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Long-term feed for aquatic animals

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Publication number
US20020086089A1
US20020086089A1 US10007369 US736901A US2002086089A1 US 20020086089 A1 US20020086089 A1 US 20020086089A1 US 10007369 US10007369 US 10007369 US 736901 A US736901 A US 736901A US 2002086089 A1 US2002086089 A1 US 2002086089A1
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US
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
feed
weight
water
agar
fish
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US10007369
Inventor
Hubert Kurzinger
Original Assignee
Hubert Kurzinger
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K50/00Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals
    • A23K50/80Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals for aquatic animals, e.g. fish, crustaceans or molluscs
    • Y02A40/818
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S426/00Food or edible material: processes, compositions, and products
    • Y10S426/805Pet food for dog, cat, bird, or fish

Abstract

The present invention provides a long-term feed for aquatic animals, especially for fish, shrimp and invertebrates, which feed is stable for a long time, is insoluble and does not load the water chemistry in fresh and sea water and can also be used as a weekend or holiday feed for warm and cold water ornamental fish, wherein it contains 1 to 50% by weight of agar-agar.

Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention is concerned with a long-term feed for aquatic animals and especially for fish, shrimp and invertebrates, wherein the feed is stable for an extended time in fresh and sea water and can also be used as weekend and holiday feed for ornamental fish.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    Long-term feeds for ornamental fish, i.e., so-called feed blocks or feed stones, are known which have only a very small proportion of organic materials and mainly consist of calcium sulphate. DE 37 07 032 discloses a holiday feed which overcomes the long-term stabilization problems of the calcium sulphate feed blocks through the use of cement and crude rubber. A disadvantage thereof is the fact that the last-mentioned necessary additive materials are almost indigestable for aquatic animals and, in many countries, are not permitted according to the foodstuff laws.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    It is an object of the present invention to provide an industrially producable, long-term feed for aquatic animals and especially for fish, shrimps and invertebrates, which feed is stable for an extended time and continuously provides ornamental fish with nutrients. The feed of the present invention can be used in fresh and sea water and is especially useful for warm and cold water ornamental fish without thereby making use of adjuvant materials which are not permitted in certain countries according to food-stuff laws but at the same time, however, does not impair the quality of aquarium water due to other adjuvant materials.
  • [0004]
    Surprisingly, we have now found that, by means of the use of polysaccharides, for example of plant gums, the use of cement, calcium sulphate and/or latex can be avoided in the preparation of the feed. Additional properties which are substantially improved in comparison with the feeding agents described in DE 37 07 032 are also included in the present invention.
  • [0005]
    Thus, according to the present invention, there is provided a long-term feed for aquatic animals, especially fish, shrimps and invertebrates in fresh and sea water. The feed is stable for an extended time, is insoluble, does not load the water chemistry in fresh and sea water and can also be used as a weekend or holiday feed for warm and cold water ornamental fish. The feed contains 1 to 50% by weight of a plant gum, preferred agar-agar. Preferred is a feed for ornamental fish which contains 1-10% plant gum, most preferred 2.9%. Typical plant gums which may be used are, for example, carrageenan, agar-agar, gum arabic, tragacanth, karaya gum, ghatti gum, carob bean meal, tara gum and/or xanthans. Preferably, the plant gum is agar-agar.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0006]
    The novel long-term feed for ornamental fish of the present invention is characterised by the omission of natural rubber and cement, by use of additive materials which conform to the foodstuff laws, by the production by means of optimised extrusion parameters, increased production capacity, improved optical and physical properties, increased water stability and reduced water loading. In addition, a reduction of the moisture content in the feed according to the present invention provides further positive properties with regard to water stability and, in particular, with regard to binding action. Further, the raw materials are highly digestable for fish.
  • [0007]
    The formulation of the long-term feed comprises many different raw materials. Plant gums, such as carrageenan, agar-agar, gum arabic, tragacanth, karaya gum, ghatti gum, carob bean meal, tara gum and/or xanthans may be employed in the present invention. Preferably agar-agar, a gelling agent belonging to the hydrocolloid group of materials which is produced from marine algae, is favourable for the water stability of the feed sticks, as well as for holding together the particles. Agar-agar is a dried, hydrophilic colloidal substance made of giant molecules which have a linear, filamentary construction and consist, in particular, of galactose. For the production, some kinds of red algae are used, namely, Gelidium and Gracellaria. The hydrocolloid is not soluble in cold water but at higher temperatures is practically completely soluble. The melting point lies at about 95-98° C. and the gelling point at about 35-40° C. with the formation of a strong, clear, thermo-reversible gel which only melts again at temperatures above 85° C.
  • [0008]
    The long-term feed according to the present invention is preferably produced by means of a boiling extruder from the conventional feed pre-mixtures and the polysaccharide, as well as possibly conventional vitamins, minerals, colouring materials, aroma materials, luring agents and preserving agents.
  • [0009]
    A feed pre-mixture is preferred which consists of about 15 to 35% by weight bolus alba, about 15 to 35% by weight wheat gum, about 5 to 25% by weight lucerne green meal, about 5 to 20% by weight casein, about 5 to 20% by weight krill , about 1 to 10% soya oil, about 1 to 10% by weight milk protein, about 1 to 10% by weight agar-agar, as well as optionally vitamin and mineral material pre-mixtures, conventional colouring materials and/or aroma or luring materials and preserving agents. The material is extruded with the help of a twin-screw boiling extruder at an extruder screw speed of rotation of about 50 to 300 r.p.m. and at a temperature in the meal introduction region in the range of 40 to 160° C. and in the nozzle head in the range of 40 to 180° C. with the addition of about 10 to 50 liters of water and/or of about 0.1 to 30 kg of steam per hour at a throughput capacity of about 80 to 1500 kg/hour to give extrudates in the range of from 5 to 50 mm length and with a stick diameter about 2 to 20 mm.
  • [0010]
    A mixture is quite especially preferred of about 22.2% by weight bolus alba, about 22.0% by weight wheat gum, about 14.5% by weight lucerne green meal, about 12.1% by weight casein, about 9.7% by weight krill, about 4.8% by weight soya oil, about 4.0% by weight milk protein and about 2.9% by weight agar-agar, which optionally contains vitamin and mineral material pre-mixtures, conventional colouring materials and/or aroma or luring materials and/or preserving agents. The mixture is extruded at an extruder screw speed of rotation of about 100 r.p.m. and with a temperature in the range of 80° C. in the meal introduction region and in the range of 85° C. in the nozzle head with the addition of about 31 liters of water per hour to give extrudates from 20 to 25 mm length and with a stick diameter of from 6 to 8 mm.
  • [0011]
    The analytical composition of the long-term feed according to the present invention is in the range of from 20 to 60% by weight of raw protein, about 2 to 20% by weight of raw fat, about 20 to 40% by weight of raw ash and about 10 to 30% by weight of hydrochloric acid-insoluble ash, with a moisture content of 1 to 20% by weight. In a preferred form the feed contains about 38% by weight of protein, about 6% by weight of raw fat, about 32% by weight of raw ash and about 17% by weight of hydrochloric acid-insoluble ash, with a residual moisture content of about 3% by weight. As preserving agent, there is usually employed ethoxyquin, calcium propionate or citric acid.
  • [0012]
    By means of the formulation and extrusion parameters according to the present invention, the output capacity of the boiling extruder of about 90 kg in the case of the known holiday feeds is increased to about 140 kg per hour. In comparison with the known holiday feeds, the feed sticks obtained by the process according to the present invention are uniformly shaped, have a smooth surface and good cut surfaces, i.e. the optical appearance is clearly improved and they have a very good water stability and, in contradistinction to known holiday feeds, show no fungus formation on the feed surface even after a comparatively long period of time under water. When the feed comes into contact with water it softens immediately and swells to nearly double size, but finally keeps its geometrical shape and does not disintegrate. In contrast, the feed known from DE 37 07 032 is instable in its geometrical shape and disintegrates into small particles after entrance into the fish keeping water quite quickly wherefrom the higher water loading results as mentioned below.
  • [0013]
    In the case of feeding with the sticks, the water loading in aquaria is distinctly lower in comparison with the known formulations. Increased ammonium values cannot be measured and the nitrite contents are greatly reduced. In the case of an average fish occupancy of 18 fish in a 30 liter capacity aquarium, according to conventional feed experiments 1 or 2 of the feed sticks according to the present invention suffice as feed for about one week. In the case of a biologically satisfactorily operating active filter system with foamed material cartridges, in the case of these feeding experiments, only 0.2 mg/l of nitrite and 0.05 mg/l of ammonia are reached as maximum harmful material concentrations. The holiday feed of DE 37 07 032 in comparison gives pollutant concentrations of 0.5 mg/l of nitrite and 0.2 mg/l ammonia.
  • [0014]
    The inventive feed sticks are relatively big with regard to the relatively small ornamental fish. The offered feed sticks therefore cannot be eaten as a whole and the fish may bite off small particles as needed. For this reason supply with feed for several days is possible in the aquarium. For this special kind of feed uptake the feed must soften and swell immediately in water but must not disintegrate. Preferably the feed is applicated in a foil bags with holes which may be fastened with suction cups in different positions on the inner walls of aquarias. Warm and cold water ornamental fish from fresh and sea water can take up feed as needed over a period of up to ten days directly through the perforation of the bags. Simultaneously, the feed is a long term feed and the foil bag is a stock container. One to six feed sticks may be placed in a foil bag. This method of feed application is highly accepted by the different species of fish

Claims (8)

I claim:
1. A feed for aquatic animals, especially for fish, shrimp and invertebrates, which feed is stable for a long time, is insoluble, and can also be used as a weekend or holiday feed for warm and cold water fish, wherein the feed contains in the range of about 1-50% by weight of plant gum and has a moisture content of in the range of about 1-20% by weight.
2. A feed according to claim 1, wherein the plant gum is selected from the group consisting of carrageenan, agar-agar, gum arabic, tragacanth, karaya gum, ghatti gum, carob bean meal, tara gum, xanthans and mixtures thereof.
3. A feed according to claim 2, wherein the plant gum is agar-agar.
4. A feed according to claim 3, wherein the feed contains in the range of 1-10% by weight of agar-agar.
5. A feed according to claim 4, wherein the feed contains about 2.9% by weight of agar-agar and has a moisture content of about 3% by weight.
6. A process for the production of a fish feed according to claims 1, wherein a mixture of about 15 to 35% by weight of bolus alba, about 15 to 35% by weight wheat gum, about 5 to 25% by weight lucerne green meal, about 5 to 20% by weight casein, about 5 to 20% by weight krill, about 1 to 10% by weight soya oil, about 1 to 10% by weight milk protein, aabout 1 to 10% by weight agar-agar and vitamin and mineral material pre-mixtures, conventional colouring materials and/or aroma and luring materials and preserving agents is extruded with the use of a twin-screw boiling extruder at an extruder screw speed of rotation of about 50 to 300 r.p.m. and at a temperature in the meal introduction region of about 40 to 160° C. and in the nozzle head of about 40 to 180° C. with the addition of about 10 to 50 liters of water and/or of about 1 to 30 kg of steam per hour at a throughput capacity of about 80 to 1500 kg/hour to give extrudates of about 5 to 50 mm length, with a stick diameter of about 2 to 20 mm and a moisture content of about 1-20% by weight.
7. A process for the production of fish feed according to claim 6, wherein a mixture of about 22.2% by weight bolus alba, about 22.0% by weight wheat gum, about 14.5% by weight lucerne green meal, about 12.1% by weight casein, about 9.7% by weight kril, about 4.8% by weight soya oil, about 4.0% by weight milk protein, about 2.9% by weight agar-agar and vitamin and mineral material premixtures, conventional colouring materials and/or aroma or luring materials and/or preserving agents is extruded with the help of a twin-screw boiling extruder at an extruder screw speed of rotation of about 100 r.p.m. and at a temperature in the meal introduction region of about 80° C. and in the nozzle head of about 85° C. with the addition of about 31 liters of water per hour to give extrudates in the range of from 20 to 24 mm length, with a stick diameter in th range of from 6 to 8 mm and a moisture content of about 3% by weight.
8. The method of use of a feed according to claim 1 as weekend and holiday feed for cold and warm water fish in fresh and sea water which feed is stable for a long period of tine.
US10007369 1993-03-22 2001-11-05 Long-term feed for aquatic animals Abandoned US20020086089A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EPPCT/EP94/00879 1993-03-22
PCT/EP1994/000879 WO1994021139A1 (en) 1993-03-22 1994-03-21 Long-life feedstuff for aquatic animals
US52982195 true 1995-09-18 1995-09-18
US10007369 US20020086089A1 (en) 1993-03-22 2001-11-05 Long-term feed for aquatic animals

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10007369 US20020086089A1 (en) 1993-03-22 2001-11-05 Long-term feed for aquatic animals
US10271822 US6805884B2 (en) 1993-03-22 2002-10-15 Long-term feed for aquatic animals

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US52982195 Continuation 1995-09-18 1995-09-18

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2004039171A1 (en) * 2002-11-01 2004-05-13 Zoolife International Limited Gel feed
WO2009090630A2 (en) 2008-01-16 2009-07-23 Red Sea Fish Pharm Ltd Novel compositions for control of malicious marine anemones
US20100129458A1 (en) * 2008-11-21 2010-05-27 Tsukimura Brian K C Compositions and methods for inhibiting reproduction in tadpole shrimp

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8632833B2 (en) * 2006-12-28 2014-01-21 Purina Animal Nutrition Llc Low starch extrusion
US8733289B2 (en) * 2008-04-07 2014-05-27 Rich Products Corporation Method for preparing edible aquatic animals for storage
US20120183647A1 (en) * 2011-01-18 2012-07-19 Gary Wayne Bagnall Aquatic turtle feeding block
CN103875978A (en) * 2014-03-20 2014-06-25 苏州市阳澄湖现代农业产业园特种水产养殖有限公司 Preparation method for water-resistant aquaculture fodder

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2004039171A1 (en) * 2002-11-01 2004-05-13 Zoolife International Limited Gel feed
US20060240165A1 (en) * 2002-11-01 2006-10-26 Mark Geach Gel feed
WO2009090630A2 (en) 2008-01-16 2009-07-23 Red Sea Fish Pharm Ltd Novel compositions for control of malicious marine anemones
EP2229050A2 (en) * 2008-01-16 2010-09-22 Red Sea Fish Pharm Ltd Novel compositions for control of malicious marine anemones
US20100310679A1 (en) * 2008-01-16 2010-12-09 Sharon Ram Novel compositions for control of malicious marine anemones
EP2229050A4 (en) * 2008-01-16 2012-11-21 Red Sea Fish Pharm Ltd Novel compositions for control of malicious marine anemones
US8404262B2 (en) 2008-01-16 2013-03-26 Red Sea Fish Pharm Ltd. Compositions for control of malicious marine anemones
US20100129458A1 (en) * 2008-11-21 2010-05-27 Tsukimura Brian K C Compositions and methods for inhibiting reproduction in tadpole shrimp
US8293278B2 (en) * 2008-11-21 2012-10-23 Fresno California State University Compositions and methods for inhibiting reproduction in tadpole shrimp

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US6805884B2 (en) 2004-10-19 grant
US20030091688A1 (en) 2003-05-15 application

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