcgtcaccct ttcttccttt tccaactttt 4200 actcataagt gtctcactag tgaccggtag ccacactgtt tcggcagcgg ctcgacgttt 4260 attcgagaca caagcaacct catcagagct cccacaattg gcttcaaaat acgaaaagca 4320 cgaagagtct gaatacgaaa agccagaata caaacagcca aagtatcacg aagagtactc 4380 aaaacttgag aagcctgaaa tgcaaaagga ggaaaaacaa aaaccctgca aacagcatga 4440 agagtaccac gagtcacacg aatcaaagga gcaaaaagag tacgagaaag aaaatctcga 4500 cgggcccgaa gatcttcgct agccgtcgac gcccggggga attcgtcgag ccttgaatca 4560 tatgacgctg gtgcatgtgc catcatcatg cagtaatttc atggtatatc gtaatatata 4620 gttaataaaa aagatggtga ttgggaaatg tgtgtgtgca ttcctccatg cactaatggt 4680 gaatctcttt gcatacatag aaattctaaa tggttatagt ttatgttata gtgtatgttg 4740 tagtgaaakt aattttaaat gttgtatcta atgttaacat cacttggctt gatttatgtt 4800 atgttatgta ttttacttta atgatattgc atgtattgtt aatttaacat tgcttgatca 4860 ttatactctt ctactattaa ttataaatgg cactgttttg tttaaacttt ttacaagtta 4920 agacatgtat aaatatatga caatataatt acaagtttta gttcaatgtt agctatctta 4980 gtatgttatt gatgatctta attacattta aacaaattcc acttaaaatt ttaataaata 5040 ataacaaata attattgtaa tataatacat taaatgcaac aaaaaatgaa ataaataaaa 5100 taaaatagca aataattgtt ataatattgt aatataatat gtaccatatt cttaactgaa 5160 atagggtcta acctataatc cctaaaattt cagtttaaat atttttatac ctgccatatt 5220 attagaactc tttttaaata tattaaaatt ttaattatac caatttaatt taaactatta 5280 attatcttaa ctaaaatcta aaattttatt taacctatta attaaattcc taattatctt 5340 atctaattta aaactctaat tatcctaatt tgatttaaat tcttgattat cttaatttgt 5400 aacctcctcc acccagctag atgctggacc cgaatccggg agattacatc ggcattgaga 5460 tggcctagta gtgatcaggg ttttctagag gtacccaatt cgccctatag tgagtcgt 5518 12 910 DNA Gossypium Hirsutum 12 aaaaaacaat gagcactgca agatttatca agtgtgtcac ggtcggtgat ggagctgtgg 60 ggaaaacttg tatgctcatt tcatatacca gcaatacttt cccaacggat tatgttccaa 120 cagtatttga taactttagt gccaatgtgg tggtggatgg cagcacagtg aaccttggcc 180 tatgggacac tgccgggcaa gaagattata ataggctaag gccactgagt tatagaggag 240 ctgatgtgtt tttgttggcc ttttctctta taagcaaggc cagttatgaa aacatctaca 300 aaaagtggat cccagagcta agacattatg ctcataatgt accagttgtg cttgttggaa 360 ccaaactaga tttgcgagat gacaagcagt tcctcattga tcaccctgga gcaacaccaa 420 tatcaacatc tcagggagaa gaactaaaga agatgatagg agcagttact tatatagaat 480 gcagctccaa aacccaacag aatgtgaagg ctgttttcga tgctgcaata aaagtagctt 540 tgaggccacc aaaaccaaag agaaagcctt gcaaaaggag aacatgtgct ttcctttgaa 600 tattggatca ttattacagt caaaaacagt taacaaaagc tgttgcagat aaacactgaa 660 tctgctatag tttgtttttg gtttacatat gttccacgtg aaactatgaa gcatctctaa 720 gaaaacccaa actatcatat caacccatcg atcaatgaat cgatttcaat tttcgcagta 780 taagttcctt ttaatccttt ctttttactt cattttataa cgaattctat ggataatgtt 840 ccctacaaac atgtcattac aatgtttaat tataaattcc attcttctat tttactaaaa 900 aaaaaaaaaa 910 13 910 DNA Gossypium Hirsutum CDS (9)..(596) 13 aaaaaaca atg agc act gca aga ttt atc aag tgt gtc acg gtc ggt gat 50 Met Ser Thr Ala Arg Phe Ile Lys Cys Val Thr Val Gly Asp 1 5 10 gga gct gtg ggg aaa act tgt atg ctc att tca tat acc agc aat act 98 Gly Ala Val Gly Lys Thr Cys Met Leu Ile Ser Tyr Thr Ser Asn Thr 15 20 25 30 ttc cca acg gat tat gtt cca aca gta ttt gat aac ttt agt gcc aat 146 Phe Pro Thr Asp Tyr Val Pro Thr Val Phe Asp Asn Phe Ser Ala Asn 35 40 45 gtg gtg gtg gat ggc agc aca gtg aac ctt ggc cta tgg gac act gcc 194 Val Val Val Asp Gly Ser Thr Val Asn Leu Gly Leu Trp Asp Thr Ala 50 55 60 ggg caa gaa gat tat aat agg cta agg cca ctg agt tat aga gga gct 242 Gly Gln Glu Asp Tyr Asn Arg Leu Arg Pro Leu Ser Tyr Arg Gly Ala 65 70 75 gat gtg ttt ttg ttg gcc ttt tct ctt ata agc aag gcc agt tat gaa 290 Asp Val Phe Leu Leu Ala Phe Ser Leu Ile Ser Lys Ala Ser Tyr Glu 80 85 90 aac atc tac aaa aag tgg atc cca gag cta aga cat tat gct cat aat 338 Asn Ile Tyr Lys Lys Trp Ile Pro Glu Leu Arg His Tyr Ala His Asn 95 100 105 110 gta cca gtt gtg ctt gtt gga acc aaa cta gat ttg cga gat gac aag 386 Val Pro Val Val Leu Val Gly Thr Lys Leu Asp Leu Arg Asp Asp Lys 115 120 125 cag ttc ctc att gat cac cct gga gca aca cca ata tca aca tct cag 434 Gln Phe Leu Ile Asp His Pro Gly Ala Thr Pro Ile Ser Thr Ser Gln 130 135 140 gga gaa gaa cta aag aag atg ata gga gca gtt act tat ata gaa tgc 482 Gly Glu Glu Leu Lys Lys Met Ile Gly Ala Val Thr Tyr Ile Glu Cys 145 150 155 agc tcc aaa acc caa cag aat gtg aag gct gtt ttc gat gct gca ata 530 Ser Ser Lys Thr Gln Gln Asn Val Lys Ala Val Phe Asp Ala Ala Ile 160 165 170 aaa gta gct ttg agg cca cca aaa cca aag aga aag cct tgc aaa agg 578 Lys Val Ala Leu Arg Pro Pro Lys Pro Lys Arg Lys Pro Cys Lys Arg 175 180 185 190 aga aca tgt gct ttc ctt tgaatattgg atcattatta cagtcaaaaa 626 Arg Thr Cys Ala Phe Leu 195 cagttaacaa aagctgttgc agataaacac tgaatctgct atagtttgtt tttggtttac 686 atatgttcca cgtgaaacta tgaagcatct ctaagaaaac ccaaactatc atatcaaccc 746 atcgatcaat gaatcgattt caattttcgc agtataagtt ccttttaatc ctttcttttt 806 acttcatttt ataacgaatt ctatggataa tgttccctac aaacatgtca ttacaatgtt 866 taattataaa ttccattctt ctattttact aaaaaaaaaa aaaa 910 14 196 PRT Gossypium Hirsutum 14 Met Ser Thr Ala Arg Phe Ile Lys Cys Val Thr Val Gly Asp Gly Ala 1 5 10 15 Val Gly Lys Thr Cys Met Leu Ile Ser Tyr Thr Ser Asn Thr Phe Pro 20 25 30 Thr Asp Tyr Val Pro Thr Val Phe Asp Asn Phe Ser Ala Asn Val Val 35 40 45 Val Asp Gly Ser Thr Val Asn Leu Gly Leu Trp Asp Thr Ala Gly Gln 50 55 60 Glu Asp Tyr Asn Arg Leu Arg Pro Leu Ser Tyr Arg Gly Ala Asp Val 65 70 75 80 Phe Leu Leu Ala Phe Ser Leu Ile Ser Lys Ala Ser Tyr Glu Asn Ile 85 90 95 Tyr Lys Lys Trp Ile Pro Glu Leu Arg His Tyr Ala His Asn Val Pro 100 105 110 Val Val Leu Val Gly Thr Lys Leu Asp Leu Arg Asp Asp Lys Gln Phe 115 120 125 Leu Ile Asp His Pro Gly Ala Thr Pro Ile Ser Thr Ser Gln Gly Glu 130 135 140 Glu Leu Lys Lys Met Ile Gly Ala Val Thr Tyr Ile Glu Cys Ser Ser 145 150 155 160 Lys Thr Gln Gln Asn Val Lys Ala Val Phe Asp Ala Ala Ile Lys Val 165 170 175 Ala Leu Arg Pro Pro Lys Pro Lys Arg Lys Pro Cys Lys Arg Arg Thr 180 185 190 Cys Ala Phe Leu 195 15 3045 DNA Gossypium hirsutum misc_feature (30)..(30) n at position 30 is unknown 15 ttggatgaga accaattttt aatagtaaan cctaaccaat ttttaataat aaagctgact 60 cctagtacaa gagcttttat tcattcttct attttgcttt cctctaggct tggcaatcga 120 gaattttctt gtgttacaat ataataaata catcgtagaa ataaatttta ttcaaattga 180 agtcttaacc atctttaata tttgtagatg taatttaaat gaaagataaa tacatattct 240 tggacatgta ttttcatctt aatgtttgtg gctttggtga taggtgtatt gatgtacgat 300 gtcttttaaa tcacatatca cattttgagt ttgtatgatg ataagtcgac ataancgaaa 360 tatggtgtga tcttcacttt tgaactttga taagtcacca aactttaaca aagtttgatt 420 gtgtacatat atatatatat cttcaaattt tataataaaa attgtgttta aataatttac 480 agttatatta tttttttatc tctaatttta tttgtcgcca aatttttagt tgatatttta 540 acataaaaaa aattgtacac atttacaagc ccatatacaa ataattatat aaatattcat 600 taaaaaatat atttaaatat aggatataaa tataactatt ttagaattat tctactttaa 660 gataacatag gttaaatgta taattaataa ggttagttta ttgtaaagat gagtatatat 720 gtcgtaaaca taatcactaa ccatttttat taacttcttg gttttgaagt tccaaaaaga 780 aaatggaagg gaaatttgag agtaagttca tgtttatatt atacataatg aagttgatgt 840 tttcttcttt ttaatatttt tatacaaaat atttaaataa aataattaag gattgaatga 900 aaaatataat gaaagtcgtt ttactaatag tcatattgca ttttgtcgca tctacttaaa 960 taatagataa attaattgtg gtacattaga tcaaagaaca aactagattt tgtcccattc 1020 tattgttaaa agctggtccg tttacattaa aataaggtac atgttacatg ccacgtataa 1080 ctatctggtt attctatcaa tcacgctaat ttttaacagt agaaatgaat gtaattttta 1140 aatagaaagg gtcaaattgt tatttgatct aacacgtagg gattaattta cttattttcc 1200 taaagaaata agtaaaatat aatttgaatc ttaatacaaa aactttcatg atacttttat 1260 catattttac ttataattta atattgtgag agtaacaaar ttaaaaaaca tagaaacacc 1320 aaaagttagt tatggtgtga ctcatataca cagttaaaat ttgaataaat ttttttcttc 1380 gtcattaatt ccatcatggg tttttttttt tctagttaag ccataattat caaaataatc 1440 atcattaatc ctatcaatac cccgccctgc ctccctccct caatacttaa acccaactaa 1500 cacccagcac caaacgcact ttaatagcca cctatttcta gccatgtcct tgcacttaaa 1560 gaaaagtaaa gctaacctgc aatcattcca tatcgaggcc tcaacagata aagttggttg 1620 atgggtttgc accaagttgt taaaacccgg ccctcaactt cccttttctt ttcatcctcc 1680 ccactccaca ccctccaatt ttcttcatat ggttctatta taagttcttt ataatcacag 1740 aatcaagata agtcctcagc aaacaaaaaa ccatggctct cgagcaagat ctggactagt 1800 cagagctctg aatattggat cattattaca gtcaaaaaca gttaacaaaa gctgttgcag 1860 ataaacactg aatctgctat agtttgtttt tggtttacat atgttccacg tgaaactatg 1920 aagcatctct aagaaaaccc aaactatcat atcaacccat cgatcaatga atcgatttca 1980 attttcgcag tataagttcc ttttaatcct ttctttttac ttcattttat aacgaattct 2040 atggataatg ttccctacaa acatgtcatt acaatgttta attataaatt ccattcttct 2100 attttactaa gatattagta acttcaaact gctgattttt actaatttat tatttataaa 2160 ttgttagaat gattattttt caataattta acaacaatat ttaatattat tattattatt 2220 atttctcaat ttttattaaa caaaaacata aatttttgac aaattaaaat aaatgaatta 2280 atttctcaat ttttcgtgca actattacaa aaatccttca tagtcctaat cttaatttga 2340 tgcagaggtg ataataatct taatttgatg cagaggtaat aatgggccgg gtttgagctg 2400 gacttaagca tgatattgac gtactttata tttttccaaa ttcaacccag ctcgaaatat 2460 gagtctaaaa ttttgtccaa tttaatccaa gcccatttta agttcgtcca tattattttt 2520 taatttaaaa aatttatatc attttatttt aatatttaat tattttatat attttttatt 2580 tattgaaaat ttttatatag tcatcttaac attatgttaa tgtttatatt agagtagtat 2640 tatatatatt tagtataggt ttattttgtt aataaactta aaaatgggtc ttgtgggcta 2700 gacttggacc ttaaatgctc aaactcaaac ttaattcata ttttaaacag gcttaatatt 2760 tttatttaca ctgtttcaaa tttttcgggt gaaatatctt cgagtctaga ttaataacac 2820 cacaggtcta atttgatgct caatgaaaat gaaatcatat tgagcttaat taatattcca 2880 ttcttctttg ctgaaaggac caagcaattc gagttacatt aaggttaaag agtatgggat 2940 ccgccaaacc tgccccaatg tctcttcaac catccaaaaa cttgagtcag tatcacatac 3000 atgtaccgnt atttatttat ttattgaaat tggcattatt tcttg 3045 16 1871 DNA Gossypium hirsutum misc_feature (182)..(182) n at position 182 is unknown 16 gggcattcca cacgaccatg tgtcccctat ttccaggcat tttgagactt cacctaaact 60 tctagagttg tttcaaatta gcccctattt gttcttaaat cattttagga tcttgtaaac 120 tcgtatttag gactaaatgt gtaatttata ctttaattat gattgattaa ttgattgatt 180 tngtagtaat gcccgtgacc ctaatccgtt agcgaagagg ggttaggggt taggggtttt 240 attattattt tttagatatt gtataactct tgttttattt ttaattttgt tactatttca 300 aaggcatttg tttgtagtgt tatttcgagt aggttttatg ggtgaacaac ccttgaccgc 360 caaatcaatc acaagagttc aacattttat ttattttgaa atgtattaaa aatcgttaat 420 ctatatattc gccccattat tgggattaaa tattcacaag ggtttagacc gtcatgagac 480 agattagttt tatcttactg atggtcacat cacaatagta attcaactta atacgagagg 540 aaccattgat tcacgcaatt ggtcatcgca cttagttgaa aagctagggg tgcgaagcta 600 ccgtacgctg gattatgatt gaacacctct aagtcagaat ccgaattaga aacaatgcac 660 gtgtccgttg cctgattgcc aaccccaata acacgtgttg taggtttaac catgtttatg 720 aaagataagg tttttttttt tataagcaag caactatagg ggtttacttc cgtgcgcaaa 780 tttttaggtt acctattttg ggagggggga ttatgattca agtgaaagaa agttggcaca 840 cacacaatca gtacatctgt tttgacagag acacagccta aaaacagcag caaacaagcc 900 taaaggaatc acccaaaaac aacaaccaaa agtacagagg aaaacaaaag aatccctgtt 960 accaccaagc tgaaaaaaag aaaataaaac tcaacttttg gcaataaaaa ccctcctacc 1020 ctcaacccct aaccacgcaa caatcagcaa tactccaagc aaccattttc cttacaagtt 1080 tgtttttctt gtgattaatc catatggcta gctccatgtc ccttaagctt gcatgtctgc 1140 tagtgttgtg catggtggtg ggtgcacccc tggctcaagg ggacgtaacc cgtgctgatg 1200 gcgtagtcac ccttccacgc tgccttcctt tattgatagg gaatggtaat ggtgctgatg 1260 ctgatgttga tgccccagct tgctgcgaca tcgtcagggg tctcttgagc tcgctgctct 1320 gtggtggtgt ttaggaaccg atctagcttg aaatcgggtt cggatacggg tggagtttca 1380 aattggtgtg ttatggaatc ccaacttaat cgtgtttagg ggtgggatcc aattgtgtga 1440 tacattacag agcatggttg tggattgttt tctcatatgt tttgattgac ttgcttgata 1500 cattggatga ttcgataagg tgaccggttt acctgggtat ccaaccatca tccgattact 1560 ttttaataat tatttgtttc ttctttatgt tgtctgtctt tttgtttctt gatctataac 1620 attatatttg cccaaatttt cgcattttcc atatgtagct tatatatgta tatatatatt 1680 caataaagta tattgattta gcagatgatt tgtgtatata tttaaatcaa atcaaacatt 1740 aatgatcatt cactagcgtc ttaatcttga aaaattcatc aacggttatc ctttgcagca 1800 tatataaaaa aaattgccaa ccctatgctt ttacacctaa ttcaagggat aacataagtc 1860 gattaaaacg a 1871 17 1871 DNA Gossypium Hirsutum CDS (1104)..(1331) 17 gggcattcca cacgaccatg tgtcccctat ttccaggcat tttgagactt cacctaaact 60 tctagagttg tttcaaatta gcccctattt gttcttaaat cattttagga tcttgtaaac 120 tcgtatttag gactaaatgt gtaatttata ctttaattat gattgattaa ttgattgatt 180 tngtagtaat gcccgtgacc ctaatccgtt agcgaagagg ggttaggggt taggggtttt 240 attattattt tttagatatt gtataactct tgttttattt ttaattttgt tactatttca 300 aaggcatttg tttgtagtgt tatttcgagt aggttttatg ggtgaacaac ccttgaccgc 360 caaatcaatc acaagagttc aacattttat ttattttgaa atgtattaaa aatcgttaat 420 ctatatattc gccccattat tgggattaaa tattcacaag ggtttagacc gtcatgagac 480 agattagttt tatcttactg atggtcacat cacaatagta attcaactta atacgagagg 540 aaccattgat tcacgcaatt ggtcatcgca cttagttgaa aagctagggg tgcgaagcta 600 ccgtacgctg gattatgatt gaacacctct aagtcagaat ccgaattaga aacaatgcac 660 gtgtccgttg cctgattgcc aaccccaata acacgtgttg taggtttaac catgtttatg 720 aaagataagg tttttttttt tataagcaag caactatagg ggtttacttc cgtgcgcaaa 780 tttttaggtt acctattttg ggagggggga ttatgattca agtgaaagaa agttggcaca 840 cacacaatca gtacatctgt tttgacagag acacagccta aaaacagcag caaacaagcc 900 taaaggaatc acccaaaaac aacaaccaaa agtacagagg aaaacaaaag aatccctgtt 960 accaccaagc tgaaaaaaag aaaataaaac tcaacttttg gcaataaaaa ccctcctacc 1020 ctcaacccct aaccacgcaa caatcagcaa tactccaagc aaccattttc cttacaagtt 1080 tgtttttctt gtgattaatc cat atg gct agc tcc atg tcc ctt aag ctt gca 1133 Met Ala Ser Ser Met Ser Leu Lys Leu Ala 1 5 10 tgt ctg cta gtg ttg tgc atg gtg gtg ggt gca ccc ctg gct caa ggg 1181 Cys Leu Leu Val Leu Cys Met Val Val Gly Ala Pro Leu Ala Gln Gly 15 20 25 gac gta acc cgt gct gat ggc gta gtc acc ctt cca cgc tgc ctt cct 1229 Asp Val Thr Arg Ala Asp Gly Val Val Thr Leu Pro Arg Cys Leu Pro 30 35 40 tta ttg ata ggg aat ggt aat ggt gct gat gct gat gtt gat gcc cca 1277 Leu Leu Ile Gly Asn Gly Asn Gly Ala Asp Ala Asp Val Asp Ala Pro 45 50 55 gct tgc tgc gac atc gtc agg ggt ctc ttg agc tcg ctg ctc tgt ggt 1325 Ala Cys Cys Asp Ile Val Arg Gly Leu Leu Ser Ser Leu Leu Cys Gly 60 65 70 ggt gtt taggaaccga tctagcttga aatcgggttc ggatacgggt ggagtttcaa 1381 Gly Val 75 attggtgtgt tatggaatcc caacttaatc gtgtttaggg gtgggatcca attgtgtgat 1441 acattacaga gcatggttgt ggattgtttt ctcatatgtt ttgattgact tgcttgatac 1501 attggatgat tcgataaggt gaccggttta cctgggtatc caaccatcat ccgattactt 1561 tttaataatt atttgtttct tctttatgtt gtctgtcttt ttgtttcttg atctataaca 1621 ttatatttgc ccaaattttc gcattttcca tatgtagctt atatatgtat atatatattc 1681 aataaagtat attgatttag cagatgattt gtgtatatat ttaaatcaaa tcaaacatta 1741 atgatcattc actagcgtct taatcttgaa aaattcatca acggttatcc tttgcagcat 1801 atataaaaaa aattgccaac cctatgcttt tacacctaat tcaagggata acataagtcg 1861 attaaaacga 1871 18 76 PRT Gossypium Hirsutum 18 Met Ala Ser Ser Met Ser Leu Lys Leu Ala Cys Leu Leu Val Leu Cys 1 5 10 15 Met Val Val Gly Ala Pro Leu Ala Gln Gly Asp Val Thr Arg Ala Asp 20 25 30 Gly Val Val Thr Leu Pro Arg Cys Leu Pro Leu Leu Ile Gly Asn Gly 35 40 45 Asn Gly Ala Asp Ala Asp Val Asp Ala Pro Ala Cys Cys Asp Ile Val 50 55 60 Arg Gly Leu Leu Ser Ser Leu Leu Cys Gly Gly Val 65 70 75

Claims (27)

  1. 1. A DNA sequence comprising as operably joined components in the direction of transcription, a cotton fiber transcriptional factor and an open reading frame encoding a protein of interest, wherein said transcriptional factor is selected from the 4-4 and the rac promoter sequences.
  2. 2. The DNA Sequence according to claim 1, further comprising a transport signal encoding sequence from a plant nuclear-encoded gene.
  3. 3. The DNA sequence according to claim 2, wherein said transport signal encoding sequence comprises a plastid transit peptid.
  4. 4. The DNA sequence according to claim 1, wherein said transport signal encoding sequence encodes a signal peptide which provides for transport across the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  5. 5. The DNA sequence according to claim 4, wherein said sequence further comprises, 3′ to said open reading frame, a vacuolar localization signal.
  6. 6. The DNA sequence of claim 1 wherein said pigment is melanin or indigo.
  7. 7. The DNA sequence of claim 6 wherein said open reading frame is from a bacterial gene.
  8. 8. The DNA sequence of claim 7 wherein said bacterial gene is selected from the group consisting of ORF438, tyrA, anthocyanin R gene, anthocyanin C1 gene, pig, and tna.
  9. 9. A DNA construct comprising a promoter for transcription in a plant cell operably joined to said DNA sequence of claim 1.
  10. 10. The DNA construct of claim 9 wherein said plant cell is a cotton fiber cell.
  11. 11. The DNA construct of claim 10 wherein said promoter is a tomato 4-4 and rac promoter.
  12. 13. A plant cell comprising a DNA construct of claim 9.
  13. 14. A plant comprising a cell of claim 13.
  14. 15. A method of modifying fiber phenotype in a cotton plant, said method comprising:
    transforming a plant cell with DNA comprising a construct for expression of a protein in a pigment biosynthesis pathway, wherein said construct comprises as operably joined components:
    a transcriptional initiation region functional in cells of said plant tissue,
    an open reading frame encoding a protein of interest, and a transcriptional termination region functional in cells of said plant tissue,
    wherein said plant tissue comprises a substrate of said protein; and
    growing said plant cell to produce a plant comprising said tissue, wherein said protein reacts with said substrate to produce said pigment.
  15. 16. The method of claim 15 further comprising a transport signal encoding sequence from a plant nuclear-encoded gene.
  16. 17. The method of claim 15 wherein said transport signal encoding sequence encodes a signal peptide which provides for transport across the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  17. 18. The method of claim 16 wherein said DNA comprises constructs for expression of two proteins in a pigment biosynthesis pathway, wherein each of said constructs comprises components i) through iv), and wherein said two proteins are not encoded by the same gene.
  18. 19. The method of claim 17 wherein said DNA comprises constructs for expression of two proteins in a pigment biosynthesis pathway, wherein each of said constructs comprises components i) through iv), and wherein said two proteins are not encoded by the same gene.
  19. 20. The method of claim 18 or 19 wherein said pigment is melanin and said proteins are encoded by tyrA and ORF438.
  20. 21. The method of claim 18 wherein said pigment is indigo and said proteins are tna and pig.
  21. 22. The method of claim 18 wherein said pigment is anythocyanin and said constructs comprise the anthocyanin R and C1 regulatory genes.
  22. 23. The method of claim 15 wherein plant tissue is a cotton burr.
  23. 25. A recombinant DNA construct comprising the cotton tissue transcriptional sequence shown in FIG. 2.
  24. 26. A recombinant DNA construct comprising the cotton tissue transcriptional sequence shown in FIG. 5.
  25. 27. An isolated DNA encoding sequence of FIG. 1.
  26. 28. An isolated DNA encoding sequence of FIG. 4.
  27. 29. The method of claim 15 wherein said protein of interest is involved in the synthesis of a plant hormone.
US10285649 1995-06-07 2002-10-31 Cotton fiber transcriptional factors Abandoned US20030106089A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US48017895 true 1995-06-07 1995-06-07
PCT/US1996/009897 WO1996040924A3 (en) 1995-06-07 1996-06-07 Cotton fiber transcriptional factors
US08984099 US7732678B1 (en) 1995-06-07 1997-12-03 Cotton fiber transcriptional factors
US10285649 US20030106089A1 (en) 1995-06-07 2002-10-31 Cotton fiber transcriptional factors

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10285649 US20030106089A1 (en) 1995-06-07 2002-10-31 Cotton fiber transcriptional factors

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08984099 Continuation US7732678B1 (en) 1995-06-07 1997-12-03 Cotton fiber transcriptional factors

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20030106089A1 true true US20030106089A1 (en) 2003-06-05

Family

ID=27046495

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08984099 Expired - Lifetime US7732678B1 (en) 1995-06-07 1997-12-03 Cotton fiber transcriptional factors
US10285649 Abandoned US20030106089A1 (en) 1995-06-07 2002-10-31 Cotton fiber transcriptional factors

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US08984099 Expired - Lifetime US7732678B1 (en) 1995-06-07 1997-12-03 Cotton fiber transcriptional factors

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US7732678B1 (en)

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050257297A1 (en) * 2004-08-05 2005-11-17 Oakley Stephen R Acala ULTIMA EF cultivar plant and seed
US20050257296A1 (en) * 2005-02-15 2005-11-17 Oakley Stephen R Hammer cotton cultivar plant and seed
US20060156444A1 (en) * 2006-03-14 2006-07-13 Curtis Williams Cotton cultivar 04Y341
US20080155708A1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2008-06-26 Monsanto Technology, L.L.C. Cotton variety st 5283rf
US20080155707A1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2008-06-26 Monsanto Technology, L.L.C. Cotton variety stx0502rf
US20090055951A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Robert Mcgowen Cotton variety 04w019
US20090055954A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Cynthia Green Cotton variety 05z629
US20090055949A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Curtis Williams Cotton variety 03y062
US20090055952A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Albert Santos Cotton variety 05x460
US20090055948A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Curtis Williams Cotton variety 03y056
US7619144B2 (en) 2007-08-17 2009-11-17 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 02T15
US7622651B2 (en) 2006-12-22 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Lp Cotton variety ST 4427B2RF
US7622653B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 03Y047
US7622652B2 (en) 2006-12-22 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Lp Cotton variety ST 5327B2RF
US7622656B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 05Y063
US7709704B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2010-05-04 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 04T048
CN102154314A (en) * 2011-01-18 2011-08-17 西南大学 Photoinduced cotton anthocyanidin synthesis regulatory gene GhMYBAP (Gossypium hirsutum Anthocyanin Promoting MYB) and application thereof
US20130081154A1 (en) * 2011-09-28 2013-03-28 Commonwealth Scientific And Industrial Research Organisation Novel fiber-preferential promoter in cotton
US20130091602A1 (en) * 2010-01-25 2013-04-11 Bayer Cropscience Nv Methods for manufacturing plant cell walls comprising chitin
WO2015059205A1 (en) * 2013-10-24 2015-04-30 Bayer Cropscience Nv Novel fiber-preferential promoter in cotton
WO2016062615A1 (en) 2014-10-21 2016-04-28 Bayer Cropscience Nv Recombinant promoter with increased fiber-specific expression

Family Cites Families (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
ES2054676T5 (en) 1986-07-31 2002-10-16 Calgene Llc Transcription regulation specifies seed.
US4801540A (en) 1986-10-17 1989-01-31 Calgene, Inc. PG gene and its use in plants
US5004863B2 (en) 1986-12-03 2000-10-17 Agracetus Genetic engineering of cotton plants and lines
US4943674A (en) 1987-05-26 1990-07-24 Calgene, Inc. Fruit specific transcriptional factors
EP0316441B1 (en) 1987-05-26 2001-12-05 Calgene LLC Fruit-specific transcriptional factors
WO1989003887A1 (en) * 1987-10-20 1989-05-05 Plant Genetic Systems N.V. A process for the production of biologically active peptide via the expression of modified storage seed protein genes in transgenic plants
WO1989012386A1 (en) 1988-06-21 1989-12-28 Calgene, Inc. Methods and compositions for altering physical characteristics of fruit and fruit products
ES2069560T3 (en) 1988-10-03 1995-05-16 Biosource Genetics Corp Method for producing melanins.
US6096950A (en) * 1992-05-18 2000-08-01 Monsanto Company Cotton fiber-specific promoters
US5495070A (en) * 1988-10-04 1996-02-27 Agracetus, Inc. Genetically engineering cotton plants for altered fiber
DE69132725T2 (en) 1990-03-16 2002-07-11 Calgene Llc Davis New sequences preferentially expressed during early germ development and for related methods
ES2129042T3 (en) 1991-03-06 1999-06-01 Monsanto Co Mediated cotton transformation particles.
CA2221747A1 (en) * 1995-06-07 1996-12-19 Kevin Mcbride Cotton fiber transcriptional factors
US6166301A (en) * 1998-06-30 2000-12-26 The Regents Of The Unversity Of California Method for assaying genetic attributes in cotton fiber cells

Cited By (33)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20050257297A1 (en) * 2004-08-05 2005-11-17 Oakley Stephen R Acala ULTIMA EF cultivar plant and seed
US7312383B2 (en) 2004-08-05 2007-12-25 Bayer Cropscience Gmbh Acala ULTIMA EF cultivar plant and seed
US20050257296A1 (en) * 2005-02-15 2005-11-17 Oakley Stephen R Hammer cotton cultivar plant and seed
US7247773B2 (en) 2005-02-15 2007-07-24 Bayer Cropscience Gmbh Hammer cotton cultivar plant and seed
US20060156444A1 (en) * 2006-03-14 2006-07-13 Curtis Williams Cotton cultivar 04Y341
US7626093B2 (en) 2006-03-14 2009-12-01 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton cultivar 04Y341
US7622649B2 (en) 2006-12-22 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Lp Cotton variety STX0502RF
US20080155708A1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2008-06-26 Monsanto Technology, L.L.C. Cotton variety st 5283rf
US20080155707A1 (en) * 2006-12-22 2008-06-26 Monsanto Technology, L.L.C. Cotton variety stx0502rf
US7622652B2 (en) 2006-12-22 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Lp Cotton variety ST 5327B2RF
US7622650B2 (en) 2006-12-22 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Lp Cotton variety ST 5283RF
US7622651B2 (en) 2006-12-22 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Lp Cotton variety ST 4427B2RF
US7619144B2 (en) 2007-08-17 2009-11-17 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 02T15
US7709704B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2010-05-04 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 04T048
US20090055948A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Curtis Williams Cotton variety 03y056
US20090055952A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Albert Santos Cotton variety 05x460
US20090055949A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Curtis Williams Cotton variety 03y062
US7622653B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 03Y047
US7622655B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 04W019
US7622654B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 03Y062
US20090055954A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Cynthia Green Cotton variety 05z629
US7622657B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 05Z629
US7619145B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-17 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 03Y056
US20090055951A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Robert Mcgowen Cotton variety 04w019
US7626097B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-12-01 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 05X460
US7622656B2 (en) 2007-08-20 2009-11-24 Bayer Cropscience Ag Cotton variety 05Y063
US20130091602A1 (en) * 2010-01-25 2013-04-11 Bayer Cropscience Nv Methods for manufacturing plant cell walls comprising chitin
US9279130B2 (en) * 2010-01-25 2016-03-08 Bayer Cropscience Nv Methods for manufacturing plant cell walls comprising chitin
CN102154314A (en) * 2011-01-18 2011-08-17 西南大学 Photoinduced cotton anthocyanidin synthesis regulatory gene GhMYBAP (Gossypium hirsutum Anthocyanin Promoting MYB) and application thereof
US20130081154A1 (en) * 2011-09-28 2013-03-28 Commonwealth Scientific And Industrial Research Organisation Novel fiber-preferential promoter in cotton
US9163252B2 (en) * 2011-09-28 2015-10-20 Bayer Cropscience Nv Fiber-preferential promoter in cotton
WO2015059205A1 (en) * 2013-10-24 2015-04-30 Bayer Cropscience Nv Novel fiber-preferential promoter in cotton
WO2016062615A1 (en) 2014-10-21 2016-04-28 Bayer Cropscience Nv Recombinant promoter with increased fiber-specific expression

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US7732678B1 (en) 2010-06-08 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6288302B1 (en) Application of α-amylase gene promoter and signal sequence in the production of recombinant proteins in transgenic plants and transgenic plant seeds
US6271443B1 (en) Cotton and rice cellulose synthase DNA sequences
US6946586B1 (en) Genetic trait breeding method
US5633363A (en) Root preferential promoter
US6096950A (en) Cotton fiber-specific promoters
US6225529B1 (en) Seed-preferred promoters
US6259003B1 (en) Cotton plant promoters
US6787687B1 (en) Rin gene compositions and methods for use thereof
US5650303A (en) Geminivirus-based gene expression system
US7348468B1 (en) Wuschel (wus) gene homologs
US5460952A (en) Gene expression system comprising the promoter region of the α-amylase genes
US6762345B1 (en) Plant stearoyl desaturases
EP0513884A1 (en) Male-sterile plants, methods for obtaining male-sterile plants and recombinant DNA for use therein
US6864077B1 (en) Membrane-bound desaturases
US7157621B2 (en) Alteration of oil traits in plants
WO1998045460A1 (en) A sunflower albumin 5' regulatory region for the modification of plant seed lipid composition
US5712112A (en) Gene expression system comprising the promoter region of the alpha-amylase genes
US5965793A (en) Strong early seed-specific gene regulatory region
US6329570B1 (en) Cotton modification using ovary-tissue transcriptional factors
JPH0662870A (en) Promoter region of soybean phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene and 5'-nontranslating region
US5831060A (en) CPC gene for regulating initiation of root hair formation for arabidopsis (thaliana) and transgenic (arabidopsis), plant overexpressing the CPC gene
WO2002057439A2 (en) Plant transcription factors
WO2004001000A2 (en) Intron double stranded rna constructs and uses thereof
WO2001004147A2 (en) Plant inositol polyphosphate phosphatase homologs
WO2002044390A2 (en) Floral development genes

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: MONSANTO TECHNOLOGY, LLC, CALIFORNIA

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:MCBRIDE, KEVIN;STALKER, DAVID M.;PEAR, JULIE R.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:013479/0205

Effective date: 19980511