Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Surgical navigation systems and processes for high tibial osteotomy

Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US20020198451A1
US20020198451A1 US10084291 US8429102A US2002198451A1 US 20020198451 A1 US20020198451 A1 US 20020198451A1 US 10084291 US10084291 US 10084291 US 8429102 A US8429102 A US 8429102A US 2002198451 A1 US2002198451 A1 US 2002198451A1
Authority
US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
position
body
tibia
orientation
according
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10084291
Inventor
Christopher Carson
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Smith and Nephew Inc
Original Assignee
Smith and Nephew Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/36Image-producing devices or illumination devices not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/10Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges for stereotaxic surgery, e.g. frame-based stereotaxis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/70Spinal positioners or stabilisers ; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/10Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/101Computer-aided simulation of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/102Modelling of surgical devices, implants or prosthesis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/10Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/101Computer-aided simulation of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/105Modelling of the patient, e.g. for ligaments or bones
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/10Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations
    • A61B2034/107Visualisation of planned trajectories or target regions
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2046Tracking techniques
    • A61B2034/2055Optical tracking systems
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2068Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis using pointers, e.g. pointers having reference marks for determining coordinates of body points
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2072Reference field transducer attached to an instrument or patient
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/25User interfaces for surgical systems
    • A61B2034/252User interfaces for surgical systems indicating steps of a surgical procedure
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/25User interfaces for surgical systems
    • A61B2034/254User interfaces for surgical systems being adapted depending on the stage of the surgical procedure
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/25User interfaces for surgical systems
    • A61B2034/256User interfaces for surgical systems having a database of accessory information, e.g. including context sensitive help or scientific articles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/36Image-producing devices or illumination devices not otherwise provided for
    • A61B90/37Surgical systems with images on a monitor during operation
    • A61B2090/376Surgical systems with images on a monitor during operation using X-rays, e.g. fluoroscopy
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/39Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers
    • A61B2090/3904Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers specially adapted for marking specified tissue
    • A61B2090/3916Bone tissue
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B90/00Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 - A61B50/00, e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges
    • A61B90/39Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers
    • A61B2090/3983Reference marker arrangements for use with image guided surgery
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/10Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/25User interfaces for surgical systems
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/38Joints for elbows or knees
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/38Joints for elbows or knees
    • A61F2/3859Femoral components
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/38Joints for elbows or knees
    • A61F2/389Tibial components
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/46Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
    • A61F2/4657Measuring instruments used for implanting artificial joints
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/46Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
    • A61F2/4684Trial or dummy prostheses
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30535Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30604Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for modular
    • A61F2002/30616Sets comprising a plurality of prosthetic parts of different sizes or orientations
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/30767Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth
    • A61F2/30771Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth applied in original prostheses, e.g. holes, grooves
    • A61F2002/30878Special external and/or bone-contacting surfaces, e.g. coating for improving bone ingrowth applied in original prostheses, e.g. holes, grooves with non-sharp protrusions, for instance contacting the bone for anchoring, e.g. keels, pegs, pins, posts, shanks, stems, struts
    • A61F2002/30891Plurality of protrusions
    • A61F2002/30892Plurality of protrusions parallel
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2/46Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor
    • A61F2002/4632Special tools or methods for implanting or extracting artificial joints, accessories, bone grafts or substitutes, or particular adaptations therefor using computer-controlled surgery, e.g. robotic surgery

Abstract

Systems and processes for tracking anatomy, instrumentation, and references, and rendering images and data related to them in connection with surgical operations, particularly high tibial osteotomy (“HTO”). These systems and processes are accomplished by using a computer to intraoperatively obtain images of body parts and to register, navigate, and track surgical instruments.

Description

    RELATED APPLICATION DATA
  • [0001]
    This document claims the benefit of U.S. S No. 60/271,818, filed Feb. 27, 2001 entitled “Image Guided System for Arthroplasty” and U.S. S No. 60/355,899, filed Feb. 11, 2002 entitled “Surgical Navigation Systems and Processes,” which documents are incorporated herein by this reference.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    This invention generally relates to use in certain osteotomy surgery, of systems and processes for tracking anatomy, implements, instrumentation, trial implants, implant components and virtual constructs or references, and rendering images and data related to them in connection with orthopedic, surgical and other operations. Anatomical structures and such items may be attached to or otherwise associated with fiducial functionality, and constructs registered in position using fiducial functionality, whose position and orientation can be sensed and tracked by systems and according to processes of the present invention in three dimensions. Such structures, items and constructs can be rendered onscreen properly positioned and oriented relative to each other using associated image files, data files, image input, or other sensory input, based on the tracking. Such systems and processes, among other things, allow surgeons to navigate and perform surgical operations using images that reveal interior portions of the body combined with computer generated or transmitted images that show surgical implements, instruments, trials, implants, and other devices located and oriented properly relative to the body part. Such systems and processes allow, among other things, more accurate and effective resection of bone, placement and assessment of trial implants and joint performance, and placement and assessment of performance of actual implants and joint performance.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0003]
    In unicompartmental arthritis of the knee, high tibial osteotomy (“HTO”) is a treatment of choice. HTO is a common treatment for tibia vara (bow legs). An osteotomy is a surgical procedure to realign a bone in order to change the biomechanics of a joint, especially to change the force transmission through a joint. HTO is a corrective surgical procedure in which the upper part of the tibia is resected so that the lower limb can be realigned. The purpose of HTO is to realign the deformed tibial plateau to shift the load bearing into the unaffected compartment of the knee.
  • [0004]
    There are three types of HTO: closing wedge, open wedge, and cylindrical barrel. The closing wedge HTO is the most common procedure and it involves realignment of the bone by removal of a lateral wedge of bone from the proximal tibia. The wedge is first planned on a frontal-plane standing X-ray by drawing a wedge of the desired correction angle, where the wedge's upper plane is parallel to the tibial plateau and the lower plane is above the tibial tubercle. Ideally, the wedge will produce a hinge of cortical bone approximately 2-5 mm in thickness.
  • [0005]
    Upon surgical exposure of the proximal tibia, the correction is mapped to the bones of the patient with a ruler or a jig system. The surgery is then performed either free-hand or with the assistance of Kirschner wires (K-wires) as cutting guides. Intraoperative fluroscopic X-ray is often employed for verification before and during the procedure.
  • [0006]
    Unlike total knee arthroplasty (“TKA”), HTO preserves the joint's original cartilaginous surfaces and corrects the fundamental mechanical problem of the knee. This advantage is especially important to young active patients because TKA has a greater probability of earlier failure in active patients.
  • [0007]
    However, problems remain in HTO performance. A major difficulty with HTO is that the outcome is sometimes not acceptably predictable because it is difficult for a surgeon to attain the desired correction angle. Current instrumentation cannot accurately produce the desired resection from preoperative plans. On average, the margin of error is reported between 6° and 14°. Technical difficulties also arise from the use of fluoroscopy, such as image-intensifier nonlinearities and distortions that compromise accuracy, and parallax errors that can provide misleading angular and positional guidance. Additionally, the use of continual fluoroscopic imaging is sometimes required thus exposing the surgeon and assistants to radiation.
  • [0008]
    Several providers have developed and marketed improved cutting jigs that have improved the accuracy of the resection in HTO. However, extensive fluoroscopic time is still needed for the positioning of the jigs. Inaccurate pin placement can also affect the accuracy of the alignment of the resection, thus increasing shear stresses across the osteotomy. Other providers have developed various forms of imaging systems for use in surgery. Many are based on CT scans and/or MRI data or on digitized points on the anatomy. Other systems align preoperative CT scans, MRIs or other images with intraoperative patient positions. A preoperative planning system allows the surgeon to select reference points and to determine the final implant position. Intraoperatively, the system calibrates the patient position to that preoperative plan, such as using a “point cloud” technique, and can use a robot to make femoral and tibial preparations.
  • [0009]
    Accordingly, there is a continuing need for an intraoperative planning system and process for performing HTO's with minimal fluroscopic exposure. There is also a need for a system and process that allows improved accuracy in performing the wedge resection and in placing pins or staples.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0010]
    The present invention is applicable not only for knee repair, reconstruction or replacement surgery, but also repair, reconstruction or replacement surgery in connection with any other joint of the body as well as any other surgical or other operation where it is useful to track position and orientation of body parts, non-body components and/or virtual references such as rotational axes, and to display and output data regarding positioning and orientation of them relative to each other for use in navigation and performance of the operation.
  • [0011]
    Systems and processes according to one embodiment of the present invention use position and/or orientation tracking sensors such as infrared sensors acting stereoscopically or otherwise to track positions of body parts, surgery-related items such as implements, instrumentation, trial prosthetics, prosthetic components, and virtual constructs or references such as rotational axes which have been calculated and stored based on designation of bone landmarks. Processing capability such as any desired form of computer functionality, whether standalone, networked, or otherwise, takes into account the position and orientation information as to various items in the position sensing field (which may correspond generally or specifically to all or portions or more than all of the surgical field) based on sensed position and orientation of their associated fiducials or based on stored position and/or orientation information. The processing functionality correlates this position and orientation information for each object with stored information regarding the items, such as a computerized fluoroscopic imaged file of a femur or tibia, a wire frame data file for rendering a representation of an instrumentation component, trial prosthesis or actual prosthesis, or a computer generated file relating to a rotational axis or other virtual construct or reference. The processing functionality then displays position and orientation of these objects on a screen or monitor, or otherwise. Thus, systems and processes according to one embodiment of the invention can display and otherwise output useful data relating to predicted or actual position and orientation of body parts, surgically related items, implants, and virtual constructs for use in navigation, assessment, and otherwise performing surgery or other operations.
  • [0012]
    As one example, images such as fluoroscopy images showing internal aspects of the femur and tibia can be displayed on the monitor in combination with actual or predicted shape, position and orientation of surgical implements, instrumentation components, trial implants, actual prosthetic components, and rotational axes in order to allow the surgeon to properly position and assess performance of various aspects of the tibia being repaired, reconstructed or replaced. The surgeon may navigate tools, instrumentation, trial prostheses, actual prostheses and other items relative to the tibia in order to perform HTO's more accurately, efficiently, and with better alignment and stability.
  • [0013]
    Systems and processes according to the present invention can also use the position tracking information and, if desired, data relating to shape and configuration of surgical related items and virtual constructs or references in order to produce numerical data which may be used with or without graphic imaging to perform tasks such as assessing performance of trial prosthetics statically and throughout a range of motion, appropriately modifying tissue such as ligaments to improve such performance and similarly assessing performance of actual prosthetic components which have been placed in the patient for alignment and stability. Systems and processes according to the present invention can also generate data based on position tracking and, if desired, other information to provide cues on screen, aurally or as otherwise desired to assist in the surgery such as suggesting certain bone modification steps based on performance of components as sensed by systems and processes according to the present invention.
  • [0014]
    According to a preferred embodiment of systems and processes according to the present invention, at least the following steps are involved:
  • [0015]
    1. Obtain appropriate images such as fluoroscopy images of appropriate body parts such as femur and tibia, the imager being tracked in position via an associated fiducial whose position and orientation is tracked by position/orientation sensors such as stereoscopic infrared (active or passive) sensors according to the present invention.
  • [0016]
    2. Register tools, instrumentation and other items to be used in surgery, each of which corresponds to a fiducial whose position and orientation can be tracked by the position/orientation sensors.
  • [0017]
    3. Locating and registering body structure such as designating points on the femur and tibia using a probe associated with a fiducial in order to provide the processing functionality information relating to the body part such as rotational axes.
  • [0018]
    4. Navigating and positioning instrumentation such as cutting instrumentation in order to modify bone, at least partially using images generated by the processing functionality corresponding to what is being tracked and/or has been tracked, and/or is predicted by the system, and thereby resecting bone effectively, efficiently and accurately.
  • [0019]
    5. Navigating and positioning items such as pivot pins and, if desired, at the appropriate time discontinuing tracking the position and orientation of the items using the fiducial that is attached to the item and starting to track that position and orientation using the body part fiducial on which the item is installed.
  • [0020]
    6. Assessing alignment and stability of pivot pins and joint, both statically and dynamically as desired, using images of the body parts in combination with images of the pivot pins or trial components while conducting appropriate rotation, anterior-posterior drawer and flexion/extension tests and automatically storing and calculating results to present data or information which allows the surgeon to assess alignment and stability.
  • [0021]
    7. Adjusting pivot pins if necessary and adjusting trial components as desired for acceptable alignment and stability.
  • [0022]
    8. Fixing cutting jigs to the body part at the desired angle as calculated by the system.
  • [0023]
    9. Assessing alignment and stability of the wedge resection and joint by use of some or all tests mentioned above and/or other tests as desired, adjusting if desired, and otherwise verifying acceptable alignment, stability and performance of the wedge resection, both statically and dynamically.
  • [0024]
    This process, or processes including it or some of it may be used in any total or partial joint repair, reconstruction or replacement, including knees, hips, shoulders, elbows, ankles and any other desired joint in the body.
  • [0025]
    Systems and processes according to the present invention represent significant improvement over other previous systems and processes. For instance, systems which use CT and MRI data generally require the placement of reference frames pre-operatively which can lead to infection at the pin site. The resulting 3D images must then be registered, or calibrated, to the patient anatomy intraoperatively. Current registration methods are less accurate than the fluoroscopic system. These imaging modalities are also more expensive. Some “imageless” systems, or non-imaging systems, require digitizing a large number of points to define the complex anatomical geometries of the knee at each desired site. This can be very time intensive resulting in longer operating room time. Other imageless systems determine the mechanical axis of the knee by performing an intraoperative kinematic motion to determine the center of rotation at the hip, knee, and ankle. This requires placement of reference frames at the iliac crest of the pelvis and in or on the ankle. This calculation is also time consuming at the system must find multiple points in different planes in order to find the center of rotation. This is also problematic in patients with pathologic conditions. Ligaments and soft tissues in the arthritic patient are not normal and thus will give a center of rotation that is not desirable for normal knees.
  • [0026]
    Robotic systems require expensive CT or MRI scans and also require pre-operative placement of tibial markers, usually the day before surgery, or pre-operative construction of tibia surface models. These systems are also much slower, almost doubling operating room time and expense.
  • [0027]
    None of these systems can effectively track pivot pins during a range of motion and calculate the relative angle of the wedge resection, among other things. Also, none of them currently make suggestions on the appropriate angle or surgical techniques for wedge resection based on reference axes and correction algorithms. Additionally, none of these systems currently track the patella.
  • [0028]
    An object of certain aspects of the present invention is to use computer processing functionality in combination with imaging and position and/or orientation tracking sensors to present to the surgeon during surgical operations visual and data information useful to navigate, track and/or position implements, instrumentation, and other items and virtual constructs relative to the human body in order to improve performance of a repaired, replaced or reconstructed bone.
  • [0029]
    Another object of certain aspects of the present invention is to use computer processing functionality in combination with imaging and position and/or orientation tracking sensors to present to the surgeon during surgical operations visual and data information useful to assess performance of a tibia and certain items positioned therein, for stability, alignment and other factors, and to instrumentation and resection in order to improve such performance of a repaired, reconstructed or replaced bone.
  • [0030]
    Another object of certain aspects of the present invention is to use computer processing functionality in combination with imaging and position and/or orientation tracking sensors to present to the surgeon during surgical operations visual and data information useful to show any or all predicted position and movement of instrumentation and other items and virtual constructs relative to the human body in order to select appropriate angles, resect bone accurately, effectively and efficiently, and thereby improve performance of a repaired, replaced or reconstructed bone.
  • [0031]
    Other objects, features and advantages of the present invention are apparent with respect to the remainder of this document.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0032]
    [0032]FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a particular embodiment of systems and processes according to the present invention.
  • [0033]
    [0033]FIG. 2 is a view of a knee prepared for surgery to which fiducials according to one embodiment of the present invention have been attached.
  • [0034]
    [0034]FIG. 3 is a view of a portion of a leg prepared for surgery according to the present invention with a C-arm for obtaining fluoroscopic images associated with a fiducial according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0035]
    [0035]FIG. 4 is a fluoroscopic image of free space rendered on a monitor according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0036]
    [0036]FIG. 5 is a fluoroscopic image of femoral head obtained and rendered according one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0037]
    [0037]FIG. 6 is a fluoroscopic image of a knee obtained and rendered according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0038]
    [0038]FIG. 7 is a fluoroscopic image of a tibia distal end obtained and rendered according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0039]
    [0039]FIG. 8 is a fluoroscopic image of a lateral view of a knee obtained and rendered according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0040]
    [0040]FIG. 9 is a fluoroscopic image of a lateral view of a knee obtained and rendered according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0041]
    [0041]FIG. 10 is a fluoroscopic image of a lateral view of a tibia distal end obtained and rendered according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0042]
    [0042]FIG. 11 shows a probe according to one embodiment of the present invention being used to register a surgically related component for tracking according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0043]
    [0043]FIG. 12 shows a probe according to one embodiment of the present invention being used to designate landmarks on bone structure for tracking according one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0044]
    [0044]FIG. 13 is a screen face produced according to one embodiment of the present invention during designation of landmarks to determine a femoral mechanical axis.
  • [0045]
    [0045]FIG. 14 is a screen face produced according to one embodiment of the present invention during designation of landmarks to determine an epicondylar axis.
  • [0046]
    [0046]FIG. 15 is a screen face produced according to one embodiment of the present invention during designation of landmarks to determine an anterior-posterior axis.
  • [0047]
    [0047]FIG. 16 is a screen face according to one embodiment of the present invention showing mechanical and other axes which have been established according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0048]
    [0048]FIG. 17 is another screen face according to one embodiment of the present invention showing mechanical and other axes which have been established according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0049]
    [0049]FIG. 18 shows a pivot pin according to one embodiment of the present invention being placed in the tibia.
  • [0050]
    [0050]FIG. 19 shows tibial cutting jigs according to one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0051]
    [0051]FIG. 20 shows proximal and distal cutting jigs according to one embodiment of the present invention being placed on the tibia around the pivot pin.
  • [0052]
    [0052]FIG. 21 is a screen face produced according to one embodiment of the present invention which assists in navigation and/or placement of a distal cutting jig.
  • [0053]
    [0053]FIG. 22 shows a tibia that has been stapled after a closed wedge resection.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0054]
    Systems and processes according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention use computer capacity, including standalone and/or networked, to store data regarding spatial aspects of surgically related items and virtual constructs or references including body parts, implements, instrumentation, trial components, prosthetic components and rotational axes of body parts. Any or all of these may be physically or virtually connected to or incorporate any desired form of mark, structure, component, or other fiducial or reference device or technique which allows position and/or orientation of the item to which it is attached to be sensed and tracked, preferably in three dimensions of translation and three degrees of rotation as well as in time if desired. In a preferred embodiment, orientation of the elements on a particular fiducial varies from one fiducial to the next so that sensors according to the present invention may distinguish between various components to which the fiducials are attached in order to correlate for display and other purposes data files or images of the components. In a referred embodiment, “fidicuals” are reference frames each containing at least three, preferably four, sometimes more, reflective elements such as spheres reflective of lightwave or infrared energy, or active elements such as LED's. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, some fiducials use reflective elements and some use active elements, both of which may be tracked by preferably two, sometimes more infrared sensors whose output may be processed in concert to geometrically calculate position and orientation of the item to which the fiducial is attached.
  • [0055]
    Position/orientation tracking sensors and fiducials need not be confined to the infrared spectrum. Any electromagnetic, electrostatic, light, sound, radiofrequency or other desired technique may be used. Alternatively, each item such as a surgical implement, instrumentation component, trial component, implant component or other device may contain its own “active” fiducial such as a microchip with appropriate field sensing or position/orientation sensing functionality and communications link such as spread spectrum RF link, in order to report position and orientation of the item. Such active fiducials, or hybrid active/passive fiducials such as transponders can be implanted in the body parts or in any of the surgically related devices mentioned above, or conveniently located at their surface or otherwise as desired. Fiducials may also take the form of conventional structures such as a screw driven into a bone, or any other three dimensional item attached to another item, position and orientation of such three dimensional item able to be tracked in order to track position and orientation of body parts and surgically related items. Hybrid fiducials may be partly passive, partly active such as inductive components or transponders which respond with a certain signal or data set when queried by sensors according to the present invention.
  • [0056]
    Systems and processes according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention employ a computer to calculate and store reference axes of body components such as in a HTO for example, the mechanical axis of the femur and tibia. From these axes such systems track the position of the instrumentation and osteotomy guides so that bone resections will locate the implant position optimally, usually aligned with the mechanical axis. Furthermore, during trial reduction of the knee, the systems provide feedback on the balancing of the ligaments in a range of motion and under varus/valgus, anterior/posterior and rotary stresses and can suggest or at least provide more accurate information than in the past about which ligaments the surgeon should release in order to obtain correct balancing, alignment and stability. Systems and processes according to the present invention can also suggest modifications to implant size, positioning, and other techniques to achieve optimal kinematics. Systems and processes according to the present invention can also include databases of information regarding tasks such as ligament balancing, in order to provide suggestions to the surgeon based on performance of test results as automatically calculated by such systems and processes.
  • [0057]
    [0057]FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing one embodiment of a system according to the present invention and one version of a setting according to the present invention in which surgery on a knee, in this case a High Tibial Osteotomy, may be performed. Systems and processes according to the present invention can track various body parts such as tibia 12 and femur 10 to which fiducials of the sort described above or any other sort may be implanted, attached, or otherwise associated physically, virtually, or otherwise. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, fiducials 14 are structural frames some of which contain reflective elements, some of which contain LED active elements, some of which can contain both, for tracking using stereoscopic infrared sensors suitable, at least operating in concert, for sensing, storing, processing and/or outputting data relating to (“tracking”) position and orientation of fiducials 14 and thus components such as 10 and 12 to which they are attached or otherwise associated. Position sensor 16, as mentioned above, may be any sort of sensor functionality for sensing position and orientation of fiducials 14 and therefore items with which they are associated, according to whatever desired electrical, magnetic, electromagnetic, sound, physical, radio frequency, or other active or passive technique. In the preferred embodiment, position sensor 16 is a pair of infrared sensors disposed on the order of a meter, sometimes more, sometimes less, apart and whose output can be processed in concert to provide position and orientation information regarding fiducials 14.
  • [0058]
    In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, computing functionality 18 can include processing functionality, memory functionality, input/output functionality whether on a standalone or distributed basis, via any desired standard, architecture, interface and/or network topology. In this embodiment, computing functionality 18 is connected to a monitor on which graphics and data may be presented to the surgeon during surgery. The screen preferably has a tactile interface so that the surgeon may point and click on screen for tactile screen input in addition to or instead of, if desired, keyboard and mouse conventional interfaces. Additionally, a foot pedal 20 or other convenient interface may be coupled to functionality 18 as can any other wireless or wireline interface to allow the surgeon, nurse or other desired user to control or direct functionality 18 in order to, among other things, capture position/orientation information when certain components are oriented or aligned properly. Items 22 such as trial components, instrumentation components may be tracked in position and orientation relative to body parts 10 and 12 using fiducials 14.
  • [0059]
    Computing functionality 18 can process, store and output on monitor 24 and otherwise various forms of data which correspond in whole or part to body parts 10 and 12 and other components for item 22. For example, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, body parts 10 and 12 are shown in cross-section or at least various internal aspects of them such as bone canals and surface structure are shown using fluoroscopic images. These images are obtained using a C-arm attached to a fiducial 14. The body parts, for example, tibia 12 and femur 10, also have fiducials attached. When the fluoroscopy images are obtained using the C-arm with fiducial 14, a position/orientation sensor 16 “sees” and tracks the position of the fluoroscopy head as well as the positions and orientations of the tibia 12 and femur 10. The computer stores the fluoroscopic images with this position/orientation information, thus correlating position and orientation of the fluoroscopic image relative to the relevant body part or parts. Thus, when the tibia 12 and corresponding fiducial 14 move, the computer automatically and correspondingly senses the new position of tibia 12 in space and can correspondingly move implements, instruments, references, trials and/or implants on the monitor 24 relative to the image of tibia 12. Similarly, the image of the body part can be moved, both the body part and such items may be moved, or the on screen image otherwise presented to suit the preferences of the surgeon or others and carry out the imaging that is desired. Similarly, when an item 22 such as a pivot pin that is being tracked moves, its image moves on monitor 24 so that the monitor shows the item 22 in proper position and orientation on monitor 24 relative to the femur 10. The pin 22 can thus appear on the monitor 24 in proper or improper alignment with respect to the mechanical axis and other features of the femur 10, as if the surgeon were able to see into the body in order to navigate and position the pin 22 properly.
  • [0060]
    The computer functionality 18 can also store data relating to configuration, size and other properties of items 22 such as implements, instrumentation, trial components, implant components and other items used in surgery. When those are introduced into the field of position/orientation sensor 16, computer functionality 18 can generate and display overlain or in combination with the fluoroscopic images of the body parts 10 and 12, computer generated images of implements, instrumentation components, trial components, implant components and other items 22 for navigation, positioning, assessment and other uses.
  • [0061]
    Additionally, computer functionality 18 can track any point in the position/orientation sensor 16 field such as by using a designator or a probe 26. The probe also can contain or be attached to a fiducial 14. The surgeon, nurse, or other user touches the tip of probe 26 to a point such as a landmark on bone structure and actuates the foot pedal 20 or otherwise instructs the computer 18 to note the landmark position. The position/orientation sensor 16 “sees” the position and orientation of fiducial 14 “knows” where the tip of probe 26 is relative to that fiducial 14 and thus calculates and stores, and can display on monitor 24 whenever desired and in whatever form or fashion or color, the point or other position designated by probe 26 when the foot pedal 20 is hit or other command is given. Thus, probe 26 can be used to designate landmarks on bone structure in order to allow the computer 18 to store and track, relative to movement of the bone fiducial 14, virtual or logical information such as mechanical axis 28, medial laterial axis 30 and anterior/posterior axis 32 of femur 10, tibia 12 and other body parts in addition to any other virtual or actual construct or reference.
  • [0062]
    Systems and processes according to an embodiment of the present invention such as the subject of FIGS. 2-22, can use the so-called FluoroNAV system and software provided by Medtronic Sofamor Danek Technologies. Such systems or aspects of them are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,383,454; 5,871,445; 6,146,390; 6,165,81; 6,235,038 and 6,236,875, and related (under 35 U.S.C. Section 119 and/or 120) patents, which are all incorporated herein by this reference. Any other desired systems can be used as mentioned above for imaging, storage of data, tracking of body parts and items and for other purposes.
  • [0063]
    The FluoroNav system requires the use of reference frame type fiducials 14 which have four and in some cases five elements tracked by infrared sensors for position/orientation of the fiducials and thus of the body part, implement, instrumentation, trial component, implant component, or other device or structure being tracked. Such systems also use at least one probe 26 which the surgeon can use to select, designate, register, or otherwise make known to the system a point or points on the anatomy or other locations by placing the probe as appropriate and signaling or commanding the computer to note the location of, for instance, the tip of the probe. The FluoroNav system also tracks position and orientation of a C-arm used to obtain fluoroscopic images of body parts to which fiducials have been attached for capturing and storage of fluoroscopic images keyed to position/orientation information as tracked by the sensors 16. Thus, the monitor 24 can render fluoroscopic images of bones in combination with computer generated images of virtual constructs and references together with implements, instrumentation components, trial components, implant components and other items used in connection with surgery for navigation, resection of bone, assessment and other purposes.
  • [0064]
    FIGS. 2-22 are various views associated with High Tibial Osteotomy surgery processes according to one particular embodiment and version of the present invention being carried out with the FluoroNav system referred to above. FIG. 2 shows a human knee in the surgical field, as well as the corresponding femur and tibia, to which fiducials 14 have been rigidly attached in accordance with this embodiment of the invention. Attachment of fiducials 14 preferably is accomplished using structure that withstands vibration of surgical saws and other phenomenon which occur during surgery without allowing any substantial movement of fiducial 14 relative to body part being tracked by the system.
  • [0065]
    [0065]FIG. 3 shows fluoroscopy images being obtained of the body parts with fiducials 14 attached. The fiducial 14 on the fluoroscopy head in this embodiment is a cylindrically shaped cage which contains LEDs or “active” emitters for tracking by the sensors 16. Fiducials 14 attached to tibia 12 and femur 10 can also be seen. The fiducial 14 attached to the femur 10 uses LEDs instead of reflective spheres and is thus active, fed power by the wire seen extending into the bottom of the image.
  • [0066]
    FIGS. 4-10 are fluoroscopic images shown on monitor 24 obtained with position and/or orientation information received by, noted and stored within computer 18. FIG. 4 is an open field with no body part image, but which shows the optical indicia which may be used to normalize the image obtained using a spherical fluoroscopy wave front with the substantially flat surface of the monitor 24. FIG. 5 shows an image of the femur 10 head. This image is taken in order to allow the surgeon to designate the center of rotation of the femoral head for purposes of establishing the mechanical axis and other relevant constructs relating to of the femur according to which the wedge of bone will ultimately be resected. Such center of rotation can be established by articulating the femur within the acetabulum or a prosthesis to capture a number of samples of position and orientation information and thus in turn to allow the computer to calculate the average center of rotation. The center of rotation can be established by using the probe and designating a number of points on the femoral head and thus allowing the computer to calculate the geometrical center or a center which corresponds to the geometry of points collected. Additionally, graphical representations such as controllably sized circles displayed on the monitor can be fitted by the surgeon to the shape of the femoral head on planar images using tactile input on screen to designate the centers according to that graphic, such as are represented by the computer as intersection of axes of the circles. Other techniques for determining, calculating or establishing points or constructs in space, whether or not corresponding to bone structure, can be used in accordance with the present invention.
  • [0067]
    [0067]FIG. 5 shows a fluoroscopic image of the femoral head while FIG. 6 shows an anterior/posterior view of the knee which can be used to designate landmarks and establish axes or constructs such as the mechanical axis or other rotational axes. FIG. 7 shows the distal end of the tibia and FIG. 8 shows a lateral view of the knee. FIG. 9 shows another lateral view of the knee while FIG. 10 shows a lateral view of the distal end of the tibia.
  • [0068]
    Registration of Surgically Related Items
  • [0069]
    [0069]FIG. 11 shows designation or registration of items 22 which will be used in surgery. Registration simply means, however it is accomplished, ensuring that the computer knows which body part, item or construct corresponds to which fiducial or fiducials, and how the position and orientation of the body part, item or construct is related to the position and orientation of its corresponding fiducial or a fiducial attached to an impactor or other other component which is in turn attached to an item. Such registration or designation can be done before or after registering bone or body parts as discussed with respect to FIGS. 4-10. FIG. 11 shows a technician designating with probe 26 an item 22 such as an instrument component to which fiducial 14 is attached. The sensor 16 “sees” the position and orientation of the fiducial 14 attached to the item 22 and also the position and orientation of the fiducial 14 attached to the probe 26 whose tip is touching a landmark on the item 22. The technician designates onscreen or otherwise the identification of the item 22 and then activates the foot pedal or otherwise instructs the computer to correlate the data corresponding to such identification, such as data needed to represent a particular cutting jig, with the particularly shaped fiducial 14 attached to the cutting jig. The computer has then stored identification, position and orientation information relating to the fiducial for item 22 correlated with the data such as configuration and shape data for the item 22 so that upon registration, when sensor 16 tracks the item 22 fiducial 14 in the infrared field, monitor 24 can show the item 22 moving and turning, and properly positioned and oriented relative to the body part which is also being tracked.
  • [0070]
    Registration of Anatomy and Constructs
  • [0071]
    Similarly, the mechanical axis and other axes or constructs of body parts 10 and 12 can also be “registered” for tracking by the system. Again, the system has employed a fluoroscope to obtain images of the femoral head, knee and ankle of the sort shown in FIGS. 4-10. The system correlates such images with the position and orientation of the C-arm and the patient anatomy in real time as discussed above with the use of fiducials 14 placed on the body parts before image acquisition and which remain in position during the surgical procedure. Using these images and/or the probe, the surgeon can select and register in the computer 18 the center of the femoral head and ankle in orthogonal views, usually anterior/posterior and lateral, on a touch screen. The surgeon uses the probe to select any desired anatomical landmarks or references at the operative site of the knee or on the skin or surgical draping over the skin, as on the ankle. These points are registered in three dimensional space by the system and are tracked relative to the fiducials on the patient anatomy which are preferably placed intraoperatively. FIG. 12 shows the surgeon using probe 26 to designate or register landmarks on the condylar portion of femur 10 using probe 26 in order to feed to the computer 18 the position of one point needed to determine, store, and display the epicondylar axis. (See FIG. 14 which shows the epicondylar axis and the anterior-posterior plane and for lateral plane.) Although registering points using actual bone structure such as in FIG. 12 is one preferred way to establish the axis, a cloud of points approach by which the probe 26 is used to designate multiple points on the surface of the bone structure can be employed, as can moving the body part and tracking movement to establish a center of rotation as discussed above. Once the center of rotation for the femoral head and the condylar component have been registered, the computer is able to calculate, store, and render, and otherwise use data for, the mechanical axis of the femur 10.
  • [0072]
    [0072]FIG. 13 shows the onscreen images being obtained when the surgeon registers certain points on the bone surface using the probe 26 in order to establish the femoral mechanical axis. The tibial mechanical axis is then established by designating points to determine the centers of the proximal and distal ends of the tibia so that the mechanical axis can be calculated, stored, and subsequently used by the computer 18. FIG. 14 shows designated points for determining the epicondylar axis, both in the anterior/posterior and lateral planes while FIG. 15 shows such determination of the anterior-posterior axis as rendered onscreen. The posterior condylar axis is also determined by designating points or as otherwise desired, as rendered on the computer generated geometric images overlain or displayed in combination with the fluoroscopic images, all of which are keyed to fiducials 14 being tracked by sensors 16.
  • [0073]
    [0073]FIG. 16 is an onscreen image showing the anterior-posterior axis, epicondylar axis and posterior condylar axis from points which have been designated as described above. These constructs are generated by the computer 18 and presented on monitor 24 in combination with the fluoroscopic images of the femur 10, correctly positioned and oriented relative thereto as tracked by the system. In the fluoroscopic/computer generated image combination shown at left bottom of FIG. 16, a “sawbones” knee as shown in certain drawings above which contains radio opaque materials is represented fluoroscopically and tracked using sensor 16 while the computer generates and displays the mechanical axis of the femur 10 which runs generally horizontally. The epicondylar axis runs generally vertically, and the anterior/posterior axis runs generally diagonally. The image at bottom right shows similar information in a lateral view. Here, the anterior-posterior axis runs generally horizontally while the epicondylar axis runs generally diagonally, and the mechanical axis generally vertically.
  • [0074]
    [0074]FIG. 16, as is the case with a number of screen presentations generated and presented by the system of FIGS. 4-22, also shows at center a list of landmarks to be registered in order to generate relevant axes and constructs useful in navigation, positioning and assessment during surgery. Textural cues may also be presented which suggest to the surgeon next steps in the process of registering landmarks and establishing relevant axes. Such instructions may be generated as the computer 18 tracks, from one step to the next, registration of items 22 and bone locations as well as other measures being taken by the surgeon during the surgical operation.
  • [0075]
    [0075]FIG. 17 shows mechanical, lateral, anterior-posterior axes for the tibia according to points are registered by the surgeon.
  • [0076]
    Wedge Resection
  • [0077]
    After the mechanical axis and other rotation axes and constructs relating to the femur and tibia are established, instrumentation can be properly oriented to resect or modify bone in order to properly resect a bone wedge according to the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGS. 4-22. Instrumentation such as, for instance, cutting jigs, to which fiducials 14 are mounted, can be employed. The system can then track instrumentation as the surgeon manipulates it for optimum positioning. In other words, the surgeon can “navigate” the instrumentation for optimum positioning using the system and the monitor. In this manner, instrumentation may be positioned according to the system of this embodiment in order to align the ostetomies to the mechanical and rotational axes or reference axes. The touchscreen 24 can then also display the instrument such as the cutting jig and/or the pivot pin relative to the cutting jig during this process, in order, among other things, properly to resect a wedge of bone. As the cutting jig moves, the varus/valgus, flexion/extension and internal/external rotation of the relative cutting jig position can be calculated and shown with respect to the referenced axes; in the preferred embodiment, this can be done at a rate of six cycles per second or faster. The cutting jig position is then fixed in the computer and physically and the bone wedge resections are made.
  • [0078]
    [0078]FIG. 18 shows the placement of a pivot pin to which a fiducial is attached via a drill sleeve. The system navigates the placement of a pivot pin at a level of 1 cm from the medial cortex of the tibia and 1 cm below the level of the tibial plateau. The pin is placed perpendicular to the frontal plane and parallel to the sagittal plane. The pivot pin acts as an intersection point for two resection planes of the wedge.
  • [0079]
    [0079]FIG. 19 shows tibial cutting jigs. The system navigates two cutting jigs on an assembly that slides over the pivot pin. The proximal jig is aligned parallel to the tibial plateau and fixed to the tibia, as shown in FIG. 20. The distal jig is then placed radially about the pivot pin.
  • [0080]
    [0080]FIG. 21 also shows other information relevant to the surgeon such as the name of the component being overlain on the tibial image, suggestions or instructions at the lower left, and angle of the rod in varus/valgus and extension relative to the axes. Any or all of this information can be used to navigate and position the cutting jig relative to the tibia.
  • [0081]
    Navigation, Placement and Assessment of Angle
  • [0082]
    Once the distal jig is placed radially about the pivot pin, the jig is adjusted radially to the desired angle calculated by the system based on desired correction algorithms and reference axes. The distal jig is fixed to the tibia and the bone wedge is resected. After removal of the wedge, either the opening is reduced and plated or stapled for a closed wedge procedure, as shown in FIG. 22, or it is braced open with a plate for an open wedge procedure. The open wedge is then grafted to fill the void.
  • [0083]
    During the wedge resection process, instrument positioning process or at any other desired point in surgical or other operations according to the present invention, the system can transition or segue from tracking a component according to a first fiducial to tracking the component according to a second fiducial. Thus, the pivot pin can be mounted on an drill sleeve to which a fiducial 14 is attached. The pivot pin is installed and positioned using the drill sleeve. The computer 18 “knows” the position and orientation of the pin relative to the fiducial on the drill sleeve (such as by prior registration of the component attached to the drill sleeve) so that it can generate and display the image of the pivot pin on screen 24 overlaid on the fluoroscopic image of the tibia. At any desired point in time, before, during or after the pivot pin is properly placed in the tibia to align with mechanical axis and according to proper orientation relative to other axes, the system can be instructed by foot pedal or otherwise to begin tracking the position of the pivot pin using the fiducial attached to the tibia rather than the one attached to the drill sleeve. According to the preferred embodiment, the sensor 16 “sees” at this point in time both the fiducials on the drill sleeve and the tibia 12 so that it already “knows” the position and orientation of the pivot pin relative to the fiducial on the drill sleeve and is thus able to calculate and store for later use the position and orientation of the pivot pin relative to the tibia 12 fiducial. Once this “handoff” happens, the drill sleeve can be removed and the pivot pin tracked with the tibia fiducial 14 as part of or moving in concert with the tibia 12. Similar handoff procedures may be used in any other instance as desired in accordance with the present invention.
  • [0084]
    At the end of the case, all alignment information can be saved for the patient file. This is of great assistance to the surgeon due to the fact that the outcome of implant positioning can be seen before any resectioning has been done on the bone. The system is also capable of tracking the patella and resulting placement of cutting guides and the patellar trial position. The system then tracks alignment of the patella with the patellar femoral groove and will give feedback on issues, such as, patellar tilt.
  • [0085]
    The tracking and image information provided by systems and processes according to the present invention facilitate telemedical techniques, because they provide useful images for distribution to distant geographic locations where expert surgical or medical specialists may collaborate during surgery. Thus, systems and processes according to the present invention can be used in connection with computing functionality 18 which is networked or otherwise in communication with computing functionality in other locations, whether by PSTN, information exchange infrastructures such as packet switched networks including the Internet, or as otherwise desire. Such remote imaging may occur on computers, wireless devices, videoconferencing devices or in any other mode or on any other platform which is now or may in the future be capable of rending images or parts of them produced in accordance with the present invention. Parallel communication links such as switched or unswitched telephone call connections may also accompany or form part of such telemedical techniques. Distant databases such as online catalogs of implant suppliers or prosthetics buyers or distributors may form part of or be networked with functionality 18 to give the surgeon in real time access to additional options for implants which could be procured and used during the surgical operation.

Claims (14)

What is claimed is:
1. A process for performing high tibial osteotomy surgical operations on portions of a tibia, comprising:
(a) obtaining at least one image of a body part forming a portion of a knee joint with an imager, wherein the body part and the imager are each attached to a fiducial capable of being tracked by at least one position sensor;
(b) registering a surgical instrument adapted to assist the surgeon in shaping bone during high tibial osteotomy, which instrument is attached to a fiducial capable of being tracked by at least one position sensor;
(c) using a computer which receives signals from the at least one sensor, tracking position and orientation of the surgical instrument relative to the body part;
(d) generating and displaying on a monitor associated with the computer a visual image of the instrument properly positioned and oriented relative to the body part;
(e) navigating the surgical instrument relative to the body part and attaching the surgical instrument to the body part according to the image; and
(f) modifying the body part using the surgical instrument attached to the body part; and
(g) assessing performance of the knee joint using images displayed on said monitor.
2. The process of claim 1, further comprising registering a body part by intraoperatively designating at least one point on the body part with a probe, wherein the probe is attached to a fiducial capable of being tracked by said at least one position sensor.
3. The process of claim 1, wherein the body part comprises one of a femur and a tibia.
4. The process of claim 1, wherein the imager comprises one of a C-arm fluoroscope, a CT scanner, and an MRI machine.
5. The process of claim 1, wherein the fiducials comprise one of active fiducials, passive fiducials and hybrid active/passive fiducials.
6. The process of claim 1, wherein the position tracking sensors comprise one of infrared sensors, electromagnetic sensors, electrostatic sensors, light sensors, sound sensors, and radiofrequency sensors.
7. The process of claim 1, wherein the surgical instrument comprises a pivot pin and a cutting jig.
8. The process of claim 1, further comprising:
(a) discontinuing tracking of the surgical instrument using the fiducial attached to a drill sleeve; and
(b) initiating tracking of the surgical instrument using the fiducial attached to the body part on which the surgical instrument is installed.
9. The process of claim 1, further comprising:
(a) performing soft tissue balancing tests while the computer continues to track the fiducials;
(b) using data generated by the computer to assess alignment and stability of the surgical instrument and the knee joint; and
(c) changing the angle of the surgical instrument to adjust alignment and stability of the knee joint.
10. A process for performing high tibial osteotomy surgical operations on portions of a tibia comprising:
(a) obtaining at least one image of a body part forming a portion of a knee joint with an imager, wherein the body part and the imager are each attached to a fiducial capable of being tracked by at least one position sensor;
(b) registering a surgical instrument adapted to assist the surgeon in shaping bone during high tibial osteotomy, which instrument is attached to a fiducial capable of being tracked by at least one position sensor;
(c) using a computer which receives signals from the at least one sensor, tracking position and orientation of the surgical instrument relative to the body part;
(d) generating and displaying on a monitor associated with the computer a visual image of the instrument properly positioned and oriented relative to the body part;
(e) navigating the instrument relative to the body part and attaching the instrument to the body part according to the image;
(f) discontinuing tracking of the instrument using the fiducial attached to the instrument;
(g) initiating tracking of the instrument using the fiducial attached to the body part on which the instrument is installed;
(h) generating and displaying on the monitor a visual image of the instrument properly positioned and oriented relative to the body part;
(i) modifying the body part using the instrument attached to the body part; and
(j) assessing performance of the knee joint using images displayed on said monitor.
11. A process for performing high tibial osteotomy surgical operations on portions of a tibia comprising:
(a) obtaining at least one image of a body part forming a portion of a knee joint with an imager, wherein the body part and the imager are each attached to a fiducial capable of being tracked by at least one position sensor;
(b) registering a surgical instrument adapted to assist the surgeon in shaping bone during high tibial osteotomy, which instrument is attached to a fiducial capable of being tracked by at least one position sensor;
(c) using a computer which receives signals from the at least one sensor, tracking position and orientation of the instrument relative to the body part;
(d) generating and displaying on a monitor associated with the computer a visual image of the instrument properly positioned and oriented relative to the body part;
(e) navigating the instrument relative to the body part and attaching the instrument to the body part according to the image;
(f) discontinuing tracking of the instrument using the fiducial attached to the instrument;
(g) initiating tracking of the instrument using the fiducial attached to the body part on which the instrument is installed;
(h) generating and displaying on the monitor a visual image of the instrument properly positioned and oriented relative to the body part;
(i) performing soft tissue balancing tests while the computer continues to track the fiducials;
(j) using data generated by the computer to assess alignment and stability of the knee joint with the surgical instrument attached; and
(k) changing the angle of the surgical instrument to adjust alignment and stability.
(l) modifying the body part using the instrument attached to the body part; and
(m) assessing performance of the knee joint using images displayed on said monitor.
12. A system for performing high tibial osteotomy surgical operations on portions of a tibia comprising:
(a) an imager for obtaining an image of a tibia, wherein the imager and the tibia are each attached to a fiducial capable of being tracked by a position sensor;
(b) at least one position sensor adapted to track position of said fiducials;
(c) a computer adapted to store at least one image of the tibia and to receive information from said at least one sensor in order to track position and orientation of said fiducials and thus the tibia;
(d) a pivot pin adapted to be attached to a tibia using a drill sleeve in a high tibial osteotomy procedure, said drill sleeve attached to a fiducial, whereby the position of the pivot pin is capable of being tracked by said sensor and the position and orientation of the pin is capable of being tracked by said computer; and
(e) a monitor adapted to receive information from the computer in order to display at least one image of said pivot positioned and oriented relative to the tibia for navigation and positioning of the pin in the tibia.
13. A system for performing high tibial osteotomy surgical operations on portions of a tibia comprising:
(a) an imager for obtaining an image of a tibia, wherein the imager and the tibia are each attached to a fiducial capable of being tracked by a position sensor;
(b) at least one position sensor adapted to track position of said fiducials;
(c) a computer adapted to store at least one image of the tibia and to receive information from said at least one sensor in order to track position and orientation of said fiducials and thus the tibia;
(d) a cutting jig adapted to be positioned over a pivot pin in a high tibial osteotomy procedure, whereby the position of the cutting jig is capable of being tracked by said computer according to the position and orientation of the pivot pin; and
(e) a monitor adapted to receive information from the computer in order to display at least one image of said cutting jig positioned and oriented relative to the tibia for navigation and positioning of the cutting jig on the tibia.
14. A system for performing high tibial osteotomy surgical operations on portions of a tibia comprising:
(a) an imager for obtaining an image of a tibia, wherein the imager and the tibia are each attached to a fiducial capable of being tracked by a position sensor;
(b) at least one position sensor adapted to track position of said fiducials;
(c) a computer adapted to store at least one image of the tibia and to receive information from said at least one sensor in order to track position and orientation of said fiducials and thus the tibia;
(d) a pivot pin adapted to be attached to a tibia using a drill sleeve in a high tibial osteotomy procedure, said drill sleeve attached to a fiducial, whereby the position of the pivot pin is capable of being tracked by said sensor and the position and orientation of the pin is capable of being tracked by said computer;
(e) a cutting jig adapted to be positioned over a pivot pin, whereby the position of the cutting jig is capable of being tracked by said computer according to the position and orientation of the pivot pin; and
(f) a monitor adapted to receive information from the computer in order to display at least one image of at least one of said pivot pin and cutting jig, positioned and oriented relative to the tibia for navigation and positioning of the pin and the cutting jig on the tibia.
US10084291 2001-02-27 2002-02-27 Surgical navigation systems and processes for high tibial osteotomy Abandoned US20020198451A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US27181801 true 2001-02-27 2001-02-27
US35589902 true 2002-02-11 2002-02-11
US10084291 US20020198451A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2002-02-27 Surgical navigation systems and processes for high tibial osteotomy

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10084291 US20020198451A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2002-02-27 Surgical navigation systems and processes for high tibial osteotomy

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20020198451A1 true true US20020198451A1 (en) 2002-12-26

Family

ID=26955127

Family Applications (11)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10084291 Abandoned US20020198451A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2002-02-27 Surgical navigation systems and processes for high tibial osteotomy
US10084012 Active 2023-02-24 US6923817B2 (en) 2001-02-27 2002-02-27 Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
US10084278 Active 2022-11-10 US6827723B2 (en) 2001-02-27 2002-02-27 Surgical navigation systems and processes for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty
US11098209 Abandoned US20050234468A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2005-04-04 Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
US12898193 Abandoned US20110071528A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2010-10-05 Systems Using Imaging Data to Facilitate Surgical Procedures
US12898365 Abandoned US20110071532A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2010-10-05 Systems Using Imaging Data to Facilitate Surgical Procedures
US12898215 Abandoned US20110071529A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2010-10-05 Systems using imaging data to facilitate surgical procedures
US12898318 Abandoned US20110071531A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2010-10-05 Systems using imaging data to facilitate surgical procedures
US12898298 Abandoned US20110071530A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2010-10-05 Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
US13470765 Abandoned US20120226481A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2012-05-14 Systems and Processes Using Imaging Data To Facilitate Surgical Procedures
US13470688 Abandoned US20120226198A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2012-05-14 Total Knee Arthroplasty Systems and Processes

Family Applications After (10)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10084012 Active 2023-02-24 US6923817B2 (en) 2001-02-27 2002-02-27 Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
US10084278 Active 2022-11-10 US6827723B2 (en) 2001-02-27 2002-02-27 Surgical navigation systems and processes for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty
US11098209 Abandoned US20050234468A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2005-04-04 Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
US12898193 Abandoned US20110071528A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2010-10-05 Systems Using Imaging Data to Facilitate Surgical Procedures
US12898365 Abandoned US20110071532A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2010-10-05 Systems Using Imaging Data to Facilitate Surgical Procedures
US12898215 Abandoned US20110071529A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2010-10-05 Systems using imaging data to facilitate surgical procedures
US12898318 Abandoned US20110071531A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2010-10-05 Systems using imaging data to facilitate surgical procedures
US12898298 Abandoned US20110071530A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2010-10-05 Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes
US13470765 Abandoned US20120226481A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2012-05-14 Systems and Processes Using Imaging Data To Facilitate Surgical Procedures
US13470688 Abandoned US20120226198A1 (en) 2001-02-27 2012-05-14 Total Knee Arthroplasty Systems and Processes

Country Status (7)

Country Link
US (11) US20020198451A1 (en)
JP (2) JP4113779B2 (en)
KR (1) KR20030082942A (en)
CA (1) CA2439249C (en)
DE (2) DE60232316D1 (en)
EP (3) EP1372516B1 (en)
WO (3) WO2002067783A9 (en)

Cited By (69)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020095083A1 (en) * 1997-03-11 2002-07-18 Philippe Cinquin Process and device for the preoperative determination of the positioning data of endoprosthetic parts
US20030196671A1 (en) * 2002-04-17 2003-10-23 Ricardo Sasso Instrumentation and method for mounting a surgical navigation reference device to a patient
US20040068263A1 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-04-08 Benoit Chouinard CAS bone reference with articulated support
US20040092928A1 (en) * 2002-04-17 2004-05-13 Ricardo Sasso Instrumentation and method for performing image-guided spinal surgery using an anterior surgical approach
US20040106926A1 (en) * 2002-12-02 2004-06-03 Francois Leitner Osteotomy procedure
US20040147839A1 (en) * 2002-10-25 2004-07-29 Moctezuma De La Barrera Jose Luis Flexible tracking article and method of using the same
WO2004069073A2 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-08-19 Orthosoft, Inc. Cas modular bone reference and limb position measurement system
US20040230199A1 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-11-18 Jansen Herbert Andre Computer-assisted hip replacement surgery
US20050020909A1 (en) * 2003-07-10 2005-01-27 Moctezuma De La Barrera Jose Luis Display device for surgery and method for using the same
US20050096535A1 (en) * 2003-11-04 2005-05-05 De La Barrera Jose Luis M. System and method of registering image data to intra-operatively digitized landmarks
US20050119566A1 (en) * 2002-04-17 2005-06-02 Ricardo Sasso Instrumentation and method for mounting a surgical navigation reference device to a patient
US20050171545A1 (en) * 2004-01-30 2005-08-04 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Knee computer-aided navigation instruments
EP1591075A1 (en) * 2004-04-27 2005-11-02 BrainLAB AG Method and device for planning knee implants
US20060015119A1 (en) * 2004-07-14 2006-01-19 Norman Plassky Positioning system with cannulated implant
US20060025679A1 (en) * 2004-06-04 2006-02-02 Viswanathan Raju R User interface for remote control of medical devices
EP1627272A2 (en) * 2003-02-04 2006-02-22 Z-Kat, Inc. Interactive computer-assisted surgery system and method
WO2006060631A1 (en) 2004-12-02 2006-06-08 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems, methods, and apparatus for automatic software flow using instrument detection during computer-aided surgery
US20060184014A1 (en) * 2004-12-02 2006-08-17 Manfred Pfeiler Registration aid for medical images
US20060195048A1 (en) * 2003-09-13 2006-08-31 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and apparatus for determining the angle between the femur and the tibia
US20060241397A1 (en) * 2005-02-22 2006-10-26 Assaf Govari Reference pad for position sensing
US20060271056A1 (en) * 2005-05-10 2006-11-30 Smith & Nephew, Inc. System and method for modular navigated osteotome
US20070055232A1 (en) * 2003-09-05 2007-03-08 Callum Colquhoun Flexible image guided surgery marker
US20070093709A1 (en) * 2005-10-26 2007-04-26 Abernathie Dennis L Surgical navigation markers
US20070118139A1 (en) * 2005-10-14 2007-05-24 Cuellar Alberto D System and method for bone resection
WO2007067150A1 (en) * 2005-12-05 2007-06-14 Kuang Ying Yang Computer assisted navigation for total knee arthroplasty
US20070156157A1 (en) * 2004-06-15 2007-07-05 Zimmer Gmbh Imageless robotized device and method for surgical tool guidance
JP2007523696A (en) * 2004-01-16 2007-08-23 スミス アンド ネフュー インコーポレーテッド Computer-aided ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty
US20080015605A1 (en) * 2006-06-30 2008-01-17 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. High tibial osteotomy guide
US20080015602A1 (en) * 2006-06-22 2008-01-17 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Cutting block for bone resection
US20080118116A1 (en) * 2006-11-20 2008-05-22 General Electric Company Systems and methods for tracking a surgical instrument and for conveying tracking information via a network
US20080125647A1 (en) * 2005-02-22 2008-05-29 Micropos Medical Ab Antenna System For Monitoring Of A Target Area
US20080185430A1 (en) * 2007-02-01 2008-08-07 Gunter Goldbach Medical instrument identification
US20080208055A1 (en) * 2007-02-07 2008-08-28 Michael Bertram Method and Device for the Sonographic Navigated Repositioning of Bone Fragments
US20080262524A1 (en) * 2007-04-19 2008-10-23 Searete Llc, A Limited Liability Corporation Of The State Of Delaware Systems and methods for closing of fascia
US20080262500A1 (en) * 2007-04-19 2008-10-23 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Cutting guide with internal distraction
US20080262390A1 (en) * 2007-04-19 2008-10-23 Searete Llc, A Limited Liability Corporation Of The State Of Delaware Fiducials for placement of tissue closures
US20080287781A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2008-11-20 Depuy International Limited Registration Methods and Apparatus
US7559931B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2009-07-14 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation system and method
US20100087824A1 (en) * 2008-10-03 2010-04-08 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. High tibial osteotomy instrumentation
US7728868B2 (en) 2006-08-02 2010-06-01 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. System and method of providing real-time dynamic imagery of a medical procedure site using multiple modalities
US7764985B2 (en) 2003-10-20 2010-07-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes
US20100192961A1 (en) * 2007-11-08 2010-08-05 Louis-Philippe Amiot Trackable reference device for computer-assisted surgery
US7794467B2 (en) 2003-11-14 2010-09-14 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Adjustable surgical cutting systems
US7835784B2 (en) 2005-09-21 2010-11-16 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for positioning a reference frame
US7862570B2 (en) 2003-10-03 2011-01-04 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical positioners
US20110022033A1 (en) * 2005-12-28 2011-01-27 Depuy Products, Inc. System and Method for Wearable User Interface in Computer Assisted Surgery
US7881770B2 (en) * 2000-03-01 2011-02-01 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Multiple cannula image guided tool for image guided procedures
US20110166447A1 (en) * 2008-09-03 2011-07-07 Ao Technology Ag Device for manipulating a bone or bone fragment or a surgical instrument, tool or implant and a method for positioning such a device
US8057482B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2011-11-15 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation device and method
US8109942B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2012-02-07 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Computer-aided methods, systems, and apparatuses for shoulder arthroplasty
US8118815B2 (en) 2009-07-24 2012-02-21 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US20120089012A1 (en) * 2005-10-18 2012-04-12 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and apparatus for navigating a cutting tool during orthopedic surgery using a localization system
US8177788B2 (en) 2005-02-22 2012-05-15 Smith & Nephew, Inc. In-line milling system
US20120157887A1 (en) * 2010-12-17 2012-06-21 Richard Tyler Fanson Method and system for aligning a prosthesis during surgery
US8340379B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2012-12-25 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems and methods for displaying guidance data based on updated deformable imaging data
US8554307B2 (en) 2010-04-12 2013-10-08 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Image annotation in image-guided medical procedures
US8585598B2 (en) 2009-02-17 2013-11-19 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer-readable media for image guided surgery
US8641621B2 (en) 2009-02-17 2014-02-04 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer-readable media for image management in image-guided medical procedures
US8670816B2 (en) 2012-01-30 2014-03-11 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Multiple medical device guidance
US8911447B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2014-12-16 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US8974468B2 (en) 2008-09-10 2015-03-10 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip surgery systems and methods
US9247998B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-02-02 Intellijoint Surgical Inc. System and method for intra-operative leg position measurement
US9265572B2 (en) 2008-01-24 2016-02-23 The University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill Methods, systems, and computer readable media for image guided ablation
US9282947B2 (en) 2009-12-01 2016-03-15 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Imager focusing based on intraoperative data
US9314188B2 (en) 2012-04-12 2016-04-19 Intellijoint Surgical Inc. Computer-assisted joint replacement surgery and navigation systems
US9339226B2 (en) 2010-01-21 2016-05-17 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9549742B2 (en) 2012-05-18 2017-01-24 OrthAlign, Inc. Devices and methods for knee arthroplasty
US9649160B2 (en) 2012-08-14 2017-05-16 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip replacement navigation system and method
US9675319B1 (en) 2016-02-17 2017-06-13 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Loupe display

Families Citing this family (262)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7959635B1 (en) 2000-01-14 2011-06-14 Marctec, Llc. Limited incision total joint replacement methods
US7635390B1 (en) 2000-01-14 2009-12-22 Marctec, Llc Joint replacement component having a modular articulating surface
US6695848B2 (en) 1994-09-02 2004-02-24 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods for femoral and tibial resection
US8603095B2 (en) 1994-09-02 2013-12-10 Puget Bio Ventures LLC Apparatuses for femoral and tibial resection
US8062377B2 (en) 2001-03-05 2011-11-22 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods and apparatus for knee arthroplasty
US6045551A (en) 1998-02-06 2000-04-04 Bonutti; Peter M. Bone suture
US6477400B1 (en) 1998-08-20 2002-11-05 Sofamor Danek Holdings, Inc. Fluoroscopic image guided orthopaedic surgery system with intraoperative registration
US6635073B2 (en) 2000-05-03 2003-10-21 Peter M. Bonutti Method of securing body tissue
US6447516B1 (en) 1999-08-09 2002-09-10 Peter M. Bonutti Method of securing tissue
WO2001010339A3 (en) 1999-08-11 2001-08-30 Univ Case Western Reserve Method and apparatus for producing an implant
US9208558B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2015-12-08 Osteoplastics Llc Methods and systems for producing an implant
US8781557B2 (en) 1999-08-11 2014-07-15 Osteoplastics, Llc Producing a three dimensional model of an implant
US7708741B1 (en) 2001-08-28 2010-05-04 Marctec, Llc Method of preparing bones for knee replacement surgery
US6368343B1 (en) 2000-03-13 2002-04-09 Peter M. Bonutti Method of using ultrasonic vibration to secure body tissue
US20050113846A1 (en) * 2001-02-27 2005-05-26 Carson Christopher P. Surgical navigation systems and processes for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty
US7909831B2 (en) * 2001-02-28 2011-03-22 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Systems used in performing femoral and tibial resection in knee surgery
US8480754B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-07-09 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US8556983B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-15 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved orthopedic implants, designs and related tools
US8545569B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2013-10-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
CA2447694A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2002-12-05 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular resurfacing
US8234097B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2012-07-31 Conformis, Inc. Automated systems for manufacturing patient-specific orthopedic implants and instrumentation
US9603711B2 (en) 2001-05-25 2017-03-28 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20020194023A1 (en) * 2001-06-14 2002-12-19 Turley Troy A. Online fracture management system and associated method
US6719765B2 (en) 2001-12-03 2004-04-13 Bonutti 2003 Trust-A Magnetic suturing system and method
JP3905393B2 (en) * 2002-02-07 2007-04-18 オリンパス株式会社 Surgical device
CA2475979A1 (en) * 2002-02-11 2003-08-21 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Image-guided fracture reduction
US9155544B2 (en) * 2002-03-20 2015-10-13 P Tech, Llc Robotic systems and methods
EP1348383B1 (en) * 2002-03-21 2005-05-04 BrainLAB AG Retractor navigation device
US8801720B2 (en) 2002-05-15 2014-08-12 Otismed Corporation Total joint arthroplasty system
US7248914B2 (en) * 2002-06-28 2007-07-24 Stereotaxis, Inc. Method of navigating medical devices in the presence of radiopaque material
US6824539B2 (en) * 2002-08-02 2004-11-30 Storz Endoskop Produktions Gmbh Touchscreen controlling medical equipment from multiple manufacturers
US7282052B2 (en) * 2002-09-17 2007-10-16 Ebi, L.P. Unilateral fixator
WO2004041097A1 (en) * 2002-11-05 2004-05-21 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and device for determining the position of a knee-joint endoprosthesis
US7933640B2 (en) * 2002-11-14 2011-04-26 General Electric Company Interchangeable localizing devices for use with tracking systems
EP1567046A4 (en) * 2002-11-14 2010-08-25 Extraortho Inc Method for using a fixator device
US7326252B2 (en) 2002-12-20 2008-02-05 Smith & Nephew, Inc. High performance knee prostheses
US7660623B2 (en) * 2003-01-30 2010-02-09 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Six degree of freedom alignment display for medical procedures
WO2004070573A3 (en) * 2003-02-04 2005-05-26 Z Kat Inc Computer-assisted external fixation apparatus and method
US7492930B2 (en) * 2003-02-04 2009-02-17 Aesculap Ag Method and apparatus for capturing information associated with a surgical procedure performed using a localization device
EP1697874B8 (en) * 2003-02-04 2012-03-14 Mako Surgical Corp. Computer-assisted knee replacement apparatus
US20050021037A1 (en) * 2003-05-29 2005-01-27 Mccombs Daniel L. Image-guided navigated precision reamers
EP1628590B1 (en) 2003-06-02 2009-04-22 Stephen B. Murphy Method for providing coordinate system for hip arthroplasty
WO2005000129A1 (en) * 2003-06-27 2005-01-06 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and device for orienting a machining tool
US7158754B2 (en) * 2003-07-01 2007-01-02 Ge Medical Systems Global Technology Company, Llc Electromagnetic tracking system and method using a single-coil transmitter
US7470288B2 (en) * 2003-07-11 2008-12-30 Depuy Products, Inc. Telemetric tibial tray
WO2005007025A3 (en) * 2003-07-11 2006-01-12 Depuy Products Inc In vivo joint implant cycle counter
EP1648354A4 (en) * 2003-07-11 2010-03-31 Depuy Products Inc In vivo joint space measurement device and method
US7218232B2 (en) * 2003-07-11 2007-05-15 Depuy Products, Inc. Orthopaedic components with data storage element
WO2005009303A1 (en) * 2003-07-24 2005-02-03 San-Tech Surgical Sarl Orientation device for surgical implement
US7905924B2 (en) * 2003-09-03 2011-03-15 Ralph Richard White Extracapsular surgical procedure
CA2439850A1 (en) 2003-09-04 2005-03-04 Orthosoft Inc. Universal method for determining acetabular and femoral implant positions during navigation
US20050065617A1 (en) * 2003-09-05 2005-03-24 Moctezuma De La Barrera Jose Luis System and method of performing ball and socket joint arthroscopy
US20050124988A1 (en) * 2003-10-06 2005-06-09 Lauralan Terrill-Grisoni Modular navigated portal
EP1684672A1 (en) 2003-10-17 2006-08-02 SMITH & NEPHEW, INC. High flexion articular insert
US7815644B2 (en) * 2003-12-19 2010-10-19 Masini Michael A Instrumentation and methods for refining image-guided and navigation-based surgical procedures
US8175683B2 (en) * 2003-12-30 2012-05-08 Depuy Products, Inc. System and method of designing and manufacturing customized instrumentation for accurate implantation of prosthesis by utilizing computed tomography data
US8114083B2 (en) 2004-01-14 2012-02-14 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods and apparatus for improved drilling and milling tools for resection
US9814539B2 (en) 2004-01-14 2017-11-14 Puget Bioventures Llc Methods and apparatus for conformable prosthetic implants
US7857814B2 (en) 2004-01-14 2010-12-28 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods and apparatus for minimally invasive arthroplasty
US8021368B2 (en) 2004-01-14 2011-09-20 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods and apparatus for improved cutting tools for resection
US7815645B2 (en) 2004-01-14 2010-10-19 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods and apparatus for pinplasty bone resection
US20050159759A1 (en) 2004-01-20 2005-07-21 Mark Harbaugh Systems and methods for performing minimally invasive incisions
US20050197569A1 (en) * 2004-01-22 2005-09-08 Mccombs Daniel Methods, systems, and apparatuses for providing patient-mounted surgical navigational sensors
US20060030854A1 (en) 2004-02-02 2006-02-09 Haines Timothy G Methods and apparatus for wireplasty bone resection
US8758355B2 (en) * 2004-02-06 2014-06-24 Synvasive Technology, Inc. Dynamic knee balancer with pressure sensing
WO2005087125A3 (en) * 2004-03-10 2006-03-23 Depuy Int Ltd Orthopaedic operating systems, methods, implants and instruments
WO2005099636A1 (en) * 2004-03-31 2005-10-27 Niigata Tlo Corporation Intramedullary rod for assisting artificial knee joint replacing operation and method for managing operation using that rod
US7567834B2 (en) 2004-05-03 2009-07-28 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for implantation between two vertebral bodies
DE102004026525A1 (en) * 2004-05-25 2005-12-22 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and apparatus for noninvasive determination of prominent structures of the human or animal body
US7776055B2 (en) * 2004-07-19 2010-08-17 General Electric Company System and method for tracking progress of insertion of a rod in a bone
US8007448B2 (en) * 2004-10-08 2011-08-30 Stryker Leibinger Gmbh & Co. Kg. System and method for performing arthroplasty of a joint and tracking a plumb line plane
US8535329B2 (en) * 2004-10-29 2013-09-17 Kinamed, Inc. Tracking tools and method for computer-assisted shoulder replacement surgery
WO2006060632A1 (en) * 2004-12-02 2006-06-08 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems for providing a reference plane for mounting an acetabular cup
CA2594874A1 (en) * 2005-01-18 2006-07-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Computer-assisted ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty
US20060190012A1 (en) * 2005-01-29 2006-08-24 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and apparatus for representing an instrument relative to a bone
US20060241405A1 (en) * 2005-03-09 2006-10-26 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and apparatus for performing an orthodepic stability test using a surgical navigation system
US20060235290A1 (en) * 2005-04-04 2006-10-19 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and apparatus for positioning a cutting tool for orthopedic surgery using a localization system
WO2006106419A3 (en) 2005-04-07 2006-12-07 Stephane Lavallee Robotic guide assembly for use in computer-aided surgery
US20060247864A1 (en) * 2005-04-29 2006-11-02 Jose Tamez-Pena Method and system for assessment of biomarkers by measurement of response to surgical implant
JP2008539885A (en) * 2005-05-02 2008-11-20 スミス アンド ネフュー インコーポレーテッド System and method for determining the rotation of the tibial
US7306601B2 (en) * 2005-06-10 2007-12-11 Quantum Medical Concepts, Inc. External fixation system with provisional brace
US9301845B2 (en) * 2005-06-15 2016-04-05 P Tech, Llc Implant for knee replacement
US20070162142A1 (en) * 2005-06-15 2007-07-12 Vitruvian Orthopaedics, Llc Knee surgery method and apparatus
US8295909B2 (en) * 2005-06-16 2012-10-23 Brainlab Ag Medical tracking system with infrared data transfer
EP1733693B1 (en) * 2005-06-16 2008-04-23 BrainLAB AG Tracking system for medical equipment with infrared transmission
US7840256B2 (en) 2005-06-27 2010-11-23 Biomet Manufacturing Corporation Image guided tracking array and method
US20070015999A1 (en) * 2005-07-15 2007-01-18 Heldreth Mark A System and method for providing orthopaedic surgical information to a surgeon
US7983777B2 (en) * 2005-08-19 2011-07-19 Mark Melton System for biomedical implant creation and procurement
WO2007030866A1 (en) * 2005-09-12 2007-03-22 Advanced Surgical Design & Manufacture Limited Image guided surgery
DE102005043828A1 (en) * 2005-09-13 2007-03-22 H.C. Starck Gmbh A process for the production of electrolytic capacitors
CA2520942C (en) * 2005-09-23 2013-03-19 Queen's University At Kingston Tactile amplification instrument and method of use
US20070078678A1 (en) * 2005-09-30 2007-04-05 Disilvestro Mark R System and method for performing a computer assisted orthopaedic surgical procedure
US8192449B2 (en) * 2005-10-25 2012-06-05 Brainlab Ag Non-penetrating fixing device
US20070100346A1 (en) * 2005-10-27 2007-05-03 Wyss Joseph G Support for locating instrument guides
US8956367B2 (en) * 2005-11-09 2015-02-17 Barry M. Fell System and method for shaping an anatomical component
US20070179626A1 (en) * 2005-11-30 2007-08-02 De La Barrera Jose L M Functional joint arthroplasty method
US8864686B2 (en) * 2005-12-01 2014-10-21 Orthosensor Inc. Virtual mapping of an anatomical pivot point and alignment therewith
US8814810B2 (en) * 2005-12-01 2014-08-26 Orthosensor Inc. Orthopedic method and system for mapping an anatomical pivot point
US7662183B2 (en) * 2006-01-24 2010-02-16 Timothy Haines Dynamic spinal implants incorporating cartilage bearing graft material
US7885705B2 (en) 2006-02-10 2011-02-08 Murphy Stephen B System and method for facilitating hip surgery
US9808262B2 (en) 2006-02-15 2017-11-07 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
EP2007291A2 (en) 2006-02-15 2008-12-31 Otismed Corp. Arthroplasty jigs and related methods
US9271744B2 (en) 2010-09-29 2016-03-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific guide for partial acetabular socket replacement
US9173661B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2015-11-03 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient specific alignment guide with cutting surface and laser indicator
US8603180B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular alignment guides
US8377066B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-02-19 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific elbow guides and associated methods
US8133234B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2012-03-13 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific acetabular guide and method
US9289253B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-03-22 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific shoulder guide
US8864769B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2014-10-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Alignment guides with patient-specific anchoring elements
US8568487B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-10-29 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific hip joint devices
US8591516B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-11-26 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific orthopedic instruments
US9113971B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2015-08-25 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Femoral acetabular impingement guide
US8608749B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guides and associated instruments
US9339278B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-05-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guides and associated instruments
US8535387B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-09-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific tools and implants
US8241293B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2012-08-14 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific high tibia osteotomy
US8070752B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2011-12-06 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific alignment guide and inter-operative adjustment
US8608748B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2013-12-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient specific guides
US9241745B2 (en) 2011-03-07 2016-01-26 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific femoral version guide
US9345548B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2016-05-24 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific pre-operative planning
US8858561B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2014-10-14 Blomet Manufacturing, LLC Patient-specific alignment guide
US8282646B2 (en) 2006-02-27 2012-10-09 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US8632547B2 (en) 2010-02-26 2014-01-21 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Patient-specific osteotomy devices and methods
US8323290B2 (en) * 2006-03-03 2012-12-04 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Tensor for use in surgical navigation
US8337508B2 (en) * 2006-03-20 2012-12-25 Perception Raisonnement Action En Medecine Distractor system
WO2007107006A1 (en) * 2006-03-23 2007-09-27 Orthosoft Inc. Method and system for tracking tools in computer-assisted surgery
US8092465B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2012-01-10 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US9795399B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2017-10-24 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US8298237B2 (en) 2006-06-09 2012-10-30 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-specific alignment guide for multiple incisions
US8560047B2 (en) * 2006-06-16 2013-10-15 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska Method and apparatus for computer aided surgery
US7756244B2 (en) * 2006-06-22 2010-07-13 Varian Medical Systems, Inc. Systems and methods for determining object position
EP2043561B1 (en) 2006-06-30 2016-01-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Anatomical motion hinged prosthesis
US20110057930A1 (en) * 2006-07-26 2011-03-10 Inneroptic Technology Inc. System and method of using high-speed, high-resolution depth extraction to provide three-dimensional imagery for endoscopy
US8565853B2 (en) * 2006-08-11 2013-10-22 DePuy Synthes Products, LLC Simulated bone or tissue manipulation
US20080058949A1 (en) * 2006-09-06 2008-03-06 Roger Ryan Dees Implants with Transition Surfaces and Related Processes
US8083735B2 (en) * 2006-11-17 2011-12-27 Genii, Inc. Compact electrosurgery apparatuses
US8460302B2 (en) 2006-12-18 2013-06-11 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty devices and related methods
US20080161824A1 (en) * 2006-12-27 2008-07-03 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. System and method for performing femoral sizing through navigation
US20080249394A1 (en) * 2007-04-03 2008-10-09 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method for improved rotational alignment in joint arthroplasty
US8473305B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2013-06-25 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US7967868B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2011-06-28 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Patient-modified implant and associated method
US8407067B2 (en) 2007-04-17 2013-03-26 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and apparatus for manufacturing an implant
US8934961B2 (en) 2007-05-18 2015-01-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Trackable diagnostic scope apparatus and methods of use
WO2008151446A1 (en) * 2007-06-15 2008-12-18 Orthosoft Inc. Computer-assisted surgery system and method
EP2008606B1 (en) * 2007-06-29 2009-08-05 BrainLAB AG Determination of correspondence object pairs for medical navigation
US8382765B2 (en) * 2007-08-07 2013-02-26 Stryker Leibinger Gmbh & Co. Kg. Method of and system for planning a surgery
US8265949B2 (en) 2007-09-27 2012-09-11 Depuy Products, Inc. Customized patient surgical plan
JP5171193B2 (en) 2007-09-28 2013-03-27 株式会社 レキシー Preoperative planning for a program of artificial knee joint replacement surgery
US20090088763A1 (en) 2007-09-30 2009-04-02 Aram Luke J Customized Patient-Specific Bone Cutting Block with External Reference
US8357111B2 (en) 2007-09-30 2013-01-22 Depuy Products, Inc. Method and system for designing patient-specific orthopaedic surgical instruments
KR100941612B1 (en) * 2007-10-16 2010-02-11 주식회사 사이버메드 Navigation method in bone ablation surgery
US8460303B2 (en) 2007-10-25 2013-06-11 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty systems and devices, and related methods
USD642263S1 (en) 2007-10-25 2011-07-26 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty jig blank
WO2009067235A1 (en) * 2007-11-19 2009-05-28 Blue Ortho Sas Hip implant registration in computer assisted surgery
US8715291B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2014-05-06 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US8737700B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2014-05-27 Otismed Corporation Preoperatively planning an arthroplasty procedure and generating a corresponding patient specific arthroplasty resection guide
US8545509B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-10-01 Otismed Corporation Arthroplasty system and related methods
US8221430B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2012-07-17 Otismed Corporation System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs
US8617171B2 (en) 2007-12-18 2013-12-31 Otismed Corporation Preoperatively planning an arthroplasty procedure and generating a corresponding patient specific arthroplasty resection guide
US8287538B2 (en) 2008-01-14 2012-10-16 Conventus Orthopaedics, Inc. Apparatus and methods for fracture repair
WO2009089629A1 (en) * 2008-01-16 2009-07-23 Orthosoft Inc. Pinless technique for computer assisted orthopedic surgery
US8571637B2 (en) 2008-01-21 2013-10-29 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patella tracking method and apparatus for use in surgical navigation
WO2009111266A3 (en) * 2008-02-29 2009-12-30 Vot, Llc Femoral prosthesis
US9408618B2 (en) 2008-02-29 2016-08-09 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Total hip replacement surgical guide tool
WO2009111626A3 (en) 2008-03-05 2010-01-14 Conformis, Inc. Implants for altering wear patterns of articular surfaces
EP2273922A1 (en) * 2008-04-25 2011-01-19 Ross G. Stone Navigation tracker fixation device and method for use thereof
US8480679B2 (en) 2008-04-29 2013-07-09 Otismed Corporation Generation of a computerized bone model representative of a pre-degenerated state and useable in the design and manufacture of arthroplasty devices
US8311306B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2012-11-13 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
US8160345B2 (en) 2008-04-30 2012-04-17 Otismed Corporation System and method for image segmentation in generating computer models of a joint to undergo arthroplasty
DE102008023218A1 (en) * 2008-05-10 2009-11-12 Aesculap Ag Method and apparatus for examination of a body with an ultrasonic head
EP2303193A4 (en) 2008-05-12 2012-03-21 Conformis Inc Devices and methods for treatment of facet and other joints
US8197489B2 (en) 2008-06-27 2012-06-12 Depuy Products, Inc. Knee ligament balancer
US8777875B2 (en) 2008-07-23 2014-07-15 Otismed Corporation System and method for manufacturing arthroplasty jigs having improved mating accuracy
EP2158879A1 (en) 2008-09-01 2010-03-03 MMK Consulting GmbH Trial Prosthesis for total knee arthroplasty
US8078440B2 (en) 2008-09-19 2011-12-13 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Operatively tuning implants for increased performance
US9033958B2 (en) * 2008-11-11 2015-05-19 Perception Raisonnement Action En Medecine Surgical robotic system
US8617175B2 (en) 2008-12-16 2013-12-31 Otismed Corporation Unicompartmental customized arthroplasty cutting jigs and methods of making the same
US8685093B2 (en) 2009-01-23 2014-04-01 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Methods and systems for diagnosing, treating, or tracking spinal disorders
US8126736B2 (en) 2009-01-23 2012-02-28 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Methods and systems for diagnosing, treating, or tracking spinal disorders
US8170641B2 (en) 2009-02-20 2012-05-01 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method of imaging an extremity of a patient
US8337426B2 (en) * 2009-03-24 2012-12-25 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Method and apparatus for aligning and securing an implant relative to a patient
US8556830B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2013-10-15 Depuy Device and method for displaying joint force data
US8740817B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2014-06-03 Depuy (Ireland) Device and method for determining forces of a patient's joint
US8551023B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2013-10-08 Depuy (Ireland) Device and method for determining force of a knee joint
US8597210B2 (en) 2009-03-31 2013-12-03 Depuy (Ireland) System and method for displaying joint force data
US8721568B2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2014-05-13 Depuy (Ireland) Method for performing an orthopaedic surgical procedure
US9655628B2 (en) 2009-05-06 2017-05-23 Blue Ortho Reduced invasivity fixation system for trackers in computer assisted surgery
EP2432429B1 (en) 2009-05-19 2016-03-30 Synthes GmbH Dynamic trial implants
US9220509B2 (en) * 2009-06-30 2015-12-29 Blue Ortho Adjustable guide in computer assisted orthopaedic surgery
US20110043612A1 (en) * 2009-07-31 2011-02-24 Inneroptic Technology Inc. Dual-tube stereoscope
DE102009028503B4 (en) 2009-08-13 2013-11-14 Biomet Manufacturing Corp. Resektionsschablone for resection of bone, to methods for producing such Resektionsschablone and Operationsset for performing knee replacement surgeries
US8876830B2 (en) 2009-08-13 2014-11-04 Zimmer, Inc. Virtual implant placement in the OR
ES2588231T3 (en) * 2009-09-10 2016-10-31 Exactech Inc. Alignment guides for use in computer assisted orthopedic surgery to prepare an element for an implant bone
US20110082351A1 (en) * 2009-10-07 2011-04-07 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Representing measurement information during a medical procedure
US9011448B2 (en) 2009-12-31 2015-04-21 Orthosensor Inc. Orthopedic navigation system with sensorized devices
US20110178520A1 (en) 2010-01-15 2011-07-21 Kyle Taylor Rotary-rigid orthopaedic rod
CA2823873A1 (en) 2010-01-20 2011-07-28 Conventus Orthopaedics, Inc. Apparatus and methods for bone access and cavity preparation
US9066727B2 (en) 2010-03-04 2015-06-30 Materialise Nv Patient-specific computed tomography guides
JP2013521880A (en) 2010-03-08 2013-06-13 コンベンタス オーソピディックス, インコーポレイテッド Apparatus and method for securing a bone implant
US9579106B2 (en) 2010-03-31 2017-02-28 New York Society For The Relief Of The Ruptured And Crippled, Maintaining The Hospital For Special Surgery Shoulder arthroplasty instrumentation
WO2011130567A3 (en) 2010-04-14 2012-04-19 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems and methods for patient- based computer assisted surgical procedures
GB201006716D0 (en) * 2010-04-22 2010-06-09 Depuy Ireland A composite trial prosthesis
CN103402462B (en) 2010-08-12 2016-09-07 史密夫和内修有限公司 The structure for fixing the orthopedic implant
US9688023B2 (en) 2010-08-20 2017-06-27 H. David Dean Continuous digital light processing additive manufacturing of implants
EP2754419A3 (en) 2011-02-15 2014-10-08 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved orthopedic implants, designs and related tools
US8715289B2 (en) 2011-04-15 2014-05-06 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific numerically controlled instrument
US9675400B2 (en) 2011-04-19 2017-06-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific fracture fixation instrumentation and method
US8668700B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2014-03-11 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific convertible guides
US8956364B2 (en) 2011-04-29 2015-02-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific partial knee guides and other instruments
WO2012149548A3 (en) * 2011-04-29 2013-02-21 The Johns Hopkins University System and method for tracking and navigation
US8532807B2 (en) 2011-06-06 2013-09-10 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Pre-operative planning and manufacturing method for orthopedic procedure
US8979847B2 (en) 2011-06-06 2015-03-17 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Method and apparatus for implanting a knee prosthesis
US9084618B2 (en) 2011-06-13 2015-07-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Drill guides for confirming alignment of patient-specific alignment guides
US9220510B2 (en) * 2011-06-15 2015-12-29 Perception Raisonnement Action En Medecine System and method for bone preparation for an implant
US9498231B2 (en) 2011-06-27 2016-11-22 Board Of Regents Of The University Of Nebraska On-board tool tracking system and methods of computer assisted surgery
US8968412B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2015-03-03 Depuy (Ireland) Trialing system for a knee prosthesis and method of use
US8764760B2 (en) 2011-07-01 2014-07-01 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific bone-cutting guidance instruments and methods
US20130012807A1 (en) * 2011-07-05 2013-01-10 King Fahd University Of Petroleum And Minerals System and method for tracking position of handheld medical instruments
US8597365B2 (en) 2011-08-04 2013-12-03 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific pelvic implants for acetabular reconstruction
US20130053648A1 (en) * 2011-08-24 2013-02-28 Mako Surgical Corporation Surgical Tool for Selectively Illuminating a Surgical Volume
US9295497B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2016-03-29 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific sacroiliac and pedicle guides
US9066734B2 (en) 2011-08-31 2015-06-30 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific sacroiliac guides and associated methods
CA2847182A1 (en) 2011-09-02 2013-03-07 Stryker Corporation Surgical instrument including a cutting accessory extending from a housing and actuators that establish the position of the cutting accessory relative to the housing
US9386993B2 (en) 2011-09-29 2016-07-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific femoroacetabular impingement instruments and methods
US9451973B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2016-09-27 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient specific glenoid guide
US9554910B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2017-01-31 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid guide and implants
US9301812B2 (en) 2011-10-27 2016-04-05 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Methods for patient-specific shoulder arthroplasty
KR20130046337A (en) 2011-10-27 2013-05-07 삼성전자주식회사 Multi-view device and contol method thereof, display apparatus and contol method thereof, and display system
JP2015506726A (en) * 2011-11-23 2015-03-05 サッサーニ、ジョセフ Universal microsurgery simulator
WO2013102827A1 (en) * 2012-01-03 2013-07-11 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Position determining apparatus
US9237950B2 (en) 2012-02-02 2016-01-19 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Implant with patient-specific porous structure
US8584853B2 (en) * 2012-02-16 2013-11-19 Biomedical Enterprises, Inc. Method and apparatus for an orthopedic fixation system
US9381011B2 (en) 2012-03-29 2016-07-05 Depuy (Ireland) Orthopedic surgical instrument for knee surgery
US9545459B2 (en) 2012-03-31 2017-01-17 Depuy Ireland Unlimited Company Container for surgical instruments and system including same
US9237951B1 (en) * 2012-04-17 2016-01-19 Sam Hakki Apparatus and method for identifying tibia bone rotation in knee implant surgery
KR101362252B1 (en) * 2012-06-28 2014-02-14 서울대학교산학협력단 Patient-specific registration guide and method using the same
US9820818B2 (en) 2012-08-03 2017-11-21 Stryker Corporation System and method for controlling a surgical manipulator based on implant parameters
CN104736092B (en) 2012-08-03 2017-07-21 史赛克公司 A system and method for robotic surgical
US9119655B2 (en) 2012-08-03 2015-09-01 Stryker Corporation Surgical manipulator capable of controlling a surgical instrument in multiple modes
US9226796B2 (en) 2012-08-03 2016-01-05 Stryker Corporation Method for detecting a disturbance as an energy applicator of a surgical instrument traverses a cutting path
WO2014025305A1 (en) * 2012-08-08 2014-02-13 Ortoma Ab Method and system for computer assisted surgery
US20150223941A1 (en) * 2012-08-27 2015-08-13 Conformis, Inc. Methods, Devices and Techniques for Improved Placement and Fixation of Shoulder Implant Components
US9402637B2 (en) 2012-10-11 2016-08-02 Howmedica Osteonics Corporation Customized arthroplasty cutting guides and surgical methods using the same
US9060788B2 (en) 2012-12-11 2015-06-23 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guide for anterior approach
US9204977B2 (en) 2012-12-11 2015-12-08 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific acetabular guide for anterior approach
CN105073054A (en) * 2013-01-16 2015-11-18 史赛克公司 Navigation systems and methods for indicating line-of-sight errors
CN103083117A (en) * 2013-01-18 2013-05-08 周一新 Joint prosthesis navigation model testing system
US9839438B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2017-12-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid guide with a reusable guide holder
US9579107B2 (en) 2013-03-12 2017-02-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Multi-point fit for patient specific guide
US9498233B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2016-11-22 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc. Universal acetabular guide and associated hardware
US9826981B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-11-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Tangential fit of patient-specific guides
CN105025835A (en) 2013-03-13 2015-11-04 史赛克公司 System for arranging objects in an operating room in preparation for surgical procedures
US9603665B2 (en) 2013-03-13 2017-03-28 Stryker Corporation Systems and methods for establishing virtual constraint boundaries
CA2906152A1 (en) * 2013-03-15 2014-09-18 Arthromeda, Inc. Systems and methods for providing alignment in total knee arthroplasty
US9517145B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-12-13 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Guide alignment system and method
US9861491B2 (en) 2014-04-30 2018-01-09 Depuy Ireland Unlimited Company Tibial trial system for a knee prosthesis
US9408616B2 (en) 2014-05-12 2016-08-09 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Humeral cut guide
US9561040B2 (en) 2014-06-03 2017-02-07 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid depth control
US9839436B2 (en) 2014-06-03 2017-12-12 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Patient-specific glenoid depth control
US9826994B2 (en) 2014-09-29 2017-11-28 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Adjustable glenoid pin insertion guide
US9833245B2 (en) 2014-09-29 2017-12-05 Biomet Sports Medicine, Llc Tibial tubercule osteotomy
US9820868B2 (en) 2015-03-30 2017-11-21 Biomet Manufacturing, Llc Method and apparatus for a pin apparatus

Citations (92)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US100602A (en) * 1870-03-08 Improvement in wrenches
US4323080A (en) * 1980-06-23 1982-04-06 Melhart Albert H Ankle stress machine
US4566448A (en) * 1983-03-07 1986-01-28 Rohr Jr William L Ligament tensor and distal femoral resector guide
US4567885A (en) * 1981-11-03 1986-02-04 Androphy Gary W Triplanar knee resection system
US4567886A (en) * 1983-01-06 1986-02-04 Petersen Thomas D Flexion spacer guide for fitting a knee prosthesis
US4574794A (en) * 1984-06-01 1986-03-11 Queen's University At Kingston Orthopaedic bone cutting jig and alignment device
US4583554A (en) * 1984-06-12 1986-04-22 Medpar Ii Knee ligament testing device
US4718413A (en) * 1986-12-24 1988-01-12 Orthomet, Inc. Bone cutting guide and methods for using same
US4722056A (en) * 1986-02-18 1988-01-26 Trustees Of Dartmouth College Reference display systems for superimposing a tomagraphic image onto the focal plane of an operating microscope
US4802468A (en) * 1984-09-24 1989-02-07 Powlan Roy Y Device for cutting threads in the walls of the acetabular cavity in humans
US4803976A (en) * 1985-10-03 1989-02-14 Synthes Sighting instrument
US4892093A (en) * 1988-10-28 1990-01-09 Osteonics Corp. Femoral cutting guide
US4991579A (en) * 1987-11-10 1991-02-12 Allen George S Method and apparatus for providing related images over time of a portion of the anatomy using fiducial implants
US5002545A (en) * 1989-01-30 1991-03-26 Dow Corning Wright Corporation Tibial surface shaping guide for knee implants
US5078719A (en) * 1990-01-08 1992-01-07 Schreiber Saul N Osteotomy device and method therefor
US5092869A (en) * 1991-03-01 1992-03-03 Biomet, Inc. Oscillating surgical saw guide pins and instrumentation system
US5190547A (en) * 1992-05-15 1993-03-02 Midas Rex Pneumatic Tools, Inc. Replicator for resecting bone to match a pattern
US5289826A (en) * 1992-03-05 1994-03-01 N. K. Biotechnical Engineering Co. Tension sensor
US5379133A (en) * 1992-06-19 1995-01-03 Atl Corporation Synthetic aperture based real time holographic imaging
US5383454A (en) * 1990-10-19 1995-01-24 St. Louis University System for indicating the position of a surgical probe within a head on an image of the head
US5389101A (en) * 1992-04-21 1995-02-14 University Of Utah Apparatus and method for photogrammetric surgical localization
US5395376A (en) * 1990-01-08 1995-03-07 Caspari; Richard B. Method of implanting a prosthesis
US5486178A (en) * 1994-02-16 1996-01-23 Hodge; W. Andrew Femoral preparation instrumentation system and method
US5490854A (en) * 1992-02-20 1996-02-13 Synvasive Technology, Inc. Surgical cutting block and method of use
US5491510A (en) * 1993-12-03 1996-02-13 Texas Instruments Incorporated System and method for simultaneously viewing a scene and an obscured object
US5598269A (en) * 1994-05-12 1997-01-28 Children's Hospital Medical Center Laser guided alignment apparatus for medical procedures
US5597379A (en) * 1994-09-02 1997-01-28 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Method and apparatus for femoral resection alignment
US5603318A (en) * 1992-04-21 1997-02-18 University Of Utah Research Foundation Apparatus and method for photogrammetric surgical localization
US5613969A (en) * 1995-02-07 1997-03-25 Jenkins, Jr.; Joseph R. Tibial osteotomy system
US5704941A (en) * 1995-11-03 1998-01-06 Osteonics Corp. Tibial preparation apparatus and method
US5707370A (en) * 1995-09-19 1998-01-13 Orthofix, S.R.L. Accessory device for an orthopedic fixator
US5709689A (en) * 1995-09-25 1998-01-20 Wright Medical Technology, Inc. Distal femur multiple resection guide
US5715836A (en) * 1993-02-16 1998-02-10 Kliegis; Ulrich Method and apparatus for planning and monitoring a surgical operation
US5716361A (en) * 1995-11-02 1998-02-10 Masini; Michael A. Bone cutting guides for use in the implantation of prosthetic joint components
US5720752A (en) * 1993-11-08 1998-02-24 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Distal femoral cutting guide apparatus with anterior or posterior referencing for use in knee joint replacement surgery
US5722978A (en) * 1996-03-13 1998-03-03 Jenkins, Jr.; Joseph Robert Osteotomy system
US5733292A (en) * 1995-09-15 1998-03-31 Midwest Orthopaedic Research Foundation Arthroplasty trial prosthesis alignment devices and associated methods
US5860981A (en) * 1993-07-06 1999-01-19 Dennis W. Burke Guide for femoral milling instrumention for use in total knee arthroplasty
US5865809A (en) * 1997-04-29 1999-02-02 Stephen P. Moenning Apparatus and method for securing a cannula of a trocar assembly to a body of a patient
US5871018A (en) * 1995-12-26 1999-02-16 Delp; Scott L. Computer-assisted surgical method
US5871445A (en) * 1993-04-26 1999-02-16 St. Louis University System for indicating the position of a surgical probe within a head on an image of the head
US5880976A (en) * 1997-02-21 1999-03-09 Carnegie Mellon University Apparatus and method for facilitating the implantation of artificial components in joints
US5879352A (en) * 1994-10-14 1999-03-09 Synthes (U.S.A.) Osteosynthetic longitudinal alignment and/or fixation device
US5879354A (en) * 1994-09-02 1999-03-09 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Prosthetic implant
US5885297A (en) * 1996-06-21 1999-03-23 Matsen, Iii; Frederick A. Joint replacement method and apparatus
US6010506A (en) * 1998-09-14 2000-01-04 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Intramedullary nail hybrid bow
US6011987A (en) * 1997-12-08 2000-01-04 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Fiducial positioning cup
US6016606A (en) * 1997-04-25 2000-01-25 Navitrak International Corporation Navigation device having a viewer for superimposing bearing, GPS position and indexed map information
US6021343A (en) * 1997-11-20 2000-02-01 Surgical Navigation Technologies Image guided awl/tap/screwdriver
US6021342A (en) * 1997-06-30 2000-02-01 Neorad A/S Apparatus for assisting percutaneous computed tomography-guided surgical activity
US6022377A (en) * 1998-01-20 2000-02-08 Sulzer Orthopedics Inc. Instrument for evaluating balance of knee joint
US6026315A (en) * 1997-03-27 2000-02-15 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method and apparatus for calibrating a navigation system in relation to image data of a magnetic resonance apparatus
US6030391A (en) * 1998-10-26 2000-02-29 Micropure Medical, Inc. Alignment gauge for metatarsophalangeal fusion surgery
US6033410A (en) * 1999-01-04 2000-03-07 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Orthopaedic instrumentation
US6041249A (en) * 1997-03-13 2000-03-21 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Device for making a guide path for an instrument on a patient
US6044291A (en) * 1997-05-02 2000-03-28 Lap Gmbh Targetting device for the straight-lined introduction of an instrument into a human body
US6168627B1 (en) * 1998-03-17 2001-01-02 Acumed, Inc. Shoulder prosthesis
US6185315B1 (en) * 1996-12-20 2001-02-06 Wyko Corporation Method of combining multiple sets of overlapping surface-profile interferometric data to produce a continuous composite map
US6190320B1 (en) * 1998-09-29 2001-02-20 U.S. Philips Corporation Method for the processing of medical ultrasound images of bony structures, and method and device for computer-assisted surgery
US6190395B1 (en) * 1999-04-22 2001-02-20 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Image guided universal instrument adapter and method for use with computer-assisted image guided surgery
US6195168B1 (en) * 1999-07-22 2001-02-27 Zygo Corporation Infrared scanning interferometry apparatus and method
US6198794B1 (en) * 1996-05-15 2001-03-06 Northwestern University Apparatus and method for planning a stereotactic surgical procedure using coordinated fluoroscopy
US6200316B1 (en) * 1999-05-07 2001-03-13 Paul A. Zwirkoski Intramedullary nail distal targeting device
US6205411B1 (en) * 1997-02-21 2001-03-20 Carnegie Mellon University Computer-assisted surgery planner and intra-operative guidance system
US20020002330A1 (en) * 2000-04-05 2002-01-03 Stefan Vilsmeier Referencing or registering a patient or a patient body part in a medical navigation system by means of irradiation of light points
US20020002365A1 (en) * 2000-03-02 2002-01-03 Andre Lechot Surgical instrumentation system
US20020011594A1 (en) * 2000-06-02 2002-01-31 Desouza Joseph Plastic fence panel
US6344853B1 (en) * 2000-01-06 2002-02-05 Alcone Marketing Group Method and apparatus for selecting, modifying and superimposing one image on another
US20020016540A1 (en) * 1999-05-26 2002-02-07 Mikus Paul W. Computer Guided cryosurgery
US6347240B1 (en) * 1990-10-19 2002-02-12 St. Louis University System and method for use in displaying images of a body part
US6351661B1 (en) * 1991-01-28 2002-02-26 Sherwood Services Ag Optically coupled frameless stereotactic space probe
US6351659B1 (en) * 1995-09-28 2002-02-26 Brainlab Med. Computersysteme Gmbh Neuro-navigation system
US20020029041A1 (en) * 1999-04-09 2002-03-07 Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc. Bone fracture support implant with non-metal spacers
US20020038085A1 (en) * 2000-09-26 2002-03-28 Martin Immerz Method and system for the navigation-assisted positioning of elements
US6503249B1 (en) * 1998-01-27 2003-01-07 William R. Krause Targeting device for an implant
US20030018338A1 (en) * 2000-12-23 2003-01-23 Axelson Stuart L. Methods and tools for femoral resection in primary knee surgery
US6527443B1 (en) * 1999-04-20 2003-03-04 Brainlab Ag Process and apparatus for image guided treatment with an integration of X-ray detection and navigation system
US20030045883A1 (en) * 2001-08-23 2003-03-06 Steven Chow Rotating track cutting guide system
US6675040B1 (en) * 1991-01-28 2004-01-06 Sherwood Services Ag Optical object tracking system
US6673077B1 (en) * 1995-05-31 2004-01-06 Lawrence Katz Apparatus for guiding a resection of a proximal tibia
US20040019382A1 (en) * 2002-03-19 2004-01-29 Farid Amirouche System and method for prosthetic fitting and balancing in joints
US6685711B2 (en) * 2001-02-28 2004-02-03 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Apparatus used in performing femoral and tibial resection in knee surgery
US20040030245A1 (en) * 2002-04-16 2004-02-12 Noble Philip C. Computer-based training methods for surgical procedures
US20040030237A1 (en) * 2002-07-29 2004-02-12 Lee David M. Fiducial marker devices and methods
US6692447B1 (en) * 1999-02-16 2004-02-17 Frederic Picard Optimizing alignment of an appendicular
US6695848B2 (en) * 1994-09-02 2004-02-24 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods for femoral and tibial resection
US6702821B2 (en) * 2000-01-14 2004-03-09 The Bonutti 2003 Trust A Instrumentation for minimally invasive joint replacement and methods for using same
US20040054489A1 (en) * 2002-09-18 2004-03-18 Moctezuma De La Barrera Jose Luis Method and system for calibrating a surgical tool and adapter therefor
US6711431B2 (en) * 2002-02-13 2004-03-23 Kinamed, Inc. Non-imaging, computer assisted navigation system for hip replacement surgery
US6712823B2 (en) * 2001-12-14 2004-03-30 Wright Medical Technology Inc. Humeral head resection guide
US6712824B2 (en) * 2001-06-25 2004-03-30 Aesculap Ag & Co Kg Apparatus for positioning the angle of a bone cutting guide
US20050021037A1 (en) * 2003-05-29 2005-01-27 Mccombs Daniel L. Image-guided navigated precision reamers

Family Cites Families (101)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4646729A (en) * 1982-02-18 1987-03-03 Howmedica, Inc. Prosthetic knee implantation
DE3213434C1 (en) * 1982-04-10 1983-10-27 Aldinger Guenther Process for the production of individually designed prostheses or implants
US4436684B1 (en) * 1982-06-03 1988-05-31
US4565192A (en) * 1984-04-12 1986-01-21 Shapiro James A Device for cutting a patella and method therefor
DE3538654A1 (en) * 1985-10-28 1987-04-30 Mecron Med Prod Gmbh , For use drilling system comprising a drill guide of an endoprosthesis and associated prosthesis
US4936862A (en) * 1986-05-30 1990-06-26 Walker Peter S Method of designing and manufacturing a human joint prosthesis
US4822365A (en) * 1986-05-30 1989-04-18 Walker Peter S Method of design of human joint prosthesis
US4815899A (en) * 1986-11-28 1989-03-28 No-Ma Engineering Incorporated Tool holder and gun drill or reamer
US4841975A (en) * 1987-04-15 1989-06-27 Cemax, Inc. Preoperative planning of bone cuts and joint replacement using radiant energy scan imaging
US4940412A (en) * 1987-12-08 1990-07-10 Elscint Ltd. Method of manufacturing anatomical models
US5251127A (en) * 1988-02-01 1993-10-05 Faro Medical Technologies Inc. Computer-aided surgery apparatus
US5484437A (en) * 1988-06-13 1996-01-16 Michelson; Gary K. Apparatus and method of inserting spinal implants
US4952213A (en) 1989-02-03 1990-08-28 Boehringer Mannheim Corporation Tibial cutting guide
US5098426A (en) * 1989-02-06 1992-03-24 Phoenix Laser Systems, Inc. Method and apparatus for precision laser surgery
US5129908A (en) * 1990-01-23 1992-07-14 Petersen Thomas D Method and instruments for resection of the patella
US5098383A (en) * 1990-02-08 1992-03-24 Artifax Ltd. Device for orienting appliances, prostheses, and instrumentation in medical procedures and methods of making same
US5200316A (en) * 1990-02-15 1993-04-06 Miles Inc. Immunoassay methods using noncross reactive cea gene family members antibodies
US5002578A (en) * 1990-05-04 1991-03-26 Venus Corporation Modular hip stem prosthesis apparatus and method
US5274565A (en) * 1990-10-03 1993-12-28 Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System Process for making custom joint replacements
GB9026592D0 (en) * 1990-12-06 1991-01-23 Meswania Jayantilal M Surgical instrument
GB9114603D0 (en) * 1991-07-05 1991-08-21 Johnson David P Improvements relating to patella prostheses
DE4213599A1 (en) * 1992-04-24 1993-10-28 Klaus Draenert Prosthetic component and processes for their preparation
DE4225112C1 (en) * 1992-07-30 1993-12-09 Bodenseewerk Geraetetech Instrument position relative to processing object measuring apparatus - has measuring device for measuring position of instrument including inertia sensor unit
US5370692A (en) * 1992-08-14 1994-12-06 Guild Associates, Inc. Rapid, customized bone prosthesis
US5517990A (en) * 1992-11-30 1996-05-21 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Stereotaxy wand and tool guide
US5961456A (en) * 1993-05-12 1999-10-05 Gildenberg; Philip L. System and method for displaying concurrent video and reconstructed surgical views
EP0722588B1 (en) * 1993-09-10 2003-01-15 The University Of Queensland Stereolithographic anatomical modelling process
US5417694A (en) * 1993-11-08 1995-05-23 Smith & Nephew Richards Inc. Distal femoral cutting guide apparatus with anterior or posterior referencing for use in knee joint replacement surgery
BE1008128A3 (en) * 1994-03-10 1996-01-23 Materialise Nv Method for supporting an object manufactured by stereo lithography or any rapid prototype manufacturing and method for manufacturing the taking used steunkonstruktie.
GB9405299D0 (en) 1994-03-17 1994-04-27 Guy S Hospital Improvements in or relating to video-based systems for computer assisted surgery and localisation
BE1008372A3 (en) * 1994-04-19 1996-04-02 Materialise Nv METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING A perfected MEDICAL MODEL BASED ON DIGITAL IMAGE INFORMATION OF A BODY.
DE4432891C2 (en) 1994-09-15 2003-11-06 Brainlab Ag Apparatus and mask set of parts for non-invasive stereotactic immobilization in a reproducible position
DE4434519A1 (en) * 1994-09-27 1996-03-28 Brainlab Med Computersyst Gmbh Fixing pin for fixing reference system in bone structure, esp. for head ring for neurosurgery
DE4434539C2 (en) * 1994-09-27 1998-06-04 Luis Dr Med Schuster A process for producing an endoprosthesis as articular substitute for knee joints
EP0950379B1 (en) 1994-10-07 2004-03-31 St. Louis University Device for use with a surgical navigation system
DE19506197A1 (en) 1995-02-23 1996-09-05 Aesculap Ag Method and apparatus for determining the location of a body part
US5769861A (en) 1995-09-28 1998-06-23 Brainlab Med. Computersysteme Gmbh Method and devices for localizing an instrument
US5772594A (en) * 1995-10-17 1998-06-30 Barrick; Earl F. Fluoroscopic image guided orthopaedic surgery system with intraoperative registration
US5676668A (en) 1996-02-20 1997-10-14 Johnson & Johnson Professional, Inc. Femoral locating device assembly
US6167296A (en) 1996-06-28 2000-12-26 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Method for volumetric image navigation
US5824085A (en) * 1996-09-30 1998-10-20 Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc. System and method for cavity generation for surgical planning and initial placement of a bone prosthesis
US5762125A (en) * 1996-09-30 1998-06-09 Johnson & Johnson Professional, Inc. Custom bioimplantable article
CA2225375A1 (en) * 1996-12-23 1998-06-23 Mark Manasas Alignment guide for insertion of fluted or keyed orthopedic components
US6083163A (en) * 1997-01-21 2000-07-04 Computer Aided Surgery, Inc. Surgical navigation system and method using audio feedback
DE29704393U1 (en) * 1997-03-11 1997-07-17 Aesculap Ag An apparatus for pre-operative determination of the position data of Endoprothesenteilen
US6821123B2 (en) * 1997-04-10 2004-11-23 Nobel Biocare Ab Arrangement and system for production of dental products and transmission of information
US6249581B1 (en) 1997-08-01 2001-06-19 Bitwave Pte. Ltd. Spectrum-based adaptive canceller of acoustic echoes arising in hands-free audio
US6226548B1 (en) 1997-09-24 2001-05-01 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Percutaneous registration apparatus and method for use in computer-assisted surgical navigation
US6258095B1 (en) * 1998-03-28 2001-07-10 Stryker Technologies Corporation Methods and tools for femoral intermedullary revision surgery
EP1079756B1 (en) 1998-05-28 2004-08-04 Orthosoft, Inc. Interactive computer-assisted surgical system
DK1089669T3 (en) * 1998-06-22 2008-06-30 Ao Technology Ag Fiduciel matching by means of the screw fiduciel
US7239908B1 (en) * 1998-09-14 2007-07-03 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University Assessing the condition of a joint and devising treatment
JP3974717B2 (en) * 1998-10-27 2007-09-12 富士通株式会社 Setting variable phone
US6285902B1 (en) 1999-02-10 2001-09-04 Surgical Insights, Inc. Computer assisted targeting device for use in orthopaedic surgery
US6332891B1 (en) * 1999-02-16 2001-12-25 Stryker Corporation System and method for performing image guided surgery
DE19922279A1 (en) * 1999-05-11 2000-11-16 Friedrich Schiller Uni Jena Bu A process for generating patient-specific implants
US6235038B1 (en) * 1999-10-28 2001-05-22 Medtronic Surgical Navigation Technologies System for translation of electromagnetic and optical localization systems
US6560476B1 (en) * 1999-11-01 2003-05-06 Arthrovision, Inc. Evaluating disease progression using magnetic resonance imaging
US6626945B2 (en) * 2000-03-14 2003-09-30 Chondrosite, Llc Cartilage repair plug
EP1312025A2 (en) * 2000-04-05 2003-05-21 Therics, Inc. System and method for rapidly customizing a design and remotely manufacturing biomedical devices using a computer system
US6520964B2 (en) * 2000-05-01 2003-02-18 Std Manufacturing, Inc. System and method for joint resurface repair
US6679917B2 (en) * 2000-05-01 2004-01-20 Arthrosurface, Incorporated System and method for joint resurface repair
CA2444491A1 (en) 2000-05-31 2001-12-06 Nicolas Zirngibl Device for positioning a surgical instrument
DE10031887B4 (en) 2000-06-30 2008-02-07 Stryker Leibinger Gmbh & Co. Kg System for implantation of knee joint prostheses
DE10033723C1 (en) * 2000-07-12 2002-02-21 Siemens Ag Surgical instrument position and orientation visualization device for surgical operation has data representing instrument position and orientation projected onto surface of patient's body
EP1306445B1 (en) * 2000-08-01 2009-11-25 Pola Pharma Inc. Method of evaluating antifungal agent
US6558421B1 (en) 2000-09-19 2003-05-06 Barry M. Fell Surgically implantable knee prosthesis
US6510334B1 (en) * 2000-11-14 2003-01-21 Luis Schuster Method of producing an endoprosthesis as a joint substitute for a knee joint
US6786930B2 (en) * 2000-12-04 2004-09-07 Spineco, Inc. Molded surgical implant and method
US7468075B2 (en) * 2001-05-25 2008-12-23 Conformis, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular repair
US8545569B2 (en) * 2001-05-25 2013-10-01 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable knee arthroplasty devices
CA2447694A1 (en) * 2001-05-25 2002-12-05 Imaging Therapeutics, Inc. Methods and compositions for articular resurfacing
US8083745B2 (en) * 2001-05-25 2011-12-27 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools for arthroplasty
US7534263B2 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-05-19 Conformis, Inc. Surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing joint arthroplasty
US7618451B2 (en) * 2001-05-25 2009-11-17 Conformis, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools facilitating increased accuracy, speed and simplicity in performing total and partial joint arthroplasty
US8480754B2 (en) * 2001-05-25 2013-07-09 Conformis, Inc. Patient-adapted and improved articular implants, designs and related guide tools
US20030006107A1 (en) * 2001-06-25 2003-01-09 Ming-Ta Tsai Disk for use with a brake system
DE60129774D1 (en) * 2001-08-11 2007-09-20 Agilent Technologies Inc The optical measuring device with imaging unit
US7001346B2 (en) * 2001-11-14 2006-02-21 Michael R. White Apparatus and methods for making intraoperative orthopedic measurements
US20030153978A1 (en) * 2002-02-08 2003-08-14 Whiteside Biomechanics, Inc. Apparatus and method of ligament balancing and component fit check in total knee arthroplasty
FR2836372B1 (en) * 2002-02-28 2004-06-04 Obl Method and apparatus for establishment of dental implants
US6993374B2 (en) * 2002-04-17 2006-01-31 Ricardo Sasso Instrumentation and method for mounting a surgical navigation reference device to a patient
JP2005523766A (en) * 2002-04-30 2005-08-11 オルトソフト インコーポレイテッド Decision on the femoral cut in knee surgery
US8801720B2 (en) * 2002-05-15 2014-08-12 Otismed Corporation Total joint arthroplasty system
GB2393625C (en) * 2002-09-26 2004-08-18 Meridian Tech Ltd Orthopaedic surgery planning
EP1545368B1 (en) * 2002-10-04 2009-03-11 Orthosoft Inc. Computer-assisted hip replacement surgery
JP2006501977A (en) * 2002-10-07 2006-01-19 コンフォーミス・インコーポレイテッドConforMIS, Inc. Minimally invasive joint implant with a three-dimensional contour conforming to the glenoid surface
JP2006505366A (en) * 2002-11-07 2006-02-16 コンフォーミス・インコーポレイテッドConforMIS, Inc. The method of treatment were determined and devising meniscus size and shape
KR20050072500A (en) * 2002-12-04 2005-07-11 콘포미스 인코퍼레이티드 Fusion of multiple imaging planes for isotropic imaging in mri and quantitative image analysis using isotropic or near-isotropic imaging
US6944518B2 (en) * 2003-09-18 2005-09-13 Depuy Products, Inc. Customized prosthesis and method of designing and manufacturing a customized prosthesis by utilizing computed tomography data
US8752271B2 (en) * 2004-07-30 2014-06-17 Acushnet Company Golf club groove configuration
EP1703867B1 (en) * 2004-01-12 2012-03-07 Depuy Products, Inc. Systems for compartmental replacement in a knee
US7383164B2 (en) * 2004-03-05 2008-06-03 Depuy Products, Inc. System and method for designing a physiometric implant system
EP2649951A3 (en) * 2006-02-06 2013-12-25 ConforMIS, Inc. Patient selectable joint arthroplasty devices and surgical tools
WO2007106172A1 (en) * 2006-03-14 2007-09-20 Mako Surgical Corporation Prosthetic device and system and method for implanting prosthetic device
US8337508B2 (en) * 2006-03-20 2012-12-25 Perception Raisonnement Action En Medecine Distractor system
US20070233267A1 (en) * 2006-03-29 2007-10-04 Farid Amirouche Application of neural networks to prosthesis fitting and balancing in joints
CA2696584C (en) * 2007-08-17 2016-11-29 Mohamed Rashwan Mahfouz Implant design analysis suite
US20090264895A1 (en) * 2008-04-22 2009-10-22 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Systems and methods for implanting a bone fastener and delivering a bone filling material
US8808394B2 (en) * 2008-06-10 2014-08-19 Alps South, LLC Prosthetic liner with perspiration elimination mechanism
US8078440B2 (en) * 2008-09-19 2011-12-13 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Operatively tuning implants for increased performance

Patent Citations (100)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US100602A (en) * 1870-03-08 Improvement in wrenches
US4323080A (en) * 1980-06-23 1982-04-06 Melhart Albert H Ankle stress machine
US4567885A (en) * 1981-11-03 1986-02-04 Androphy Gary W Triplanar knee resection system
US4567886A (en) * 1983-01-06 1986-02-04 Petersen Thomas D Flexion spacer guide for fitting a knee prosthesis
US4566448A (en) * 1983-03-07 1986-01-28 Rohr Jr William L Ligament tensor and distal femoral resector guide
US4574794A (en) * 1984-06-01 1986-03-11 Queen's University At Kingston Orthopaedic bone cutting jig and alignment device
US4583554A (en) * 1984-06-12 1986-04-22 Medpar Ii Knee ligament testing device
US4802468A (en) * 1984-09-24 1989-02-07 Powlan Roy Y Device for cutting threads in the walls of the acetabular cavity in humans
US4803976A (en) * 1985-10-03 1989-02-14 Synthes Sighting instrument
US4722056A (en) * 1986-02-18 1988-01-26 Trustees Of Dartmouth College Reference display systems for superimposing a tomagraphic image onto the focal plane of an operating microscope
US4718413A (en) * 1986-12-24 1988-01-12 Orthomet, Inc. Bone cutting guide and methods for using same
US4991579A (en) * 1987-11-10 1991-02-12 Allen George S Method and apparatus for providing related images over time of a portion of the anatomy using fiducial implants
US5097839A (en) * 1987-11-10 1992-03-24 Allen George S Apparatus for imaging the anatomy
US5094241A (en) * 1987-11-10 1992-03-10 Allen George S Apparatus for imaging the anatomy
US5397329A (en) * 1987-11-10 1995-03-14 Allen; George S. Fiducial implant and system of such implants
US4892093A (en) * 1988-10-28 1990-01-09 Osteonics Corp. Femoral cutting guide
US5002545A (en) * 1989-01-30 1991-03-26 Dow Corning Wright Corporation Tibial surface shaping guide for knee implants
US5078719A (en) * 1990-01-08 1992-01-07 Schreiber Saul N Osteotomy device and method therefor
US5395376A (en) * 1990-01-08 1995-03-07 Caspari; Richard B. Method of implanting a prosthesis
US6347240B1 (en) * 1990-10-19 2002-02-12 St. Louis University System and method for use in displaying images of a body part
US5383454B1 (en) * 1990-10-19 1996-12-31 Univ St Louis System for indicating the position of a surgical probe within a head on an image of the head
US5383454A (en) * 1990-10-19 1995-01-24 St. Louis University System for indicating the position of a surgical probe within a head on an image of the head
US6675040B1 (en) * 1991-01-28 2004-01-06 Sherwood Services Ag Optical object tracking system
US6351661B1 (en) * 1991-01-28 2002-02-26 Sherwood Services Ag Optically coupled frameless stereotactic space probe
US5092869A (en) * 1991-03-01 1992-03-03 Biomet, Inc. Oscillating surgical saw guide pins and instrumentation system
US5490854A (en) * 1992-02-20 1996-02-13 Synvasive Technology, Inc. Surgical cutting block and method of use
US5289826A (en) * 1992-03-05 1994-03-01 N. K. Biotechnical Engineering Co. Tension sensor
US5389101A (en) * 1992-04-21 1995-02-14 University Of Utah Apparatus and method for photogrammetric surgical localization
US5603318A (en) * 1992-04-21 1997-02-18 University Of Utah Research Foundation Apparatus and method for photogrammetric surgical localization
US5190547A (en) * 1992-05-15 1993-03-02 Midas Rex Pneumatic Tools, Inc. Replicator for resecting bone to match a pattern
US5379133A (en) * 1992-06-19 1995-01-03 Atl Corporation Synthetic aperture based real time holographic imaging
US5715836A (en) * 1993-02-16 1998-02-10 Kliegis; Ulrich Method and apparatus for planning and monitoring a surgical operation
US5871445A (en) * 1993-04-26 1999-02-16 St. Louis University System for indicating the position of a surgical probe within a head on an image of the head
US5860981A (en) * 1993-07-06 1999-01-19 Dennis W. Burke Guide for femoral milling instrumention for use in total knee arthroplasty
US5720752A (en) * 1993-11-08 1998-02-24 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Distal femoral cutting guide apparatus with anterior or posterior referencing for use in knee joint replacement surgery
US5491510A (en) * 1993-12-03 1996-02-13 Texas Instruments Incorporated System and method for simultaneously viewing a scene and an obscured object
US5486178A (en) * 1994-02-16 1996-01-23 Hodge; W. Andrew Femoral preparation instrumentation system and method
US5598269A (en) * 1994-05-12 1997-01-28 Children's Hospital Medical Center Laser guided alignment apparatus for medical procedures
US5879354A (en) * 1994-09-02 1999-03-09 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Prosthetic implant
US6197064B1 (en) * 1994-09-02 2001-03-06 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Prosthetic implant
US5597379A (en) * 1994-09-02 1997-01-28 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Method and apparatus for femoral resection alignment
US6695848B2 (en) * 1994-09-02 2004-02-24 Hudson Surgical Design, Inc. Methods for femoral and tibial resection
US5879352A (en) * 1994-10-14 1999-03-09 Synthes (U.S.A.) Osteosynthetic longitudinal alignment and/or fixation device
US5613969A (en) * 1995-02-07 1997-03-25 Jenkins, Jr.; Joseph R. Tibial osteotomy system
US6673077B1 (en) * 1995-05-31 2004-01-06 Lawrence Katz Apparatus for guiding a resection of a proximal tibia
US5733292A (en) * 1995-09-15 1998-03-31 Midwest Orthopaedic Research Foundation Arthroplasty trial prosthesis alignment devices and associated methods
US5707370A (en) * 1995-09-19 1998-01-13 Orthofix, S.R.L. Accessory device for an orthopedic fixator
US5709689A (en) * 1995-09-25 1998-01-20 Wright Medical Technology, Inc. Distal femur multiple resection guide
US6351659B1 (en) * 1995-09-28 2002-02-26 Brainlab Med. Computersysteme Gmbh Neuro-navigation system
US5885296A (en) * 1995-11-02 1999-03-23 Medidea, Llc Bone cutting guides with removable housings for use in the implantation of prosthetic joint components
US6503254B2 (en) * 1995-11-02 2003-01-07 Medidea, Llc Apparatus and method for preparing box cuts in a distal femur with a cutting guide attached to an intramedullary stem
US5716361A (en) * 1995-11-02 1998-02-10 Masini; Michael A. Bone cutting guides for use in the implantation of prosthetic joint components
US6187010B1 (en) * 1995-11-02 2001-02-13 Medidea, Llc Bone cutting guides for use in the implantation of prosthetic joint components
US5704941A (en) * 1995-11-03 1998-01-06 Osteonics Corp. Tibial preparation apparatus and method
US5871018A (en) * 1995-12-26 1999-02-16 Delp; Scott L. Computer-assisted surgical method
US5722978A (en) * 1996-03-13 1998-03-03 Jenkins, Jr.; Joseph Robert Osteotomy system
US6198794B1 (en) * 1996-05-15 2001-03-06 Northwestern University Apparatus and method for planning a stereotactic surgical procedure using coordinated fluoroscopy
US5885297A (en) * 1996-06-21 1999-03-23 Matsen, Iii; Frederick A. Joint replacement method and apparatus
US6185315B1 (en) * 1996-12-20 2001-02-06 Wyko Corporation Method of combining multiple sets of overlapping surface-profile interferometric data to produce a continuous composite map
US6205411B1 (en) * 1997-02-21 2001-03-20 Carnegie Mellon University Computer-assisted surgery planner and intra-operative guidance system
US5880976A (en) * 1997-02-21 1999-03-09 Carnegie Mellon University Apparatus and method for facilitating the implantation of artificial components in joints
US6041249A (en) * 1997-03-13 2000-03-21 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Device for making a guide path for an instrument on a patient
US6026315A (en) * 1997-03-27 2000-02-15 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method and apparatus for calibrating a navigation system in relation to image data of a magnetic resonance apparatus
US6016606A (en) * 1997-04-25 2000-01-25 Navitrak International Corporation Navigation device having a viewer for superimposing bearing, GPS position and indexed map information
US5865809A (en) * 1997-04-29 1999-02-02 Stephen P. Moenning Apparatus and method for securing a cannula of a trocar assembly to a body of a patient
US6044291A (en) * 1997-05-02 2000-03-28 Lap Gmbh Targetting device for the straight-lined introduction of an instrument into a human body
US6021342A (en) * 1997-06-30 2000-02-01 Neorad A/S Apparatus for assisting percutaneous computed tomography-guided surgical activity
US6021343A (en) * 1997-11-20 2000-02-01 Surgical Navigation Technologies Image guided awl/tap/screwdriver
US6011987A (en) * 1997-12-08 2000-01-04 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation Fiducial positioning cup
US6022377A (en) * 1998-01-20 2000-02-08 Sulzer Orthopedics Inc. Instrument for evaluating balance of knee joint
US6503249B1 (en) * 1998-01-27 2003-01-07 William R. Krause Targeting device for an implant
US6168627B1 (en) * 1998-03-17 2001-01-02 Acumed, Inc. Shoulder prosthesis
US6010506A (en) * 1998-09-14 2000-01-04 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Intramedullary nail hybrid bow
US6190320B1 (en) * 1998-09-29 2001-02-20 U.S. Philips Corporation Method for the processing of medical ultrasound images of bony structures, and method and device for computer-assisted surgery
US6030391A (en) * 1998-10-26 2000-02-29 Micropure Medical, Inc. Alignment gauge for metatarsophalangeal fusion surgery
US6033410A (en) * 1999-01-04 2000-03-07 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Orthopaedic instrumentation
US6692447B1 (en) * 1999-02-16 2004-02-17 Frederic Picard Optimizing alignment of an appendicular
US20020029041A1 (en) * 1999-04-09 2002-03-07 Depuy Orthopaedics, Inc. Bone fracture support implant with non-metal spacers
US6527443B1 (en) * 1999-04-20 2003-03-04 Brainlab Ag Process and apparatus for image guided treatment with an integration of X-ray detection and navigation system
US6190395B1 (en) * 1999-04-22 2001-02-20 Surgical Navigation Technologies, Inc. Image guided universal instrument adapter and method for use with computer-assisted image guided surgery
US6200316B1 (en) * 1999-05-07 2001-03-13 Paul A. Zwirkoski Intramedullary nail distal targeting device
US20020016540A1 (en) * 1999-05-26 2002-02-07 Mikus Paul W. Computer Guided cryosurgery
US6195168B1 (en) * 1999-07-22 2001-02-27 Zygo Corporation Infrared scanning interferometry apparatus and method
US6344853B1 (en) * 2000-01-06 2002-02-05 Alcone Marketing Group Method and apparatus for selecting, modifying and superimposing one image on another
US6702821B2 (en) * 2000-01-14 2004-03-09 The Bonutti 2003 Trust A Instrumentation for minimally invasive joint replacement and methods for using same
US20020002365A1 (en) * 2000-03-02 2002-01-03 Andre Lechot Surgical instrumentation system
US20020002330A1 (en) * 2000-04-05 2002-01-03 Stefan Vilsmeier Referencing or registering a patient or a patient body part in a medical navigation system by means of irradiation of light points
US20020011594A1 (en) * 2000-06-02 2002-01-31 Desouza Joseph Plastic fence panel
US20020038085A1 (en) * 2000-09-26 2002-03-28 Martin Immerz Method and system for the navigation-assisted positioning of elements
US20030018338A1 (en) * 2000-12-23 2003-01-23 Axelson Stuart L. Methods and tools for femoral resection in primary knee surgery
US6685711B2 (en) * 2001-02-28 2004-02-03 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Apparatus used in performing femoral and tibial resection in knee surgery
US6712824B2 (en) * 2001-06-25 2004-03-30 Aesculap Ag & Co Kg Apparatus for positioning the angle of a bone cutting guide
US20030045883A1 (en) * 2001-08-23 2003-03-06 Steven Chow Rotating track cutting guide system
US6712823B2 (en) * 2001-12-14 2004-03-30 Wright Medical Technology Inc. Humeral head resection guide
US6711431B2 (en) * 2002-02-13 2004-03-23 Kinamed, Inc. Non-imaging, computer assisted navigation system for hip replacement surgery
US20040019382A1 (en) * 2002-03-19 2004-01-29 Farid Amirouche System and method for prosthetic fitting and balancing in joints
US20040030245A1 (en) * 2002-04-16 2004-02-12 Noble Philip C. Computer-based training methods for surgical procedures
US20040030237A1 (en) * 2002-07-29 2004-02-12 Lee David M. Fiducial marker devices and methods
US20040054489A1 (en) * 2002-09-18 2004-03-18 Moctezuma De La Barrera Jose Luis Method and system for calibrating a surgical tool and adapter therefor
US20050021037A1 (en) * 2003-05-29 2005-01-27 Mccombs Daniel L. Image-guided navigated precision reamers

Cited By (123)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020095083A1 (en) * 1997-03-11 2002-07-18 Philippe Cinquin Process and device for the preoperative determination of the positioning data of endoprosthetic parts
US7881770B2 (en) * 2000-03-01 2011-02-01 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Multiple cannula image guided tool for image guided procedures
US20030196671A1 (en) * 2002-04-17 2003-10-23 Ricardo Sasso Instrumentation and method for mounting a surgical navigation reference device to a patient
US6980849B2 (en) 2002-04-17 2005-12-27 Ricardo Sasso Instrumentation and method for performing image-guided spinal surgery using an anterior surgical approach
US20040092928A1 (en) * 2002-04-17 2004-05-13 Ricardo Sasso Instrumentation and method for performing image-guided spinal surgery using an anterior surgical approach
US20050119566A1 (en) * 2002-04-17 2005-06-02 Ricardo Sasso Instrumentation and method for mounting a surgical navigation reference device to a patient
US8180429B2 (en) 2002-04-17 2012-05-15 Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc. Instrumentation and method for mounting a surgical navigation reference device to a patient
US6993374B2 (en) 2002-04-17 2006-01-31 Ricardo Sasso Instrumentation and method for mounting a surgical navigation reference device to a patient
US9339277B2 (en) * 2002-10-04 2016-05-17 Orthosoft Holdings Inc. Computer-assisted hip replacement surgery
US20040230199A1 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-11-18 Jansen Herbert Andre Computer-assisted hip replacement surgery
US20040068263A1 (en) * 2002-10-04 2004-04-08 Benoit Chouinard CAS bone reference with articulated support
US20060100504A1 (en) * 2002-10-04 2006-05-11 Jansen Herbert A Method for providing pelvic orientation information in computer- assisted surgery
US7877131B2 (en) * 2002-10-04 2011-01-25 Orthosoft Inc. Method for providing pelvic orientation information in computer-assisted surgery
US20110077510A1 (en) * 2002-10-25 2011-03-31 Jose Luis Moctezuma De La Barrera Flexible Tracking Article And Method Of Using The Same
US7869861B2 (en) * 2002-10-25 2011-01-11 Howmedica Leibinger Inc. Flexible tracking article and method of using the same
US8457719B2 (en) 2002-10-25 2013-06-04 Stryker Corporation Flexible tracking article and method of using the same
US20040147839A1 (en) * 2002-10-25 2004-07-29 Moctezuma De La Barrera Jose Luis Flexible tracking article and method of using the same
US20040106926A1 (en) * 2002-12-02 2004-06-03 Francois Leitner Osteotomy procedure
US8147494B2 (en) 2002-12-02 2012-04-03 Aesculap Ag Osteotomy procedure
US7318827B2 (en) * 2002-12-02 2008-01-15 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Osteotomy procedure
EP1627272A2 (en) * 2003-02-04 2006-02-22 Z-Kat, Inc. Interactive computer-assisted surgery system and method
EP1627272A4 (en) * 2003-02-04 2010-04-21 Z Kat Inc Interactive computer-assisted surgery system and method
WO2004069073A2 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-08-19 Orthosoft, Inc. Cas modular bone reference and limb position measurement system
WO2004069073A3 (en) * 2003-02-04 2004-11-18 Benoit Chouinard Cas modular bone reference and limb position measurement system
US20060015018A1 (en) * 2003-02-04 2006-01-19 Sebastien Jutras CAS modular body reference and limb position measurement system
US7559931B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2009-07-14 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation system and method
US8057479B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2011-11-15 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation system and method
US8057482B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2011-11-15 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation device and method
US8974467B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2015-03-10 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation system and method
US8888786B2 (en) 2003-06-09 2014-11-18 OrthAlign, Inc. Surgical orientation device and method
US20050020909A1 (en) * 2003-07-10 2005-01-27 Moctezuma De La Barrera Jose Luis Display device for surgery and method for using the same
US20070055232A1 (en) * 2003-09-05 2007-03-08 Callum Colquhoun Flexible image guided surgery marker
US7734327B2 (en) * 2003-09-05 2010-06-08 Depuy International Ltd. Flexible image guided surgery marker
US20060195048A1 (en) * 2003-09-13 2006-08-31 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and apparatus for determining the angle between the femur and the tibia
US8491597B2 (en) 2003-10-03 2013-07-23 Smith & Nephew, Inc. (partial interest) Surgical positioners
US7862570B2 (en) 2003-10-03 2011-01-04 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical positioners
US7764985B2 (en) 2003-10-20 2010-07-27 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes
US20050096535A1 (en) * 2003-11-04 2005-05-05 De La Barrera Jose Luis M. System and method of registering image data to intra-operatively digitized landmarks
US7392076B2 (en) * 2003-11-04 2008-06-24 Stryker Leibinger Gmbh & Co. Kg System and method of registering image data to intra-operatively digitized landmarks
US7794467B2 (en) 2003-11-14 2010-09-14 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Adjustable surgical cutting systems
JP2007523696A (en) * 2004-01-16 2007-08-23 スミス アンド ネフュー インコーポレーテッド Computer-aided ligament balancing in total knee arthroplasty
US20050171545A1 (en) * 2004-01-30 2005-08-04 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Knee computer-aided navigation instruments
US20080287781A1 (en) * 2004-03-05 2008-11-20 Depuy International Limited Registration Methods and Apparatus
US8109942B2 (en) 2004-04-21 2012-02-07 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Computer-aided methods, systems, and apparatuses for shoulder arthroplasty
US20050251065A1 (en) * 2004-04-27 2005-11-10 Stefan Henning Planning method and planning device for knee implants
EP1591075A1 (en) * 2004-04-27 2005-11-02 BrainLAB AG Method and device for planning knee implants
US8706197B2 (en) 2004-04-27 2014-04-22 Brainlab Ag Planning method and planning device for knee implants
US20060025679A1 (en) * 2004-06-04 2006-02-02 Viswanathan Raju R User interface for remote control of medical devices
US20070156157A1 (en) * 2004-06-15 2007-07-05 Zimmer Gmbh Imageless robotized device and method for surgical tool guidance
US20060015119A1 (en) * 2004-07-14 2006-01-19 Norman Plassky Positioning system with cannulated implant
WO2006060631A1 (en) 2004-12-02 2006-06-08 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Systems, methods, and apparatus for automatic software flow using instrument detection during computer-aided surgery
US20060184014A1 (en) * 2004-12-02 2006-08-17 Manfred Pfeiler Registration aid for medical images
US8280490B2 (en) * 2004-12-02 2012-10-02 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Registration aid for medical images
US8177788B2 (en) 2005-02-22 2012-05-15 Smith & Nephew, Inc. In-line milling system
US20060241397A1 (en) * 2005-02-22 2006-10-26 Assaf Govari Reference pad for position sensing
US20080125647A1 (en) * 2005-02-22 2008-05-29 Micropos Medical Ab Antenna System For Monitoring Of A Target Area
US20060271056A1 (en) * 2005-05-10 2006-11-30 Smith & Nephew, Inc. System and method for modular navigated osteotome
US8467851B2 (en) 2005-09-21 2013-06-18 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for positioning a reference frame
US7835784B2 (en) 2005-09-21 2010-11-16 Medtronic Navigation, Inc. Method and apparatus for positioning a reference frame
US20070118139A1 (en) * 2005-10-14 2007-05-24 Cuellar Alberto D System and method for bone resection
US20120089012A1 (en) * 2005-10-18 2012-04-12 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Method and apparatus for navigating a cutting tool during orthopedic surgery using a localization system
US20070093709A1 (en) * 2005-10-26 2007-04-26 Abernathie Dennis L Surgical navigation markers
WO2007067150A1 (en) * 2005-12-05 2007-06-14 Kuang Ying Yang Computer assisted navigation for total knee arthroplasty
US20110022033A1 (en) * 2005-12-28 2011-01-27 Depuy Products, Inc. System and Method for Wearable User Interface in Computer Assisted Surgery
US8449547B2 (en) 2006-06-22 2013-05-28 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Cutting block for bone resection
US20100057089A1 (en) * 2006-06-22 2010-03-04 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Cutting block for bone resection
US20080015602A1 (en) * 2006-06-22 2008-01-17 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Cutting block for bone resection
US9603605B2 (en) 2006-06-30 2017-03-28 Howmedica Osteomics Corp. High tibial osteotomy guide
US8241292B2 (en) 2006-06-30 2012-08-14 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. High tibial osteotomy system
US8545508B2 (en) 2006-06-30 2013-10-01 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. High tibial osteotomy guide
US8372078B2 (en) 2006-06-30 2013-02-12 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Method for performing a high tibial osteotomy
US20080015603A1 (en) * 2006-06-30 2008-01-17 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. High tibial osteotomy system
US20080015605A1 (en) * 2006-06-30 2008-01-17 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. High tibial osteotomy guide
US20080015604A1 (en) * 2006-06-30 2008-01-17 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Method for performing a high tibial osteotomy
US9659345B2 (en) 2006-08-02 2017-05-23 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. System and method of providing real-time dynamic imagery of a medical procedure site using multiple modalities
US8350902B2 (en) 2006-08-02 2013-01-08 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. System and method of providing real-time dynamic imagery of a medical procedure site using multiple modalities
US8482606B2 (en) 2006-08-02 2013-07-09 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. System and method of providing real-time dynamic imagery of a medical procedure site using multiple modalities
US7728868B2 (en) 2006-08-02 2010-06-01 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. System and method of providing real-time dynamic imagery of a medical procedure site using multiple modalities
US20080118116A1 (en) * 2006-11-20 2008-05-22 General Electric Company Systems and methods for tracking a surgical instrument and for conveying tracking information via a network
US20080185430A1 (en) * 2007-02-01 2008-08-07 Gunter Goldbach Medical instrument identification
US7726564B2 (en) * 2007-02-01 2010-06-01 Brainlab Ag Medical instrument identification
US20080208055A1 (en) * 2007-02-07 2008-08-28 Michael Bertram Method and Device for the Sonographic Navigated Repositioning of Bone Fragments
US9402636B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2016-08-02 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Cutting guide with internal distraction
US20080262500A1 (en) * 2007-04-19 2008-10-23 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Cutting guide with internal distraction
US20080262390A1 (en) * 2007-04-19 2008-10-23 Searete Llc, A Limited Liability Corporation Of The State Of Delaware Fiducials for placement of tissue closures
US20080262524A1 (en) * 2007-04-19 2008-10-23 Searete Llc, A Limited Liability Corporation Of The State Of Delaware Systems and methods for closing of fascia
US8926618B2 (en) 2007-04-19 2015-01-06 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. Cutting guide with internal distraction
US20100192961A1 (en) * 2007-11-08 2010-08-05 Louis-Philippe Amiot Trackable reference device for computer-assisted surgery
US9265572B2 (en) 2008-01-24 2016-02-23 The University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill Methods, systems, and computer readable media for image guided ablation
US8340379B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2012-12-25 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems and methods for displaying guidance data based on updated deformable imaging data
US8831310B2 (en) 2008-03-07 2014-09-09 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems and methods for displaying guidance data based on updated deformable imaging data
US9192392B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2015-11-24 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9572586B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2017-02-21 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US8911447B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2014-12-16 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9855075B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2018-01-02 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US8998910B2 (en) 2008-07-24 2015-04-07 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9119641B2 (en) * 2008-09-03 2015-09-01 Ao Technology Ag Device for manipulating a bone or bone fragment or a surgical instrument, tool or implant and a method for positioning such a device
US20110166447A1 (en) * 2008-09-03 2011-07-07 Ao Technology Ag Device for manipulating a bone or bone fragment or a surgical instrument, tool or implant and a method for positioning such a device
US8974468B2 (en) 2008-09-10 2015-03-10 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip surgery systems and methods
US20100087824A1 (en) * 2008-10-03 2010-04-08 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. High tibial osteotomy instrumentation
US8192441B2 (en) 2008-10-03 2012-06-05 Howmedica Osteonics Corp. High tibial osteotomy instrumentation
US8585598B2 (en) 2009-02-17 2013-11-19 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer-readable media for image guided surgery
US8690776B2 (en) 2009-02-17 2014-04-08 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer-readable media for image guided surgery
US8641621B2 (en) 2009-02-17 2014-02-04 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer-readable media for image management in image-guided medical procedures
US9398936B2 (en) 2009-02-17 2016-07-26 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer-readable media for image guided surgery
US9364294B2 (en) 2009-02-17 2016-06-14 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer-readable media for image management in image-guided medical procedures
US9775725B2 (en) 2009-07-24 2017-10-03 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US8118815B2 (en) 2009-07-24 2012-02-21 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9271756B2 (en) 2009-07-24 2016-03-01 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9282947B2 (en) 2009-12-01 2016-03-15 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Imager focusing based on intraoperative data
US9339226B2 (en) 2010-01-21 2016-05-17 OrthAlign, Inc. Systems and methods for joint replacement
US9107698B2 (en) 2010-04-12 2015-08-18 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Image annotation in image-guided medical procedures
US8554307B2 (en) 2010-04-12 2013-10-08 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Image annotation in image-guided medical procedures
US9138319B2 (en) * 2010-12-17 2015-09-22 Intellijoint Surgical Inc. Method and system for aligning a prosthesis during surgery
US20120157887A1 (en) * 2010-12-17 2012-06-21 Richard Tyler Fanson Method and system for aligning a prosthesis during surgery
US20130190887A1 (en) * 2010-12-17 2013-07-25 Avenir Medical Inc. Method and system for aligning a prosthesis during surgery
US8670816B2 (en) 2012-01-30 2014-03-11 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Multiple medical device guidance
US9314188B2 (en) 2012-04-12 2016-04-19 Intellijoint Surgical Inc. Computer-assisted joint replacement surgery and navigation systems
US9549742B2 (en) 2012-05-18 2017-01-24 OrthAlign, Inc. Devices and methods for knee arthroplasty
US9649160B2 (en) 2012-08-14 2017-05-16 OrthAlign, Inc. Hip replacement navigation system and method
US9247998B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-02-02 Intellijoint Surgical Inc. System and method for intra-operative leg position measurement
US9655749B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-05-23 Intelligent Surgical Inc. Sterile optical sensor system having an adjustment mechanism
US9675319B1 (en) 2016-02-17 2017-06-13 Inneroptic Technology, Inc. Loupe display

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JP4219170B2 (en) 2009-02-04 grant
US20120226198A1 (en) 2012-09-06 application
US20110071531A1 (en) 2011-03-24 application
KR20030082942A (en) 2003-10-23 application
US20110071532A1 (en) 2011-03-24 application
EP1372517A2 (en) 2004-01-02 application
WO2002067783A3 (en) 2003-04-24 application
JP2004527286A (en) 2004-09-09 application
WO2002067783A9 (en) 2003-11-13 application
US20020147455A1 (en) 2002-10-10 application
US20110071530A1 (en) 2011-03-24 application
US20120226481A1 (en) 2012-09-06 application
US6923817B2 (en) 2005-08-02 grant
US20110071529A1 (en) 2011-03-24 application
CA2439249A1 (en) 2002-09-06 application
EP1372516A2 (en) 2004-01-02 application
DE60232315D1 (en) 2009-06-25 grant
WO2002067800A3 (en) 2002-10-31 application
JP2004523297A (en) 2004-08-05 application
WO2002067783A2 (en) 2002-09-06 application
US20110071528A1 (en) 2011-03-24 application
US6827723B2 (en) 2004-12-07 grant
US20050234468A1 (en) 2005-10-20 application
WO2002067800A2 (en) 2002-09-06 application
CA2439249C (en) 2011-04-12 grant
EP1372516B1 (en) 2009-05-13 grant
WO2002067784A3 (en) 2003-02-13 application
DE60232316D1 (en) 2009-06-25 grant
WO2002067784A2 (en) 2002-09-06 application
JP4113779B2 (en) 2008-07-09 grant
US20020133175A1 (en) 2002-09-19 application
EP1379188A2 (en) 2004-01-14 application
EP1372517B1 (en) 2009-05-13 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
DiGioia et al. Image Guided Navigation System to Measure Intraoperatively Acetabular Implant Alignment.
US6711431B2 (en) Non-imaging, computer assisted navigation system for hip replacement surgery
Jakopec et al. The first clinical application of a “hands‐on” robotic knee surgery system
US7660623B2 (en) Six degree of freedom alignment display for medical procedures
US7241298B2 (en) Universal alignment guide
US20110130761A1 (en) Robotic guide assembly for use in computer-aided surgery
US20100153081A1 (en) Implant planning for multiple implant components using constraints
US20050021037A1 (en) Image-guided navigated precision reamers
US20140276854A1 (en) Tangential Fit of Patient-Specific Guides
US20080319491A1 (en) Patient-matched surgical component and methods of use
US8282646B2 (en) Patient specific knee alignment guide and associated method
US20090234360A1 (en) Laser assisted total joint arthroplasty
US20050267353A1 (en) Computer-assisted knee replacement apparatus and method
Stindel et al. Bone morphing: 3D morphological data for total knee arthroplasty
Stulberg et al. Computer-assisted navigation in total knee replacement: results of an initial experience in thirty-five patients
US8214016B2 (en) System and method for determining an optimal type and position of an implant
US6514259B2 (en) Probe and associated system and method for facilitating planar osteotomy during arthoplasty
Delp et al. Computer assisted knee replacement.
US20030069585A1 (en) Methods and tools for femoral resection in knee surgery
US20080195109A1 (en) Navigated cut guide for total knee reconstruction
Nolte et al. A new approach to computer-aided spine surgery: fluoroscopy-based surgical navigation
US20060293614A1 (en) Leg alignment for surgical parameter measurement in hip replacement surgery
Zheng et al. A hybrid CT‐free navigation system for total hip arthroplasty
US20090264737A1 (en) Patella tracking
US8126533B2 (en) System for determining the position of a knee prosthesis

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AS Assignment

Owner name: SMITH & NEPHEW, INC., TENNESSEE

Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CARSON, CHRISTOPHER P.;REEL/FRAME:012943/0970

Effective date: 20020502