US20030047847A1 - Thermoforming method and apparatus - Google Patents

Thermoforming method and apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
US20030047847A1
US20030047847A1 US09/951,176 US95117601A US2003047847A1 US 20030047847 A1 US20030047847 A1 US 20030047847A1 US 95117601 A US95117601 A US 95117601A US 2003047847 A1 US2003047847 A1 US 2003047847A1
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mold
vacuum
sheet
vacuum chamber
thermoforming
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US09/951,176
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James Fitzell
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Soroc Products Inc
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Soroc Products Inc
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Publication of US20030047847A1 publication Critical patent/US20030047847A1/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C51/00Shaping by thermoforming, i.e. shaping sheets or sheet like preforms after heating, e.g. shaping sheets in matched moulds or by deep-drawing; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C51/26Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C51/30Moulds
    • B29C51/36Moulds specially adapted for vacuum forming, Manufacture thereof
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C33/00Moulds or cores; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • B29C33/38Moulds or cores; Details thereof or accessories therefor characterised by the material or the manufacturing process
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C51/00Shaping by thermoforming, i.e. shaping sheets or sheet like preforms after heating, e.g. shaping sheets in matched moulds or by deep-drawing; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C51/26Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C51/42Heating or cooling
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C35/00Heating, cooling or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanising; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C35/02Heating or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanizing during moulding, e.g. in a mould
    • B29C35/08Heating or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanizing during moulding, e.g. in a mould by wave energy or particle radiation
    • B29C35/0805Heating or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanizing during moulding, e.g. in a mould by wave energy or particle radiation using electromagnetic radiation
    • B29C2035/0822Heating or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanizing during moulding, e.g. in a mould by wave energy or particle radiation using electromagnetic radiation using IR radiation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C35/00Heating, cooling or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanising; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C35/16Cooling
    • B29C2035/1616Cooling using liquids
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C35/00Heating, cooling or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanising; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C35/16Cooling
    • B29C2035/1616Cooling using liquids
    • B29C2035/1625Cooling using liquids other than water
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C35/00Heating, cooling or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanising; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C35/16Cooling
    • B29C2035/1616Cooling using liquids
    • B29C2035/1625Cooling using liquids other than water
    • B29C2035/1633Cooling using liquids other than water oil
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C2791/00Shaping characteristics in general
    • B29C2791/004Shaping under special conditions
    • B29C2791/006Using vacuum
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C35/00Heating, cooling or curing, e.g. crosslinking or vulcanising; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C35/16Cooling
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C51/00Shaping by thermoforming, i.e. shaping sheets or sheet like preforms after heating, e.g. shaping sheets in matched moulds or by deep-drawing; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C51/08Deep drawing or matched-mould forming, i.e. using mechanical means only
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C51/00Shaping by thermoforming, i.e. shaping sheets or sheet like preforms after heating, e.g. shaping sheets in matched moulds or by deep-drawing; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C51/10Forming by pressure difference, e.g. vacuum
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C51/00Shaping by thermoforming, i.e. shaping sheets or sheet like preforms after heating, e.g. shaping sheets in matched moulds or by deep-drawing; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C51/18Thermoforming apparatus
    • B29C51/20Thermoforming apparatus having movable moulds or mould parts
    • B29C51/22Thermoforming apparatus having movable moulds or mould parts rotatable about an axis
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C51/00Shaping by thermoforming, i.e. shaping sheets or sheet like preforms after heating, e.g. shaping sheets in matched moulds or by deep-drawing; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C51/26Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C51/261Handling means, e.g. transfer means, feeding means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C51/00Shaping by thermoforming, i.e. shaping sheets or sheet like preforms after heating, e.g. shaping sheets in matched moulds or by deep-drawing; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C51/26Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C51/46Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2023/00Use of polyalkenes or derivatives thereof as moulding material
    • B29K2023/04Polymers of ethylene
    • B29K2023/06PE, i.e. polyethylene
    • B29K2023/0608PE, i.e. polyethylene characterised by its density
    • B29K2023/065HDPE, i.e. high density polyethylene

Abstract

A thermoforming apparatus having a mold with an internal vacuum chamber and a quench for cooling a thermoplastic sheet while it remains on the mold. Because the quench cools the sheet, conventional cooling lines are eliminated from the mold. A preferred process of using the thermoforming apparatus includes drawing a heated sheet over the mold, creating a partial vacuum in the vacuum chamber of the mold to maintain the sheet on the mold and quenching the sheet on the mold in a quenching tank. A preferred process of manufacturing a mold with an interior vacuum chamber includes forming an impression of the mold in a casting media, suspending a vacuum line or vacuum cabinet within the impression and pouring molten material around the vacuum line or vacuum cabinet to form the mold at least partially surrounding the vacuum line or vacuum cabinet. Vacuum holes are drilled through the mold from the mold face to the vacuum chamber.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention relates to thermoforming and more particularly to a method and apparatus for vacuum forming thermoplastics. [0001]
  • Thermoforming is widely used in a variety of industries to manufacture products from thermoplastic materials, such as high-density polyethylene (“HDPE”). Many different thermoforming processes are currently in widespread use, including vacuum forming, blow molding and the like. A typical thermoforming process involves the general steps of heating a thermoplastic material above its glass-transition temperature, shaping the heated thermoplastic by drawing the material over a mold, cooling the thermoplastic to a low enough temperature for it to retain its shape and then removing the shaped thermoplastic from the mold. [0002]
  • Vacuum forming is perhaps one of the most versatile thermoforming processes in that it is well suited for use in a wide variety of applications. With vacuum forming, a partial vacuum is used to draw a thermoplastic material against a mold. A conventional vacuum forming apparatus is shown in FIG. 1. The apparatus is configured to thermoform a thermoplastic sheet [0003] 18. As illustrated, the conventional apparatus 10 generally includes a movable rack 12 carrying sheet 18 in clamps 11, as well as a mold 14 that is positioned over a vacuum head 16. The undersurface of the mold 14 is shaped to cooperate with the vacuum head 16 to define a vacuum chamber 22. A plurality of vacuum holes 20 extend through the mold 14 from the upper surface to the chamber 22. As a result, operation of vacuum head 16 creates a partial vacuum within chamber 22 that draws air into the chamber 22 through the holes 20. During operation, the rack 12 positions over and parallel to the mold 14. The rack 12 then lowers the thermoplastic sheet 18 onto the mold 14 while a partial vacuum is formed in the chamber 22 by vacuum head 16. The vacuum draws the sheet 18 down over the mold 14 to provide consistent, uniformly shaped articles. The vacuum is retained until the sheet 18 has cooled sufficiently to maintain its shape.
  • To improve manufacturing efficiency, there is an ongoing effort to reduce the cycle time of thermoforming processes. To date, efforts to reduce cycle time have focused primarily on reduction of the time necessary to heat the thermoplastic sheet beyond its glass-transition temperature. For example, research in this area has lead to the development of a variety of faster heating devices. Despite the focus in the industry on heating time, cooling time is also an important factor in overall cycle time, particularly in view of the significant reductions in heating time. In many conventional applications, the mold [0004] 14 includes an internal network of coolant lines 26 that circulate a coolant, such as water, to lower the temperature of the mold 14 and consequently the temperature of the sheet 18.
  • Conventional coolant line arrangements suffer from several significant drawbacks. First, coolant lines present an obstacle with respect to the formation of the vacuum holes [0005] 20 in the mold 14. Conventional molds 14 are manufactured by casting the mold in place about the coolant lines. The vacuum holes are then drilled through the mold at the appropriate locations. Because the coolant lines are entrapped within the mold, the vacuum holes must be carefully position so that they do not penetrate or rupture the coolant lines. This may prevent the vacuum holes from being located as would otherwise have been desired. Second, coolant lines typically do not provide uniform temperature across the mold. Instead, coolant lines generally cause different bands of temperature along the mold 14. For example, areas closer to a coolant line will be cooler than those located farther away. This results in non-uniform cooling along the sheet 18. Third, with complex molds, it can be difficult or impossible to locate cooling lines in certain areas of the mold. This reduces the cooling effect of the coolant lines in such areas.
  • Other techniques that have been used to reduce cooling time include cooling the sheet with water and nitrogen misting devices. These devices spray a mist of water or nitrogen onto the surface of the sheet after the sheet has been drawn over the mold. Although providing some improvement, these techniques are not without drawbacks. First cooling times associated can vary dramatically with these devices depending on ambient air temperature and humidity. Second, misting devices, particularly nitrogen misting devices, can be expensive to install and operate. [0006]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The aforementioned problems are overcome by the present invention wherein a thermoforming apparatus is provided with a quench for cooling a thermoformed sheet. The mold includes an internal vacuum chamber to hold the sheet as well as an actuation system to move the mold into the quench to cool the sheet while it remains on the mold. [0007]
  • In a preferred embodiment, the vacuum chamber includes a cabinet that is encapsulated within the mold. The mold defines a plurality of vacuum holes extending from the surface of the mold to the vacuum chamber. The cabinet is substantially coextensive with the mold, thereby permitting the disposition of vacuum holes in substantially any location in the mold. [0008]
  • In another preferred embodiment, the vacuum chamber includes a network of vacuum lines encapsulated within the mold. The mold defines a plurality of vacuum holes extending from the surface of the mold to the vacuum lines. [0009]
  • The present invention also provides a thermoforming method in which the thermoplastic sheet is cooled in a quench while remaining on the mold. The method generally includes the steps of (a) heating a thermoplastic sheet beyond its glass-transition temperature, (b) drawing the heated sheet over a mold having an internal vacuum chamber, (c) maintaining the sheet on the mold by creating a partial vacuum within the vacuum chamber, and (d) quenching the thermoplastic sheet in a quench while the sheet remains on the mold. [0010]
  • The present invention further provides a method for manufacturing a thermoforming mold with an internal vacuum chamber. The method generally includes the steps of (a) casting a portion of a mold corresponding to the three dimensional surface of the mold or mold face, (b) positioning a vacuum line or vacuum cabinet opposite the mold face and (c) casting the remainder of the mold around the vacuum line or vacuum cabinet. Vacuum holes may be drilled though the mold face into the vacuum lines or cabinet. [0011]
  • The present invention provides a simple and effective thermoforming method and apparatus that reduces cycle time and is manufactured with only limited changes in conventional mold manufacturing techniques. Because the thermoforming apparatus includes a quench for cooling the sheet, the need for conventional coolant lines is eliminated. This facilitates manufacture of the mold by eliminating the effort needed to avoid the coolant lines when creating vacuum holes in the manufactured mold. Furthermore, use of the quench provides rapid cooling of the thermoplastic sheet at uniform and controlled temperature. [0012]
  • These and other objects, advantages, and features of the invention will be readily understood and appreciated by reference to the detailed description of the preferred embodiment and the drawings. [0013]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 shows a side elevation view of a prior art thermoforming apparatus; [0014]
  • FIG. 2 is a top view of a thermoforming apparatus of the present invention; [0015]
  • FIG. 3 shows a side elevation view of the thermoforming apparatus; [0016]
  • FIG. 4 is a top plan view of the thermoforming apparatus; [0017]
  • FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of a vacuum line network of the thermoforming apparatus; [0018]
  • FIG. 6 is a front elevational view of the thermoforming apparatus before vacuum molding a thermoplastic sheet; [0019]
  • FIG. 7 is a front elevational view of the thermoforming apparatus as a sheet is vacuum formed; [0020]
  • FIG. 8 is a front elevational view of the thermoforming apparatus with a thermoplastic sheet drawn on the vacuum mold; [0021]
  • FIG. 9 is a front elevational view of the thermoforming apparatus with the mold in a partially rotated position; [0022]
  • FIG. 10. is a front elevational view of a thermoforming apparatus positioned over the quenching tank; [0023]
  • FIG. 11 is a front elevational view of the thermoforming apparatus as the mold and thermoplastic sheet is submerged in the quenching tank; [0024]
  • FIG. 12A-D show the various steps of a process for manufacturing the thermoforming mold of the present invention; [0025]
  • FIG. 13 shows a first alternative embodiment of the thermoforming apparatus; [0026]
  • FIG. 14 shows the mold being submerged in a quenching tank of the first alternative embodiment; and [0027]
  • FIG. 15 shows a second alternative embodiment of the thermoforming apparatus.[0028]
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • I. Overview [0029]
  • A thermoforming system in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIG. 2 and generally designated [0030] 100. The thermoforming apparatus generally includes a movable rack 102 that carries thermoplastic sheets 104 through the various stages of a thermoforming process; a loading station 200 for loading sheets 104 onto rack 102, a heater 107 for heating thermoplastic sheets 104, a movable vacuum mold 108 and a quench 110 for cooling the sheet 104 while it remains on the mold 108. In operation, the thermoplastic sheet 104 is loaded onto the rack 102 at loading station 200 and then carried by the rack 102 to a heating station where it is heated by heater 107. The rack 102 then moves the heated sheet 104 adjacent the mold 108, and the sheet 104 is then drawn over the mold via the creation of a partial vacuum within internal vacuum chamber of the mold 108. The mold 108 then moves in conjunction with frame 109 to quench the sheet 104 in the quench 110 while it remains on the mold 108. For purposes of disclosure, the present invention is described in connection with the formation of parts from HDPE. The present invention is well suited for use in manufacturing a wide variety of products using various thermoformable materials, including other thermoplastic materials.
  • II. Structure [0031]
  • As noted above, the rack [0032] 102 functions to carry the sheet 104 through the various steps of the thermoforming process. In a preferred embodiment, the rack 102 is a generally conventional rotary device that rotates through a horizontal plane about a vertical axis. The rack 102 is configured somewhat like a rotary fan, with multiple, radially-spaced rack arms 102 a-c, so that multiple operations may be performed on multiple sheets simultaneously. In summary, the multiple rack arms 102 a-c permit the simultaneous loading, heating and molding of separate sheets 104. More specifically, sheets 104 arriving on conveyor 103 are loaded onto rack 102 at loading station 200. At the same time, one previously loaded sheet 104 is heated at the heating station 202 by heater 107 and another previously loaded sheet 104 is molded and quenched at the molding station 204 by mold 108 and quenching tank 110.
  • The rack [0033] 102, includes a plurality of clamps 112 arranged in a rectangular configuration. The clamps 112 are positioned to selectively close upon the peripheral margin of the thermoplastic sheet 104. The number and location of clamps 112 will vary from application to application as necessary to adequately hold the sheet 104. The loading station 200 is generally conventional and will not be described in detail here. Briefly, sheets 104 are fed from conveyor 103 and sequentially loaded onto the rack arms 102 a-c at loading station 200. In a preferred embodiment, each sheet 104 is manually positioned on the corresponding rack arm 102 a-c with its peripheral edge disposed in the open clamps 112. As noted above, the sheet 104 can alternatively be positioned on the rack using conventional “pick-and-place” machinery. The clamps 112 are closed about the periphery of the sheet 104 to securely retain the sheet 104 on the rack. The rack 102 also includes a conventional drive and control assembly (not shown) that rotates the rack arms 102 a-c through the various stations. As such, the rack 102 functions to rotate the loaded sheet 104 from the loading station 200 to the heating station 202 and from the heating stations 202 to the molding station 204. Other conventional rack configurations may be substituted for the rotary rack 102, but because of their conventionality, will not be described in detail here.
  • The heater [0034] 107 is generally conventional and will accordingly not be described in detail. In short, the heater 107 of the described embodiment may be any radiant, convection, infrared or other conventional heater, and is preferably provided with standard controls.
  • Referring now to FIGS. [0035] 2-4, the mold 108 includes a three-dimensional surface 116 that is, in a conventional manner, shaped to correspond with the desired product. The mold includes an internal vacuum chamber 114 and a plurality of vacuum holes 117 that extend through the mold 108 from the vacuum chamber 114 to the surface 116. The internal vacuum chamber 114 is preferably defined by a cabinet 118 extending substantially the entire width and depth of the mold 108. The cabinet 118 functions as a large vacuum manifold that is easily intersected by vacuum holes 116. The cabinet 118 preferably includes a vacuum inlet 120 that extends from the mold 108 and terminates in a fitting 122 for connecting the cabinet 118 to a conventional vacuum (not shown).
  • As shown in FIG. 5, the internal vacuum chamber can alternatively be defined by a network of lines [0036] 118′ entrapped within the mold 108′. The network 118′ preferably includes a plurality of parallel lines interconnected to a vacuum inlet 120′. The precise location of the lines 118′ is preferably generic, for example, spaced evenly every 6 inches alone a single plane. Alternatively, the location of the lines can be application specific, for example, the lines can be located only in areas where vacuum holes are desired. In applications incorporating vacuum lines 118′, it is necessary to ensure that the vacuum holes 117′ penetrate the vacuum lines 118′.
  • With further reference to FIGS. 3 and 4, the mold [0037] 108 is carried by an actuation system 160 that selectively moves the mold 108 into and out of the rack arms 102 a-c and also into and out of quench 110. In general, the actuation system 160 includes four vertically disposed cylinders 164 a-d that provide the mold 108 with vertical movement, a carriage 166 mounted atop the vertical cylinders 164 a-d, a platen 172 rotatably mounted within the carriage 166, and a drive assembly 180 that rotates the platen 172 to provide the mold 108 with rotational movement.
  • The four vertically disposed pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders [0038] 164 a-d are preferably mounted directly to the floor or to a frame (not shown) disposed within or upon the floor. The cylinders 164 a-d are preferably operated by a conventional control system (not shown) that extends and retracts the cylinders 164 a-d in unison. The carriage 166 is mounted atop the pneumatic cylinders 164 a-d to move vertically with the cylinders. The carriage 166 is a substantially rectangular framework having a pair of motor supports 165 a-b. The motor supports 165 a-b are centrally located on opposite lateral ends of the carriage 166.
  • The platen [0039] 172 is a generally rectangular structure that supports the mold 108 and is fitted within the carriage 166. The platen 172 includes a pair of axles 174 a-b extending from opposite lateral ends of the platen 172. The axles 174 a-b are centrally located and are fitted into corresponding bearing or bushing assemblies (not shown) in the carriage 166. A platen gear 185 a-b is mounted over each axle 174 a-b.
  • The drive assembly [0040] 180 includes a pair of electric drive motors 182 a-b mounted on motor supports 165 a-b. A drive gear 184 a-b is mounted on the shaft of each motor 182 a-b. A drive chain 186 a-b operatively interconnects the motors 182 a-b and the platen 172. More specifically, a drive chain 186 a-b is fitted over each drive gear 184 a-b/platen gear 185 a-b combination so that operation of motors 185 a-b results in rotation of the platen 172. The respective sizes of the drive gears and platen gears are selected to provide the desired drive ratio. Typically, this ratio will be selected in view of the characteristics of the drive motors 1 82 a-b and the desired mold rotation speed. The described actuation system 160 is merely exemplary and may be replaced by any of wide variety of actuation systems capable of moving the mold 108 into and out of the quench 110.
  • The quench [0041] 110 is shown in FIGS. 3 and 6-11, and generally includes a reservoir 113 containing a volume of quenching fluid 114. The quench 110 is preferably disposed immediately below the mold 108 so that the mold 108 and thermoformed sheet 104 can be lowered into the quench 110 immediately after forming. In the described embodiment, the reservoir 113 is a tub of sufficient size to receive the formed part 105 while it remains on the mold 108. The quenching fluid 114 is preferably water, but may be oil, coolant or other liquids. If desired, the quenching fluid 114 can alternatively be a non-liquid substance having substantially fluid-like characteristics. For example, the quenching fluid 114 can be a vibrating mass of ceramic beads (not shown).
  • The temperature of the quenching fluid [0042] 114 or other quenching medium is preferably maintained by a conventional temperature control system (not shown). The temperature control system may include chillers and/or heaters as needed to maintain the quenching medium at the desired temperature. Chiller and heaters capable of maintaining the quenching medium at a desired temperature are well known. By maintaining the quenching fluid at a substantially constant temperature, the cooling time of the formed part can also be held substantially constant. Each time the mold 108 and thermoplastic sheet 104 are submerged in the quenching fluid 114 and cooled, the temperature of the fluid 114 optionally may be tested and cooled to maintain it at a desired temperature.
  • II. Operation [0043]
  • Operation of the present invention will be described with particular reference to FIGS. 2 and 6-[0044] 11. In operation, the sheet 104 is loaded into the rack 102 at a loading station 200. More specifically, one from the rack arms 102 a-c is positioned adjacent loading station 200. Clamps 112 are opened to prepare the rack 102 to receive the sheet 104. The sheet 104 is then positioned on the rack 102 within its peripheral edges located between the open jaws of the corresponding clamps 112. The sheet 104 can be positioned manually or through the use of conventional “pick and place” machinery. Once the sheet 104 is positioned, the clamps 112 are closed to grip the peripheral edges of the sheet 104.
  • The rack [0045] 104 then rotates to advance sheet 104 to a heating station 202 where heat is applied to the sheet 104 with heater 107. The rack 104 is typically automated, for example, by gear- or chain-driven rotation and translation (not shown). The rack 102 may alternatively be set-up as a conventional track-fed system to move sheets 104 to different stations. If desired, the rack 102 may be moved manually. At the heating station 202, the heater 107 applies the desired amount of heat energy to the sheet 104. Typically, the sheet 104 will be heated a predetermined number of degrees above its glass-transition temperature.
  • With reference to FIG. 2, the rack arm [0046] 102 a, b or c carrying the heated sheet 104 is then rotated to the molding station 204, which is best shown in FIG. 6. In the mold station, the rack 102 b aligns the sheet 104 over the mold 108. Next, as shown in FIG. 7, the mold 108 is raised into contact with the sheet 104 by extension of the vertical cylinders 164 a-d. At the same time, the vacuum source is switched on, creating a partial vacuum within the vacuum chamber 114 and drawing air through the vacuum holes 116 (FIGS. 3 and 5). The mold 108 is raised until the sheet is sufficiently drawn onto the three-dimensional surface of the mold. Once the sheet 104 is drawn fully over the vacuum mold 108, the clamps 112 release so that the formed sheet 104 is free to move with the mold 108. As shown in FIG. 8, the mold 108 is then withdrawn from the arm 102 with cylinders 164 a-d. In an alternative embodiment, the rack 102 may be provided with a vertical drive mechanism that permits the appropriate rack arm 102 a-c to be lowered to bring the sheet into contact with the surface of the mold 108 and then raised after the sheet 104 has been released on the mold 108.
  • Next, the actuation system [0047] 160 lowers the mold 108 and sheet 104 into the quench 110. With reference to FIGS. 9 and 10, the drive assembly 180 first rotates the platen 172 about 180 degrees so the mold 108 is suspended beneath the carriage 166 in an inverted orientation. The platen 172 is rotated by operation of motors 182 a-b. The motors 182 a-b rotate the drive gears 184 a-b, which in turn drive the drive chains 186 a-b. Movement of the drive chains 186 a-b causes rotational movement of the platen gears 185 a-b and ultimately the platen 172.
  • Once the platen [0048] 172 is rotated as shown in FIG. 10, the carriage 166 is lowered by operation of the vertical cylinders 164 a-d. As shown in FIG. 11, the vertical cylinders 164 a-d are retracted in unison, thereby lowering the carriage 166 and immersing the mold 108 and sheet 104 into the quench 110. The mold 108 and sheet 104 remain submerged in the quench 110 for a predetermined period of time selected to permit the sheet 104 to cool sufficiently so that it does not undergo deformation when removed from the mold 108. The mold 108 is then lifted from the quench 110. The vertical cylinders 164 a-d are extended in unison lifting the carriage 166, platen 172, mold 108 and sheet 104 from the quenching fluid 114. Once the vertical cylinders 164 a-d are sufficiently extended, the platen 172 is rotated 180 degrees by drive motors 182 a-b to return the mold 108 to the upright position. The vacuum is then released, preferably by opening the vacuum chamber 114 (FIGS. 3 and 5) to the environment. The sheet 104 may then removed from the mold 108 by reversing the vacuum and blowing the sheet 104 (now fully formed into a part) off from the mold 108. Optionally, the sheet is removed by hand or by a conventional pick-and-place mechanism, and placed on conveyor 105 for further processing (FIG. 2). The process is repeated for the desired number of sheets.
  • III. Manufacture of the Mold [0049]
  • The mold [0050] 108 is preferably manufactured in the process shown in FIGS. 12A-D. In general, the process includes defining a mold impression 455 in mold media 454, positioning a vacuum cabinet 118 or vacuum lines 118′ (collectively referred to as a vacuum chamber 114), pouring molten material into the mold impression 455 over or around the vacuum chamber 114 to form the mold 108. After the mold 108 is removed from the casting box 450, vacuum holes may be drilled through the mold face at pre-selected positions to provide fluid communication between the vacuum chamber 114 and the environment.
  • With further reference to FIGS. [0051] 12A-D, the mold media 454 preferably is sand or other conventional casting media. This media is disposed in casting box 450. As shown in FIG. 12A, a casting tool 452 is pressed into the media 454 to create an impression of the tool in the media. The tool 452 is generally conventional and is preferably of wood, carved in the shape of the desired mold and thermoformed article. As will be appreciated, other conventional molding tools or techniques may be used to form an impression in the media 454.
  • Referring now to FIG. 12B, the molding tool [0052] 452 is withdrawn from the box 450, leaving a mold impression 455 in the media 454.
  • As shown in FIG. 12C, the vacuum chamber [0053] 114 (defined by vacuum cabinet 118 or vacuum lines 118′) is suspended in the mold impression 455. The vacuum chamber 114 is preferably held in the desired location by wire or other conventional techniques. As noted above, the vacuum chamber 114 is preferably a hollow cabinet 118 constructed of virtually any material that does not substantially deform when in contact with the molten material used to cast the mold 108. Preferably, the vacuum cabinet 118 is aluminum alloy, but other materials may be used, depending on the casting material and the amount of allowable deformation of the cabinet. The vacuum chamber 114 may alternatively be defined by a network of vacuum lines 118′. In such applications, the vacuum lines 118′ may be arranged in a coil form as shown. Optionally, the lines may be in any pattern to optimize the vacuum source available to the exterior contours of the mold face 480. For example, the vacuum lines 118′ may be defined in a grid-like pattern or the lines may arranged so that they are closest to the areas of the mold face 480, i.e., the valleys or crevices of the three-dimensional surface, that require the most draw to pull thermoplastic into them during a thermoforming operation. Moreover, both a cabinet 118 and a vacuum line 118 ′ may be positioned and cast into the mold 108 in certain applications as desired.
  • The next step is illustrated in FIG. 12D. In this step, casting material is poured into the mold impression [0054] 455, conforming to the contours thereof. The casting material is preferably aluminum, but any commercially available metal, alloy or synthetic material may be used to form the mold, as the application requires. Preferably, casting material is poured to fill the mold impression 455 extending over and entrapping the vacuum chamber 114. The casting material fills the contours of the mold impression 455 to form a three-dimensional surface of ridges and valleys, or the “mold face” 480. Alternatively, the vacuum chamber 114 can be secured to the undersurface of the mold 108 after the mold has been cast.
  • Although not separately illustrated, the molten material is permitted to cure and the formed mold [0055] 108 is removed from the cavity. Once removed from the cavity, a plurality of vacuum holes may be drilled, punched or otherwise formed through the mold face to provide fluid communication between the vacuum chamber 114 and the mold face 480. Because the mold does not include conventional cooling lines, the vacuum holes may be drilled without worry of damaging one of such lines. Ultimately, many more positions are available through which vacuum holes may be drilled.
  • IV. First Alternative Embodiment [0056]
  • A first alternative embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIGS. 13 and 14. This embodiment includes most of the same components of the preferred embodiment, except the drive assembly. The hydraulic cylinders [0057] 264 a-d are similar to the hydraulic cylinders of the preferred embodiment, except that the rams 265 a-d preferably are telescoping and that the carriage 272 is fixed to the carriage supports 273 a-d, a distance below the tops of the supports 278 a-d. In operation, the mold 208 is lifted in unison by the hydraulic telescoping cylinders 264 a-d to engage a sheet 104 supported on the rack 202 b in a manner identical to that of the preferred embodiment. The mold 208 is shown in the raised position in FIG. 13 in phantom lines. When the mold 208 is withdrawn with the sheet 104 vacuum drawn against it, rather than rotating, the carriage platen 272 is drawn downward in unison by the hydraulic cylinders 264 a-d, until as shown in phantom lines in FIG. 14 the carriage 272 is positioned within the quenching tank 213. There, the sheet 104 is cooled and formed as described in connection with the preferred embodiment. After the sheet 104 is permitted to cool sufficiently, the hydraulic cylinder rams 265 a-d are extended in unison, lifting the carriage 272, mold 108 and sheet 104 from the quenching tank 213. The sheet 104 may be removed from the mold with any of the techniques described in connection with the preferred embodiment or other conventional removal techniques. This process may be repeated as desired to mold a number of sheets.
  • V. Second Alternative Embodiment [0058]
  • A second alternative embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIG. 15. The forming apparatus shown in FIG. 15 generally includes an inverted mold [0059] 308 mounted to carriage 372 which is further mounted to inverted hydraulic cylinders 364 a-d. In operation, the hydraulic cylinders lower carriage 372 and mold 308 down through rack arm 302 b so that the sheet 104 may be drawn against the mold 308 as described in the preferred embodiment. The carriage 372 is further descended in unison by the hydraulic cylinders 364 a-d so that the mold 308 and sheet 104 associated with it are positioned in the quenching tank 313 where the liquid 314 is permitted to cool the sheet 104. The mold 108 is shown in the fully lowered position in FIG. 15 in phantom lines. Once the sheet 104 is sufficiently cooled it may be withdrawn on the mold 308 via the hydraulic cylinders 364 a-d. The sheet 104 may be removed from the mold with any of the techniques described in connection with the preferred embodiment or other conventional removal techniques. This process may be repeated as desired to mold a number of sheets.
  • The above description is that of the preferred embodiments of the invention. Various alterations and changes can be made without departing from the spirit and broader aspects of the invention as defined in the appended claims, which are to be interpreted in accordance with the principles of patent law including the doctrine of equivalents. Any reference to claim elements in the singular, for example, using the articles “a,” “an,” “the” or “said,” is not to be construed as limiting the element to the singular. [0060]

Claims (32)

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1. A method of thermoforming, comprising:
providing a vacuum mold having an internal vacuum chamber;
heating a thermoplastic material;
drawing the heated thermoplastic material over the vacuum mold, including drawing a partial vacuum in the internal vacuum chamber; and
cooling the formed thermoplastic material by quenching the thermoplastic material while the thermoplastic material remains on the vacuum mold.
2. The method of claim 1 comprising maintaining the quench at a substantially constant temperature.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the thermoplastic material is quenched in a material selected from the group consisting of water, oil, coolant and ceramic beads.
4. The method of claim 3 comprising removing the thermoplastic material from the vacuum mold by reversing the vacuum and blowing a gas against the thermoplastic material.
5. A thermoforming apparatus, comprising:
a vacuum mold having a surface and an internal vacuum chamber, said mold defining a plurality of vacuum holes extending between said surface and said vacuum chamber;
a quench; and
actuation means for moving said mold into said quench while a thermoplastic material is retained on said mold.
6. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein said quench includes a reservoir and a quenching fluid, said reservoir being of sufficient size to receive said mold while a thermoplastic material is retained on said mold.
7. The apparatus of claim 6 further comprising a temperature control means for maintaining said quenching fluid at a substantially constant temperature.
8. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein said actuation means includes a carriage that supports said mold.
9. The apparatus of claim 8 comprising a rack for holding at least one sheet of the thermoplastic material in a supported position.
10. The apparatus of claim 9 wherein said carriage is translatable between a first position wherein said mold contacts and draws said sheet in said supported position and a second position wherein said carriage disposes said mold with said sheet retained thereon in said quench.
11. The apparatus of claim 10 comprising a drive assembly that rotates said carriage along an axis so that in said first position said mold faces said sheet and so that in said second position said mold faces said quench.
12. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein translation between said first and second positions requires rotation of said carriage about 180 degrees.
13. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein said internal vacuum chamber is at least one of a vacuum cabinet and a network of vacuum line.
14. A thermoforming system comprising:
a first station including a heater;
a second station including a vacuum mold and a quenching reservoir, said vacuum mold actuatable between a drawing position wherein said vacuum mold draws a thermoplastic sheet against said vacuum mold with a partial vacuum, and a quenching position wherein said vacuum mold is disposed in said quenching reservoir; and
a rack including a plurality of sheet-receiving openings, the rack being supportive of the thermoplastic sheet, wherein said rack moves said thermoplastic sheet to said first station and said second station.
15. The thermoforming apparatus of claim 14 wherein said rack is a rotatable carousel.
16. The thermoforming apparatus of claim 14 wherein said rack is disposed on a set of rails.
17. The thermoforming apparatus of claim 14 wherein said vacuum mold includes a surface and an internal vacuum chamber, said vacuum mold defining a plurality of vacuum holes providing fluid communication between said internal vacuum chamber and the environment.
18. A thermoforming apparatus comprising:
a cooling tank;
a mold including at least one of a vacuum cabinet and a vacuum line network in fluid communication with the environment through a plurality of vacuum holes defined by said mold; and
an actuator system supportive of said mold, said actuator system actuatable between a draw position wherein said mold draws a thermoformable sheet against said mold with a partial vacuum, and a quench position wherein said mold is disposed in said cooling tank.
19. The thermoforming apparatus of claim 18 wherein said mold is of a plurality of maximum and minimum thickness regions and wherein said vacuum line network is configure d in the mold adjacent to the minimum thickness regions.
20. The thermoforming apparatus of claim 18 comprising a rack to hold at least one thermoplastic sheet.
21. The thermoforming apparatus of claim 20 wherein said actuator system drives said mold through said rack to contact said sheet and move said sheet with said mold into said cooling tank into said quench position.
22. The thermoforming apparatus of claim 18 wherein said actuator system moves said mold into said draw position and then rotates said mold a pre-selected angle so that the mold is moveable into said quench position.
23. The thermoforming apparatus of claim 18 wherein said actuator system is operated by a plurality pneumatic cylinders that move said mold in a first direction to said draw position and then retract said mold away from said draw position in a second direction until said mold is disposed in said quenched position.
24. The thermoforming apparatus of claim 18 wherein said thermoformable sheet is held in a rack and said actuator system drives said mold into contact with said thermoformable sheet in a first direction and then retracts said mold after the thermoformable sheet is drawn against said mold in a second direction opposite said first direction until the mold attains said quenched position.
25. A method of manufacturing a thermoforming mold comprising:
forming a cavity is a mold media, the cavity corresponding in shape to the thermoforming mold;
positioning a vacuum chamber in the cavity;
supplying a molten material to the cavity to cast the mold about the vacuum chamber, the molten material conforming to the cavity and defining a mold face; and
forming at least one hole in the mold extending from the mold face to the vacuum chamber to provide communication between the vacuum chamber and the mold face.
26. The method of claim 25 wherein the mold face includes a plurality of ridges and valleys, and wherein the vacuum chamber is a vacuum line network, the vacuum line network being positioned substantially coincidentally with the valleys.
27. The method of claim 25 wherein the vacuum chamber and vacuum holes define the only voids in the mold.
28. The method of claim 25 wherein the mold is of varying thickness and wherein the vacuum chamber is a vacuum line network, the vacuum line network extending through the mold in areas of lesser thickness.
29. The method of claim 25 wherein the vacuum chamber is a vacuum line network, the vacuum line network being laid out in a grid pattern within the mold.
30. A process for manufacturing a vacuum mold comprising:
impressing into a mold media a mold cavity corresponding in shape to a desired shape of the mold;
suspending a vacuum chamber in the mold cavity, the vacuum chamber having an attachment means for operatively connecting the mold cavity to a vacuum supply means;
supplying a molten material to the mold cavity, the molten material filling at least a portion of the mold cavity and surrounding at least a portion of the vacuum chamber;
curing the molten material to define the mold at least partially surrounding the vacuum chamber, the mold defining a contoured face to shape a thermoformable sheet; and
defining a plurality of holes in the mold to create fluid communication between the vacuum chamber and the face.
31. The process of claim 30 wherein the vacuum chamber is a vacuum line network.
32. The process of claim 30 wherein the vacuum chamber is a vacuum cabinet.
US09/951,176 2001-09-13 2001-09-13 Thermoforming method and apparatus Abandoned US20030047847A1 (en)

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US09/951,176 US20030047847A1 (en) 2001-09-13 2001-09-13 Thermoforming method and apparatus
CA 2378273 CA2378273C (en) 2001-09-13 2002-03-22 Thermoforming method and apparatus
JP2002091099A JP3746458B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2002-03-28 Thermoforming method and manufacturing method of thermoforming mold
MXPA02004818 MXPA02004818A (en) 2001-09-13 2002-05-14 Thermoforming method and apparatus.
AT02255416T AT504417T (en) 2001-09-13 2002-08-02 Hotmap process and device
DE60239655T DE60239655D1 (en) 2001-09-13 2002-08-02 Thermoforming process and device
EP04027580A EP1510320A1 (en) 2001-09-13 2002-08-02 Vacuum mould manufacturing method for thermoforming thermoplastics
EP02255416A EP1293330B1 (en) 2001-09-13 2002-08-02 Thermoforming method and apparatus
US10/807,760 US7157041B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2004-03-24 Thermoforming method and apparatus
US10/807,759 US7225853B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2004-03-24 Thermoforming method and apparatus
US10/953,041 US7204681B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2004-09-29 Thermoforming method and apparatus

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US10/953,041 Continuation-In-Part US7204681B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2004-09-29 Thermoforming method and apparatus

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US10/807,760 Expired - Fee Related US7157041B2 (en) 2001-09-13 2004-03-24 Thermoforming method and apparatus
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MXPA02004818A (en) 2004-12-13
JP3746458B2 (en) 2006-02-15
AT504417T (en) 2011-04-15
US7204681B2 (en) 2007-04-17
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EP1510320A1 (en) 2005-03-02
US20050040569A1 (en) 2005-02-24
EP1293330A3 (en) 2003-06-25
US20040195720A1 (en) 2004-10-07
EP1293330A2 (en) 2003-03-19
US7157041B2 (en) 2007-01-02
DE60239655D1 (en) 2011-05-19
EP1293330B1 (en) 2011-04-06
CA2378273A1 (en) 2003-03-13
CA2378273C (en) 2007-11-13

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