US20020055479A1 - Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression - Google Patents

Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression Download PDF

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US20020055479A1
US20020055479A1 US09/854,883 US85488301A US2002055479A1 US 20020055479 A1 US20020055479 A1 US 20020055479A1 US 85488301 A US85488301 A US 85488301A US 2002055479 A1 US2002055479 A1 US 2002055479A1
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antisense oligonucleotide
artificial sequence
dna artificial
sequence antisense
method
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Lex Cowsert
Jacqueline Wyatt
Susan Freier
Brett Monia
Madeline Butler
Robert McKay
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Ionis Pharmaceuticals Inc
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Priority to US09/487,368 priority Critical patent/US6261840B1/en
Priority to US09/629,644 priority patent/US6602857B1/en
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Priority to US09/854,883 priority patent/US20020055479A1/en
Assigned to ISIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. reassignment ISIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: BUTLER, MADELINE M., MCKAY, ROBERT, MONIA, BRETT P., FREIER, SUSAN M., WYATT, JACQUELINE
Assigned to ISIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. reassignment ISIS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: COWSERT, LEX M.
Publication of US20020055479A1 publication Critical patent/US20020055479A1/en
Priority claimed from US10/360,510 external-priority patent/US7179796B2/en
Priority claimed from AU2007221812A external-priority patent/AU2007221812B2/en
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Abstract

Compounds, compositions and methods are provided for modulating the expression of PTP1B. The compositions comprise antisense compounds, particularly antisense oligonucleotides, targeted to nucleic acids encoding PTP1B. Methods of using these compounds for modulation of PTP1B expression and for treatment of diseases associated with expression of PTP1B are provided.

Description

  • This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/629,644, filed Jul. 31, 2000 which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/487,368, filed Jan. 18, 2000.[0001]
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention provides compositions and methods for modulating the expression of PTP1B. In particular, this invention relates to compounds, particularly antisense oligonucleotides, specifically hybridizable with nucleic acids encoding PTP1B. Such oligonucleotides have been shown to modulate the expression of PTP1B. [0002]
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • The process of phosphorylation, defined as the attachment of a phosphate moiety to a biological molecule through the action of enzymes called kinases, represents one course by which intracellular signals are propagated resulting finally in a cellular response. Within the cell, proteins can be phosphorylated on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues and the extent of phosphorylation is regulated by the opposing action of phosphatases, which remove the phosphate moieties. While the majority of protein phosphorylation within the cell is on serine and threonine residues, tyrosine phosphorylation is modulated to the greatest extent during oncogenic transformation and growth factor stimulation (Zhang, [0003] Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol., 1998, 33, 1-52).
  • Because phosphorylation is such a ubiquitous process within cells and because cellular phenotypes are largely influenced by the activity of these pathways, it is currently believed that a number of disease states and/or disorders are a result of either aberrant activation of, or functional mutations in, kinases and phosphatases. Consequently, considerable attention has been devoted recently to the characterization of tyrosine kinases and tyrosine phosphatases. [0004]
  • PTP1B (also known as protein phosphatase 1B and PTPN1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated enzyme originally isolated as the major protein tyrosine phosphatase of the human placenta (Tonks et al., [0005] J. Biol. Chem., 1988, 263, 6731-6737; Tonks et al., J. Biol. Chem., 1988, 263, 6722-6730).
  • An essential regulatory role in signaling mediated by the insulin receptor has been established for PTP1B. PTP1B interacts with and dephosphorylates the activated insulin receptor both in vitro and in intact cells resulting in the downregulation of the signaling pathway (Goldstein et al., [0006] Mol. Cell. Biochem., 1998, 182, 91-99; Seely et al., Diabetes, 1996, 45, 1379-1385). In addition, PTP1B modulates the mitogenic actions of insulin (Goldstein et al., Mol. Cell. Biochem., 1998, 182, 91-99). In rat adipose cells overexpressing PTP1B, the translocation of the GLUT4 glucose transporter was inhibited, implicating PTP1B as a negative regulator of glucose transport as well (Chen et al., J. Biol. Chem., 1997, 272, 8026-8031).
  • Mouse knockout models lacking the PTP1B gene also point toward the negative regulation of insulin signaling by PTP1B. Mice harboring a disrupted PTP1B gene showed increased insulin sensitivity, increased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and when placed on a high-fat diet, PTP1B−/−mice were resistant to weight gain and remained insulin sensitive (Elchebly et al., [0007] Science, 1999, 283, 1544-1548). These studies clearly establish PTP1B as a therapeutic target in the treatment of diabetes and obesity.
  • PTP1B, which is differentially regulated during the cell cycle (Schievella et al., [0008] Cell. Growth Differ., 1993, 4, 239-246), is expressed in insulin sensitive tissues as two different isoforms that arise from alternate splicing of the pre-mRNA (Shifrin and Neel, J. Biol. Chem., 1993, 268, 25376-25384). It was recently demonstrated that the ratio of the alternatively spliced products is affected by growth factors such as insulin and differs in various tissues examined (Sell and Reese, Mol. Genet. Metab., 1999, 66, 189-192). In these studies it was also found that the levels of the variants correlated with the plasma insulin concentration and percentage body fat and may therefore be used as a biomarker for patients with chronic hyperinsulinemia or type 2 diabetes.
  • Liu and Chernoff have shown that PTP1B binds to and serves as a substrate for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (Liu and Chernoff, [0009] Biochem. J., 1997, 327, 139-145). Furthermore, in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, PT1B was found to be inactivated by the presence of H2O2 generated by the addition of EGF. These studies indicate that PTP1B can be negatively regulated by the oxidation state of the cell, which is often deregulated during tumorigenesis (Lee et al., J. Biol. Chem., 1998, 273, 15366-15372).
  • Overexpression of PTP1B has been demonstrated in malignant ovarian cancers and this correlation was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the expression of the associated growth factor receptor (Wiener et al., [0010] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 1994, 170, 1177-1183).
  • PTP1B has been shown to suppress transformation in NIH3T3 cells induced by the neu oncogene (Brown-Shimer et al., [0011] Cancer Res., 1992, 52, 478-482), as well as in rat 3Y1 fibroblasts induced by v-srk, v-src, and v-ras (Liu et al., Mol. Cell. Biol., 1998, 18, 250-259) and rat-1 fibroblasts induced by bcr-abl (LaMontagne et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1998, 95, 14094-14099). It has also been shown that PTP1B promotes differentiation of K562 cells, a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, in a similar manner as does an inhibitor of the bcr-abl oncoprotein. These studies describe the possible role of PTP1B in controlling the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (LaMontagne et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1998, 95, 14094-14099).
  • PTP1B negatively regulates integrin signaling by interacting with one or more adhesion-dependent signaling components and repressing integrin-mediated MAP kinase activation (Liu et al., [0012] Curr. Biol., 1998, 8, 173-176). Other studies designed to study integrin signaling, using a catalytically inactive form of PTP1B, have shown that PTP1B regulates cadherin-mediated cell adhesion (Balsamo et al., J. Cell. Biol., 1998, 143, 523-532) as well as cell spreading, focal adhesion and stress fiber formation and tyrosine phosphorylation (Arregui et al., J. Cell. Biol., 1998, 143, 861-873).
  • Currently, therapeutic agents designed to inhibit the synthesis or action of PTP1B include small molecules (Ham et al., [0013] Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 1999, 9, 185-186; Skorey et al., J. Biol. Chem., 1997, 272, 22472-22480; Taing et al., Biochemistry, 1999, 38, 3793-3803; Taylor et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem., 1998, 6, 1457-1468; Wang et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 1998, 8, 345-350; Wang et al., Biochem. Pharmacol., 1997, 54, 703-711; Yao et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem., 1998, 6, 1799-1810) and peptides (Chen et al., Biochemistry, 1999, 38, 384-389; Desmarais et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 1998, 354, 225-231; Roller et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 1998, 8, 2149-2150). In addition, disclosed in the PCT publication WO 97/32595 are phosphopeptides and antibodies that inhibit the association of PTP1B with the activated insulin receptor for the treatment of disorders associated with insulin resistance. Antisense nucleotides against PTP1B are also generally disclosed (Olefsky, 1997).
  • There remains a long felt need for additional agents capable of effectively inhibiting PTP1B function and antisense technology is emerging as an effective means for reducing the expression of specific gene products. This technology may therefore prove to be uniquely useful in a number of therapeutic, diagnostic, and research applications for the modulation of PTP1B expression. [0014]
  • The present invention, therefore, provides compositions and methods for modulating PTP1B expression, including modulation of the alternatively spliced form of PTP1B. [0015]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention is directed to antisense compounds, particularly oligonucleotides, which are targeted to a nucleic acid encoding PTP1B, and which modulate the expression of PTP1B. Pharmaceutical and other compositions comprising the antisense compounds of the invention are also provided. Further provided are methods of modulating the expression of PTP1B in cells or tissues comprising contacting said cells or tissues with one or more of the antisense compounds or compositions of the invention. Further provided are methods of treating an animal, particularly a human, suspected of having or being prone to a disease or condition associated with expression of PTP1B by administering a therapeutically or prophylactically effective amount of one or more of the antisense compounds or compositions of the invention.[0016]
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • The present invention employs oligomeric antisense compounds, particularly oligonucleotides, for use in modulating the function of nucleic acid molecules encoding PTP1B, ultimately modulating the amount of PTP1B produced. This is accomplished by providing antisense compounds which specifically hybridize with one or more nucleic acids encoding PTP1B. As used herein, the terms “target nucleic acid” and “nucleic acid encoding PTP[0017] 1B” encompass DNA encoding PTP1B, RNA (including pre-mRNA and mRNA) transcribed from such DNA, and also cDNA derived from such RNA. The specific hybridization of an oligomeric compound with its target nucleic acid interferes with the normal function of the nucleic acid. This modulation of function of a target nucleic acid by compounds which specifically hybridize to it is generally referred to as “antisense”. The functions of DNA to be interfered with include replication and transcription. The functions of RNA to be interfered with include all vital functions such as, for example, translocation of the RNA to the site of protein translation, translation of protein from the RNA, splicing of the RNA to yield one or more mRNA species, and catalytic activity which may be engaged in or facilitated by the RNA. The overall effect of such interference with target nucleic acid function is modulation of the expression of PTP1B. In the context of the present invention, “modulation” means either an increase (stimulation) or a decrease (inhibition) in the expression of a gene. In the context of the present invention, inhibition is the preferred form of modulation of gene expression and mRNA is a preferred target.
  • It is preferred to target specific nucleic acids for antisense. “Targeting” an antisense compound to a particular nucleic acid, in the context of this invention, is a multistep process. The process usually begins with the identification of a nucleic acid sequence whose function is to be modulated. This may be, for example, a cellular gene (or mRNA transcribed from the gene) whose expression is associated with a particular disorder or disease state, or a nucleic acid molecule from an infectious agent. In the present invention, the target is a nucleic acid molecule encoding PTP1B. The targeting process also includes determination of a site or sites within this gene for the antisense interaction to occur such that the desired effect, e.g., detection or modulation of expression of the protein, will result. Within the context of the present invention, a preferred intragenic site is the region encompassing the translation initiation or termination codon of the open reading frame (ORF) of the gene. Since, as is known in the art, the translation initiation codon is typically 5′-AUG (in transcribed mRNA molecules; 5′-ATG in the corresponding DNA molecule), the translation initiation codon is also referred to as the “AUG codon,” the “start codon” or the “AUG start codon”. A minority of genes have a translation initiation codon having the RNA sequence 5′-GUG, 5′-UUG or 5′-CUG, and 5′-AUA, 5′-ACG and 5′-CUG have been shown to function in vivo. Thus, the terms “translation initiation codon” and “start codon” can encompass many codon sequences, even though the initiator amino acid in each instance is typically methionine (in eukaryotes) or formylmethionine (in prokaryotes). It is also known in the art that eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes may have two or more alternative start codons, any one of which may be preferentially utilized for translation initiation in a particular cell type or tissue, or under a particular set of conditions. In the context of the invention, “start codon” and “translation initiation codon” refer to the codon or codons that are used in vivo to initiate translation of an mRNA molecule transcribed from a gene encoding PTP1B, regardless of the sequence(s) of such codons. [0018]
  • It is also known in the art that a translation termination codon (or “stop codon”) of a gene may have one of three sequences, i.e., 5′-UAA, 5′-UAG and 5′-UGA (the corresponding DNA sequences are 5′-TAA, 5′-TAG and 5′-TGA, respectively). The terms “start codon region” and “translation initiation codon region” refer to a portion of such an mRNA or gene that encompasses from about 25 to about 50 contiguous nucleotides in either direction (i.e., 5′ or 3′) from a translation initiation codon. Similarly, the terms “stop codon region” and “translation termination codon region” refer to a portion of such an mRNA or gene that encompasses from about 25 to about 50 contiguous nucleotides in either direction (i.e., 5′ or 3′) from a translation termination codon. [0019]
  • The open reading frame (ORF) or “coding region,” which is known in the art to refer to the region between the translation initiation codon and the translation termination codon, is also a region which may be targeted effectively. Other target regions include the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR), known in the art to refer to the portion of an mRNA in the 5′ direction from the translation initiation codon, and thus including nucleotides between the 5′ cap site and the translation initiation codon of an mRNA or corresponding nucleotides on the gene, and the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR), known in the art to refer to the portion of an mRNA in the 3′ direction from the translation termination codon, and thus including nucleotides between the translation termination codon and 3′ end of an mRNA or corresponding nucleotides on the gene. The 5′ cap of an mRNA comprises an N7-methylated guanosine residue joined to the 5′-most residue of the mRNA via a 5′-5′ triphosphate linkage. The 5′ cap region of an mRNA is considered to include the 5′ cap structure itself as well as the first 50 nucleotides adjacent to the cap. The 5′ cap region may also be a preferred target region. [0020]
  • Although some eukaryotic mRNA transcripts are directly translated, many contain one or more regions, known as “introns,” which are excised from a transcript before it is translated. The remaining (and therefore translated) regions are known as “exons” and are spliced together to form a continuous mRNA sequence. mRNA splice sites, i.e., intronexon junctions, may also be preferred target regions, and are particularly useful in situations where aberrant splicing is implicated in disease, or where an overproduction of a particular mRNA splice product is implicated in disease. Aberrant fusion junctions due to rearrangements or deletions are also preferred targets. It has also been found that introns can also be effective, and therefore preferred, target regions for antisense compounds targeted, for example, to DNA or pre-mRNA. [0021]
  • Once one or more target sites have been identified, oligonucleotides are chosen which are sufficiently complementary to the target, i.e., hybridize sufficiently well and with sufficient specificity, to give the desired effect. [0022]
  • In the context of this invention, “hybridization” means hydrogen bonding, which may be Watson-Crick, Hoogsteen or reversed Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding, between complementary nucleoside or nucleotide bases. For example, adenine and thymine are complementary nucleobases which pair through the formation of hydrogen bonds. “Complementary,” as used herein, refers to the capacity for precise pairing between two nucleotides. For example, if a nucleotide at a certain position of an oligonucleotide is capable of hydrogen bonding with a nucleotide at the same position of a DNA or RNA molecule, then the oligonucleotide and the DNA or RNA are considered to be complementary to each other at that position. The oligonucleotide and the DNA or RNA are complementary to each other when a sufficient number of corresponding positions in each molecule are occupied by nucleotides which can hydrogen bond with each other. Thus, “specifically hybridizable” and “complementary” are terms which are used to indicate a sufficient degree of complementarity or precise pairing such that stable and specific binding occurs between the oligonucleotide and the DNA or RNA target. It is understood in the art that the sequence of an antisense compound need not be 100% complementary to that of its target nucleic acid to be specifically hybridizable. An antisense compound is specifically hybridizable when binding of the compound to the target DNA or RNA molecule interferes with the normal function of the target DNA or RNA to cause a loss of utility, and there is a sufficient degree of complementarity to avoid non-specific binding of the antisense compound to non-target sequences under conditions in which specific binding is desired, i.e., under physiological conditions in the case of in vivo assays or therapeutic treatment, and in the case of in vitro assays, under conditions in which the assays are performed. [0023]
  • Antisense compounds are commonly used as research reagents and diagnostics. For example, antisense oligonucleotides, which are able to inhibit gene expression with exquisite specificity, are often used by those of ordinary skill to elucidate the function of particular genes. Antisense compounds are also used, for example, to distinguish between functions of various members of a biological pathway. Antisense modulation has, therefore, been harnessed for research use. [0024]
  • The specificity and sensitivity of antisense is also harnessed by those of skill in the art for therapeutic uses. Antisense oligonucleotides have been employed as therapeutic moieties in the treatment of disease states in animals and man. Antisense oligonucleotides have been safely and effectively administered to humans and numerous clinical trials are presently underway. It is thus established that oligonucleotides can be useful therapeutic modalities that can be configured to be useful in treatment regimes for treatment of cells, tissues and animals, especially humans. In the context of this invention, the term “oligonucleotide” refers to an oligomer or polymer of ribonucleic acid (RNA) or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or mimetics thereof. This term includes oligonucleotides composed of naturally-occurring nucleobases, sugars and covalent internucleoside (backbone) linkages as well as oligonucleotides having non-naturally-occurring portions which function similarly. Such modified or substituted oligonucleotides are often preferred over native forms because of desirable properties such as, for example, enhanced cellular uptake, enhanced affinity for nucleic acid target and increased stability in the presence of nucleases. [0025]
  • While antisense oligonucleotides are a preferred form of antisense compound, the present invention comprehends other oligomeric antisense compounds, including but not limited to oligonucleotide mimetics such as are described below. The antisense compounds in accordance with this invention preferably comprise from about 8 to about 50 nucleobases (i.e. from about 8 to about 50 linked nucleosides). Particularly preferred antisense compounds are antisense oligonucleotides, even more preferably those comprising from about 12 to about 30 nucleobases. As is known in the art, a nucleoside is a base-sugar combination. The base portion of the nucleoside is normally a heterocyclic base. The two most common classes of such heterocyclic bases are the purines and the pyrimidines. Nucleotides are nucleosides that further include a phosphate group covalently linked to the sugar portion of the nucleoside. For those nucleosides that include a pentofuranosyl sugar, the phosphate group can be linked to either the 2′, 3′ or 5′ hydroxyl moiety of the sugar. In forming oligonucleotides, the phosphate groups covalently link adjacent nucleosides to one another to form a linear polymeric compound. In turn the respective ends of this linear polymeric structure can be further joined to form a circular structure, however, open linear structures are generally preferred. Within the oligonucleotide structure, the phosphate groups are commonly referred to as forming the internucleoside backbone of the oligonucleotide. The normal linkage or backbone of RNA and DNA is a 3′ to 5′ phosphodiester linkage. [0026]
  • Specific examples of preferred antisense compounds useful in this invention include oligonucleotides containing modified backbones or non-natural internucleoside linkages. As defined in this specification, oligonucleotides having modified backbones include those that retain a phosphorus atom in the backbone and those that do not have a phosphorus atom in the backbone. For the purposes of this specification, and as sometimes referenced in the art, modified oligonucleotides that do not have a phosphorus atom in their internucleoside backbone can also be considered to be oligonucleosides. [0027]
  • Preferred modified oligonucleotide backbones include, for example, phosphorothioates, chiral phosphorothioates, phosphorodithioates, phosphotriesters, aminoalkylphosphotri-esters, methyl and other alkyl phosphonates including 3′-alkylene phosphonates and chiral phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphoramidates including 3′-amino phosphoramidate and aminoalkylphosphoramidates, thionophosphoramidates, thiono-alkylphosphonates, thionoalkylphosphotriesters, and borano-phosphates having normal 3′-5′ linkages, 2′-5′ linked analogs of these, and those having inverted polarity wherein the adjacent pairs of nucleoside units are linked 3′-5′ to 5′-3′ or 2′-5′ to 5′-2′. Various salts, mixed salts and free acid forms are also included. [0028]
  • Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of the above phosphorus-containing linkages include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos.: 3,687,808; 4,469,863; 4,476,301; 5,023,243; 5,177,196; 5,188,897; 5,264,423; 5,276,019; 5,278,302; 5,286,717; 5,321,131; 5,399,676; 5,405,939; 5,453,496; 5,455,233; 5,466,677; 5,476,925; 5,519,126; 5,536,821; 5,541,306; 5,550,111; 5,563,253; 5,571,799; 5,587,361; and 5,625,050, certain of which are commonly owned with this application, and each of which is herein incorporated by reference. [0029]
  • Preferred modified oligonucleotide backbones that do not include a phosphorus atom therein have backbones that are formed by short chain alkyl or cycloalkyl internucleoside linkages, mixed heteroatom and alkyl or cycloalkyl internucleoside linkages, or one or more short chain heteroatomic or heterocyclic internucleoside linkages. These include those having morpholino linkages (formed in part from the sugar portion of a nucleoside); siloxane backbones; sulfide, sulfoxide and sulfone backbones; formacetyl and thioformacetyl backbones; methylene formacetyl and thioformacetyl backbones; alkene containing backbones; sulfamate backbones; methyleneimino and methylenehydrazino backbones; sulfonate and sulfonamide backbones; amide backbones; and others having mixed N, O, S and CH[0030] 2 component parts.
  • Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of the above oligonucleosides include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos.: 5,034,506; 5,166,315; 5,185,444; 5,214,134; 5,216,141; 5,235,033; 5,264,562; 5,264,564; 5,405,938; 5,434,257; 5,466,677; 5,470,967; 5,489,677; 5,541,307; 5,561,225; 5,596,086; 5,602,240; 5,610,289; 5,602,240; 5,608,046; 5,610,289; 5,618,704; 5,623,070; 5,663,312; 5,633,360; 5,677,437; and 5,677,439, certain of which are commonly owned with this application, and each of which is herein incorporated by reference. [0031]
  • In other preferred oligonucleotide mimetics, both the sugar and the internucleoside linkage, i.e., the backbone, of the nucleotide units are replaced with novel groups. The base units are maintained for hybridization with an appropriate nucleic acid target compound. One such oligomeric compound, an oligonucleotide mimetic that has been shown to have excellent hybridization properties, is referred to as a peptide nucleic acid (PNA). In PNA compounds, the sugar-backbone of an oligonucleotide is replaced with an amide containing backbone, in particular an aminoethylglycine backbone. The nucleobases are retained and are bound directly or indirectly to aza nitrogen atoms of the amide portion of the backbone. Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of PNA compounds include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos.: 5,539,082; 5,714,331; and 5,719,262, each of which is herein incorporated by reference. Further teaching of PNA compounds can be found in Nielsen et al., [0032] Science, 1991, 254, 1497-1500.
  • Most preferred embodiments of the invention are oligonucleotides with phosphorothioate backbones and oligonucleosides with heteroatom backbones, and in particular —CH[0033] 2—NH—O—CH2—, —CH2—N(CH3)—O—CH2—[known as a methylene (methylimino) or MMI backbone], —CH2—O—N(CH3)—CH2—, —CH2—N (CH3) —N(CH3) —CH2—and —O—N(CH3) —CH2—CH2—[wherein the native phosphodiester backbone is represented as —O—P—O—CH2—] of the above referenced U.S. Pat. No. 5,489,677, and the amide backbones of the above referenced U.S. Pat. No. 5,602,240. Also preferred are oligonucleotides having morpholino backbone structures of the above-referenced U.S. Pat. No. 5,034,506.
  • Modified oligonucleotides may also contain one or more substituted sugar moieties. Preferred oligonucleotides comprise one of the following at the 2′′position: OH; F; O-, S-, or N-alkyl; O-, S-, or N-alkenyl; O-, S- or N-alkynyl; or O-alkyl-O-alkyl, wherein the alkyl, alkenyl and alkynyl may be substituted or unsubstituted C[0034] 1 to C10 alkyl or C2 to C10 alkenyl and alkynyl. Particularly preferred are O [(CH2)nO]mCH3, O(CH2)nOCH3, O(CH2)nNH2, O(CH2)nCH3, O(CH2)nONH2 and O(CH2)nON[(CH2)nCH3)]2, where n and m are from 1 to about 10. Other preferred oligonucleotides comprise one of the following at the 2′ position: C1 to C10 lower alkyl, substituted lower alkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl, O-alkaryl or O-aralkyl, SH, SCH3, OCN, Cl, Br, CN, CF3, OCF3, SOCH3, SO2CH3, ONO2, NO2, N3, NH2, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkaryl, aminoalkylamino, polyalkylamino, substituted silyl, an RNA cleaving group, a reporter group, an intercalator, a group for improving the pharmacokinetic properties of an oligonucleotide, or a group for improving the pharmacodynamic properties of an oligonucleotide, and other substituents having similar properties. A preferred modification includes 2′-methoxyethoxy (2′-O-CH2CH2OCH3, also known as 2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl) or 2′-MOE) (Martin et al., Helv. Chim. Acta, 1995, 78, 486-504) i.e., an alkoxyalkoxy group. A further preferred modification includes 2′-dimethylaminooxyethoxy, i.e., a O(CH2)2ON(CH3)2 group, also known as 2′-DMAOE, as described in examples hereinbelow, and 2′-dimethylamino-ethoxyethoxy (also known in the art as 2′-O-dimethylamino-ethoxyethyl or 2′-DMAEOE), i.e., 2′—O—CH2—O—CH2—N(CH2)2, also described in examples hereinbelow.
  • Other preferred modifications include 2′-methoxy (2′—O—CH[0035] 3), 2′-aminopropoxy (2′-OCH2CH2CH2NH2) and 2′-fluoro (2′-F). Similar modifications may also be made at other positions on the oligonucleotide, particularly the 3′ position of the sugar on the 3′ terminal nucleotide or in 2′-5′ linked oligonucleotides and the 5′ position of 5′ terminal nucleotide. Oligonucleotides may also have sugar mimetics such as cyclobutyl moieties in place of the pentofuranosyl sugar. Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of such modified sugar structures include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos.: 4,981,957; 5,118,800; 5,319,080; 5,359,044; 5,393,878; 5,446,137; 5,466,786; 5,514,785; 5,519,134; 5,567,811; 5,576,427; 5,591,722; 5,597,909; 5,610,300; 5,627,053; 5,639,873; 5,646,265; 5,658,873; 5,670,633; and 5,700,920, certain of which are commonly owned with the instant application, and each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.
  • Oligonucleotides may also include nucleobase (often referred to in the art simply as “base”) modifications or substitutions. As used herein, “unmodified” or “natural” nucleobases include the purine bases adenine (A) and guanine (G), and the pyrimidine bases thymine (T), cytosine (C) and uracil (U). Modified nucleobases include other synthetic and natural nucleobases such as 5-methylcytosine (5-me-C), 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, 2-aminoadenine, 6-methyl and other alkyl derivatives of adenine and guanine, 2-propyl and other alkyl derivatives of adenine and guanine, 2-thiouracil, 2-thiothymine and 2-thiocytosine, 5-halouracil and cytosine, 5-propynyl uracil and cytosine, 6-azo uracil, cytosine and thymine, 5-uracil (pseudouracil), 4-thiouracil, 8-halo, 8-amino, 8-thiol, 8-thioalkyl, 8-hydroxyl and other 8-substituted adenines and quanines, 5-halo particularly 5-bromo, 5-trifluoromethyl and other 5-substituted uracils and cytosines, 7-methylguanine and 7-methyladenine, 8-azaguanine and 8-azaadenine, 7-deazaguanine and 7-deazaadenine and 3-deazaguanine and 3-deazaadenine. Further nucleobases include those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,687,808, those disclosed in [0036] The Concise Encyclopedia Of Polymer Science And Engineering, pages 858-859, Kroschwitz, J. I., ed. John Wiley & Sons, 1990, those disclosed by Englisch et al., Angewandte Chemie, International Edition, 1991, 30, 613, and those disclosed by Sanghvi, Y. S., Chapter 15, Antisense Research and Applications, pages 289-302, Crooke, S. T. and Lebleu, B. , ed., CRC Press, 1993. Certain of these nucleobases are particularly useful for increasing the binding affinity of the oligomeric compounds of the invention. These include 5-substituted pyrimidines, 6-azapyrimidines and N-2, N-6 and O-6 substituted purines, including 2-aminopropyladenine, 5-propynyluracil and 5-propynylcytosine. 5-methylcytosine substitutions have been shown to increase nucleic acid duplex stability by 0.6-1.2° C. (Sanghvi, Y. S., Crooke, S. T. and Lebleu, B., eds., Antisense Research and Applications, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1993, pp. 276-278) and are presently preferred base substitutions, even more particularly when combined with 2′-O-methoxyethyl sugar modifications.
  • Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of certain of the above noted modified nucleobases as well as other modified nucleobases include, but are not limited to, the above noted U.S. Pat. No. 3,687,808, as well as U.S. Pat. Nos.: 4,845,205; 5,130,302; 5,134,066; 5,175,273; 5,367,066; 5,432,272; 5,457,187; 5,459,255; 5,484,908; 5,502,177; 5,525,711; 5,552,540; 5,587,469; 5,594,121, 5,596,091; 5,614,617; and 5,681,941, certain of which are commonly owned with the instant application, and each of which is herein incorporated by reference, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,750,692, which is commonly owned with the instant application and also herein incorporated by reference. [0037]
  • Another modification of the oligonucleotides of the invention involves chemically linking to the oligonucleotide one or more moieties or conjugates which enhance the activity, cellular distribution or cellular uptake of the oligonucleotide. Such moieties include but are not limited to lipid moieties such as a cholesterol moiety (Letsinger et al., [0038] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1989, 86, 6553-6556), cholic acid (Manoharan et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Let., 1994, 4, 1053-1060), a thioether, e.g., hexyl-S-tritylthiol (Manoharan et al., Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1992, 660, 306-309; Manoharan et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Let., 1993, 3, 2765-2770), a thiocholesterol (Oberhauser et al., Nucl. Acids Res., 1992, 20, 533-538), an aliphatic chain, e.g., dodecandiol or undecyl residues (Saison-Behmoaras et al., EMBO J., 1991, 10, 1111-1118; Kabanov et al., FEBS Lett., 1990, 259, 327-330; Svinarchuk et al., Biochimie, 1993, 75, 49-54), a phospholipid, e.g., di-hexadecyl-rac-glycerol or triethyl-ammonium 1,2-di-O-hexadecyl-rac-glycero-3-H-phosphonate (Manoharan et al., Tetrahedron Lett., 1995, 36, 3651-3654; Shea et al., Nucl. Acids Res., 1990, 18, 3777-3783), a polyamine or a polyethylene glycol chain (Manoharan et al., Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 1995, 14, 969-973), or adamantane acetic acid (Manoharan et al., Tetrahedron Lett., 1995, 36, 3651-3654), a palmityl moiety (Mishra et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1995, 1264, 229-237), or an octadecylamine or hexylamino-carbonyl-oxycholesterol moiety (Crooke et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 1996, 277, 923-937.
  • Representative United States patents that teach the reparation of such oligonucleotide conjugates include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos.: 4,828,979; 4,948,882; 5,218,105; 5,525,465; 5,541,313; 5,545,730; 5,552,538; 5,578,717, 5,580,731; 5,580,731; 5,591,584; 5,109,124; 5,118,802; 5,138,045; 5,414,077; 5,486,603; 5,512,439; 5,578,718; 5,608,046; 4,587,044; 4,605,735; 4,667,025; 4,762,779; 4,789,737; 4,824,941; 4,835,263; 4,876,335; 4,904,582; 4,958,013; 5,082,830; 5,112,963; 5,214,136; 5,082,830; 5,112,963; 5,214,136; 5,245,022; 5,254,469; 5,258,506; 5,262,536; 5,272,250; 5,292,873; 5,317,098; 5,371,241, 5,391,723; 5,416,203, 5,451,463; 5,510,475; 5,512,667; 5,514,785; 5,565,552; 5,567,810; 5,574,142; 5,585,481; 5,587,371; 5,595,726; 5,597,696; 5,599,923; 5,599,928 and 5,688,941, certain of which are commonly owned with the instant application, and each of which is herein incorporated by reference. [0039]
  • It is not necessary for all positions in a given compound to be uniformly modified, and in fact more than one of the aforementioned modifications may be incorporated in a single compound or even at a single nucleoside within an oligonucleotide. The present invention also includes antisense compounds which are chimeric compounds. “Chimeric” antisense compounds or “chimeras,” in the context of this invention, are antisense compounds, particularly oligonucleotides, which contain two or more chemically distinct regions, each made up of at least one monomer unit, i.e., a nucleotide in the case of an oligonucleotide compound. These oligonucleotides typically contain at least one region wherein the oligonucleotide is modified so as to confer upon the oligonucleotide increased resistance to nuclease degradation, increased cellular uptake, and/or increased binding affinity for the target nucleic acid. An additional region of the oligonucleotide may serve as a substrate for enzymes capable of cleaving RNA:DNA or RNA:RNA hybrids. By way of example, RNase H is a cellular endonuclease which cleaves the RNA strand of an RNA:DNA duplex. Activation of RNase H, therefore, results in cleavage of the RNA target, thereby greatly enhancing the efficiency of oligonucleotide inhibition of gene expression. Consequently, comparable results can often be obtained with shorter oligonucleotides when chimeric oligonucleotides are used, compared to phosphorothioate deoxyoligonucleotides hybridizing to the same target region. Cleavage of the RNA target can be routinely detected by gel electrophoresis and, if necessary, associated nucleic acid hybridization techniques known in the art. [0040]
  • Chimeric antisense compounds of the invention may be formed as composite structures of two or more oligonucleotides, modified oligonucleotides, oligonucleosides and/or oligonucleotide mimetics as described above. Such compounds have also been referred to in the art as hybrids or gapmers. Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of such hybrid structures include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos.: 5,013,830; 5,149,797; 5,220,007; 5,256,775; 5,366,878; 5,403,711; 5,491,133; 5,565,350; 5,623,065; 5,652,355; 5,652,356; and 5,700,922, certain of which are commonly owned with the instant application, and each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. [0041]
  • The antisense compounds used in accordance with this invention may be conveniently and routinely made through the well-known technique of solid phase synthesis. Equipment for such synthesis is sold by several vendors including, for example, Applied Biosystems (Foster City, Calif.). Any other means for such synthesis known in the art may additionally or alternatively be employed. It is well known to use similar techniques to prepare oligonucleotides such as the phosphorothioates and alkylated derivatives. [0042]
  • The antisense compounds of the invention are synthesized in vitro and do not include antisense compositions of biological origin, or genetic vector constructs designed to direct the in viva synthesis of antisense molecules. The compounds of the invention may also be admixed, encapsulated, conjugated or otherwise associated with other molecules, molecule structures or mixtures of compounds, as for example, liposomes, receptor targeted molecules, oral, rectal, topical or other formulations, for assisting in uptake, distribution and/or absorption. Representative United States patents that teach the preparation of such uptake, distribution and/or absorption assisting formulations include, but are not limited to, U.S. Pat. Nos.: 5,108,921; 5,354,844; 5,416,016; 5,459,127; 5,521,291; 5,543,158; 5,547,932; 5,583,020; 5,591,721; 4,426,330; 4,534,899; 5,013,556; 5,108,921; 5,213,804; 5,227,170; 5,264,221; 5,356,633; 5,395,619; 5,416,016; 5,417,978; 5,462,854; 5,469,854; 5,512,295; 5,527,528; 5,534,259; 5,543,152; 5,556,948; 5,580,575; and 5,595,756, each of which is herein incorporated by reference. [0043]
  • The antisense compounds of the invention encompass any pharmaceutically acceptable salts, esters, or salts of such esters, or any other compound which, upon administration to an animal including a human, is capable of providing (directly or indirectly) the biologically active metabolite or residue thereof. Accordingly, for example, the disclosure is also drawn to prodrugs and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds of the invention, pharmaceutically acceptable salts of such prodrugs, and other bioequivalents. [0044]
  • The term “prodrug” indicates a therapeutic agent that is prepared in an inactive form that is converted to an active form (i.e., drug) within the body or cells thereof by the action of endogenous enzymes or other chemicals and/or conditions. In particular, prodrug versions of the oligonucleotides of the invention are prepared as SATE [(S-acetyl-2-thioethyl) phosphate] derivatives according to the methods disclosed in WO 93/24510 to Gosselin et al., published Dec. 9, 1993 or in WO 94/26764 to Imbach et al. [0045]
  • The term “pharmaceutically acceptable salts” refers to physiologically and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds of the invention: i.e., salts that retain the desired biological activity of the parent compound and do not impart undesired toxicological effects thereto. [0046]
  • Pharmaceutically acceptable base addition salts are formed with metals or amines, such as alkali and alkaline earth metals or organic amines. Examples of metals used as cations are sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and the like. Examples of suitable amines are N,N′-dibenzylethylenediamine, chloroprocaine, choline, diethanolamine, dicyclohexylamine, ethylenediamine, N-methylglucamine, and procaine (see, for example, Berge et al., “Pharmaceutical Salts,” [0047] J. of Pharma Sci., 1977, 66, 1-19). The base addition salts of said acidic compounds are prepared by contacting the free acid form with a sufficient amount of the desired base to produce the salt in the conventional manner. The free acid form may be regenerated by contacting the salt form with an acid and isolating the free acid in the conventional manner. The free acid forms differ from their respective salt forms somewhat in certain physical properties such as solubility in polar solvents, but otherwise the salts are equivalent to their respective free acid for purposes of the present invention. As used herein, a “pharmaceutical addition salt” includes a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of an acid form of one of the components of the compositions of the invention. These include organic or inorganic acid salts of the amines. Preferred acid salts are the hydrochlorides, acetates, salicylates, nitrates and phosphates. Other suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts are well known to those skilled in the art and include basic salts of a variety of inorganic and organic acids, such as, for example, with inorganic acids, such as for example hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid; with organic carboxylic, sulfonic, sulfo or phospho acids or N-substituted sulfamic acids, for example acetic acid, propionic acid, glycolic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, hydroxymaleic acid, methylmaleic acid, fumaric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, oxalic acid, gluconic acid, glucaric acid, glucuronic acid, citric acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, mandelic acid, salicylic acid, 4-aminosalicylic acid, 2-phenoxybenzoic acid, 2-acetoxybenzoic acid, embonic acid, nicotinic acid or isonicotinic acid; and with amino acids, such as the 20 alpha-amino acids involved in the synthesis of proteins in nature, for example glutamic acid or aspartic acid, and also with phenylacetic acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid, ethane-1,2-disulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methylbenzenesulfoc acid, naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid, naphthalene-1,5-disulfonic acid, 2- or 3-phosphoglycerate, glucose-6-phosphate, N-cyclohexylsulfamic acid (with the formation of cyclamates), or with other acid organic compounds, such as ascorbic acid. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of compounds may also be prepared with a pharmaceutically acceptable cation. Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable cations are well known to those skilled in the art and include alkaline, alkaline earth, ammonium and quaternary ammonium cations. Carbonates or hydrogen carbonates are also possible.
  • For oligonucleotides, preferred examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts include but are not limited to (a) salts formed with cations such as sodium, potassium, ammonium, magnesium, calcium, polyamines such as spermine and spermidine, etc.; (b) acid addition salts formed with inorganic acids, for example hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid and the like; (c) salts formed with organic acids such as, for example, acetic acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, gluconic acid, citric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, tannic acid, palmitic acid, alginic acid, polyglutamic acid, naphthalenesulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, naphthalenedisulfonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, and the like; and (d) salts formed from elemental anions such as chlorine, bromine, and iodine. [0048]
  • The antisense compounds of the present invention can be utilized for diagnostics, therapeutics, prophylaxis and as research reagents and kits. For therapeutics, an animal, preferably a human, suspected of having a disease or disorder which can be treated by modulating the expression of PTP1B is treated by administering antisense compounds in accordance with this invention. The compounds of the invention can be utilized in pharmaceutical compositions by adding an effective amount of an antisense compound to a suitable pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier. Use of the antisense compounds and methods of the invention may also be useful prophylactically, e.g., to prevent or delay infection, inflammation or tumor formation, for example. [0049]
  • The antisense compounds of the invention are useful for research and diagnostics, because these compounds hybridize to nucleic acids encoding PTP1B, enabling sandwich and other assays to easily be constructed to exploit this fact. Hybridization of the antisense oligonucleotides of the invention with a nucleic acid encoding PTP1B can be detected by means known in the art. Such means may include conjugation of an enzyme to the oligonucleotide, radiolabelling of the oligonucleotide or any other suitable detection means. Kits using such detection means for detecting the level of PTP1B in a sample may also be prepared. [0050]
  • The present invention also includes pharmaceutical compositions and formulations which include the antisense compounds of the invention. The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may be administered in a number of ways depending upon whether local or systemic treatment is desired and upon the area to be treated. Administration may be topical (including ophthalmic and to mucous membranes including vaginal and rectal delivery), pulmonary, e.g., by inhalation or insufflation of powders or aerosols, including by nebulizer; intratracheal, intranasal, epidermal and transdermal), oral or parenteral. Parenteral administration includes intravenous, intraarterial, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or intramuscular injection or infusion; or intracranial, e.g., intrathecal or intraventricular, administration. Oligonucleotides with at least one 2′-O-methoxyethyl modification are believed to be particularly useful for oral administration. [0051]
  • Pharmaceutical compositions and formulations for topical administration may include transdermal patches, ointments, lotions, creams, gels, drops, suppositories, sprays, liquids and powders. Conventional pharmaceutical carriers, aqueous, powder or oily bases, thickeners and the like may be necessary or desirable. Coated condoms, gloves and the like may also be useful. [0052]
  • Compositions and formulations for oral administration include powders or granules, suspensions or solutions in water or non-aqueous media, capsules, sachets or tablets. Thickeners, flavoring agents, diluents, emulsifiers, dispersing aids or binders may be desirable. [0053]
  • Compositions and formulations for parenteral, intrathecal or intraventricular administration may include sterile aqueous solutions which may also contain buffers, diluents and other suitable additives such as, but not limited to, penetration enhancers, carrier compounds and other pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or excipients. [0054]
  • Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention include, but are not limited to, solutions, emulsions, and liposome-containing formulations. These compositions may be generated from a variety of components that include, but are not limited to, preformed liquids, self-emulsifying solids and self-emulsifying semisolids. [0055]
  • The pharmaceutical formulations of the present invention, which may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form, may be prepared according to conventional techniques well known in the pharmaceutical industry. Such techniques include the step of bringing into association the active ingredients with the pharmaceutical carrier(s) or excipient(s). In general the formulations are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing into association the active ingredients with liquid carriers or finely divided solid carriers or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product. [0056]
  • The compositions of the present invention may be formulated into any of many possible dosage forms such as, but not limited to, tablets, capsules, liquid syrups, soft gels, suppositories, and enemas. The compositions of the present invention may also be formulated as suspensions in aqueous, non-aqueous or mixed media. Aqueous suspensions may further contain substances which increase the viscosity of the suspension including, for example, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sorbitol and/or dextran. The suspension may also contain stabilizers. [0057]
  • In one embodiment of the present invention the pharmaceutical compositions may be formulated and used as foams. Pharmaceutical foams include formulations such as, but not limited to, emulsions, microemulsions, creams, jellies and liposomes. While basically similar in nature these formulations vary in the components and the consistency of the final product. The preparation of such compositions and formulations is generally known to those skilled in the pharmaceutical and formulation arts and may be applied to the formulation of the compositions of the present invention. [0058]
  • Emulsions [0059]
  • The compositions of the present invention may be prepared and formulated as emulsions. Emulsions are typically heterogenous systems of one liquid dispersed in another in the form of droplets usually exceeding 0.1 μm in diameter. (Idson, in [0060] Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 199; Rosoff, in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms,Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., Volume 1, p. 245; Block in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 2, p. 335; Higuchi et al., in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Co., Easton, Pa., 1985, p. 301). Emulsions are often biphasic systems comprising of two immiscible liquid phases intimately mixed and dispersed with each other. In general, emulsions may be either water-in-oil (w/o) or of the oil-in-water (o/w) variety. When an aqueous phase is finely divided into and dispersed as minute droplets into a bulk oily phase the resulting composition is called a water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion. Alternatively, when an oily phase is finely divided into and dispersed as minute droplets into a bulk aqueous phase the resulting composition is called an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. Emulsions may contain additional components in addition to the dispersed phases and the active drug which may be present as a solution in either the aqueous phase, oily phase or itself as a separate phase. Pharmaceutical excipients such as emulsifiers, stabilizers, dyes, and anti-oxidants may also be present in emulsions as needed. Pharmaceutical emulsions may also be multiple emulsions that are comprised of more than two phases such as, for example, in the case of oil-in-water-in-oil (o/w/o) and water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsions. Such complex formulations often provide certain advantages that simple binary emulsions do not. Multiple emulsions in which individual oil droplets of an o/w emulsion enclose small water droplets constitute a w/o/w emulsion. Likewise a system of oil droplets enclosed in globules of water stabilized in an oily continuous provides an o/w/o emulsion.
  • Emulsions are characterized by little or no thermodynamic stability. Often, the dispersed or discontinuous phase of the emulsion is well dispersed into the external or continuous phase and maintained in this form through the means of emulsifiers or the viscosity of the formulation. Either of the phases of the emulsion may be a semisolid or a solid, as is the case of emulsion-style ointment bases and creams. Other means of stabilizing emulsions entail the use of emulsifiers that may be incorporated into either phase of the emulsion. Emulsifiers may broadly be classified into four categories: synthetic surfactants, naturally occurring emulsifiers, absorption bases, and finely dispersed solids (Idson, in [0061] Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 199).
  • Synthetic surfactants, also known as surface active agents, have found wide applicability in the formulation of emulsions and have been reviewed in the literature (Rieger, in [0062] Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 285; Idson, in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1988, volume 1, p. 199). Surfactants are typically amphiphilic and comprise a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic portion. The ratio of the hydrophilic to the hydrophobic nature of the surfactant has been termed the hydrophile/lipophile balance (HLB) and is a valuable tool in categorizing and selecting surfactants in the preparation of formulations. Surfactants may be classified into different classes based on the nature of the hydrophilic group: nonionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric (Rieger, in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 285).
  • Naturally occurring emulsifiers used in emulsion formulations include lanolin, beeswax, phosphatides, lecithin and acacia. Absorption bases possess hydrophilic properties such that they can soak up water to form w/o emulsions yet retain their semisolid consistencies, such as anhydrous lanolin and hydrophilic petrolatum. Finely divided solids have also been used as good emulsifiers especially in combination with surfactants and in viscous preparations. These include polar inorganic solids, such as heavy metal hydroxides, nonswelling clays such as bentonite, attapulgite, hectorite, kaolin, montmorillonite, colloidal aluminum silicate and colloidal magnesium aluminum silicate, pigments and nonpolar solids such as carbon or glyceryl tristearate. [0063]
  • A large variety of non-emulsifying materials are also included in emulsion formulations and contribute to the properties of emulsions. These include fats, oils, waxes, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty esters, humectants, hydrophilic colloids, preservatives and antioxidants (Block, in [0064] Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 335; Idson, in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 199).
  • Hydrophilic colloids or hydrocolloids include naturally occurring gums and synthetic polymers such as polysaccharides (for example, acacia, agar, alginic acid, carrageenan, guar gum, karaya gum, and tragacanth), cellulose derivatives (for example, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxypropylcellulose), and synthetic polymers (for example, carbomers, cellulose ethers, and carboxyvinyl polymers). These disperse or swell in water to form colloidal solutions that stabilize emulsions by forming strong interfacial films around the dispersed-phase droplets and by increasing the viscosity of the external phase. [0065]
  • Since emulsions often contain a number of ingredients such as carbohydrates, proteins, sterols and phosphatides that may readily support the growth of microbes, these formulations often incorporate preservatives. Commonly used preservatives included in emulsion formulations include methyl paraben, propyl paraben, quaternary ammonium salts, benzalkonium chloride, esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and boric acid. Antioxidants are also commonly added to emulsion formulations to prevent deterioration of the formulation. Antioxidants used may be free radical scavengers such as tocopherols, alkyl gallates, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, or reducing agents such as ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulfite, and antioxidant synergists such as citric acid, tartaric acid, and lecithin. [0066]
  • The application of emulsion formulations via dermatological, oral and parenteral routes and methods for their manufacture have been reviewed in the literature (Idson, in [0067] Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 199). Emulsion formulations for oral delivery have been very widely used because of reasons of ease of formulation, efficacy from an absorption and bioavailability standpoint. (Rosoff, in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 245; Idson, in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 199). Mineral-oil base laxatives, oil-soluble vitamins and high fat nutritive preparations are among the materials that have commonly been administered orally as o/w emulsions.
  • In one embodiment of the present invention, the compositions of oligonucleotides and nucleic acids are formulated as microemulsions. A microemulsion may be defined as a system of water, oil and amphiphile which is a single optically isotropic and thermodynamically stable liquid solution (Rosoff, in [0068] Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 245). Typically microemulsions are systems that are prepared by first dispersing an oil in an aqueous surfactant solution and then adding a sufficient amount of a fourth component, generally an intermediate chain-length alcohol to form a transparent system. Therefore, microemulsions have also been described as thermodynamically stable, isotropically clear dispersions of two immiscible liquids that are stabilized by interfacial films of surface-active molecules (Leung and Shah, in: Controlled Release of Drugs: Polymers and Aggregate Systems, Rosoff, M., Ed., 1989, VCH Publishers, New York, pages 185-215). Microemulsions commonly are prepared via a combination of three to five components that include oil, water, surfactant, cosurfactant and electrolyte. Whether the microemulsion is of the water-in-oil (w/o) or an oil-in-water (o/w) type is dependent on the properties of the oil and surfactant used and on the structure and geometric packing of the polar heads and hydrocarbon tails of the surfactant molecules (Schott, in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Co., Easton, Pa., 1985, p. 271).
  • The phenomenological approach utilizing phase diagrams has been extensively studied and has yielded a comprehensive knowledge, to one skilled in the art, of how to formulate microemulsions (Rosoff, in [0069] Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 245; Block, in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 335). Compared to conventional emulsions, microemulsions offer the advantage of solubilizing water-insoluble drugs in a formulation of thermodynamically stable droplets that are formed spontaneously.
  • Surfactants used in the preparation of microemulsions include, but are not limited to, ionic surfactants, non-ionic surfactants, Brij 96, polyoxyethylene oleyl ethers, polyglycerol fatty acid esters, tetraglycerol monolaurate (ML310), tetraglycerol monooleate (MO310), hexaglycerol monooleate (PO310), hexaglycerol pentaoleate (PO500), decaglycerol monocaprate (MCA750), decaglycerol monooleate (MO750), decaglycerol sequioleate (SO750), decaglycerol decaoleate (DAO750), alone or in combination with cosurfactants. The cosurfactant, usually a short-chain alcohol such as ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol, serves to increase the interfacial fluidity by penetrating into the surfactant film and consequently creating a disordered film because of the void space generated among surfactant molecules. Microemulsions may, however, be prepared without the use of cosurfactants and alcohol-free self-emulsifying microemulsion systems are known in the art. The aqueous phase may typically be, but is not limited to, water, an aqueous solution of the drug, glycerol, PEG300, PEG400, polyglycerols, propylene glycols, and derivatives of ethylene glycol. The oil phase may include, but is not limited to, materials such as Captex 300, Captex 355, Capmul MCM, fatty acid esters, medium chain (C8-C12) mono, di, and tri-glycerides, polyoxyethylated glyceryl fatty acid esters, fatty alcohols, polyglycolized glycerides, saturated polyglycolized C8-C10glycerides, vegetable oils and silicone oil. [0070]
  • Microemulsions are particularly of interest from the standpoint of drug solubilization and the enhanced absorption of drugs. Lipid based microemulsions (both o/w and w/o) have been proposed to enhance the oral bioavailability of drugs, including peptides (Constantinides et al., [0071] Pharmaceutical Research, 1994, 11, 1385-1390; Ritschel, Meth. Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol., 1993, 13, 205). Microemulsions afford advantages of improved drug solubilization, protection of drug from enzymatic hydrolysis, possible enhancement of drug absorption due to surfactant-induced alterations in membrane fluidity and permeability, ease of preparation, ease of oral administration over solid dosage forms, improved clinical potency, and decreased toxicity (Constantinides et al., Pharmaceutical Research, 1994, 11, 1385; Ho et al., J. Pharm. Sci., 1996, 85, 138-143). Often microemulsions may form spontaneously when their components are brought together at ambient temperature. This may be particularly advantageous when formulating thermolabile drugs, peptides or oligonucleotides. Microemulsions have also been effective in the transdermal delivery of active components in both cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. It is expected that the microemulsion compositions and formulations of the present invention will facilitate the increased systemic absorption of oligonucleotides and nucleic acids from the gastrointestinal tract, as well as improve the local cellular uptake of oligonucleotides and nucleic acids within the gastrointestinal tract, vagina, buccal cavity and other areas of administration.
  • Microemulsions of the present invention may also contain additional components and additives such as sorbitan monostearate (Grill 3), Labrasol, and penetration enhancers to improve the properties of the formulation and to enhance the absorption of the oligonucleotides and nucleic acids of the present invention. Penetration enhancers used in the microemulsions of the present invention may be classified as belonging to one of five broad categories—surfactants, fatty acids, bile salts, chelating agents, and non-chelating non-surfactants (Lee et al., [0072] Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 1991, p. 92). Each of these classes has been discussed above.
  • Liposomes [0073]
  • There are many organized surfactant structures besides microemulsions that have been studied and used for the formulation of drugs. These include monolayers, micelles, bilayers and vesicles. Vesicles, such as liposomes, have attracted great interest because of their specificity and the duration of action they offer from the standpoint of drug delivery. As used in the present invention, the term “liposome” means a vesicle composed of amphiphilic lipids arranged in a spherical bilayer or bilayers. [0074]
  • Liposomes are unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles which have a membrane formed from a lipophilic material and an aqueous interior. The aqueous portion contains the composition to be delivered. Cationic liposomes possess the advantage of being able to fuse to the cell wall. Non-cationic liposomes, although not able to fuse as efficiently with the cell wall, are taken up by macrophages in vivo. [0075]
  • In order to cross intact mammalian skin, lipid vesicles must pass through a series of fine pores, each with a diameter less than 50 nm, under the influence of a suitable transdermal gradient. Therefore, it is desirable to use a liposome which is highly deformable and able to pass through such fine pores. [0076]
  • Further advantages of liposomes include; liposomes obtained from natural phospholipids are biocompatible and biodegradable; liposomes can incorporate a wide range of water and lipid soluble drugs; liposomes can protect encapsulated drugs in their internal compartments from metabolism and degradation (Rosoff, in [0077] Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lieberman, Rieger and Banker (Eds.), 1988, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., volume 1, p. 245). Important considerations in the preparation of liposome formulations are the lipid surface charge, vesicle size and the aqueous volume of the liposomes.
  • Liposomes are useful for the transfer and delivery of active ingredients to the site of action. Because the liposomal membrane is structurally similar to biological membranes, when liposomes are applied to a tissue, the liposomes start to merge with the cellular membranes. As the merging of the liposome and cell progresses, the liposomal contents are emptied into the cell where the active agent may act. [0078]
  • Liposomal formulations have been the focus of extensive investigation as the mode of delivery for many drugs. There is growing evidence that for topical administration, liposomes present several advantages over other formulations. Such advantages include reduced side-effects related to high systemic absorption of the administered drug, increased accumulation of the administered drug at the desired target, and the ability to administer a wide variety of drugs, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, into the skin. [0079]
  • Several reports have detailed the ability of liposomes to deliver agents including high-molecular weight DNA into the skin. Compounds including analgesics, antibodies, hormones and high-molecular weight DNAs have been administered to the skin. The majority of applications resulted in the targeting of the upper epidermis. [0080]
  • Liposomes fall into two broad classes. Cationic liposomes are positively charged liposomes which interact with the negatively charged DNA molecules to form a stable complex. The positively charged DNA/liposome complex binds to the negatively charged cell surface and is internalized in an endosome. Due to the acidic pH within the endosome, the liposomes are ruptured, releasing their contents into the cell cytoplasm (Wang et al., [0081] Biochemn. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1987, 147, 980-985).
  • Liposomes which are pH-sensitive or negatively-charged, entrap DNA rather than complex with it. Since both the DNA and the lipid are similarly charged, repulsion rather than complex formation occurs. Nevertheless, some DNA is entrapped within the aqueous interior of these liposomes. pH-sensitive liposomes have been used to deliver DNA encoding the thymidine kinase gene to cell monolayers in culture. Expression of the exogenous gene was detected in the target cells (Zhou et al., [0082] Journal of Controlled Release, 1992, 19, 269-274).
  • One major type of liposomal composition includes phospholipids other than naturally-derived phosphatidylcholine. Neutral liposome compositions, for example, can be formed from dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Anionic liposome compositions generally are formed from dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol, while anionic fusogenic liposomes are formed primarily from dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Another type of liposomal composition is formed from phosphatidylcholine (PC) such as, for example, soybean PC, and egg PC. Another type is formed from mixtures of phospholipid and/or phosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. [0083]
  • Several studies have assessed the topical delivery of liposomal drug formulations to the skin. Application of liposomes containing interferon to guinea pig skin resulted in a reduction of skin herpes sores while delivery of interferon via other means (e.g. as a solution or as an emulsion) were ineffective (Weiner et al., [0084] Journal of Drug Targeting, 1992, 2, 405-410). Further, an additional study tested the efficacy of interferon administered as part of a liposomal formulation to the administration of interferon using an aqueous system, and concluded that the liposomal formulation was superior to aqueous administration (du Plessis et al., Antiviral Research, 1992, 18, 259-265).
  • Non-ionic liposomal systems have also been examined to determine their utility in the delivery of drugs to the skin, in particular systems comprising non-ionic surfactant and cholesterol. Non-ionic liposomal formulations comprising NovasomeJ I (glyceryl dilaurate/cholesterol/polyoxyethylene-10-stearyl ether) and NovasomeJ II (glyceryl distearate/cholesterol/polyoxyethylene-10-stearyl ether) were used to deliver cyclosporin-A into the dermis of mouse skin. Results indicated that such non-ionic liposomal systems were effective in facilitating the deposition of cyclosporin-A into different layers of the skin (Hu et al. [0085] S.T.P.Pharma. Sci., 1994, 4, 6, 466).
  • Liposomes also include “sterically stabilized” liposomes, a term which, as used herein, refers to liposomes comprising one or more specialized lipids that, when incorporated into liposomes, result in enhanced circulation lifetimes relative to liposomes lacking such specialized lipids. Examples of sterically stabilized liposomes are those in which part of the vesicle-forming lipid portion of the liposome (A) comprises one or more glycolipids, such as monosialoganglioside G[0086] Ml, or (B) is derivatized with one or more hydrophilic polymers, such as a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety. While not wishing to be bound by any particular theory, it is thought in the art that, at least for sterically stabilized liposomes containing gangliosides, sphingomyelin, or PEG-derivatized lipids, the enhanced circulation half-life of these sterically stabilized liposomes derives from a reduced uptake into cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) (Allen et al., FEBS Letters, 1987, 223, 42; Wu et al., Cancer Research, 1993, 53, 3765). Various liposomes comprising one or more glycolipids are known in the art. Papahadjopoulos et al. (Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1987, 507, 64) reported the ability of monosialoganglioside GMl, galactocerebroside sulfate and phosphatidylinositol to improve blood half-lives of liposomes. These findings were expounded upon by Gabizon et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1988, 85, 6949). U.S. Pat. No. 4,837,028 and WO 88/04924, both to Allen et al., disclose liposomes comprising (1) sphingomyelin and (2) the ganglioside GM, or a galactocerebroside sulfate ester. U.S. Pat. No. 5,543,152 (Webb et al.) discloses liposomes comprising sphingomyelin. Liposomes comprising 1,2-sn-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine are disclosed in WO 97/13499 (Lim et al.).
  • Many liposomes comprising lipids derivatized with one or more hydrophilic polymers, and methods of preparation thereof, are known in the art. Sunamoto et al. ([0087] Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1980, 53, 2778) described liposomes comprising a nonionic detergent, 2C1215G, that contains a PEG moiety. Illum et al. (FEBS Lett., 1984, 167, 79) noted that hydrophilic coating of polystyrene particles with polymeric glycols results in significantly enhanced blood half-lives. Synthetic phospholipids modified by the attachment of carboxylic groups of polyalkylene glycols (e.g., PEG) are described by Sears (U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,426,330 and 4,534,899). Klibanov et al. (FEBS Lett., 1990, 268, 235) described experiments demonstrating that liposomes comprising phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) derivatized with PEG or PEG stearate have significant increases in blood circulation half-lives. Blume et al. (Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1990, 1029, 91) extended such observations to other PEG-derivatized phospholipids, e.g., DSPE-PEG, formed from the combination of distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) and PEG. Liposomes having covalently bound PEG moieties on their external surface are described in European Patent No. EP 0 445 131 B1 and WO 90/04384 to Fisher. Liposome compositions containing 1-20 mole percent of PE derivatized with PEG, and methods of use thereof, are described by Woodle et al. (U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,013,556 and 5,356,633) and Martin et al. (U.S. Pat. No. 5,213,804 and European Patent No. EP 0 496 813 B1). Liposomes comprising a number of other lipid-polymer conjugates are disclosed in WO 91/05545 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,225,212 (both to Martin et al.) and in WO 94/20073 (Zalipsky et al.) Liposomes comprising PEG-modified ceramide lipids are described in WO 96/10391 (Choi et al.) . U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,540,935 (Miyazaki et al.) and 5,556,948 (Tagawa et al.) describe PEG-containing liposomes that can be further derivatized with functional moieties on their surfaces.
  • A limited number of liposomes comprising nucleic acids are known in the art. WO 96/40062 to Thierry et al. discloses methods for encapsulating high molecular weight nucleic acids in liposomes. U.S. Pat. No. 5,264,221 to Tagawa et al. discloses protein-bonded liposomes and asserts that the contents of such liposomes may include an antisense RNA. U.S. Pat. No. 5,665,710 to Rahman et al. describes certain methods of encapsulating oligodeoxynucleotides in liposomes. WO 97/04787 to Love et al. discloses liposomes comprising antisense oligonucleotides targeted to the raf gene. [0088]
  • Transfersomes are yet another type of liposomes, and are highly deformable lipid aggregates which are attractive candidates for drug delivery vehicles. Transfersomes may be described as lipid droplets which are so highly deformable that they are easily able to penetrate through pores which are smaller than the droplet. Transfersomes are adaptable to the environment in which they are used, e.g. they are self-optimizing (adaptive to the shape of pores in the skin), self-repairing, frequently reach their targets without fragmenting, and often self-loading. To make transfersomes it is possible to add surface edge-activators, usually surfactants, to a standard liposomal composition. Transfersomes have been used to deliver serum albumin to the skin. The transfersome-mediated delivery of serum albumin has been shown to be as effective as subcutaneous injection of a solution containing serum albumin. [0089]
  • Surfactants find wide application in formulations such as emulsions (including microemulsions) and liposomes. The most common way of classifying and ranking the properties of the many different types of surfactants, both natural and synthetic, is by the use of the hydrophile/lipophile balance (HLB). The nature of the hydrophilic group (also known as the “head”) provides the most useful means for categorizing the different surfactants used in formulations (Rieger, in [0090] Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y. 1988, p. 285).
  • If the surfactant molecule is not ionized, it is classified as a nonionic surfactant. Nonionic surfactants find wide application in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products and are usable over a wide range of pH values. In general their HLB values range from 2 to about 18 depending on their structure. Nonionic surfactants include nonionic esters such as ethylene glycol esters, propylene glycol esters, glyceryl esters, polyglyceryl esters, sorbitan esters, sucrose esters, and ethoxylated esters. Nonionic alkanolamides and ethers such as fatty alcohol ethoxylates, propoxylated alcohols, and ethoxylated/propoxylated block polymers are also included in this class. The polyoxyethylene surfactants are the most popular members of the nonionic surfactant class. [0091]
  • If the surfactant molecule carries a negative charge when it is dissolved or dispersed in water, the surfactant is classified as anionic. Anionic surfactants include carboxylates such as soaps, acyl lactylates, acyl amides of amino acids, esters of sulfuric acid such as alkyl sulfates and ethoxylated alkyl sulfates, sulfonates such as alkyl benzene sulfonates, acyl isethionates, acyl taurates and sulfosuccinates, and phosphates. The most important members of the anionic surfactant class are the alkyl sulfates and the soaps. [0092]
  • If the surfactant molecule carries a positive charge when it is dissolved or dispersed in water, the surfactant is classified as cationic. Cationic surfactants include quaternary ammonium salts and ethoxylated amines. The quaternary ammonium salts are the most used members of this class. [0093]
  • If the surfactant molecule has the ability to carry either a positive or negative charge, the surfactant is classified as amphoteric. Amphoteric surfactants include acrylic acid derivatives, substituted alkylamides, N-alkylbetaines and phosphatides. [0094]
  • The use of surfactants in drug products, formulations and in emulsions has been reviewed (Rieger, in [0095] Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1988, p. 285).
  • Penetration Enhancers [0096]
  • In one embodiment, the present invention employs various penetration enhancers to effect the efficient delivery of nucleic acids, particularly oligonucleotides, to the skin of animals. Most drugs are present in solution in both ionized and nonionized forms. However, usually only lipid soluble or lipophilic drugs readily cross cell membranes. It has been discovered that even non-lipophilic drugs may cross cell membranes if the membrane to be crossed is treated with a penetration enhancer. In addition to aiding the diffusion of non-lipophilic drugs across cell membranes, penetration enhancers also enhance the permeability of lipophilic drugs. [0097]
  • Penetration enhancers may be classified as belonging to one of five broad categories, i.e., surfactants, fatty acids, bile salts, chelating agents, and non-chelating non-surfactants (Lee et al., [0098] Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 1991, p.92). Each of the above mentioned classes of penetration enhancers are described below in greater detail.
  • Surfactants [0099]
  • In connection with the present invention, surfactants (or “surface-active agents”) are chemical entities which, when dissolved in an aqueous solution, reduce the surface tension of the solution or the interfacial tension between the aqueous solution and another liquid, with the result that absorption of oligonucleotides through the mucosa is enhanced. In addition to bile salts and fatty acids, these penetration enhancers include, for example, sodium lauryl sulfate, polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl ether and polyoxyethylene-20-cetyl ether) (Lee et al., [0100] Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 1991, p.92); and perfluorochemical emulsions, such as FC-43. Takahashi et al., J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 1988, 40, 252).
  • Fatty Acids [0101]
  • Various fatty acids and their derivatives which act as penetration enhancers include, for example, oleic acid, lauric acid, capric acid (n-decanoic acid), myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, dicaprate, tricaprate, monoolein (1-monooleoyl-rac-glycerol), dilaurin, caprylic acid, arachidonic acid, glycerol 1-monocaprate, 1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one, acylcarnitines, acylcholines, C[0102] 1-10 alkyl esters thereof (e.g., methyl, isopropyl and t-butyl), and mono- and di-glycerides thereof (i.e., oleate, laurate, caprate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, linoleate, etc.) (Lee et al., Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 1991, p.92; Muranishi, Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 1990, 7, 1-33; El Hariri et al., J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 1992, 44, 651-654).
  • Bile Salts [0103]
  • The physiological role of bile includes the facilitation of dispersion and absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins (Brunton, Chapter 38 in: Goodman & Gilman's [0104] The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th Ed., Hardman et al. Eds., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996, pp. 934-935). Various natural bile salts, and their synthetic derivatives, act as penetration enhancers. Thus the term “bile salts” includes any of the naturally occurring components of bile as well as any of their synthetic derivatives. The bile salts of the invention include, for example, cholic acid (or its pharmaceutically acceptable sodium salt, sodium cholate), dehydrocholic acid (sodium dehydrocholate), deoxycholic acid (sodium deoxycholate) , glucholic acid (sodium glucholate), glycholic acid (sodium glycocholate), glycodeoxycholic acid (sodium glycodeoxycholate), taurocholic acid (sodium taurocholate), taurodeoxycholic acid (sodium taurodeoxycholate), chenodeoxycholic acid (sodium chenodeoxycholate), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), sodium tauro-24,25-dihydro-fusidate (STDHF), sodium glycodihydrofusidate and polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl ether (POE) (Lee et al., Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 1991, page 92; Swinyard, Chapter 39 In: Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th Ed., Gennaro, ed., Mack Publishing Co., Easton, Pa., 1990, pages 782-783; Muranishi, Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 1990, 7, 1-33; Yamamoto et al., J. Pharm. Exp. Ther., 1992, 263, 25; Yamashita et al., J. Pharm. Sci., 1990, 79, 579-583).
  • Chelating Agents [0105]
  • Chelating agents, as used in connection with the present invention, can be defined as compounds that remove metallic ions from solution by forming complexes therewith, with the result that absorption of oligonucleotides through the mucosa is enhanced. With regards to their use as penetration enhancers in the present invention, chelating agents have the added advantage of also serving as DNase inhibitors, as most characterized DNA nucleases require a divalent metal ion for catalysis and are thus inhibited by chelating agents (Jarrett, [0106] J. Chromatogr., 1993, 618, 315-339). Chelating agents of the invention include but are not limited to disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), citric acid, salicylates (e.g., sodium salicylate, 5-methoxysalicylate and homovanilate), N-acyl derivatives of collagen, laureth-9 and N-amino acyl derivatives of beta-diketones (enamines)(Lee et al., Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 1991, page 92; Muranishi, Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 1990, 7, 1-33; Buur et al., J. Control Rel., 1990, 14, 43-51).
  • Non-chelating Non-surfactants [0107]
  • As used herein, non-chelating non-surfactant penetration enhancing compounds can be defined as compounds that demonstrate insignificant activity as chelating agents or as surfactants but that nonetheless enhance absorption of oligonucleotides through the alimentary mucosa (Muranishi, [0108] Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 1990, 7, 1-33). This class of penetration enhancers include, for example, unsaturated cyclic ureas, 1-alkyl- and 1-alkenylazacyclo-alkanone derivatives (Lee et al., Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 1991, page 92); and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as diclofenac sodium, indomethacin and phenylbutazone (Yamashita et al., J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 1987, 39, 621-626).
  • Agents that enhance uptake of oligonucleotides at the cellular level may also be added to the pharmaceutical and other compositions of the present invention. For example, cationic lipids, such as lipofectin (Junichi et al, U.S. Pat. No. 5,705,188), cationic glycerol derivatives, and polycationic molecules, such as polylysine (Lollo et al., PCT Application WO 97/30731), are also known to enhance the cellular uptake of oligonucleotides. [0109]
  • Other agents may be utilized to enhance the penetration of the administered nucleic acids, including glycols such as ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, pyrrols such as 2-pyrrol, azones, and terpenes such as limonene and menthone. [0110]
  • Carriers [0111]
  • Certain compositions of the present invention also incorporate carrier compounds in the formulation. As used herein, “carrier compound” or “carrier” can refer to a nucleic acid, or analog thereof, which is inert (i.e., does not possess biological activity per se) but is recognized as a nucleic acid by in vivo processes that reduce the bioavailability of a nucleic acid having biological activity by, for example, degrading the biologically active nucleic acid or promoting its removal from circulation. The coadministration of a nucleic acid and a carrier compound, typically with an excess of the latter substance, can result in a substantial reduction of the amount of nucleic acid recovered in the liver, kidney or other extracirculatory reservoirs, presumably due to competition between the carrier compound and the nucleic acid for a common receptor. For example, the recovery of a partially phosphorothioate oligonucleotide in hepatic tissue can be reduced when it is coadministered with polyinosinic acid, dextran sulfate, polycytidic acid or 4-acetamido-4′isothiocyano-stilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (Miyao et al., [0112] Antisense Res. Dev., 1995, 5, 115-121; Takakura et al., Antisense & Nucl. Acid Drug Dev., 1996, 6, 177-183).
  • Excipients [0113]
  • In contrast to a carrier compound, a “pharmaceutical carrier” or “excipient” is a pharmaceutically acceptable solvent, suspending agent or any other pharmacologically inert vehicle for delivering one or more nucleic acids to an animal. The excipient may be liquid or solid and is selected, with the planned manner of administration in mind, so as to provide for the desired bulk, consistency, etc., when combined with a nucleic acid and the other components of a given pharmaceutical composition. Typical pharmaceutical carriers include, but are not limited to, binding agents (e.g., pregelatinized maize starch, polyvinylpyrrolidone or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, etc.); fillers (e.g., lactose and other sugars, microcrystalline cellulose, pectin, gelatin, calcium sulfate, ethyl cellulose, polyacrylates or calcium hydrogen phosphate, etc.); lubricants (e.g., magnesium stearate, talc, silica, colloidal silicon dioxide, stearic acid, metallic stearates, hydrogenated vegetable oils, corn starch, polyethylene glycols, sodium benzoate, sodium acetate, etc.); disintegrants (e.g., starch, sodium starch glycolate, etc.); and wetting agents (e.g., sodium lauryl sulphate, etc.). [0114]
  • Pharmaceutically acceptable organic or inorganic excipient suitable for non-parenteral administration which do not deleteriously react with nucleic acids can also be used to formulate the compositions of the present invention. Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include, but are not limited to, water, salt solutions, alcohols, polyethylene glycols, gelatin, lactose, amylose, magnesium stearate, talc, silicic acid, viscous paraffin, hydroxymethylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and the like. [0115]
  • Formulations for topical administration of nucleic acids may include sterile and non-sterile aqueous solutions, non-aqueous solutions in common solvents such as alcohols, or solutions of the nucleic acids in liquid or solid oil bases. The solutions may also contain buffers, diluents and other suitable additives. Pharmaceutically acceptable organic or inorganic excipients suitable for non-parenteral administration which do not deleteriously react with nucleic acids can be used. [0116]
  • Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable excipients include, but are not limited to, water, salt solutions, alcohol, polyethylene glycols, gelatin, lactose, amylose, magnesium stearate, talc, silicic acid, viscous paraffin, hydroxymethylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and the like. [0117]
  • Other Components [0118]
  • The compositions of the present invention may additionally contain other adjunct components conventionally found in pharmaceutical compositions, at their art-established usage levels. Thus, for example, the compositions may contain additional, compatible, pharmaceutically-active materials such as, for example, antipruritics, astringents, local anesthetics or anti-inflammatory agents, or may contain additional materials useful in physically formulating various dosage forms of the compositions of the present invention, such as dyes, flavoring agents, preservatives, antioxidants, opacifiers, thickening agents and stabilizers. However, such materials, when added, should not unduly interfere with the biological activities of the components of the compositions of the present invention. The formulations can be sterilized and, if desired, mixed with auxiliary agents, e.g., lubricants, preservatives, stabilizers, wetting agents, emulsifiers, salts for influencing osmotic pressure, buffers, colorings, flavorings and/or aromatic substances and the like which do not deleteriously interact with the nucleic acid(s) of the formulation. [0119]
  • Aqueous suspensions may contain substances which increase the viscosity of the suspension including, for example, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sorbitol and/or dextran. The suspension may also contain stabilizers. [0120]
  • Certain embodiments of the invention provide pharmaceutical compositions containing (a) one or more antisense compounds and (b) one or more other chemotherapeutic agents which function by a non-antisense mechanism. Examples of such chemotherapeutic agents include, but are not limited to, anticancer drugs such as daunorubicin, dactinomycin, doxorubicin, bleomycin, mitomycin, nitrogen mustard, chlorambucil, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, cytarabine (CA), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), floxuridine (5-FUdR), methotrexate (MTX), colchicine, vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, teniposide, cisplatin and diethylstilbestrol (DES). See, generally, [0121] The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, 15th Ed., Berkow et al., eds., 1987, Rahway, N.J., pages 1206-1228). Anti-inflammatory drugs, including but not limited to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids, and antiviral drugs, including but not limited to ribivirin, vidarabine, acyclovir and ganciclovir, may also be combined in compositions of the invention. See, generally, The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, 15th Ed., Berkow et al., eds., 1987, Rahway, N.J., pages 2499-2506 and 46-49, respectively). Other non-antisense chemotherapeutic agents are also within the scope of this invention. Two or more combined compounds may be used together or sequentially.
  • In another related embodiment, compositions of the invention may contain one or more antisense compounds, particularly oligonucleotides, targeted to a first nucleic acid and one or more additional antisense compounds targeted to a second nucleic acid target. Numerous examples of antisense compounds are known in the art. Two or more combined compounds may be used together or sequentially. [0122]
  • The formulation of therapeutic compositions and their subsequent administration is believed to be within the skill of those in the art. Dosing is dependent on severity and responsiveness of the disease state to be treated, with the course of treatment lasting from several days to several months, or until a cure is effected or a diminution of the disease state is achieved. Optimal dosing schedules can be calculated from measurements of drug accumulation in the body of the patient. Persons of ordinary skill can easily determine optimum dosages, dosing methodologies and repetition rates. Optimum dosages may vary depending on the relative potency of individual oligonucleotides, and can generally be estimated based on EC[0123] 50s found to be effective in in vitro and in vivo animal models. In general, dosage is from 0.01 ug to 100 g per kg of body weight, and may be given once or more daily, weekly, monthly or yearly, or even once every 2 to 20 years. Persons of ordinary skill in the art can easily estimate repetition rates for dosing based on measured residence times and concentrations of the drug in bodily fluids or tissues. Following successful treatment, it may be desirable to have the patient undergo maintenance therapy to prevent the recurrence of the disease state, wherein the oligonucleotide is administered in maintenance doses, ranging from 0.01 ug to 100 g per kg of body weight, once or more daily, to once every 20 years.
  • While the present invention has been described with specificity in accordance with certain of its preferred embodiments, the following examples serve only to illustrate the invention and are not intended to limit the same. [0124]
  • EXAMPLES Example 1
  • Nucleoside Phosphoramidites for Oligonucleotide Synthesis Deoxy And 2′-alkoxy amidites [0125]
  • 2′-Deoxy and 2′-methoxy beta-cyanoethyldiisopropyl phosphoramidites were purchased from commercial sources (e.g. Chemgenes, Needham, MA or Glen Research, Inc., Sterling, Va.). Other 2′-O-alkoxy substituted nucleoside amidites are prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,506,351, herein incorporated by reference. For oligonucleotides synthesized using 2′-alkoxy amidites, the standard cycle for unmodified oligonucleotides was utilized, except the wait step after pulse delivery of tetrazole and base was increased to 360 seconds. [0126]
  • Oligonucleotides containing 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Me-C) nucleotides were synthesized according to published methods [Sanghvi, et. al., [0127] Nucleic Acids Research, 1993, 21, 3197-3203] using commercially available phosphoramidites (Glen Research, Sterling, Va., or ChemGenes, Needham, Mass.).
  • 2′-Flouro Amidites [0128]
  • 2′-Fluorodeoxyadenosine Amidites [0129]
  • 2′-fluoro oligonucleotides were synthesized as described previously [Kawasaki, et. al., [0130] J. Med. Chem., 1993, 36, 831-841] and U.S. Pat. No. 5,670,633, herein incorporated by reference. Briefly, the protected nucleoside N6-benzoyl-2′-deoxy-2′-fluoroadenosine was synthesized utilizing commercially available 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine as starting material and by modifying literature procedures whereby the 2′-alpha-fluoro atom is introduced by a SN2-displacement of a 2′-beta-trityl group. Thus N6-benzoyl-9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine was selectively protected in moderate yield as the 3′,5′-ditetrahydropyranyl (THP) intermediate. Deprotection of the THP and N6-benzoyl groups was accomplished using standard methodologies and standard methods were used to obtain the 5′-dimethoxytrityl-(DMT) and 5′-DMT-3′-phosphoramidite intermediates.
  • 2′-Fluorodeoxyguanosine [0131]
  • The synthesis of 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoroguanosine was accomplished using tetraisopropyldisiloxanyl (TPDS) protected 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine as starting material, and conversion to the intermediate diisobutyryl-arabinofuranosylguanosine. Deprotection of the TPDS group was followed by protection of the hydroxyl group with THP to give diisobutyryl di-THP protected arabinofuranosylguanine. Selective O-deacylation and triflation was followed by treatment of the crude product with fluoride, then deprotection of the THP groups. Standard methodologies were used to obtain the 5′-DMT- and 5′-DMT-3′-phosphoramidites. [0132]
  • 2′-Fluorouridine [0133]
  • Synthesis of 2′-deoxy-2′-fluorouridine was accomplished by the modification of a literature procedure in which 2,2′-anhydro-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil was treated with 70% hydrogen fluoride-pyridine. Standard procedures were used to obtain the 5′-DMT and 5′-DMT-3′phosphoramidites. [0134]
  • 2′-Fluorodeoxycytidine [0135]
  • 2′-deoxy-2′-fluorocytidine was synthesized via amination of 2′-deoxy-2′-fluorouridine, followed by selective protection to give N4-benzoyl-2′-deoxy-2′-fluorocytidine. Standard procedures were used to obtain the 5′-DMT and 5′-DMT-3′phosphoramidites. [0136]
  • 2′-O-(2-Methoxyethyl) Modified Amidites [0137]
  • 2′-O-Methoxyethyl-substituted nucleoside amidites are prepared as follows, or alternatively, as per the methods of Martin, P., [0138] Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1995, 78, 486-504.
  • 2,2′-Anhydro[1-(beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluridine] [0139]
  • 5-Methyluridine (ribosylthymine, commercially available through Yamasa, Choshi, Japan) (72.0 g, 0.279 M), diphenyl-carbonate (90.0 g, 0.420 M) and sodium bicarbonate (2.0 g, 0.024 M) were added to DMF (300 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux, with stirring, allowing the evolved carbon dioxide gas to be released in a controlled manner. After 1 hour, the slightly darkened solution was concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting syrup was poured into diethylether (2.5 L), with stirring. The product formed a gum. The ether was decanted and the residue was dissolved in a minimum amount of methanol (ca. 400 mL). The solution was poured into fresh ether (2.5 L) to yield a stiff gum. The ether was decanted and the gum was dried in a vacuum oven (60° C. at 1 mm Hg for 24 h) to give a solid that was crushed to a light tan powder (57 g, 85% crude yield). The NMR spectrum was consistent with the structure, contaminated with phenol as its sodium salt (ca. 5%). The material was used as is for further reactions (or it can be purified further by column chromatography using a gradient of methanol in ethyl acetate (10-25%) to give a white solid, mp 222-4° C.). [0140]
  • 2!-O-Methoxyethyl-5-methyluridine [0141]
  • 2,2′-Anhydro-5-methyluridine (195 g, 0.81 M), tris(2-methoxyethyl)borate (231 g, 0.98 M) and 2-methoxyethanol (1.2 L) were added to a 2 L stainless steel pressure vessel and placed in a pre-heated oil bath at 160° C. After heating for 48 hours at 155-16° C., the vessel was opened and the solution evaporated to dryness and triturated with MeOH (200 mL). The residue was suspended in hot acetone (1 L). The insoluble salts were filtered, washed with acetone (150 mL) and the filtrate evaporated. The residue (280 g) was dissolved in CH[0142] 3CN (600 mL) and evaporated. A silica gel column (3 kg) was packed in CH2Cl2/acetone/MeOH (20:5:3) containing 0.5% Et3NH. The residue was dissolved in CH2Cl2 (250 mL) and adsorbed onto silica (150 g) prior to loading onto the column. The product was eluted with the packing solvent to give 160 g (63%) of product. Additional material was obtained by reworking impure fractions.
  • 2′-O-Methoxyethyl-5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-5-methyluridine [0143]
  • 2′-O-Methoxyethyl-5-methyluridine (160 g, 0.506 M) was co-evaporated with pyridine (250 mL) and the dried residue dissolved in pyridine (1.3 L). A first aliquot of dimethoxytrityl chloride (94.3 g, 0.278 M) was added and the mixture stirred at room temperature for one hour. A second aliquot of dimethoxytrityl chloride (94.3 g, 0.278 M) was added and the reaction stirred for an additional one hour. Methanol (170 mL) was then added to stop the reaction. HPLC showed the presence of approximately 70% product. The solvent was evaporated and triturated with CH[0144] 3CN (200 mL). The residue was dissolved in CHCl3 (1.5 L) and extracted with 2×500 mL of saturated NaHCO3 and 2×500 mL of saturated NaCl. The organic phase was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated. 275 g of residue was obtained. The residue was purified on a 3.5 kg silica gel column, packed and eluted with EtOAc/hexane/acetone (5:5:1) containing 0.5% Et3NH. The pure fractions were evaporated to give 164 g of product. Approximately 20 g additional was obtained from the impure fractions to give a total yield of 183 g (57%).
  • 3′-O-Acetyl-2′-O-methoxyethyl-5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-5-methyluridine [0145]
  • 2′-O-Methoxyethyl-5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-5-methyluridine (106 g, 0.167 M), DMF/pyridine (750 mL of a 3:1 mixture prepared from 562 mL of DMF and 188 mL of pyridine) and acetic anhydride (24.38 mL, 0.258 M) were combined and stirred at room temperature for 24 hours. The reaction was monitored by TLC by first quenching the TLC sample with the addition of MeOH. Upon completion of the reaction, as judged by TLC, MeOH (50 mL) was added and the mixture evaporated at 35° C. The residue was dissolved in CHCl[0146] 3 (800 mL) and extracted with 2×200 mL of saturated sodium bicarbonate and 2×200 mL of saturated NaCl. The water layers were back extracted with 200 mL of CHCl3. The combined organics were dried with sodium sulfate and evaporated to give 122 g of residue (approx. 90% product). The residue was purified on a 3.5 kg silica gel column and eluted using EtOAc/hexane(4:1). Pure product fractions were evaporated to yield 96 g (84%). An additional 1.5 g was recovered from later fractions.
  • 3′-O-Acetyl-2′-O-methoxyethyl-5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-5-methyl-4-triazoleuridine [0147]
  • A first solution was prepared by dissolving 3′-O-acetyl-2′-O-methoxyethyl-5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-5-methyluridine (96 g, 0.144 M) in CH[0148] 3CN (700 mL) and set aside. Triethylamine (189 mL, 1.44 M) was added to a solution of triazole (90 g, 1.3 M) in CH3CN (1 L), cooled to −5° C. and stirred for 0.5 h using an overhead stirrer. POCl3 was added dropwise, over a 30 minute period, to the stirred solution maintained at 0-10° C., and the resulting mixture stirred for an additional 2 hours. The first solution was added dropwise, over a 45 minute period, to the latter solution. The resulting reaction mixture was stored overnight in a cold room. Salts were filtered from the reaction mixture and the solution was evaporated. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (1 L) and the insoluble solids were removed by filtration. The filtrate was washed with 1×300 mL of NaHCO3 and 2×300 mL of saturated NaCl, dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated. The residue was triturated with EtOAc to give the title compound.
  • 2′-O-Methoxyethyl-5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-5-methylcytidine [0149]
  • A solution of 3′-O-acetyl-2′-O-methoxyethyl-5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-5-methyl-4-triazoleuridine (103 g, 0.141 M) in dioxane (500 mL) and NH[0150] 4OH (30 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The dioxane solution was evaporated and the residue azeotroped with MeOH (2×200 mL). The residue was dissolved in MeOH (300 mL) and transferred to a 2 liter stainless steel pressure vessel. MeOH (400 mL) saturated with NH3 gas was added and the vessel heated to 100° C. for 2 hours (TLC showed complete conversion). The vessel contents were evaporated to dryness and the residue was dissolved in EtOAc (500 mL) and washed once with saturated NaCl (200 mL). The organics were dried over sodium sulfate and the solvent was evaporated to give 85 g (95%) of the title compound.
  • N4-Benzoyl-2′-O-methoxyethyl-5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-5-methylcytidine [0151]
  • 2′-O-Methoxyethyl-5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-5-methylcytidine (85 g, 0.134 M) was dissolved in DMF (800 mL) and benzoic anhydride (37.2 g, 0.165 M) was added with stirring. After stirring for 3 hours, TLC showed the reaction to be approximately 95% complete. The solvent was evaporated and the residue azeotroped with MeOH (200 mL). The residue was dissolved in CHC[0152] 3 (700 mL) and extracted with saturated NaHCO3 (2×300 mL) and saturated NaCl (2×300 mL), dried over MgSO4 and evaporated to give a residue (96 g). The residue was chromatographed on a 1.5 kg silica column using EtOAc/hexane (1:1) containing 0.5% Et3NH as the eluting solvent. The pure product fractions were evaporated to give 90 g (90%) of the title compound.
  • N4-Benzoyl-2′-O-methoxyethyl-5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-5-methylcytidine-3′-amidite [0153]
  • N4-Benzoyl-2′-Omethoxyethyl-5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-5-methylcytidine (74 g, 0.10 M) was dissolved in CH[0154] 2Cl2 (1 L) Tetrazole diisopropylamine (7.1 g) and 2-cyanoethoxy-tetra-(isopropyl)phosphite (40.5 mL, 0.123 M) were added with stirring, under a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting mixture was stirred for 20 hours at room temperature (TLC showed the reaction to be 95% complete). The reaction mixture was extracted with saturated NaHCO3 (1×300 mL) and saturated NaCl (3×300 mL). The aqueous washes were back-extracted with CH2Cl2 (300 mL), and the extracts were combined, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue obtained was chromatographed on a 1.5 kg silica column using EtOAc/hexane (3:1) as the eluting solvent. The pure fractions were combined to give 90.6 g (87%) of the title compound.
  • 2′-O-(Aminooxyethyl) Nucleoside Amidites and 2′-O-(dimethylaminooxyethyl) Nucleoside Amidites [0155]
  • 2′-(Dimethylaminooxyethoxy) Nucleoside Amidites [0156]
  • 2′-(Dimethylaminooxyethoxy) nucleoside amidites [also known in the art as 2′-O-(dimethylaminooxyethyl) nucleoside amidites] are prepared as described in the following paragraphs. Adenosine, cytidine and guanosine nucleoside amidites are prepared similarly to the thymidine (5-methyluridine) except the exocyclic amines are protected with a benzoyl moiety in the case of adenosine and cytidine and with isobutyryl in the case of guanosine. [0157]
  • 5′-O-tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl-O[0158] 2-2′-anhydro-5-methyluridine
  • O[0159] 2-2′-anhydro-5-methyluridine (Pro. Bio. Sint., Varese, Italy, 100.0 g, 0.416 mmol), dimethylaminopyridine (0.66 g, 0.013 eq, 0.0054 mmol) were dissolved in dry pyridine (500 ml) at ambient temperature under an argon atmosphere and with mechanical stirring. tert-Butyldiphenylchlorosilane (125.8 g, 119.0 mL, 1.1 eq, 0.458 mmol) was added in one portion. The reaction was stirred for 16 h at ambient temperature. TLC (Rf 0.22, ethyl acetate) indicated a complete reaction. The solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to a thick oil. This was partitioned between dichloromethane (1 L) and saturated sodium bicarbonate (2×1 L) and brine (1 L). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to a thick oil. The oil was dissolved in a 1:1 mixture of ethyl acetate and ethyl ether (600 mL) and the solution was cooled to −10° C. The resulting crystalline product was collected by filtration, washed with ethyl ether (3×200 mL) and dried (40° C., 1 mm Hg, 24 h) to 149 g (74.8%) of white solid. TLC and NMR were consistent with pure product.
  • 5′-O-tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl-2′-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-methyluridine [0160]
  • In a 2 L stainless steel, unstirred pressure reactor was added borane in tetrahydrofuran (1.0 M, 2.0 eq, 622 mL). In the fume hood and with manual stirring, ethylene glycol (350 mL, excess) was added cautiously at first until the evolution of hydrogen gas subsided. 5′-O-tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl-O[0161] 2-2′-anhydro-5-methyluridine (149 g, 0.311 mol) and sodium bicarbonate (0.074 9, 0.003 eq) were added with manual stirring. The reactor was sealed and heated in an oil bath until an internal temperature of 160° C. was reached and then maintained for 16 h (pressure <100 psig). The reaction vessel was cooled to ambient and opened. TLC (Rf 0.67 for desired product and Rf 0.82 for ara-T side product, ethyl acetate) indicated about 70% conversion to the product. In order to avoid additional side product formation, the reaction was stopped, concentrated under reduced pressure (10 to 1 mm Hg) in a warm water bath (40-100° C.) with the more extreme conditions used to remove the ethylene glycol. [Alternatively, once the low boiling solvent is gone, the remaining solution can be partitioned between ethyl acetate and water. The product will be in the organic phase.] The residue was purified by column chromatography (2 kg silica gel, ethyl acetate-hexanes gradient 1:1 to 4:1). The appropriate fractions were combined, stripped and dried to product as a white crisp foam (84 g, 50%), contaminated starting material (17.4 g) and pure reusable starting material 20 g. The yield based on starting material less pure recovered starting material was 58%. TLC and NMR were consistent with 99% pure product.
  • 2′-O-([2-phthalimidoxy)ethyl]-5′-t-butyldiphenylsilyl-5-methyluridine [0162]
  • 5′-O-tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl-2′-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-methyluridine (20 g, 36.98 mmol) was mixed with triphenylphosphine (11.63 g, 44.36 mmol) and N-hydroxyphthalimide (7.24 g, 44.36 mmol). It was then dried over P[0163] 2O5 under high vacuum for two days at 40° C. The reaction mixture was flushed with argon and dry THF (369.8 mL, Aldrich, sure seal bottle) was added to get a clear solution. Diethyl-azodicarboxylate (6.98 mL, 44.36 mmol) was added dropwise to the reaction mixture. The rate of addition is maintained such that resulting deep red coloration is just discharged before adding the next drop. After the addition was complete, the reaction was stirred for 4 hrs. By that time TLC showed the completion of the reaction (ethylacetate:hexane, 60:40). The solvent was evaporated in vacuum. Residue obtained was placed on a flash column and eluted with ethyl acetate:hexane (60:40), to get 2′-O-([2-phthalimidoxy)ethyl]-5′-t-butyldiphenylsilyl-5-methyluridine as white foam (21.819 g, 86%).
  • 5′-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2′-O-[(2-formadoximinooxy)ethyl]-5-methyluridine [0164]
  • 2′-O-([2-phthalimidoxy)ethyl]-5′-t-butyldiphenylsilyl-5-methyluridine (3.1 g, 4.5 mmol) was dissolved in dry CH[0165] 2Cl2 (4.5 mL) and methylhydrazine (300 mL, 4.64 mmol) was added dropwise at −10° C. to 0° C. After 1 h the mixture was filtered, the filtrate was washed with ice cold CH2Cl2 and the combined organic phase was washed with water, brine and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. The solution was concentrated to get 2′-O-(aminooxyethyl) thymidine, which was then dissolved in MeOH (67.5 mL). To this formaldehyde (20% aqueous solution, w/w, 1.1 eq.) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred for 1 h. Solvent was removed under vacuum; residue chromatographed to get 5′-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2′-O-[(2-formadoximinooxy) ethyl]-5-methyluridine as white foam (1.95 g, 78%).
  • 5′-O-tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl-2′-O- (N,N-dimethylaminooxyethyll-5-methyluridine [0166]
  • 5′-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2′-O-[(2-formadoximinooxy) ethyl]-5-methyluridine (1.77 g, 3.12 mmol) was dissolved in a solution of 1M pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate (PPTS) in dry MeOH (30.6 mL). Sodium cyanoborohydride (0.39 g, 6.13 mmol) was added to this solution at 10° C. under inert atmosphere. The reaction mixture was stirred for 10 minutes at 10° C. After that the reaction vessel was removed from the ice bath and stirred at room temperature for 2 h, the reaction monitored by TLC (5% MeOH in CH[0167] 2Cl2) Aqueous NaHCO3 solution (5%, 10 mL) was added and extracted with ethyl acetate (2×20 mL). Ethyl acetate phase was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, evaporated to dryness. Residue was dissolved in a solution of 1M PPTS in MeOH (30.6 mL). Formaldehyde (20% w/w, 30 mL, 3.37 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 10 minutes. Reaction mixture cooled to 10° C. in an ice bath, sodium cyanoborohydride (0.39 g, 6.13 mmol) was added and reaction mixture stirred at 10° C. for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes, the reaction mixture was removed from the ice bath and stirred at room temperature for 2 hrs. To the reaction mixture 5% NaHCO3 (25 mL) solution was added and extracted with ethyl acetate (2×25 mL). Ethyl acetate layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and evaporated to dryness . The residue obtained was purified by flash column chromatography and eluted with 5% MeOH in CH2Cl2 to get 5′-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2′-O-[N,N-dimethylaminooxyethyl]-5-methyluridine as a white foam (14.6 g, 80%).
  • 2′-O-(dimethylaminooxyethyl)-5-methyluridine [0168]
  • Triethylamine trihydrofluoride (3.91 mL, 24.0 mmol) was dissolved in dry THF and triethylamine (1.67 mL, 12 mmol, dry, kept over KOH). This mixture of triethylamine-2HF was then added to 5′-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2′-O-[N,N-dimethylaminooxyethyl]-5-methyluridine (1.40 g, 2.4 mmol) and stirred at room temperature for 24 hrs. Reaction was monitored by TLC (5% MeOH in CH[0169] 2Cl2). Solvent was removed under vacuum and the residue placed on a flash column and eluted with 10% MeOH in CH2Cl2 to get 2′-O-(dimethylaminooxyethyl)-5-methyluridine (766 mg, 92.5%).
  • 5′-O-DMT-2′-O-(dimethylaminooxyethyl)-5-methyluridine [0170]
  • 2′-O-(dimethylaminooxyethyl)-5-methyluridine (750 mg, 2.17 mmol) was dried over P[0171] 2O5 under high vacuum overnight at 40° C. It was then co-evaporated with anhydrous pyridine (20 mL). The residue obtained was dissolved in pyridine (11 mL) under argon atmosphere. 4-dimethylaminopyridine (26.5 mg, 2.60 mmol), 4,4′-dimethoxytrityl chloride (880 mg, 2.60 mmol) was added to the mixture and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature until all of the starting material disappeared. Pyridine was removed under vacuum and the residue chromatographed and eluted with 10% MeOH in CH2Cl2 (containing a few drops of pyridine) to get 5′-O-DMT-2′-O-(dimethylamino-oxyethyl)-5-methyluridine (1.13 g, 80%).
  • 5′-O-DMT-2′-O-(2-N,N-dimethylaminooxyethyl)-5-methyluridine-3′-[(2-cyanoethyl)-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite] [0172]
  • 5′-O-DMT-2′-O-(dimethylaminooxyethyl)-5-methyluridine (1.08 g, 1.67 mmol) was co-evaporated with toluene (20 mL). To the residue N,N-diisopropylamine tetrazonide (0.29 g, 1.67 mmol) was added and dried over P[0173] 2O5 under high vacuum overnight at 40° C. Then the reaction mixture was dissolved in anhydrous acetonitrile (8.4 mL) and 2-cyanoethyl-N,N,N1, N1-tetraisopropylphosphoramidite (2.12 mL, 6.08 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 4 hrs under inert atmosphere. The progress of the reaction was monitored by TLC (hexane:ethyl acetate 1:1). The solvent was evaporated, then the residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (70 mL) and washed with 5% aqueous NaHCO3 (40 mL). Ethyl acetate layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated. Residue obtained was chromatographed (ethyl acetate as eluent) to get 5′-O-DMT-2′-O-(2-N,N-dimethylaminooxyethyl)-5-methyluridine-3′-[(2-cyanoethyl)-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite] as a foam (1.04 g, 74.9%).
  • 2′-(Aminooxyethoxy) Nucleoside Amidites [0174]
  • 2′-(Aminooxyethoxy) Nucleoside Amidites [also known in the art as 2′-O-(aminooxyethyl) nucleoside amidites] are prepared as described in the following paragraphs. Adenosine, cytidine and thymidine nucleoside amidites are prepared similarly. [0175]
  • N2-isobutyryl-6-O-diphenylcarbamoyl-2′-O-(2-ethylacetyl)-5′-O-(4,4′-dimethoxytrityl)guanosine-3′-[(2-cyanoethyl)-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite] [0176]
  • The 2′-O-aminooxyethyl guanosine analog may be obtained by selective 2′-O-alkylation of diaminopurine riboside. Multigram quantities of diaminopurine riboside may be purchased from Schering AG (Berlin) to provide 2′-O-(2-ethylacetyl) diaminopurine riboside along with a minor amount of the 3′-O-isomer. 2′-O-(2-ethylacetyl) diaminopurine riboside may be resolved and converted to 2′-O-(2-ethylacetyl)guanosine by treatment with adenosine deaminase. (McGee, D. P. C. , Cook, P. D., Guinosso, C. J., WO 94/02501 A1 940203.) Standard protection procedures should afford 2′-O-(2-ethylacetyl)-5′-O-(4,4′-dimethoxytrityl)guanosine and 2-N-isobutyryl-6-O-diphenylcarbamoyl-2′-O-(2-ethylacetyl)-5′-O-(4,4′-dimethoxytrityl)guanosine which may be reduced to provide 2-N-isobutyryl-6-O-diphenylcarbamoyl-2′-O-(2-ethylacetyl)-5′-O-(4,4′-dimethoxytrityl)guanosine. As before the hydroxyl group may be displaced by N-hydroxyphthalimide via a Mitsunobu reaction, and the protected nucleoside may phosphitylated as usual to yield 2-N-isobutyryl-6-O-diphenylcarbamoyl-2′-O-(2-ethylacetyl)-5′-O-(4,4′-dimethoxytrityl)guanosine-3′-[(2-cyanoethyl)-N, N-diisopropylphosphoramidite]. [0177]
  • 2′-dimethylaminoethoxyethoxy (2′-DMAEOE) Nucleoside Amidites [0178]
  • 2′-dimethylaminoethoxyethoxy nucleoside amidites (also known in the art as 2′-O-dimethylaminoethoxyethyl, i.e., 2′-O-CH[0179] 2-O-CH2-N(CH2)2, or 2′-DMAEOE nucleoside amidites) are prepared as follows. Other nucleoside amidites are prepared similarly.
  • 2′-O-[2(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethoxy)ethyl]-5-methyl uridine [0180]
  • 2[2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy]ethanol (Aldrich, 6.66 g, 50 mmol) is slowly added to a solution of borane in tetra-hydrofuran (1 M, 10 mL, 10 mmol) with stirring in a 100 mL bomb. Hydrogen gas evolves as the solid dissolves. O[0181] 2-,2′-anhydro-5-methyluridine (1.2 g, 5 mmol), and sodium bicarbonate (2.5 mg) are added and the bomb is sealed, placed in an oil bath and heated to 155° C. for 26 hours. The bomb is cooled to room temperature and opened. The crude solution is concentrated and the residue partitioned between water (200 mL) and hexanes (200 mL). The excess phenol is extracted into the hexane layer. The aqueous layer is extracted with ethyl acetate (3×200 mL) and the combined organic layers are washed once with water, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue is columned on silica gel using methanol/methylene chloride 1:20 (which has 2% triethylamine) as the eluent. As the column fractions are concentrated a colorless solid forms which is collected to give the title compound as a white solid.
  • 5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-2′-O-[2(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethoxy) ethyl)]-5-methyl uridine [0182]
  • To 0.5 g (1.3 mmol) of 2′-O-[2(2-N,N-dimethylamino-ethoxy) ethyl)]-5-methyl uridine in anhydrous pyridine (8 mL), triethylamine (0.36 mL) and dimethoxytrityl chloride (DMT-Cl, 0.87 g, 2 eq.) are added and stirred for 1 hour. The reaction mixture is poured into water (200 mL) and extracted with CH[0183] 2Cl2 (2×200 mL). The combined CH2Cl2 layers are washed with saturated NaHCO3 solution, followed by saturated NaCl solution and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Evaporation of the solvent followed by silica gel chromatography using MeOH:CH2Cl2:Et3N (20:1, v/v, with 1% triethylamine) gives the title compound.
  • 5 ′-O-Dimethoxytrity1-2-O-[2(2-N, N-dimethylaminoethoxy)ethyl)]-5-methyl uridine-3′-O-(cyanoethyl-N,N-diisopropyl)phosphoramidite [0184]
  • Diisopropylaminotetrazolide (0.6 g) and 2-cyanoethoxy-N,N-diisopropyl phosphoramidite (1.1 mL, 2 eq.) are added to a solution of 5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-2′-O-[2(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethoxy)ethyl)]-5-methyluridine (2.17 g, 3 mmol) dissolved in CH[0185] 2Cl2 (20 mL) under an atmosphere of argon. The reaction mixture is stirred overnight and the solvent evaporated. The resulting residue is purified by silica gel flash column chromatography with ethyl acetate as the eluent to give the title compound.
  • Example 2
  • Oligonucleotide Synthesis [0186]
  • Unsubstituted and substituted phosphodiester (P═O) oligonucleotides are synthesized on an automated DNA synthesizer (Applied Biosystems model 380B) using standard phosphoramidite chemistry with oxidation by iodine. [0187]
  • Phosphorothioates (P═S) are synthesized as for the phosphodiester oligonucleotides except the standard oxidation bottle was replaced by 0.2 M solution of 3H-1,2-benzodithiole-3-one 1,1-dioxide in acetonitrile for the stepwise thiation of the phosphite linkages. The thiation wait step was increased to 68 sec and was followed by the capping step. After cleavage from the CPG column and deblocking in concentrated ammonium hydroxide at 55° C. (18 h), the oligonucleotides were purified by precipitating twice with 2.5 volumes of ethanol from a 0.5 M NaCl solution. Phosphinate oligonucleotides are prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,508,270, herein incorporated by reference. [0188]
  • Alkyl phosphonate oligonucleotides are prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,469,863, herein incorporated by reference. [0189]
  • 3′-Deoxy-3′-methylene phosphonate oligonucleotides are prepared as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,610,289 or 5,625,050, herein incorporated by reference. [0190]
  • Phosphoramidite oligonucleotides are prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,256,775 or U.S. Pat. No. 5,366,878, herein incorporated by reference. [0191]
  • Alkylphosphonothioate oligonucleotides are prepared as described in published PCT applications PCT/US94/00902 and PCT/US93/06976 (published as WO 94/17093 and WO 94/02499, respectively), herein incorporated by reference. [0192]
  • 3′-Deoxy-3′-amino phosphoramidate oligonucleotides are prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,476,925, herein incorporated by reference. [0193]
  • Phosphotriester oligonucleotides are prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,023,243, herein incorporated by reference. [0194]
  • Borano phosphate oligonucleotides are prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,130,302 and 5,177,198, both herein incorporated by reference. [0195]
  • Example 3
  • Oligonucleoside Synthesis [0196]
  • Methylenemethylimino linked oligonucleosides, also identified as MMI linked oligonucleosides, methylenedimethyl-hydrazo linked oligonucleosides, also identified as MDH linked oligonucleosides, and methylenecarbonylamino linked oligonucleosides, also identified as amide-3 linked oligonucleosides, and methyleneaminocarbonyl linked oligo-nucleosides, also identified as amide-4 linked oligonucleo-sides, as well as mixed backbone compounds having, for instance, alternating MMI and P═O or P═S linkages are prepared as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,378,825, 5,386,023, 5,489,677, 5,602,240 and 5,610,289, all of which are herein incorporated by reference. [0197]
  • Formacetal and thioformacetal linked oligonucleosides are prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,264,562 and 5,264,564, herein incorporated by reference. [0198]
  • Ethylene oxide linked oligonucleosides are prepared as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,223,618, herein incorporated by reference. [0199]
  • Example 4
  • PNA Synthesis [0200]
  • Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are prepared in accordance with any of the various procedures referred to in Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA): Synthesis, Properties and Potential Applications, [0201] Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 1996, 4, 5-23. They may also be prepared in accordance with U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,539,082, 5,700,922, and 5,719,262, herein incorporated by reference.
  • Example 5
  • Synthesis of Chimeric Oligonucleotides [0202]
  • Chimeric oligonucleotides, oligonucleosides or mixed oligonucleotides/oligonucleosides of the invention can be of several different types. These include a first type wherein the “gap” segment of linked nucleosides is positioned between 5′ and 3′ “twing” segments of linked nucleosides and a second “open end” type wherein the “gap” segment is located at either the 3′ or the 5′ terminus of the oligomeric compound. Oligonucleotides of the first type are also known in the art as “gapmers” or gapped oligonucleotides. Oligonucleotides of the second type are also known in the art as “hemimers” or “wingmers”. [0203]
  • [2′-O-Me]--[2′-deoxyl]--[2′-O-Me] Chimeric Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides [0204]
  • Chimeric oligonucleotides having 2′-O-alkyl phosphorothioate and 2′-deoxy phosphorothioate oligonucleotide segments are synthesized using an Applied Biosystems automated DNA synthesizer Model 380B, as above. Oligonucleotides are synthesized using the automated synthesizer and 2′-deoxy-5′-dimethoxytrityl-3′-O-phosphoramidite for the DNA portion and 5′-dimethoxytrityl-2′-O-methyl-3′-O-phosphoramidite for 5′ and 3′ wings. The standard synthesis cycle is modified by increasing the wait step after the delivery of tetrazole and base to 600 s repeated four times for RNA and twice for 2′-O-methyl. The fully protected oligonucleotide is cleaved from the support and the phosphate group is deprotected in 3:1 ammonia/ethanol at room temperature overnight then lyophilized to dryness. Treatment in methanolic ammonia for 24 hrs at room temperature is then done to deprotect all bases and sample was again lyophilized to dryness. The pellet is resuspended in 1M TBAF in THF for 24 hrs at room temperature to deprotect the 2′ positions. The reaction is then quenched with 1M TEAA and the sample is then reduced to ½ volume by rotovac before being desalted on a G25 size exclusion column. The oligo recovered is then analyzed spectrophotometrically for yield and for purity by capillary electrophoresis and by mass spectrometry. [0205]
  • [2′-O-(2-Methoxyethyl)]--[2′-deoxyl]--[2′-O-(Methoxyethyl)] Chimeric Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides [0206]
  • [2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)]--[2′-deoxy]--[-2′-O-(methoxy-ethyl)] chimeric phosphorothioate oligonucleotides were prepared as per the procedure above for the 2′-O-methyl chimeric oligonucleotide, with the substitution of 2′-O-(methoxyethyl) amidites for the 2′-O-methyl amidites. [0207]
  • [2′-O-(2-Methoxyethyl)Phosphodiester]--[2′-deoxy Phosphorothioate]--[2′-O-(2-Methoxyethyl) Phosphodiester] Chimeric Oligonucleotides [0208]
  • [2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl phosphodiester]--[2′-deoxy phos-phorothioate]--[2′-O-(methoxyethyl) phosphodiester] chimeric oligonucleotides are prepared as per the above procedure for the 2′-O-methyl chimeric oligonucleotide with the substitution of 2′-O-(methoxyethyl) amidites for the 2′-O-methyl amidites, oxidization with iodine to generate the phosphodiester internucleotide linkages within the wing portions of the chimeric structures and sulfurization utilizing 3,H-1,2 benzodithiole-3-one 1,1 dioxide (Beaucage Reagent) to generate the phosphorothioate internucleotide linkages for the center gap. [0209]
  • Other chimeric oligonucleotides, chimeric oligonucleo-sides and mixed chimeric oligonucleotides/oligonucleosides are synthesized according to U.S. Pat. No. 5,623,065, herein incorporated by reference. [0210]
  • Example 6
  • Oligonucleotide Isolation [0211]
  • After cleavage from the controlled pore glass column (Applied Biosystems) and deblocking in concentrated ammonium hydroxide at 55° C. for 18 hours, the oligonucleotides or oligonucleosides are purified by precipitation twice out of 0.5 M NaCl with 2.5 volumes ethanol. Synthesized oligonucleotides were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on denaturing gels and judged to be at least 85% full length material. The relative amounts of phosphorothioate and phosphodiester linkages obtained in synthesis were periodically checked by [0212] 31p nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and for some studies oligonucleotides were purified by HPLC, as described by Chiang et al., J. Biol. Chem. 1991, 266, 18162-18171. Results obtained with HPLC-purified material were similar to those obtained with non-HPLC purified material.
  • Example 7
  • Oligonucleotide Synthesis—96 Well Plate Format [0213]
  • Oligonucleotides were synthesized via solid phase P(III) phosphoramidite chemistry on an automated synthesizer capable of assembling 96 sequences simultaneously in a standard 96 well format. Phosphodiester internucleotide linkages were afforded by oxidation with aqueous iodine. Phosphorothioate internucleotide linkages were generated by sulfurization utilizing 3,H-1,2 benzodithiole-3-one 1,1 dioxide (Beaucage Reagent) in anhydrous acetonitrile. Standard base-protected beta-cyanoethyldiisopropyl phosphoramidites were purchased from commercial vendors (e.g. PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif., or Pharmacia, Piscataway, N.J.). Non-standard nucleosides are synthesized as per known literature or patented methods. They are utilized as base protected beta-cyanoethyldiisopropyl phosphoramidites. [0214]
  • Oligonucleotides were cleaved from support and deprotected with concentrated NH[0215] 4OH at elevated temperature (55-60° C.) for 12-16 hours and the released product then dried in vacuo. The dried product was then re-suspended in sterile water to afford a master plate from which all analytical and test plate samples are then diluted utilizing robotic pipettors.
  • Example 8
  • Oligonucleotide Analysis—96 Well Plate Format [0216]
  • The concentration of oligonucleotide in each well was assessed by dilution of samples and UV absorption spectroscopy. The full-length integrity of the individual products was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in either the 96 well format (Beckman P/ACEJ MDQ) or, for individually prepared samples, on a commercial CE apparatus (e.g., Beckman P/ACEJ 5000, ABI 270). Base and backbone composition was confirmed by mass analysis of the compounds utilizing electrospray-mass spectroscopy. All assay test plates were diluted from the master plate using single and multi-channel robotic pipettors. Plates were judged to be acceptable if at least 85% of the compounds on the plate were at least 85% full length. [0217]
  • Example 9
  • Cell Culture and Oligonucleotide Treatment [0218]
  • The effect of antisense compounds on target nucleic acid expression can be tested in any of a variety of cell types provided that the target nucleic acid is present at measurable levels. This can be routinely determined using, for example, PCR or Northern blot analysis. The following 5 cell types are provided for illustrative purposes, but other cell types can be routinely used, provided that the target is expressed in the cell type chosen. This can be readily determined by methods routine in the art, for example Northern blot analysis, Ribonuclease protection assays, or RT-PCR. [0219]
  • T-24 Cells [0220]
  • The human transitional cell bladder carcinoma cell line T-24 was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) (Manassas, Va.). T-24 cells were routinely cultured in complete McCoy's 5A basal media (Gibco/Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, Md.) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (Gibco/Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, Md.), penicillin 100 units per mL, and streptomycin 100 micrograms per mL (Gibco/Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, Md.). Cells were routinely passaged by trypsinization and dilution when they reached 90% confluence. Cells were seeded into 96-well plates (Falcon-Primaria #3872) at a density of 7000 cells/well for use in RT-PCR analysis. [0221]
  • For Northern blotting or other analysis, cells may be seeded onto 100 mm or other standard tissue culture plates and treated similarly, using appropriate volumes of medium and oligonucleotide. [0222]
  • A549 Cells [0223]
  • The human lung carcinoma cell line A549 was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) (Manassas, Va.). A549 cells were routinely cultured in DMEM basal media (Gibco/Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, Md.) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (Gibco/Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, Md.), penicillin 100 units per mL, and streptomycin 100 micrograms per mL (Gibco/Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, Md.). Cells were routinely passaged by trypsinization and dilution when they reached 90% confluence. [0224]
  • NHDF Cells [0225]
  • Human neonatal dermal fibroblast (NHDF) were obtained from the Clonetics Corporation (Walkersville Md.). NHDFs were routinely maintained in Fibroblast Growth Medium (Clonetics Corporation, Walkersville, Md.) supplemented as recommended by the supplier. Cells were maintained for up to 10 passages as recommended by the supplier. [0226]
  • HEK Cells [0227]
  • Human embryonic keratinocytes (HEK) were obtained from the Clonetics Corporation (Walkersville, Md.). HEKs were routinely maintained in Keratinocyte Growth Medium (Clonetics Corporation, Walkersville Md.) formulated as recommended by the supplier. Cells were routinely maintained for up to 10 passages as recommended by the supplier. [0228]
  • PC-12 Cells [0229]
  • The rat neuronal cell line PC-12 was obtained from the American Type Culure Collection (Manassas, Va.). PC-12 cells were routinely cultured in DMEM, high glucose (Gibco/Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, Md.) supplemented with 10% horse serum +5% fetal calf serum (Gibco/Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, Md.). Cells were routinely passaged by trypsinization and dilution when they reached 90% confluence. Cells were seeded into 96-well plates (Falcon-Primaria #3872) at a density of 20000 cells/well for use in RT-PCR analysis. [0230]
  • For Northern blotting or other analysis, cells may be seeded onto 100 mm or other standard tissue culture plates and treated similarly, using appropriate volumes of medium and oligonucleotide. [0231]
  • Treatment With Antisense Compounds [0232]
  • When cells reached 80% confluency, they were treated with oligonucleotide. For cells grown in 96-well plates, wells were washed once with 200 μL OPTI-MEMJ-1 reduced-serum medium (Gibco BRL) and then treated with 130 μL of OPTI-MEMJ-1 containing 3.75 μg/mL LIPOFECTINJ (Gibco BRL) and the desired concentration of oligonucleotide. After 4-7 hours of treatment, the medium was replaced with fresh medium. Cells were harvested 16-24 hours after oligonucleotide treatment. [0233]
  • The concentration of oligonucleotide used varies from cell line to cell line. To determine the optimal oligonucleotide concentration for a particular cell line, the cells are treated with a positive control oligonucleotide at a range of concentrations. For human cells the positive control oligonucleotide is ISIS 13920, TCCGTCATCGCTCCTCAGGG, SEQ ID NO: 1, a 2′-O-methoxyethyl gapmer (2′-O-methoxyethyls shown in bold) with a phosphorothioate backbone which is targeted to human H-ras. For mouse or rat cells the positive control oligonucleotide is ISIS 15770, ATGCATTCTGCCCCCAAGGA, SEQ ID NO: 2, a 2′-O-methoxyethyl gapmer (2′-O-methoxyethyls shown in bold) with a phosphorothioate backbone which is targeted to both mouse and rat c-raf. The concentration of positive control oligonucleotide that results in 80% inhibition of c-Ha-ras (for ISIS 13920) or c-raf (for ISIS 15770) mRNA is then utilized as the screening concentration for new oligonucleotides in subsequent experiments for that cell line. If 80% inhibition is not achieved, the lowest concentration of positive control oligonucleotide that results in 60% inhibition of H-ras or c-raf mRNA is then utilized as the oligonucleotide screening concentration in subsequent experiments for that cell line. If 60% inhibition is not achieved, that particular cell line is deemed as unsuitable for oligonucleotide transfection experiments. [0234]
  • Example 10
  • Analysis of Oligonucleotide Inhibition of PTP1B Expression [0235]
  • Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression can be assayed in a variety of ways known in the art. For example, PTP1B mRNA levels can be quantitated by, e.g., Northern blot analysis, competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Real-time quantitative PCR is presently preferred. RNA analysis can be performed on total cellular RNA or poly(A)+ mRNA. Methods of RNA isolation are taught in, for example, Ausubel, F.M. et al., [0236] Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 1, pp. 4.1.1-4.2.9 and 4.5.1-4.5.3, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993. Northern blot analysis is routine in the art and is taught in, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology,Volume 1, pp. 4.2.1-4.2.9, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996. Real-time quantitative (PCR) can be conveniently accomplished using the commercially available ABI PRISMJ 7700 Sequence Detection System, available from PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif. and used according to manufacturer′s instructions. Prior to quantitative PCR analysis, primer-probe sets specific to the target gene being measured are evaluated for their ability to be “multiplexed” with a GAPDH amplification reaction. In multiplexing, both the target gene and the internal standard gene GAPDH are amplified concurrently in a single sample. In this analysis, mRNA isolated from untreated cells is serially diluted. Each dilution is amplified in the presence of primer-probe sets specific for GAPDH only, target gene only (“single-plexing”), or both (multiplexing). Following PCR amplification, standard curves of GAPDH and target mRNA signal as a function of dilution are generated from both the single-plexed and multiplexed samples. If both the slope and correlation coefficient of the GAPDH and target signals generated from the multiplexed samples fall within 10% of their corresponding values generated from the single-plexed samples, the primer-probe set specific for that target is deemed as multiplexable. Other methods of PCR are also known in the art.
  • Protein levels of PTP1B can be quantitated in a variety of ways well known in the art, such as immunoprecipitation, Western blot analysis (immunoblotting), ELISA or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Antibodies directed to PTP1B can be identified and obtained from a variety of sources, such as the MSRS catalog of antibodies (Aerie Corporation, Birmingham, Mich.), or can be prepared via conventional antibody generation methods. Methods for preparation of polyclonal antisera are taught in, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., [0237] Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 2, pp. 11.12. 1-11.12.9, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies is taught in, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 2, pp. 11.4.1-11.11.5, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997.
  • Immunoprecipitation methods are standard in the art and can be found at, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., [0238] Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 2, pp. 10.16. 1-10.16.11, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis is standard in the art and can be found at, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 2, pp. 10.8.1-10.8.21, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are standard in the art and can be found at, for example, Ausubel, F.M. et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 2, pp. 11.2.1-11.2.22, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991.
  • Example 11
  • Poly(A)+ mRNA Isolation [0239]
  • Poly(A)+ mRNA was isolated according to Miura et al., [0240] Clin. Chem., 1996, 42, 1758-1764. Other methods for poly(A)+ mRNA isolation are taught in, for example, Ausubel, F. M. et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Volume 1, pp. 4.5.1-4.5.3, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993. Briefly, for cells grown on 96-well plates, growth medium was removed from the cells and each well was washed with 200 μL cold PBS. 60 μL lysis buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 1 mM EDTA, 0.5 M NaCl, 0.5% NP-40, 20 mM vanadyl-ribonucleoside complex) was added to each well, the plate was gently agitated and then incubated at room temperature for five minutes. 55 μL of lysate was transferred to Oligo d(T) coated 96-well plates (AGCT Inc., Irvine Calif.). Plates were incubated for 60 minutes at room temperature, washed 3 times with 200 μL of wash buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6, 1 mM EDTA, 0.3 M NaCl) . After the final wash, the plate was blotted on paper towels to remove excess wash buffer and then air-dried for 5 minutes. 60 μL of elution buffer (5 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6), preheated to 70° C. was added to each well, the plate was incubated on a 90° C. hot plate for 5 minutes, and the eluate was then transferred to a fresh 96-well plate.
  • Cells grown on 100 mm or other standard plates may be treated similarly, using appropriate volumes of all solutions. [0241]
  • Example 12
  • Total RNA Isolation [0242]
  • Total mRNA was isolated using an RNEASY 96J kit and buffers purchased from Qiagen Inc. (Valencia, Calif.) following the manufacturer's recommended procedures. Briefly, for cells grown on 96-well plates, growth medium was removed from the cells and each well was washed with 200 μL cold PBS. 100 μL Buffer RLT was added to each well and the plate vigorously agitated for 20 seconds. 100 μL of 70% ethanol was then added to each well and the contents mixed by pipetting three times up and down. The samples were then transferred to the RNEASY 96J well plate attached to a QIAVACJ manifold fitted with a waste collection tray and attached to a vacuum source. Vacuum was applied for 15 seconds. 1 mL of Buffer RW1 was added to each well of the RNEASY 96J plate and the vacuum again applied for 15 seconds. 1 mL of Buffer RPE was then added to each well of the RNEASY 96J plate and the vacuum applied for a period of 15 seconds. The Buffer RPE wash was then repeated and the vacuum was applied for an additional 10 minutes. The plate was then removed from the QIAVACJ manifold and blotted dry on paper towels. The plate was then re-attached to the QIAVACJ manifold fitted with a collection tube rack containing 1.2 mL collection tubes. RNA was then eluted by pipetting 60 μL water into each well, incubating 1 minute, and then applying the vacuum for 30 seconds. The elution step was repeated with an additional 60 μL water. [0243]
  • The repetitive pipetting and elution steps may be automated using a QIAGEN Bio-Robot 9604 (Qiagen, Inc., Valencia, Calif.). Essentially, after lysing of the cells on the culture plate, the plate is transferred to the robot deck where the pipetting, DNase treatment and elution steps are carried out. [0244]
  • Example 13
  • Real-time Quantitative PCR Analysis of PTP1B mRNA Levels [0245]
  • Quantitation of PTP1B mRNA levels was determined by real-time quantitative PCR using the ABI PRISMJ 7700 Sequence Detection System (PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) according to manufacturer's instructions. This is a closed-tube, non-gel-based, fluorescence detection system which allows high-throughput quantitation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products in real-time. As opposed to standard PCR, in which amplification products are quantitated after the PCR is completed, products in real-time quantitative PCR are quantitated as they accumulate. This is accomplished by including in the PCR reaction an oligonucleotide probe that anneals specifically between the forward and reverse PCR primers, and contains two fluorescent dyes. A reporter dye (e.g., JOE, FAM, or VIC, obtained from either Operon Technologies Inc., Alameda, Calif. or PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) is attached to the 5′ end of the probe and a quencher dye (e.g., TAMRA, obtained from either Operon Technologies Inc., Alameda, Calif. or PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) is attached to the 3′ end of the probe. When the probe and dyes are intact, reporter dye emission is quenched by the proximity of the 3′ quencher dye. During amplification, annealing of the probe to the target sequence creates a substrate that can be cleaved by the 5′-exonuclease activity of Taq polymerase. During the extension phase of the PCR amplification cycle, cleavage of the probe by Taq polymerase releases the reporter dye from the remainder of the probe (and hence from the quencher moiety) and a sequence-specific fluorescent signal is generated. With each cycle, additional reporter dye molecules are cleaved from their respective probes, and the fluorescence intensity is monitored at regular intervals by laser optics built into the ABI PRISMJ 7700 Sequence Detection System. In each assay, a series of parallel reactions containing serial dilutions of mRNA from untreated control samples generates a standard curve that is used to quantitate the percent inhibition after antisense oligonucleotide treatment of test samples. [0246]
  • PCR reagents were obtained from PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif. RT-PCR reactions were carried out by adding 25 μL PCR cocktail (1× TAQMANJ buffer A, 5.5 mM MgCl[0247] 2, 300 μM each of dATP, dCTP and dGTP, 600 μM of dUTP, 100 nM each of forward primer, reverse primer, and probe, 20 Units RNAse inhibitor, 1.25 Units AMPLITAQ GOLDJ, and 12.5 Units MuLV reverse transcriptase) to 96 well plates containing 25 μL poly(A) mRNA solution. The RT reaction was carried out by incubation for 30 minutes at 48° C. Following a 10 minute incubation at 95° C. to activate the AMPLITAQ GOLDJ, 40 cycles of a two-step PCR protocol were carried out: 95° C. for 15 seconds (denaturation) followed by 60° C. for 1.5 minutes (annealing/extension).
  • Probes and primers to human PTP1B were designed to hybridize to a human PTP1B sequence, using published sequence information (GenBank accession number M31724, incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO:3). For human PTP1B the PCR primers were: forward primer: GGAGTTCGAGCAGATCGACAA (SEQ ID NO: 4) reverse primer: GGCCACTCTACATGGGAAGTC (SEQ ID NO: 5) and the PCR probe was: FAM-AGCTGGGCGGCCATTTACCAGGAT-TAMRA (SEQ ID NO: 6) where FAM (PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) is the fluorescent reporter dye) and TAMRA (PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) is the quencher dye. For human GAPDH the PCR primers were: forward primer: GAAGGTGAAGGTCGGAGTC (SEQ ID NO: 7) reverse primer: GAAGATGGTGATGGGATTTC (SEQ ID NO: 8) and the PCR probe was: 5′ JOE-CAAGCTTCCCGTTCTCAGCC-TAMRA 3′ (SEQ ID NO: 9) where JOE (PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) is the fluorescent reporter dye) and TAMRA (PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) is the quencher dye. [0248]
  • Probes and primers to rat PTP1B were designed to hybridize to a rat PTP1B sequence, using published sequence information (GenBank accession number M33962, incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO:10). For rat PTP1B the PCR primers were: forward primer: CGAGGGTGCAAAGTTCATCAT (SEQ ID NO:11) reverse primer: CCAGGTCTTCATGGGAAAGCT (SEQ ID NO: 12) and the PCR probe was: FAM-CGACTCGTCAGTGCAGGATCAGTGGA-TAMRA (SEQ ID NO: 13) where FAM (PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) is the fluorescent reporter dye) and TAMRA (PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) is the quencher dye. For rat GAPDH the PCR primers were: forward primer: TGTTCTAGAGACAGCCGCATCTT (SEQ ID NO: 14) reverse primer: CACCGACCTTCACCATCTTGT (SEQ ID NO: 15) and the PCR probe was: 51 JOE-TTGTGCAGTGCCAGCCTCGTCTCA- TAMRA 3′ (SEQ ID NO: 16) where JOE (PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) is the fluorescent reporter dye) and TAMRA (PE-Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) is the quencher dye. [0249]
  • Example 14
  • Northern Blot Analysis of PTP1B mRNA Levels [0250]
  • Eighteen hours after antisense treatment, cell monolayers were washed twice with cold PBS and lysed in 1 mL RNAZOLJ (TEL-TEST “B” Inc., Friendswood, Tex.). Total RNA was prepared following manufacturer's recommended protocols. Twenty micrograms of total RNA was fractionated by electrophoresis through 1.2% agarose gels containing 1.1% formaldehyde using a MOPS buffer system (AMRESCO, Inc. Solon, Ohio). RNA was transferred from the gel to HYBONDJ-N+ nylon membranes (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Piscataway, N.J.) by overnight capillary transfer using a Northern/Southern Transfer buffer system (TEL-TEST “B” Inc., Friendswood, Tex). RNA transfer was confirmed by UV visualization. Membranes were fixed by UV cross-linking using a STRATALINKERJ UV Crosslinker 2400 (Stratagene, Inc, La Jolla, Calif.) and then robed using QUICKHYBJ hybridization solution (Stratagene, La Jolla, Calif.) using manufacturer's recommendations for stringent conditions. [0251]
  • To detect human PTP1B, a human PTP1B specific probe was prepared by PCR using the forward primer GGAGTTCGAGCAGATCGACAA (SEQ ID NO: 4) and the reverse primer GGCCACTCTACATGGGAAGTC (SEQ ID NO: 5). To normalize for variations in loading and transfer efficiency membranes were stripped and probed for human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) RNA (Clontech, Palo Alto, Calif.). [0252]
  • To detect rat PTP1B, a rat PTP1B specific probe was prepared by PCR using the forward primer CGAGGGTGCAAAGTTCATCAT (SEQ ID NO:11) and the reverse primer CCAGGTCTTCATGGGAAAGCT (SEQ ID NO: 12). To normalize for variations in loading and transfer efficiency membranes were stripped and probed for rat glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) RNA (Clontech, Palo Alto, Calif.). [0253]
  • Hybridized membranes were visualized and quantitated using a PHOSPHORIMAGERJ and IMAGEQUANTJ Software V3.3 (Molecular Dynamics, Sunnyvale, Calif.). Data was normalized to GAPDH levels in untreated controls. [0254]
  • Example 15
  • Antisense Inhibition ) of Human PTP1B Expression By Chimeric Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides Having 2′-MOE Wings and a Deoxy Gap [0255]
  • In accordance with the present invention, a series of oligonucleotides were designed to target different regions of the human PTP1B RNA, using published sequences (GenBank accession number M31724, incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 3). The oligonucleotides are shown in Table 1. ATarget siteA indicates the first (5′-most) nucleotide number on the particular target sequence to which the oligonucleotide binds. All compounds in Table 1 are chimeric oligonucleotides (“gapmers”) 20 nucleotides in length, composed of a central “gap” region consisting of ten 2′-deoxynucleotides, which is flanked on both sides (5′ and 3′ directions) by five-nucleotide “wings”. The wings are composed of 2′-methoxyethyl (2′-MOE) nucleotides. The internucleoside (backbone) linkages are phorothioate (P═S) throughout the oligonucleotide. are cytidine residues are 5-methylcytidines. The compounds were analyzed for their effect on human PTP1B mRNA levels by quantitative real-time PCR as described in other examples herein. Data are averages from two experiments. If present, “N.D.” indicates “no data”. [0256]
    TABLE 1
    Inhibition of human PTP1B mRNA levels by chimeric
    phosphorothioate oligonucleotides having 2′-MOE wings and a
    deoxy gap
    TAR-
    GET
    SEQ TAR- SEQ
    ISIS RE- ID GET % ID
    # GION NO SITE SEQUENCE INHIB NO
    107769 5′ UTR 3 1 cttagccccgaggcccgccc 0 17
    107770 5′ UTR 3 41 ctcggcccactgcgccgtct 58 18
    107771 Start 3 74 catgacgggccagggcggct 60 19
    Codon
    107772 Coding 3 113 cccggacttgtcgatctgct 95 20
    107773 Coding 3 154 ctggcttcatgtcggatatc 88 21
    107774 Coding 3 178 ttggccactctacatgggaa 77 22
    107775 Coding 3 223 ggactgacgtctctgtacct 75 23
    107776 Coding 3 252 gatgtagtttaatccgacta 82 24
    107777 Coding 3 280 ctagcgttgatatagtcatt 29 25
    107778 Coding 3 324 gggtaagaatgtaactcctt 86 26
    107779 Coding 3 352 tgaccgcatgtgttaggcaa 75 27
    107780 Coding 3 381 ttttctgctcccacaccatc 30 28
    107781 Coding 3 408 ctctgttgagcatgacgaca 78 29
    107782 Coding 3 436 gcgcattttaacgaaccttt 83 30
    107783 Coding 3 490 aaatttgtgtcttcaaagat 0 31
    107784 Coding 3 519 tgatatcttcagagatcaat 57 32
    107785 Coding 3 547 tctagctgtcgcactgtata 74 33
    107786 Coding 3 575 agtttcttgggttgtaaggt 33 34
    107787 Coding 3 604 gtggtatagtggaaatgtaa 51 35
    107788 Coding 3 632 tgattcagggactccaaagt 55 36
    107789 Coding 3 661 ttgaaaagaaagttcaagaa 17 37
    107790 Coding 3 688 gggctgagtgaccctgactc 61 38
    107791 Coding 3 716 gcagtgcaccacaacgggcc 81 39
    107792 Coding 3 744 aggttccagacctgccgatg 81 40
    107793 Coding 3 772 agcaggaggcaggtatcagc 2 41
    107794 Coding 3 799 gaagaagggtctttcctctt 53 42
    107795 Coding 3 826 tctaacagcactttcttgat 18 43
    107796 Coding 3 853 atcaaccccatccgaaactt 0 44
    107797 Coding 3 880 gagaagcgcagctggtcggc 82 45
    107798 Coding 3 908 tttggcaccttcgatcacag 62 46
    107799 Coding 3 952 agctccttccactgatcctg 70 47
    107800 Coding 3 1024 tccaggattcgtttgggtgg 72 48
    107801 Coding 3 1052 gaactccctgcatttcccat 68 49
    107802 Coding 3 1079 ttccttcacccactggtgat 40 50
    107803 Coding 3 1148 gtagggtgcggcatttaagg 0 51
    107804 Coding 3 1176 cagtgtcttgactcatgctt 75 52
    107805 Coding 3 1222 gcctgggcacctcgaagact 67 53
    107806 Coding 3 1268 ctcgtccttctcgggcagtg 37 54
    107807 Coding 3 1295 gggcttccagtaactcagtg 73 55
    107808 Coding 3 1323 ccgtagccacgcacatgttg 80 56
    107809 Coding 3 1351 tagcagaggtaagcgccggc 72 57
    107810 Stop 3 1379 ctatgtgttgctgttgaaca 85 58
    Codon
    107811 3′ UTR 3 1404 ggaggtggagtggaggaggg 51 59
    107812 3′ UTR 3 1433 ggctctgcgggcagaggcgg 81 60
    107813 3′ UTR 3 1460 ccgcggcatgcctgctagtc 84 61
    107814 3′ UTR 3 1489 tctctacgcggtccggcggc 84 62
    107815 3′ UTR 3 1533 aagatgggttttagtgcaga 65 63
    107816 3′ UTR 3 1634 gtactctctttcactctcct 69 64
    107817 3′ UTR 3 1662 ggccccttccctctgcgccg 59 65
    107818 3′ UTR 3 1707 ctccaggagggagccctggg 57 66
    107819 3′ UTR 3 1735 gggctgttggcgtgcgccgc 54 67
    107820 3′ UTR 3 1783 tttaaataaatatggagtgg 0 68
    107821 3′ UTR 3 1831 gttcaagaaaatgctagtgc 69 69
    107822 3′ UTR 3 1884 ttgataaagcccttgatgca 74 70
    107823 3′ UTR 3 1936 atggcaaagccttccattcc 26 71
    107824 3′ UTR 3 1973 gtcctccttcccagtactgg 60 72
    107825 3′ UTR 3 2011 ttacccacaatatcactaaa 39 73
    107826 3′ UTR 3 2045 attatatattatagcattgt 24 74
    107827 3′ UTR 3 2080 tcacatcatgtttcttatta 48 75
    107828 3′ UTR 3 2115 ataacagggaggagaataag 0 76
    107829 3′ UTR 3 2170 ttacatgcattctaatacac 21 77
    107830 3′ UTR 3 2223 gatcaaagtttctcatttca 81 78
    107831 3′ UTR 3 2274 ggtcatgcacaggcaggttg 82 79
    107832 3′ UTR 3 2309 caacaggcttaggaaccaca 65 80
    107833 3′ UTR 3 2344 aactgcaccctattgctgag 61 81
    107834 3′ UTR 3 2380 gtcatgccaggaattagcaa 0 82
    107835 3′ UTR 3 2413 acaggctgggcctcaccagg 58 83
    107836 3′ UTR 3 2443 tgagttacagcaagaccctg 44 84
    107837 3′ UTR 3 2473 gaatatggcttcccataccc 0 85
    107838 3′ UTR 3 2502 ccctaaatcatgtccagagc 87 86
    107839 3′ UTR 3 2558 gacttggaatggcggaggct 74 87
    107840 3′ UTR 3 2587 caaatcacggtctgctcaag 31 88
    107841 3′ UTR 3 2618 gaagtgtggtttccagcagg 56 89
    107842 3′ UTR 3 2648 cctaaaggaccgtcacccag 42 90
    107843 3′ UTR 3 2678 gtgaaccgggacagagacgg 25 91
    107844 3′ UTR 3 2724 gccccacagggtttgagggt 53 92
    107845 3′ UTR 3 2755 cctttgcaggaagagtcgtg 75 93
    107846 3′ UTR 3 2785 aaagccacttaatgtggagg 79 94
    107847 3′ UTR 3 2844 gtgaaaatgctggcaagaga 86 95
    107848 3′ UTR 3 2930 tcagaatgcttacagcctgg 61 96
  • As shown in Table 1, SEQ ID NOs 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 4, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 45, 46, 7, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 72, 73, 75, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 86, 87, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, and 96 demonstrated at least 35% inhibition of human PTP1B expression in this assay and are therefore preferred. [0257]
  • Example 16
  • Antisense Inhibition of Rat PTP1B Expression By Chimeric Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides Having 2′-MOE Wings and a Deoxy Gap. [0258]
  • In accordance with the present invention, a second series of oligonucleotides were designed to target different regions of the rat PTP1B RNA, using published sequences (GenBank accession number M33962, incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 10). The oligonucleotides are shown in Table 2. ATarget siteA indicates the first (5′-most) nucleotide number on the particular target sequence to which the oligonucleotide binds. All compounds in Table 2 are chimeric oligonucleotides (“gapmers”) 20 nucleotides in length, composed of a central “gap” region consisting of ten 2′-deoxynucleotides, which is flanked on both sides (5′and 3′ directions) by five-nucleotide “wings”. The wings are composed of 2′-methoxyethyl (2′-MOE)nucleotides. The internucleoside (backbone) linkages are phosphorothioate (P═S) throughout the oligonucleotide. All cytidine residues are 5-methylcytidines. The compounds were analyzed for their effect on rat PTP1B mRNA levels by quantitative real-time PCR as described in other examples herein. Data are averages from two experiments. If present, “N.D.” indicates “no data”. [0259]
    TABLE 2
    Inhibition of rat PTP1B mRNA levels by chimeric
    phosphorothioate oligonucleotides having 2′-MOE wings and a
    deoxy gap
    TAR-
    GET
    SEQ TAR- SEQ
    ISIS RE- ID GET % ID
    # GION NO SITE SEQUENCE INHIB NO
    111549 5′ UTR 10 1 caacctccccagcagcggct 32 97
    111550 5′ UTR 10 33 tcgaggcccgtcgcccgcca 27 98
    111551 5′ UTR 10 73 cctcggccgtccgccgcgct 34 99
    111552 Coding 10 132 tcgatctgctcgaattcctt 49 100
    113669 Coding 10 164 cctggtaaatagccgcccag 36 101
    113670 Coding 10 174 tgtcgaatatcctggtaaat 63 102
    113671 Coding 10 184 actggcttcatgtcgaatat 58 103
    113672 Coding 10 189 aagtcactggcttcatgtcg 40 104
    111553 Coding 10 190 gaagtcactggcttcatgtc 27 105
    113673 Coding 10 191 ggaagtcactggcttcatgt 54 106
    113674 Coding 10 192 gggaagtcactggcttcatg 41 107
    113675 Coding 10 193 tgggaagtcactggcttcat 56 108
    113676 Coding 10 194 atgggaagtcactggcttca 31 109
    113677 Coding 10 195 catgggaagtcactggcttc 59 110
    113678 Coding 10 225 tttttgttcttaggaagttt 24 111
    111554 Coding 10 228 cggtttttgttcttaggaag 45 112
    111555 Coding 10 269 tccgactgtggtcaaaaggg 39 113
    113679 Coding 10 273 ttaatccgactgtggtcaaa 45 114
    113680 Coding 10 298 atagtcattatcttcctgat 49 115
    111556 Coding 10 303 ttgatatagtcattatcttc 29 116
    113681 Coding 10 330 gcttcctccatttttatcaa 67 117
    111557 Coding 10 359 ggccctgggtgaggatatag 20 118
    113682 Coding 10 399 cacaccatctcccagaagtg 29 119
    111558 Coding 10 405 tgctcccacaccatctccca 48 120
    113683 Coding 10 406 ctgctcccacaccatctccc 51 121
    113684 Coding 10 407 tctgctcccacaccatctcc 37 122
    113685 Coding 10 408 ttctgctcccacaccatctc 54 123
    113686 Coding 10 417 cccctgctcttctgctccca 60 124
    111559 Coding 10 438 atgcggttgagcatgaccac 15 125
    113687 Coding 10 459 tttaacgagcctttctccat 33 126
    113688 Coding 10 492 ttttcttctttctgtggcca 54 127
    113689 Coding 10 502 gaccatctctttttcttott 58 128
    111560 Coding 10 540 tcagagatcagtgtcagctt 21 129
    113690 Coding 10 550 cttgacatcttcagagatca 64 130
    113691 Coding 10 558 taatatgacttgacatcttc 46 131
    111561 Coding 10 579 aactccaactgccgtactgt 14 132
    111562 Coding 10 611 tctctcgagcctcctgggta 38 133
    113692 Coding 10 648 ccaaagtcaggccaggtggt 63 134
    111563 Coding 10 654 gggactccaaagtcaggcca 31 135
    113693 Coding 10 655 agggactccaaagtcaggcc 50 136
    113694 Coding 10 656 cagggactccaaagtcaggc 45 137
    113695 Coding 10 657 tcagggactccaaagtcagg 49 138
    113696 Coding 10 663 ggtgactcagggactccaaa 34 139
    111564 Coding 10 705 cctgactctcggactttgaa 53 140
    113697 Coding 10 715 gctgagtgagcctgactctc 57 141
    113698 Coding 10 726 ccgtgctctgggctgagtga 48 142
    111565 Coding 10 774 aaggtccctgacctgccaat 28 143
    111566 Coding 10 819 tctttcctcttgtccatcag 34 144
    113699 Coding 10 820 gtctttcctcttgtccatca 41 145
    113700 Coding 10 821 ggtctttcctcttgtccatc 66 146
    113701 Coding 10 822 gggtctttcctcttgtccat 71 147
    113702 Coding 10 852 aacagcactttcttgatgtc 39 148
    111567 Coding 10 869 ggaacctgcgcatctccaac 0 149
    111568 Coding 10 897 tggtcggccgtctggatgag 29 150
    113703 Coding 10 909 gagaagcgcagttggtcggc 48 151
    113704 Coding 10 915 aggtaggagaagcgcagttg 31 152
    113705 Coding 10 918 gccaggtaggagaagcgcag 41 153
    111569 Coding 10 919 agccaggtaggagaagcgca 56 154
    113706 Coding 10 920 cagccaggtaggagaagcgc 58 155
    113707 Coding 10 921 acagccaggtaggagaagcg 43 156
    113708 Coding 10 922 cacagccaggtaggagaagc 49 157
    113709 Coding 10 923 tcacagccaggtaggagaag 47 158
    111570 Coding 10 924 atcacagccaggtaggagaa 51 159
    113710 Coding 10 925 gatcacagccaggtaggaga 51 160
    113711 Coding 10 926 cgatcacagccaggtaggag 63 161
    113712 Coding 10 927 tcgatcacagccaggtagga 71 162
    113713 Coding 10 932 caccctcgatcacagccagg 75 163
    113714 Coding 10 978 tccttccactgatcccgcac 97 164
    111571 Coding 10 979 ctccttccactgatcctgca 89 165
    113715 Coding 10 980 gctccttccactgatcctgc 99 166
    107799 Coding 10 981 agctccttccactgatcctg 99 167
    113716 Coding 10 982 aagctccttccactgatcct 97 168
    113717 Coding 10 983 aaagctccttccactgatcc 95 169
    113718 Coding 10 984 gaaagctccttccactgatc 95 170
    113719 Coding 10 985 ggaaagctccttccactgat 95 171
    111572 Coding 10 986 gggaaagctccttccactga 89 172
    113720 Coding 10 987 tgggaaagctccttccactg 97 173
    113721 Coding 10 1036 tggccggggaggtgggggca 20 174
    111573 Coding 10 1040 tgggtggccggggaggtggg 20 175
    113722 Coding 10 1046 tgcgtttgggtggccgggga 18 176
    111574 Coding 10 1073 tgcacttgccattgtgaggc 38 177
    113723 Coding 10 1206 acttcagtgtcttgactcat 67 178
    113724 Coding 10 1207 aacttcagtgtcttgactca 60 179
    111575 Coding 10 1208 taacttcagtgtcttgactc 50 180
    113725 Coding 10 1209 ctaacttcagtgtcttgact 53 181
    111576 Coding 10 1255 gacagatgcctgagcacttt 32 182
    106409 Coding 10 1333 gaccaggaagggcttccagt 32 183
    113726 Coding 10 1334 tgaccaggaagggcttccag 39 184
    111577 Coding 10 1335 ttgaccaggaagggcttcca 32 185
    113727 Coding 10 1336 gttgaccaggaagggcttcc 41 186
    113728 Coding 10 1342 gcacacgttgaccaggaagg 59 187
    111578 Coding 10 1375 gaggtacgcgccagtcgcca 45 188
    111579 Coding 10 1387 tacccggtaacagaggtacg 32 189
    111580 Coding 10 1397 agtgaaaacatacccggtaa 30 190
    111581 3′ UTR 10 1456 caaatcctaacctgggcagt 31 191
    111582 3′ UTR 10 1519 ttccagttccaccacaggct 24 192
    111583 3′ UTR 10 1552 ccagtgcacagatgcccctc 47 193
    111584 3′ UTR 10 1609 acaggttaaggccctgagat 29 194
    111585 3′ UTR 10 1783 gcctagcatcttttgttttc 43 195
    111586 3′ UTR 10 1890 aagccagcaggaactttaca 36 196
    111587 3′ UTR 10 2002 gggacacctgagggaagcag 16 197
    111588 3′ UTR 10 2048 ggtcatctgcaagatggcgg 40 198
    111589 3′ UTR 10 2118 gccaacctctgatgaccctg 25 199
    111590 3′ UTR 10 2143 tggaagccccagctctaagc 25 200
    111591 3′ UTR 10 2165 tagtaatgactttccaatca 44 201
    111592 3′ UTR 10 2208 tgagtcttgctttacacctc 41 202
    111593 3′ UTR 10 2252 cctgcgcgcggagtgacttc 22 203
    111594 3′ UTR 10 2299 aggacgtcactgcagcagga 43 204
    111595 3′ UTR 10 2346 tcaggacaagtcttggcagt 32 205
    111596 3′ UTR 10 2405 gaggctgcacagtaagcgct 34 206
    111597 3′ UTR 10 2422 tcagccaaccagcatcagag 20 207
    111598 3′ UTR 10 2449 acccacagtgtccacctccc 30 208
    111599 3′ UTR 10 2502 agtgcgggctgtgctgctgg 30 209
    111600 3′ UTR 10 2553 cagctcgctctggcggcctc 8 210
    111601 3′ UTR 10 2608 aggaagggagctgcacgtcc 32 211
    111602 3′ UTR 10 2664 ccctcacgattgctcgtggg 24 212
    111603 3′ UTR 10 2756 cagtggagcggctcctctgg 18 213
    111604 3′ UTR 10 2830 caggctgacaccttacacgg 30 214
    111605 3′ UTR 10 2883 gtcctacctcaaccctagga 37 215
    111606 3′ UTR 10 2917 ctgccccagcaccagccaca 12 216
    111607 3′ UTR 10 2946 attgcttctaagaccctcag 33 217
    111608 3′ UTR 10 2978 ttacatgtcaccactgttgt 28 218
    111609 3′ UTR 10 3007 tacacatgtcatcagtagcc 37 219
    111610 3′ UTR 10 3080 ttttctaactcacagggaaa 30 220
    111611 3′ UTR 10 3153 gtgcccgccagtgagcaggc 23 221
    111612 3′ UTR 10 3206 cggcctcggcactggacagc 27 222
    111613 3′ UTR 10 3277 gtggaatgtctgagatccag 31 223
    111614 3′ UTR 10 3322 agggcgggcctgcttgccca 23 224
    111615 3′ UTR 10 3384 cggtcctggcctgctccaga 31 225
    111616 3′ UTR 10 3428 tacactgttcccaggagggt 42 226
    111617 3′ UTR 10 3471 tggtgccagcagcgctagca 10 227
    111618 3′ UTR 10 3516 cagtctcttcagcctcaaga 43 228
    113729 3′ UTR 10 3537 aagagtcatgagcaccatca 56 229
    111619 3′ UTR 10 3560 tgaaggtcaagttcccctca 40 230
    111620 3′ UTR 10 3622 ctggcaagaggcagactgga 30 231
    111621 3′ UTR 10 3666 ggctctgtgctggcttctct 52 232
    111622 3′ UTR 10 3711 gccatctcctcagcctgtgc 39 233
    111623 3′ UTR 10 3787 agcgcctgctctgaggcccc 16 234
    111624 3′ UTR 10 3854 tgctgagtaagtattgactt 35 235
    111625 3′ UTR 10 3927 ctatggccatttagagagag 36 236
    113730 3′ UTR 10 3936 tggtttattctatggccatt 59 237
    111626 3′ UTR 10 3994 cgctcctgcaaaggtgctat 11 238
    111627 3′ UTR 10 4053 gttggaaacggtgcagtcgg 39 239
    111628 3′ UTR 10 4095 atttattgttgcaactaatg 33 240
  • As shown in Table 2, SEQ ID NOs 97, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126, 127, 128, 130, 131, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 191, 193, 195, 196, 198, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 217, 219, 223, 225, 226, 228, 229, 230, 232, 233, 235, 236, 237, 239 and 240 demonstrated at least 30% inhibition of rat PTP1B expression in this experiment and are therefore preferred. [0260]
  • Example 17
  • Western Blot Analysis of PTP1B Protein Levels [0261]
  • Western blot analysis (immunoblot analysis) is carried out using standard methods. Cells are harvested 16-20 h after oligonucleotide treatment, washed once with PBS, suspended in Laemmli buffer (100 ul/well), boiled for 5 minutes and loaded on a 16% SDS-PAGE gel. Gels are run for 1.5 hours at 150 V, and transferred to membrane for western blotting. Appropriate primary antibody directed to PTP1B is used, with a radiolabelled or fluorescently labeled secondary antibody directed against the primary antibody species. Bands are visualized using a PHOSPHORIMAGERJ (Molecular Dynamics, Sunnyvale Calif.). [0262]
  • Example 18
  • Effects Of antisense Inhibition Of PTP1B (ISIS 113715) on Blood Glucose Levels [0263]
  • db/db mice are used as a model of Type 2 diabetes. These mice are hyperglycemic, obese, hyperlipidemic, and insulin resistant. The db/db phenotype is due to a mutation in the leptin receptor on a C57BLKS background. However, a mutation in the leptin gene on a different mouse background can produce obesity without diabetes (ob/ob mice). Leptin is a hormone produced by fat that regulates appetite and animals or humans with leptin deficiencies become obese. Heterozygous db/wt mice (known as lean littermates) do not display the hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia or obesity phenotype and are used as controls. [0264]
  • In accordance with the present invention, ISIS 113715 (GCTCCTTCCACTGATCCTGC, SEQ ID No: 166) was investigated in experiments designed to address the role of PTP1B in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. ISIS 113715 is completely complementary to sequences in the coding region of the human, rat, and mouse PTP1B nucleotide sequences incorporated herein as SEQ ID No: 3 (starting at nucleotide 951 of human PTP1B; Genbank Accession No. M31724), SEQ ID No: 10 (starting at nucleotide 980 of rat PTP1B; Genbank Accession No. M33962) and SEQ ID No: 241 (starting at nucleotide 1570 of mouse PTP1B; Genbank Accession No. U24700). The control used is ISIS 29848 (NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN, SEQ ID No: 242) where N is a mixture of A, G, T and C. [0265]
  • Male db/db mice and lean (heterozygous, i.e., db/wt) littermates (age 9 weeks at time 0) were divided into matched groups (n=6) with the same average blood glucose levels and treated by intraperitoneal injection once a week with saline, ISIS 29848 (the control oligonucleotide) or ISIS 113715. db/db mice were treated at a dose of 10, 25 or 50 mg/kg of ISIS 113715 or 50 mg/kg of ISIS 29848 while lean littermates were treated at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg of ISIS 113715 or 100 mg/kg of ISIS 29848. Treatment was continued for 4 weeks with blood glucose levels being measured on day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. [0266]
  • By day 28 in db/db mice, blood glucose levels were reduced at all doses from a starting level of 300 mg/dL to 225 mg/dL for the 10 mg/kg dose, 175 mg/dL for the 25 mg/kg dose and 125 mg/dL for the 50 mg/kg dose. These final levels are within normal range for wild-type mice (170 mg/dL). The mismatch control and saline treated levels levels were 320 mg/dL and 370 mg/dL at day 28, respectively. [0267]
  • In lean littermates, blood glucose levels remained constant throughout the study for all treatment groups (average 120 mg/dL). These results indicate that treatment with ISIS 113715 reduces blood glucose in db/db mice and that there is no hypoglycemia induced in the db/db or the lean littermate mice as a result of the oligonucleotide treatment. [0268]
  • In a similar experiment, ob/ob mice and their lean littermates (heterozygous, i.e., ob/wt) were dosed twice a week at 50 mg/kg with ISIS 113715, ISIS 29848 or saline control and blood glucose levels were measured at the end of day 7, 14 and 21. Treatment of ob/ob mice with ISIS 113715 resulted in the largest decrease in blood glucose over time going from 225 mg/dL at day 7 to 95 mg/dL at day 21. Ob/ob mice displayed an increase in plasma glucose over time from 300 mg/dL to 325 mg/dL while treatment with the control oligonucleotide reduced plasma glucose from an average of 280 mg/dL to 130 mg/dL. In the lean littermates plasma glucose levels remained unchanged in all treatment groups (average level 100 mg/dL). [0269]
  • Example 19
  • Effects of Antisense Inhibition of PTP1B (ISIS 113715) on mRNA Expression in Liver [0270]
  • Male db/db mice and lean littermates (age 9 weeks at time 0) were divided into matched groups (n=6) with the same average blood glucose levels and treated by intraperitoneal injection once a week with saline, ISIS 29848 (the control oligonucleotide) or ISIS 113715. db/db mice were treated at a dose of 10, 25 or 50 mg/kg of ISIS 113715 or 50 mg/kg of ISIS 29848 while lean littermates were treated at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg of ISIS 113715 or 100 mg/kg of ISIS 29848. [0271]
  • Treatment was continued for 4 weeks after which the mice were sacrificed and tissues collected for mRNA analysis. RNA values were normalized and are expressed as a percentage of saline treated control. [0272]
  • ISIS 113715 successfully reduced PTP1B mRNA levels in the livers of db/db mice at all doses examined (60% reduction of PTP1B mRNA), whereas the control oligonucleotide treated animals showed no reduction in PTP1B mRNA, remaining at the level of the saline treated control. Treatment of lean littermates with ISIS 113715 also reduced mRNA levels to 45% of control at the 50 mg/kg dose and 25% of control at the 100 mg/kg dose. The control oligonucleotide (ISIS 29848) failed to show any reduction in mRNA levels. [0273]
  • Example 20
  • Effects of Antisense Inhibition of PTP1B (ISIS 113715) on Body Weight [0274]
  • Male db/db mice and lean littermates (age 9 weeks at time 0) were divided into matched groups (n=6) with the same average blood glucose levels and treated by intraperitoneal injection once a week with saline, ISIS 29848 (the control oligonucleotide) or ISIS 113715. db/db mice were treated at a dose of 10, 25 or 50 mg/kg of ISIS 113715 or 50 mg/kg of ISIS 29848 while lean littermates were treated at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg of ISIS 113715 or 100 mg/kg of ISIS 29848. [0275]
  • Treatment was continued for 4 weeks. At day 28 mice were sacrificed and final body weights were measured. [0276]
  • Treatment of ob/ob mice with ISIS 113715 resulted in an increase in body weight which was constant over the dose range with animals gaining an average of 11.0 grams while saline treated controls gained 5.5 grams. Animals treated with the control oligonucleotide gained an average of 7.8 grams of body weight. [0277]
  • Lean littermate animals treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg of ISIS 113715 gained 3.8 grams of body weight compared to a gain of 3.0 grams for the saline controls. [0278]
  • In a similar experiment, ob/ob mice and their lean littermates were dosed twice a week at 50 mg/kg with ISIS 113715, ISIS 29848 or saline control and body weights were measured at the end of day 7, 14 and 21. [0279]
  • Treatment of the ob/ob mice with ISIS 113715, ISIS 29848 or saline control all resulted in a similar increase in body weight across the 21-day timecourse. At the end of day 7 all ob/ob treatment groups had an average weight of 42 grams. By day 21, animals treated with ISIS 113715 had an average body weight of 48 grams, while those in the ISIS 29848 (control oligonucleotide) and saline control group each had an average body weight of 52 grams. All of the lean littermates had an average body weight of 25 grams at the beginning of the timecourse and all lean littermate treatment groups showed an increase in body weight, to 28 grams, by day 21. [0280]
  • Example 21
  • Effects of Antisense Inhibition of PTP1B (ISIS 113715) on Plasma Insulin Levels [0281]
  • Male db/db mice (age 9 weeks at time 0) were divided into matched groups (n=6) with the same average blood glucose levels and treated by intraperitoneal injection twice a week with saline, ISIS 29848 (the control oligonucleotide) or ISIS 113715 at a dose of 50 mg/kg. Treatment was continued for 3 weeks with plasma insulin levels being measured on day 7, 14, and 21. [0282]
  • Mice treated with ISIS 113715 showed a decrease in plasma insulin levels from 15 ng/mL at day 7 to 7.5 ng/mL on day 21. Saline treated animals has plasma insulin levels of 37 ng/mL at day 7 which dropped to 25 ng/mL on day 14 but rose again to 33 ng/mL by day 21. Mice treated with the control oligonucleotide also showed a decrease in plasma insulin levels across the timecourse of the study from 25 ng/mL at day 7 to 10 ng/mL on day 21. However, ISIS 113715 was the most effective at reducing plasma insulin over time. [0283]
  • Example 22
  • Antisense Inhibition of Human PTP1B Expression by Additional Chimeric Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides Having 2′-MOE Wings and a Deoxy Gap [0284]
  • In accordance with the present invention, an additional series of oligonucleotides were designed to target different genomic regions of the human PTP1B RNA, using published sequences (GenBank accession number M31724, incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 3) , and concatenated genomic sequence derived from nucleotide residues 1-31000 of Genbank accession number AL034429 followed by nucleotide residues 1-45000 of Genbank accession number AL133230, incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 243). The oligonucleotides are shown in Table 3. “Target site” indicates the first (5′-most) nucleotide number on the particular target sequence to which the oligonucleotide binds. All compounds in Table 3 are chimeric oligonucleotides (“gapmers”) 20 nucleotides in length, composed of a central “gap” region consisting of ten 2′-deoxynucleotides, which is flanked on both sides (5′ and 3′ directions) by five-nucleotide “wings”. The wings are composed of 2′-methoxyethyl (2′-MOE)nucleotides. The internucleoside (backbone) linkages are phosphorothioate (P═S) throughout the oligonucleotide. All cytidine residues are 5-methylcytidines. The compounds were analyzed for their effect on human PTP1B mRNA levels by quantitative real-time PCR as described in other examples herein. Data are averages from two experiments. If present, “N.D.” indicates “no data”. [0285]
    TABLE 3
    Inhibition of human PTP1B mRNA levels by chimeric
    phosphorothioate oligonucleotides having 2′-MOE wings and a deoxy gap
    SEQ
    Isis # REGION TARGET TARGET SEQUENCE % ID
    142020 5′ UTR 3 6 GCGCTCTTAGCCCCGAGGCC 61 244
    142021 5′ UTR 3 65 CCAGGGCGGCTGCTGCGCCT 56 245
    142022 Start 3 80 CATCTCCATGACGGGCCAGG 4 246
    Codon
    142023 Start 3 85 TTTTCCATCTCCATGACGGG 67 247
    Codon
    142024 Start 3 90 ACTCCTTTTCCATCTCCATG 71 248
    Codon
    142025 Exon 1 3 106 TTGTCGATCTGCTCGAACTC 61 249
    142026 Exon 1 3 109 GACTTGTCGATCTGCTCGAA 66 250
    142027 Exon 1 3 116 GCTCCCGGACTTGTCGATCT 95 251
    142028 Exon 1 3 119 CCAGCTCCCGGACTTGTCGA 92 252
    142029 Exon: Exon 3 945 TCCACTGATCCTGCACGGAA 44 253
    Junction
    142030 Exon: Exon 3 948 CCTTCCACTGATCCTGCACG 55 254
    Junction
    142031 3′ UTR 3 1453 ATGCCTGCTAGTCGGGCGTG 67 255
    142032 3′ UTR 3 1670 CGGGTGTAGGCCCCTTCCCT 74 256
    142033 3′ UTR 3 1772 ATGGAGTGGAGAGTTGCTCC 63 257
    142034 3′ UTR 3 1893 TTGTACTTTTTGATAAAGCC 61 258
    142035 3′ UTR 3 1962 CAGTACTGGTCTGACGCAGC 68 259
    142036 3′ UTR 3 2018 TCTCACGTTACCCACAATAT 74 260
    142037 3′ UTR 3 2070 TTTCTTATTAAATACCCACG 61 261
    142038 3′ UTR 3 2088 AAGTAATCTCACATCATGTT 79 262
    142039 3′ UTR 3 2314 TTCAGCAACAGGCTTAGGAA 51 263
    142040 3′ UTR 3 2323 GACAATGACTTCAGCAACAG 43 264
    142041 3′ UTR 3 2359 TGCCTATTCCTGGAAAACTG 43 265
    142042 3′ UTR 3 2395 GGAAGTCACTAGAGTGTCAT 14 266
    142043 3′ UTR 3 2418 CCAGGACAGGCTGGGCCTCA 67 267
    142044 3′ UTR 3 2426 CTGCTGTACCAGGACAGGCT 73 268
    142045 3′ UTR 3 2452 TGGAATGTCTGAGTTACAGC 74 269
    142046 3′ UTR 3 2566 AGAGTGTTGACTTGGAATGG 43 270
    142047 3′ UTR 3 2574 GCTCAAGAAGAGTGTTGACT 76 271
    142048 3′ UTR 3 2598 TGCCTCTCTTCCAAATCACG 43 272
    142049 3′ UTR 3 2800 TGTTTTTCATGTTAAAAAGC 44 273
    142050 3′ UTR 3 2895 TCCCACCACAGAATTTCTCT 21 274
    142051 3′ UTR 3 2921 GCTCTGCAGGGTGACACCTC 74 275
    142052 3′ UTR 3 3066 AGGAGGTTAAACCAGTACGT 78 276
    142053 3′ UTR 3 3094 GGTGGAGAGCCAGCTGCTCT 59 277
    142054 3′ UTR 3 3153 TATTGGCTTAAGGCATATAG 72 278
    142055 3′ UTR 3 3168 GACCTGATGAGTAAATATTG 58 279
    142084 5′ UTR 243 859 TTCTTCATGTCAACCGGCAG 11 280
    142085 5′ UTR 243 919 GCCCCGAGGCCCGCTGCAAT 83 281
    142056 Intron 1 243 4206 TAGTGAACTATTGTTACAAC 70 282
    142057 Intron 1 243 27032 TGCTAAGCCACTTCTAATCA 72 283
    142058 Intron 1 243 27203 CAGGATTCTAAGTTATTAAA 32 284
    142059 Intron 1 243 33720 TGGGCAGGATGGCTCTGGTA 21 285
    142060 Intron 1 243 48065 TACAATACTATCTGTGACTA 34 286
    142061 Exon: 243 51931 GATACTTACAGGGACTGACG 39 287
    Intron
    142086 Intron 2 243 52005 AACCCTGAGGCGAAAGGAGT 64 288
    142062 Intron 2 243 54384 CCCCAGGTCACTAAAATTAA 48 289
    142063 Intron 2 243 55362 AAAGCAAAGGTGAGTTGGTG 56 290
    142064 Intron 3 243 56093 GCTCAATTATTAAACCACTT 64 291
    142065 Intron 3 243 56717 AGTCCTCAAGAAGTCACTTT 70 292
    142066 Intron 4 243 61780 GAAAGCAGGGACTGCTGGCA 39 293
    142067 Intron 4 243 64554 AAAACTGGGAGAGACAGCAG 71 294
    142068 Intron 4 243 64869 ACATGGAAGCCATGGTCAGC 24 295
    142069 Intron 5 243 67516 ATTGCTAGACTCACACTAGG 68 296
    142070 Intron 5 243 68052 GGCTGTGATCAAAAGGCAGC 51 297
    142087 Intron 5 243 68481 CACTGGCTCTGGGCAACTTT 70 298
    142088 Intron 5 243 68563 GCTGGGCAGCCACCCATAAA 71 299
    142071 Intron 5 243 68648 AGTCCCCTCACCTCTTTTCT 59 300
    142072 Exon: 243 69107 CCTCCTTACCAGCAAGAGGC 26 301
    Intron
    142089 Intron 6 243 69198 TGTATTTTGGAAGAGGAGCG 53 302
    142090 Intron 6 243 69220 ACAGACTAACACAGTGAGTC 53 303
    142073 Intron 6 243 69264 ACAAATTACCGAGTCTCAGG 47 304
    142074 Intron 6 243 69472 TCATGAAAGGCTTGGTGCCC 41 305
    142075 Intron 7 243 70042 TTGGAAGATGAAATCTTTTG 30 306
    142076 Intron 7 243 70052 AGCCATGTACTTGGAAGATG 69 307
    142077 Intron 8 243 70661 CGAGCCCCTCATTCCAACAA 42 308
    142078 Intron 8 243 71005 CACCTCAGCGGACACCTCTA 6 309
    142079 Exon: 243 71938 GAAACATACCCTGTAGCAGA 52 310
    Intron
    142091 Intron 9 243 72131 CAGAGGGCTCCTTAAAACCC 61 311
    142092 Intron 9 243 72430 ATTCGTAAAAGTTTGGGATT 34 312
    142080 Intron 9 243 72453 CCCTCTTCTCCAAGGGAGTT 73 313
    142081 Intron 9 243 73158 GGAATGAAACCAAACAGTTC 42 314
    142082 Exon 10 243 75012 AAATGGTTTATTCCATGGCC 66 315
    142083 Exon 10 243 75215 AAAAATTTTATTGTTGCAGC 48 316
    142093 3′ UTR 243 75095 CCGGTCATGCAGCCACGTAT 85 317
    142094 3′ UTR 243 75165 GTTGGAAAACTGTACAGTCT 77 318
    142095 3′ UTR 243 75211 ATTTTATTGTTGCAGCTAAA 46 319
  • As shown in Table 3, SEQ ID NOs, 244, 245, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 267, 268, 269, 271, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 281, 282, 283, 288, 290, 291, 292, 294, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 302, 303, 307, 310, 311, 313, 315, 317, and 318, demonstrated at least 50% inhibition of human PTP1B expression in this assay and are therefore preferred. [0286]
  • Example 23
  • Antisense Inhibition of Human PTP1B Expression by Additional Chimeric Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides Having 2′-MOE Wings and a Deoxy Gap [0287]
  • In accordance with the present invention, an additional series of oligonucleotides were designed to target either the 3′UTR or the 5′UTR of the human PTP1B RNA, using published sequences (GenBank accession number M31724, incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 3) and concatenated genomic sequence derived from nucleotide residues 1-31000 of Genbank accession number AL034429 followed by nucleotide residues 1-45000 of Genbank accession number AL133230, incorporated herein as SEQ ID NO: 243. The oligonucleotides are shown in Table4. “Target site” indicates the first (5′-most) nucleotide number on the particular target sequence to which the oligonucleotide binds. All compounds in Table 3 are chimeric oligonucleotides (“gapmers”) 20 nucleotides in length, composed of a central “gap” region consisting of ten 2′-deoxynucleotides, which is flanked on both sides (5′ and 3′ directions) by five-nucleotide “wings”. The wings are composed of 2′-methoxyethyl (2′-MOE)nucleotides. The internucleoside (backbone) linkages are phosphorothioate (P═S) throughout the oligonucleotide. All cytidine residues are 5-methylcytidines. The compounds were analyzed for their effect on human PTP1B mRNA levels by quantitative real-time PCR as described in other examples herein. Data are averages from two experiments. If present, “N.D.” indicates “no data”. [0288]
    TABLE 4
    Inhibition of human PTP1B mRNA levels by chimeric
    phosphorothioate oligonucleotides having 2′-MOE wings and a deoxy gap
    Isis # REGION TARGET TARGET SEQUENCE % SEQ
    146879 5′ UTR 3 50 CGCCTCCTTCTCGGCCCACT 29 320
    146880 5′ UTR 3 62 GGGCGGCTGCTGCGCCTCCT 34 321
    146881 3′ UTR 3 1601 GTGGATTTGGTACTCAAAGT 72 322
    146882 3′ UTR 3 1610 AAATGGCTTGTGGATTTGGT 72 323
    146883 3′ UTR 3 1637 ATGGTACTCTCTTTCACTCT 61 324
    146884 3′ UTR 3 1643 GCCAGCATGGTACTCTCTTT 63 325
    146885 3′ UTR 3 1764 GAGAGTTGCTCCCTGCAGAT 62 326
    146886 3′ UTR 3 1770 GGAGTGGAGAGTTGCTCCCT 57 327
    146887 3′ UTR 3 1874 CCTTGATGCAAGGCTGAGAT 65 328
    146888 3′ UTR 3 1879 AAAGCCCTTGATGCAAGGCT 59 329
    146889 3′ UTR 3 1915 AGTACTACCTGAGGATTTAT 46 330
    146890 3′ UTR 3 1925 TTCCATTCCCAGTACTACCT 41 331
    146891 3′ UTR 3 1938 CCATGGCAAAGCCTTCCATT 65 332
    146892 3′ UTR 3 1943 CAGGCCCATGGCAATGCCTT 52 333
    146893 3′ UTR 3 1988 CAACTGCTTACAACCGTCCT 60 334
    146894 3′ UTR 3 2055 CCACGTGTTCATTATATATT 42 335
    146895 3′ UTR 3 2063 TTAAATACCCACGTGTTCAT 27 336
    146896 3′ UTR 3 2099 TAAGCGGGACAAAGTAATCT 47 337
    146897 3′ UTR 3 2118 CAGATAACAGGGAGGAGAAT 31 338
    146898 3′ UTR 3 2133 GAGAACTAGATCTAGCAGAT 0 339
    146899 3′ UTR 3 2140 AGTGATTGAGAACTAGATCT 62 340
    146900 3′ UTR 3 2184 GACACAAGAAGACCTTACAT 49 341
    146901 3′ UTR 3 2212 CTCATTTCAAGCACATATTT 60 342
    146902 3′ UTR 3 2263 GGCAGGTTGGACTTGGACAT 49 343
    146903 3′ UTR 3 2296 AACCACAGCCATGTAATGAT 43 344
    146904 3′ UTR 3 2332 TTGCTGAGCGACAATGACTT 42 345
    146905 3′ UTR 3 2350 CTGGAAAACTGCACCCTATT 31 346
    146906 3′ UTR 3 2409 GCTGGGCCTCACCAGGAAGT 77 347
    146907 3′ UTR 3 2439 TTACAGCAAGACCCTGCTGT 28 348
    146908 3′ UTR 3 2457 ACCCTTGGAATGTCTGAGTT 65 349
    146909 3′ UTR 3 2464 TTCCCATACCCTTGGAATGT 62 350
    146910 3′ UTR 3 2471 ATATGGCTTCCCATACCCTT 47 351
    146911 3′ UTR 3 2477 GTGTGAATATGGCTTCCCAT 54 352
    146912 3′ UTR 3 2509 CCTGCTTCCCTAAATCATGT 65 353
    146913 3′ UTR 3 2514 GTGTCCCTGCTTCCCTAAAT 55 354
    146914 3′ UTR 3 2546 CGGAGGCTGATCCCAAAGGT 55 355
    146915 3′ UTR 3 2602 CAGGTGCCTCTCTTCCAAAT 60 356
    146916 3′ UTR 3 2613 GTGGTTTCCAGCAGGTGCCT 63 357
    146917 3′ UTR 3 2628 GCTGTTTCAAGAAGTGTGGT 43 358
    146918 3′ UTR 3 2642 GGACCGTCACCCAGGCTGTT 32 359
    146919 3′ UTR 3 2655 CAGGCTGCCTAAAGGACCGT 60 360
    146920 3′ UTR 3 2732 ACCATCAGGCCCCACAGGGT 58 361
    146921 3′ UTR 3 2759 GTTCCCTTTGCAGGAAGAGT 69 362
    146922 3′ UTR 3 2772 GTGGAGGTCTTCAGTTCCCT 64 363
    146923 3′ UTR 3 2781 CCACTTAATGTGGAGGTCTT 54 364
    146924 3′ UTR 3 2814 AGCTACAGCTGCCGTGTTTT 51 365
    146925 3′ UTR 3 2862 CCACGAGAAAGGCAAAATGT 50 366
    146926 3′ UTR 3 2885 GAATTTCTCTGTACTGGCTT 23 367
    146927 3′ UTR 3 2890 CCACAGAATTTCTCTGTACT 61 368
    146928 3′ UTR 3 2901 GAATGTTCCCACCACAGAAT 61 369
    146929 3′ UTR 3 2956 GCCTGGCACCTAAGCCTTAT 0 370
    146930 3′ UTR 3 2965 ATGCTTACAGCCTGGCACCT 55 371
    146931 3′ UTR 3 3008 CTACATACATATACAGGACT 65 372
    146932 3′ UTR 3 3042 TTTGAAATGCTACTATATAT 44 373
    146933 3′ UTR 3 3070 GGATAGGAGGTTAAACCAGT 67 374
    146934 3′ UTR 3 3086 GCCAGCTGCTCTCCAAGGAT 42 375
    146935 3′ UTR 3 3121 CTACCTCTCTAACATAATGT 39 376
    146936 3′ UTR 3 3126 GCTCGCTACCTCTCTAACAT 68 377
    146937 3′ UTR 3 3143 AGGCATATAGCAGAGCAGCT 61 378
    146938 5′ UTR 243 851 GTCAACCGGCAGCCGGAACT 14 379
    146942 5′ UTR 243 891 CCTGCAGCTACCGCCGCCCT 69 380
    146943 5′ UTR 243 908 CGCTGCAATCCCCGACCCCT 87 381
    146944 3′ UTR 243 75050 ACCAAAACACCTTGCTTTTT 27 382
    146945 3′ UTR 243 75057 GTATTATACCAAAACACCTT 39 383
    146946 3′ UTR 243 75072 CACACACCTGAAAAGGTATT 42 384
    146947 3′ UTR 243 75097 ACCCGGTCATGCAGCCACGT 49 385
    146948 3′ UTR 243 75136 GTGAGGTCACAGAAGACCCT 49 386
    146949 3′ UTR 243 75154 GTACAGTCTGACAGTTCTGT 40 387
    146950 3′ UTR 243 75172 ATGGCAAGTTGGAAAACTGT 65 388
    146951 3′ UTR 243 75192 AATGCAAACCCATCATGAAT 43 389
  • As shown in Table 4, SEQ ID NOs, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 337, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 347, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 368, 369, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 377, 378, 380, 381, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, and 389 demonstrated at least 40% inhibition of human PTP1B expression in this assay and are therefore preferred. [0289]
  • Example 24
  • Antisense Inhibition of PTP1B Expression (ISIS 113715) In Liver, Muscle And Adipose Tissue of the Cynomolgus Monkey [0290]
  • In a further embodiment, male cynomolgus monkeys were treated with ISIS 113715 (SEQ ID NO: 166) and levels of PTP1B mRNA and protein were measured in muscle, adipose and liver tissue. Serum samples were also measured for insulin levels. [0291]
  • Male cynomolgus monkeys were divided into two treatment groups, control animals (n=4; saline treatment only) and treated animals (n=8; treated with ISIS 113715). All animals had two pre-dosing glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) performed to establish insulin and glucose baseline values. Animals in the treatment group were dosed subcutaneously on days 1, 8, and 15 with 3 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg of ISIS 113715, respectively. Animals in the control group were untreated. All animals had GTTs performed on days 5, 13 and 19, four days post-dosing. Ten days after the last dose of 12 mg/kg, all animals in the treatment group (ISIS 113715) received a one-time dose of 6 mg/kg of ISIS 113715. Three days later, all animals were sacrificed and tissues were taken for analysis of PTP1B mRNA and protein levels. Levels of mRNA and protein were normalized to those of the saline treated animals. Of the tissue examined, PTP1B mRNA levels were reduced to the greatest extent in the fat and liver, being reduced by 41% and 40%, respectively. mRNA levels in muscle were reduced by 10%. Protein levels were reduced by 60% in the liver and by 45% in the muscle but were shown to increase by 10% in the fat. [0292]
  • Levels of the liver enzymes ALT and AST were measured weekly and showed no change, indicating no ongoing toxic effects of the oligonucleotide treatment. [0293]
  • The results of this study demonstrate a significant reduction in liver PTP1B mRNA and protein upon treatment with ISIS 113715. Furthermore, there was no change seen in the fasting insulin levels either between groups or between pre-treatment and post-treatment of the same group. There was, however, a significant lowering of insulin levels with no decrease in fasting glucose levels in all groups suggesting that insulin efficiency (sensitivity) was increased upon treatment with ISIS 113715. [0294]
  • 1 389 1 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 1 tccgtcatcg ctcctcaggg 20 2 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 2 atgcattctg cccccaagga 20 3 3247 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (91)...(1398) 3 gggcgggcct cggggctaag agcgcgacgc ctagagcggc agacggcgca gtgggccgag 60 aaggaggcgc agcagccgcc ctggcccgtc atg gag atg gaa aag gag ttc gag 114 Met Glu Met Glu Lys Glu Phe Glu 1 5 cag atc gac aag tcc ggg agc tgg gcg gcc att tac cag gat atc cga 162 Gln Ile Asp Lys Ser Gly Ser Trp Ala Ala Ile Tyr Gln Asp Ile Arg 10 15 20 cat gaa gcc agt gac ttc cca tgt aga gtg gcc aag ctt cct aag aac 210 His Glu Ala Ser Asp Phe Pro Cys Arg Val Ala Lys Leu Pro Lys Asn 25 30 35 40 aaa aac cga aat agg tac aga gac gtc agt ccc ttt gac cat agt cgg 258 Lys Asn Arg Asn Arg Tyr Arg Asp Val Ser Pro Phe Asp His Ser Arg 45 50 55 att aaa cta cat caa gaa gat aat gac tat atc aac gct agt ttg ata 306 Ile Lys Leu His Gln Glu Asp Asn Asp Tyr Ile Asn Ala Ser Leu Ile 60 65 70 aaa atg gaa gaa gcc caa agg agt tac att ctt acc cag ggc cct ttg 354 Lys Met Glu Glu Ala Gln Arg Ser Tyr Ile Leu Thr Gln Gly Pro Leu 75 80 85 cct aac aca tgc ggt cac ttt tgg gag atg gtg tgg gag cag aaa agc 402 Pro Asn Thr Cys Gly His Phe Trp Glu Met Val Trp Glu Gln Lys Ser 90 95 100 agg ggt gtc gtc atg ctc aac aga gtg atg gag aaa ggt tcg tta aaa 450 Arg Gly Val Val Met Leu Asn Arg Val Met Glu Lys Gly Ser Leu Lys 105 110 115 120 tgc gca caa tac tgg cca caa aaa gaa gaa aaa gag atg atc ttt gaa 498 Cys Ala Gln Tyr Trp Pro Gln Lys Glu Glu Lys Glu Met Ile Phe Glu 125 130 135 gac aca aat ttg aaa tta aca ttg atc tct gaa gat atc aag tca tat 546 Asp Thr Asn Leu Lys Leu Thr Leu Ile Ser Glu Asp Ile Lys Ser Tyr 140 145 150 tat aca gtg cga cag cta gaa ttg gaa aac ctt aca acc caa gaa act 594 Tyr Thr Val Arg Gln Leu Glu Leu Glu Asn Leu Thr Thr Gln Glu Thr 155 160 165 cga gag atc tta cat ttc cac tat acc aca tgg cct gac ttt gga gtc 642 Arg Glu Ile Leu His Phe His Tyr Thr Thr Trp Pro Asp Phe Gly Val 170 175 180 cct gaa tca cca gcc tca ttc ttg aac ttt ctt ttc aaa gtc cga gag 690 Pro Glu Ser Pro Ala Ser Phe Leu Asn Phe Leu Phe Lys Val Arg Glu 185 190 195 200 tca ggg tca ctc agc ccg gag cac ggg ccc gtt gtg gtg cac tgc agt 738 Ser Gly Ser Leu Ser Pro Glu His Gly Pro Val Val Val His Cys Ser 205 210 215 gca ggc atc ggc agg tct gga acc ttc tgt ctg gct gat acc tgc ctc 786 Ala Gly Ile Gly Arg Ser Gly Thr Phe Cys Leu Ala Asp Thr Cys Leu 220 225 230 ctg ctg atg gac aag agg aaa gac cct tct tcc gtt gat atc aag aaa 834 Leu Leu Met Asp Lys Arg Lys Asp Pro Ser Ser Val Asp Ile Lys Lys 235 240 245 gtg ctg tta gaa atg agg aag ttt cgg atg ggg ttg atc cag aca gcc 882 Val Leu Leu Glu Met Arg Lys Phe Arg Met Gly Leu Ile Gln Thr Ala 250 255 260 gac cag ctg cgc ttc tcc tac ctg gct gtg atc gaa ggt gcc aaa ttc 930 Asp Gln Leu Arg Phe Ser Tyr Leu Ala Val Ile Glu Gly Ala Lys Phe 265 270 275 280 atc atg ggg gac tct tcc gtg cag gat cag tgg aag gag ctt tcc cac 978 Ile Met Gly Asp Ser Ser Val Gln Asp Gln Trp Lys Glu Leu Ser His 285 290 295 gag gac ctg gag ccc cca ccc gag cat atc ccc cca cct ccc cgg cca 1026 Glu Asp Leu Glu Pro Pro Pro Glu His Ile Pro Pro Pro Pro Arg Pro 300 305 310 ccc aaa cga atc ctg gag cca cac aat ggg aaa tgc agg gag ttc ttc 1074 Pro Lys Arg Ile Leu Glu Pro His Asn Gly Lys Cys Arg Glu Phe Phe 315 320 325 cca aat cac cag tgg gtg aag gaa gag acc cag gag gat aaa gac tgc 1122 Pro Asn His Gln Trp Val Lys Glu Glu Thr Gln Glu Asp Lys Asp Cys 330 335 340 ccc atc aag gaa gaa aaa gga agc ccc tta aat gcc gca ccc tac ggc 1170 Pro Ile Lys Glu Glu Lys Gly Ser Pro Leu Asn Ala Ala Pro Tyr Gly 345 350 355 360 atc gaa agc atg agt caa gac act gaa gtt aga agt cgg gtc gtg ggg 1218 Ile Glu Ser Met Ser Gln Asp Thr Glu Val Arg Ser Arg Val Val Gly 365 370 375 gga agt ctt cga ggt gcc cag gct gcc tcc cca gcc aaa ggg gag ccg 1266 Gly Ser Leu Arg Gly Ala Gln Ala Ala Ser Pro Ala Lys Gly Glu Pro 380 385 390 tca ctg ccc gag aag gac gag gac cat gca ctg agt tac tgg aag ccc 1314 Ser Leu Pro Glu Lys Asp Glu Asp His Ala Leu Ser Tyr Trp Lys Pro 395 400 405 ttc ctg gtc aac atg tgc gtg gct acg gtc ctc acg gcc ggc gct tac 1362 Phe Leu Val Asn Met Cys Val Ala Thr Val Leu Thr Ala Gly Ala Tyr 410 415 420 ctc tgc tac agg ttc ctg ttc aac agc aac aca tag cctgaccctc 1408 Leu Cys Tyr Arg Phe Leu Phe Asn Ser Asn Thr 425 430 435 ctccactcca cctccaccca ctgtccgcct ctgcccgcag agcccacgcc cgactagcag 1468 gcatgccgcg gtaggtaagg gccgccggac cgcgtagaga gccgggcccc ggacggacgt 1528 tggttctgca ctaaaaccca tcttccccgg atgtgtgtct cacccctcat ccttttactt 1588 tttgcccctt ccactttgag taccaaatcc acaagccatt ttttgaggag agtgaaagag 1648 agtaccatgc tggcggcgca gagggaaggg gcctacaccc gtcttggggc tcgccccacc 1708 cagggctccc tcctggagca tcccaggcgg cgcacgccaa cagccccccc cttgaatctg 1768 cagggagcaa ctctccactc catatttatt taaacaattt tttccccaaa ggcatccata 1828 gtgcactagc attttcttga accaataatg tattaaaatt ttttgatgtc agccttgcat 1888 caagggcttt atcaaaaagt acaataataa atcctcaggt agtactggga atggaaggct 1948 ttgccatggg cctgctgcgt cagaccagta ctgggaagga ggacggttgt aagcagttgt 2008 tatttagtga tattgtgggt aacgtgagaa gatagaacaa tgctataata tataatgaac 2068 acgtgggtat ttaataagaa acatgatgtg agattacttt gtcccgctta ttctcctccc 2128 tgttatctgc tagatctagt tctcaatcac tgctcccccg tgtgtattag aatgcatgta 2188 aggtcttctt gtgtcctgat gaaaaatatg tgcttgaaat gagaaacttt gatctctgct 2248 tactaatgtg ccccatgtcc aagtccaacc tgcctgtgca tgacctgatc attacatggc 2308 tgtggttcct aagcctgttg ctgaagtcat tgtcgctcag caatagggtg cagttttcca 2368 ggaataggca tttgctaatt cctggcatga cactctagtg acttcctggt gaggcccagc 2428 ctgtcctggt acagcagggt cttgctgtaa ctcagacatt ccaagggtat gggaagccat 2488 attcacacct cacgctctgg acatgattta gggaagcagg gacacccccc gccccccacc 2548 tttgggatca gcctccgcca ttccaagtca acactcttct tgagcagacc gtgatttgga 2608 agagaggcac ctgctggaaa ccacacttct tgaaacagcc tgggtgacgg tcctttaggc 2668 agcctgccgc cgtctctgtc ccggttcacc ttgccgagag aggcgcgtct gccccaccct 2728 caaaccctgt ggggcctgat ggtgctcacg actcttcctg caaagggaac tgaagacctc 2788 cacattaagt ggctttttaa catgaaaaac acggcagctg tagctcccga gctactctct 2848 tgccagcatt ttcacatttt gcctttctcg tggtagaagc cagtacagag aaattctgtg 2908 gtgggaacat tcgaggtgtc accctgcaga gctatggtga ggtgtggata aggcttaggt 2968 gccaggctgt aagcattctg agctggcttg ttgtttttaa gtcctgtata tgtatgtagt 3028 agtttgggtg tgtatatata gtagcatttc aaaatggacg tactggttta acctcctatc 3088 cttggagagc agctggctct ccaccttgtt acacattatg ttagagaggt agcgagctgc 3148 tctgctatat gccttaagcc aatatttact catcaggtca ttatttttta caatggccat 3208 ggaataaacc atttttacaa aaataaaaac aaaaaaagc 3247 4 21 DNA Artificial Sequence PCR Primer 4 ggagttcgag cagatcgaca a 21 5 21 DNA Artificial Sequence PCR Primer 5 ggccactcta catgggaagt c 21 6 24 DNA Artificial Sequence PCR Probe 6 agctgggcgg ccatttacca ggat 24 7 19 DNA Artificial Sequence PCR Primer 7 gaaggtgaag gtcggagtc 19 8 20 DNA Artificial Sequence PCR Primer 8 gaagatggtg atgggatttc 20 9 20 DNA Artificial Sequence PCR Probe 9 caagcttccc gttctcagcc 20 10 4127 DNA Rattus norvegicus CDS (120)...(1418) 10 agccgctgct ggggaggttg gggctgaggt ggtggcgggc gacgggcctc gagacgcgga 60 gcgacgcggc ctagcgcggc ggacggccga gggaactcgg gcagtcgtcc cgtcccgcc 119 atg gaa atg gag aag gaa ttc gag cag atc gat aag gct ggg aac tgg 167 Met Glu Met Glu Lys Glu Phe Glu Gln Ile Asp Lys Ala Gly Asn Trp 1 5 10 15 gcg gct att tac cag gat att cga cat gaa gcc agt gac ttc cca tgc 215 Ala Ala Ile Tyr Gln Asp Ile Arg His Glu Ala Ser Asp Phe Pro Cys 20 25 30 aga ata gcg aaa ctt cct aag aac aaa aac cgg aac agg tac cga gat 263 Arg Ile Ala Lys Leu Pro Lys Asn Lys Asn Arg Asn Arg Tyr Arg Asp 35 40 45 gtc agc cct ttt gac cac agt cgg att aaa ttg cat cag gaa gat aat 311 Val Ser Pro Phe Asp His Ser Arg Ile Lys Leu His Gln Glu Asp Asn 50 55 60 gac tat atc aat gcc agc ttg ata aaa atg gag gaa gcc cag agg agc 359 Asp Tyr Ile Asn Ala Ser Leu Ile Lys Met Glu Glu Ala Gln Arg Ser 65 70 75 80 tat atc ctc acc cag ggc cct tta cca aac acg tgc ggg cac ttc tgg 407 Tyr Ile Leu Thr Gln Gly Pro Leu Pro Asn Thr Cys Gly His Phe Trp 85 90 95 gag atg gtg tgg gag cag aag agc agg ggc gtg gtc atg ctc aac cgc 455 Glu Met Val Trp Glu Gln Lys Ser Arg Gly Val Val Met Leu Asn Arg 100 105 110 atc atg gag aaa ggc tcg tta aaa tgt gcc cag tat tgg cca cag aaa 503 Ile Met Glu Lys Gly Ser Leu Lys Cys Ala Gln Tyr Trp Pro Gln Lys 115 120 125 gaa gaa aaa gag atg gtc ttc gat gac acc aat ttg aag ctg aca ctg 551 Glu Glu Lys Glu Met Val Phe Asp Asp Thr Asn Leu Lys Leu Thr Leu 130 135 140 atc tct gaa gat gtc aag tca tat tac aca gta cgg cag ttg gag ttg 599 Ile Ser Glu Asp Val Lys Ser Tyr Tyr Thr Val Arg Gln Leu Glu Leu 145 150 155 160 gag aac ctg gct acc cag gag gct cga gag atc ctg cat ttc cac tac 647 Glu Asn Leu Ala Thr Gln Glu Ala Arg Glu Ile Leu His Phe His Tyr 165 170 175 acc acc tgg cct gac ttt gga gtc cct gag tca cct gcc tct ttc ctc 695 Thr Thr Trp Pro Asp Phe Gly Val Pro Glu Ser Pro Ala Ser Phe Leu 180 185 190 aat ttc cta ttc aaa gtc cga gag tca ggc tca ctc agc cca gag cac 743 Asn Phe Leu Phe Lys Val Arg Glu Ser Gly Ser Leu Ser Pro Glu His 195 200 205 ggc ccc att gtg gtc cac tgc agt gct ggc att ggc agg tca ggg acc 791 Gly Pro Ile Val Val His Cys Ser Ala Gly Ile Gly Arg Ser Gly Thr 210 215 220 ttc tgc ctg gct gac acc tgc ctc tta ctg atg gac aag agg aaa gac 839 Phe Cys Leu Ala Asp Thr Cys Leu Leu Leu Met Asp Lys Arg Lys Asp 225 230 235 240 ccg tcc tct gtg gac atc aag aaa gtg ctg ttg gag atg cgc agg ttc 887 Pro Ser Ser Val Asp Ile Lys Lys Val Leu Leu Glu Met Arg Arg Phe 245 250 255 cgc atg ggg ctc atc cag acg gcc gac caa ctg cgc ttc tcc tac ctg 935 Arg Met Gly Leu Ile Gln Thr Ala Asp Gln Leu Arg Phe Ser Tyr Leu 260 265 270 gct gtg atc gag ggt gca aag ttc atc atg ggc gac tcg tca gtg cag 983 Ala Val Ile Glu Gly Ala Lys Phe Ile Met Gly Asp Ser Ser Val Gln 275 280 285 gat cag tgg aag gag ctt tcc cat gaa gac ctg gag cct ccc cct gag 1031 Asp Gln Trp Lys Glu Leu Ser His Glu Asp Leu Glu Pro Pro Pro Glu 290 295 300 cac gtg ccc cca cct ccc cgg cca ccc aaa cgc aca ttg gag cct cac 1079 His Val Pro Pro Pro Pro Arg Pro Pro Lys Arg Thr Leu Glu Pro His 305 310 315 320 aat ggc aag tgc aag gag ctc ttc tcc aac cac cag tgg gtg agc gag 1127 Asn Gly Lys Cys Lys Glu Leu Phe Ser Asn His Gln Trp Val Ser Glu 325 330 335 gag agc tgt gag gat gag gac atc ctg gcc aga gag gaa agc aga gcc 1175 Glu Ser Cys Glu Asp Glu Asp Ile Leu Ala Arg Glu Glu Ser Arg Ala 340 345 350 ccc tca att gct gtg cac agc atg agc agt atg agt caa gac act gaa 1223 Pro Ser Ile Ala Val His Ser Met Ser Ser Met Ser Gln Asp Thr Glu 355 360 365 gtt agg aaa cgg atg gtg ggt gga ggt ctt caa agt gct cag gca tct 1271 Val Arg Lys Arg Met Val Gly Gly Gly Leu Gln Ser Ala Gln Ala Ser 370 375 380 gtc ccc act gag gaa gag ctg tcc cca acc gag gag gaa caa aag gca 1319 Val Pro Thr Glu Glu Glu Leu Ser Pro Thr Glu Glu Glu Gln Lys Ala 385 390 395 400 cac agg cca gtt cac tgg aag ccc ttc ctg gtc aac gtg tgc atg gcc 1367 His Arg Pro Val His Trp Lys Pro Phe Leu Val Asn Val Cys Met Ala 405 410 415 acg gcc ctg gcg act ggc gcg tac ctc tgt tac cgg gta tgt ttt cac 1415 Thr Ala Leu Ala Thr Gly Ala Tyr Leu Cys Tyr Arg Val Cys Phe His 420 425 430 tga cagactgctg tgaggcatga gcgtggtggg cgctgccact gcccaggtta 1468 ggatttggtc tgcggcgtct aacctggtgt agaagaaaca acagcttaca agcctgtggt 1528 ggaactggaa gggccagccc caggaggggc atctgtgcac tgggctttga aggagcccct 1588 ggtcccaaga acagagtcta atctcagggc cttaacctgt tcaggagaag tagaggaaat 1648 gccaaatact cttcttgctc tcacctcact cctccccttt ctctggttcg tttgtttttg 1708 gaaaaaaaaa aaaaagaatt acaacacatt gttgttttta acatttataa aggcaggttt 1768 ttgttatttt tagagaaaac aaaagatgct aggcactggt gagattctct tgtgcccttt 1828 ggcatgtgat cagattcacg atttacgttt atttccgggg gagggtccca cctgtcagga 1888 ctgtaaagtt cctgctggct tggtcagccc ccccaccccc ccaccccgag cttgcaggtg 1948 ccctgctgtg aggagagcag cagcagaggc tgcccctgga cagaagccca gctctgcttc 2008 cctcaggtgt ccctgcgttt ccatcctcct tctttgtgac cgccatcttg cagatgaccc 2068 agtcctcagc accccacccc tgcagatggg tttctccgag ggcctgcctc agggtcatca 2128 gaggttggct gccagcttag agctggggct tccatttgat tggaaagtca ttactattct 2188 atgtagaagc cactccactg aggtgtaaag caagactcat aaaggaggag ccttggtgtc 2248 atggaagtca ctccgcgcgc aggacctgta acaacctctg aaacactcag tcctgctgca 2308 gtgacgtcct tgaaggcatc agacagatga tttgcagact gccaagactt gtcctgagcc 2368 gtgattttta gagtctggac tcatgaaaca ccgccgagcg cttactgtgc agcctctgat 2428 gctggttggc tgaggctgcg gggaggtgga cactgtgggt gcatccagtg cagttgcttt 2488 tgtgcagttg ggtccagcag cacagcccgc actccagcct cagctgcagg ccacagtggc 2548 catggaggcc gccagagcga gctggggtgg atgcttgttc acttggagca gccttcccag 2608 gacgtgcagc tcccttcctg ctttgtcctt ctgcttcctt ccctggagta gcaagcccac 2668 gagcaatcgt gaggggtgtg agggagctgc agaggcatca gagtggcctg cagcggcgtg 2728 aggccccttc ccctccgaca cccccctcca gaggagccgc tccactgtta tttattcact 2788 ttgcccacag acacccctga gtgagcacac cctgaaactg accgtgtaag gtgtcagcct 2848 gcacccagga ccgtcaggtg cagcaccggg tcagtcctag ggttgaggta ggactgacac 2908 agccactgtg tggctggtgc tggggcaggg gcaggagctg agggtcttag aagcaatctt 2968 caggaacaga caacagtggt gacatgtaaa gtccctgtgg ctactgatga catgtgtagg 3028 atgaaggctg gcctttctcc catgactttc tagatcccgt tccccgtctg ctttccctgt 3088 gagttagaaa acacacaggc tcctgtcctg gtggtgccgt gtgcttgaca tgggaaactt 3148 agatgcctgc tcactggcgg gcacctcggc atcgccacca ctcagagtga gagcagtgct 3208 gtccagtgcc gaggccgcct gactcccggc aggactcttc aggctctggc ctgccccagc 3268 acaccccgct ggatctcaga cattccacac ccacacctca ttccctggac acttgggcaa 3328 gcaggcccgc ccttccacct ctggggtcag cccctccatt ccgagttcac actgctctgg 3388 agcaggccag gaccggaagc aaggcagctg gtgaggagca ccctcctggg aacagtgtag 3448 gtgacagtcc tgagagtcag cttgctagcg ctgctggcac cagtcacctt gctcagaagt 3508 gtgtggctct tgaggctgaa gagactgatg atggtgctca tgactcttct gtgaggggaa 3568 cttgaccttc acattgggtg gcttttttta aaataagcga aggcagctgg aactccagtc 3628 tgcctcttgc cagcacttca cattttgcct ttcacccaga gaagccagca cagagccact 3688 ggggaaggcg atggccttgc ctgcacaggc tgaggagatg gctcagccgg cgtccaggct 3748 gtgtctggag cagggggtgc acagcagcct cacaggtggg ggcctcagag caggcgctgc 3808 cctgtcccct gccccgctgg aggcagcaaa gctgctgcat gccttaagtc aatacttact 3868 cagcagggcg ctctcgttct ctctctctct ctctctctct ctctctctct ctctctctct 3928 ctctctaaat ggccatagaa taaaccattt tacaaaaata aaagccaaca acaaagtgct 3988 ctggaatagc acctttgcag gagcgggggg tgtctcaggg tcttctgtga cctcaccgaa 4048 ctgtccgact gcaccgtttc caacttgtgt ctcactaatg ggtctgcatt agttgcaaca 4108 ataaatgttt ttaaagaac 4127 11 21 DNA Artificial Sequence PCR Primer 11 cgagggtgca aagttcatca t 21 12 21 DNA Artificial Sequence PCR Primer 12 ccaggtcttc atgggaaagc t 21 13 26 DNA Artificial Sequence PCR Probe 13 cgactcgtca gtgcaggatc agtgga 26 14 23 DNA Artificial Sequence PCR Primer 14 tgttctagag acagccgcat ctt 23 15 21 DNA Artificial Sequence PCR Primer 15 caccgacctt caccatcttg t 21 16 24 DNA Artificial Sequence PCR Probe 16 ttgtgcagtg ccagcctcgt ctca 24 17 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 17 cttagccccg aggcccgccc 20 18 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 18 ctcggcccac tgcgccgtct 20 19 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 19 catgacgggc cagggcggct 20 20 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 20 cccggacttg tcgatctgct 20 21 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 21 ctggcttcat gtcggatatc 20 22 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 22 ttggccactc tacatgggaa 20 23 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 23 ggactgacgt ctctgtacct 20 24 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 24 gatgtagttt aatccgacta 20 25 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 25 ctagcgttga tatagtcatt 20 26 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 26 gggtaagaat gtaactcctt 20 27 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 27 tgaccgcatg tgttaggcaa 20 28 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 28 ttttctgctc ccacaccatc 20 29 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 29 ctctgttgag catgacgaca 20 30 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 30 gcgcatttta acgaaccttt 20 31 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 31 aaatttgtgt cttcaaagat 20 32 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 32 tgatatcttc agagatcaat 20 33 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 33 tctagctgtc gcactgtata 20 34 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 34 agtttcttgg gttgtaaggt 20 35 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 35 gtggtatagt ggaaatgtaa 20 36 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 36 tgattcaggg actccaaagt 20 37 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 37 ttgaaaagaa agttcaagaa 20 38 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 38 gggctgagtg accctgactc 20 39 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 39 gcagtgcacc acaacgggcc 20 40 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 40 aggttccaga cctgccgatg 20 41 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 41 agcaggaggc aggtatcagc 20 42 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 42 gaagaagggt ctttcctctt 20 43 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 43 tctaacagca ctttcttgat 20 44 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 44 atcaacccca tccgaaactt 20 45 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 45 gagaagcgca gctggtcggc 20 46 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 46 tttggcacct tcgatcacag 20 47 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 47 agctccttcc actgatcctg 20 48 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 48 tccaggattc gtttgggtgg 20 49 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 49 gaactccctg catttcccat 20 50 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 50 ttccttcacc cactggtgat 20 51 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 51 gtagggtgcg gcatttaagg 20 52 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 52 cagtgtcttg actcatgctt 20 53 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 53 gcctgggcac ctcgaagact 20 54 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 54 ctcgtccttc tcgggcagtg 20 55 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 55 gggcttccag taactcagtg 20 56 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 56 ccgtagccac gcacatgttg 20 57 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 57 tagcagaggt aagcgccggc 20 58 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 58 ctatgtgttg ctgttgaaca 20 59 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 59 ggaggtggag tggaggaggg 20 60 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 60 ggctctgcgg gcagaggcgg 20 61 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 61 ccgcggcatg cctgctagtc 20 62 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 62 tctctacgcg gtccggcggc 20 63 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 63 aagatgggtt ttagtgcaga 20 64 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 64 gtactctctt tcactctcct 20 65 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 65 ggccccttcc ctctgcgccg 20 66 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 66 ctccaggagg gagccctggg 20 67 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 67 gggctgttgg cgtgcgccgc 20 68 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 68 tttaaataaa tatggagtgg 20 69 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 69 gttcaagaaa atgctagtgc 20 70 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 70 ttgataaagc ccttgatgca 20 71 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 71 atggcaaagc cttccattcc 20 72 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 72 gtcctccttc ccagtactgg 20 73 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 73 ttacccacaa tatcactaaa 20 74 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 74 attatatatt atagcattgt 20 75 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 75 tcacatcatg tttcttatta 20 76 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 76 ataacaggga ggagaataag 20 77 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 77 ttacatgcat tctaatacac 20 78 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 78 gatcaaagtt tctcatttca 20 79 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 79 ggtcatgcac aggcaggttg 20 80 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 80 caacaggctt aggaaccaca 20 81 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 81 aactgcaccc tattgctgag 20 82 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 82 gtcatgccag gaattagcaa 20 83 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 83 acaggctggg cctcaccagg 20 84 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 84 tgagttacag caagaccctg 20 85 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 85 gaatatggct tcccataccc 20 86 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 86 ccctaaatca tgtccagagc 20 87 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 87 gacttggaat ggcggaggct 20 88 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 88 caaatcacgg tctgctcaag 20 89 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 89 gaagtgtggt ttccagcagg 20 90 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 90 cctaaaggac cgtcacccag 20 91 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 91 gtgaaccggg acagagacgg 20 92 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 92 gccccacagg gtttgagggt 20 93 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 93 cctttgcagg aagagtcgtg 20 94 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 94 aaagccactt aatgtggagg 20 95 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 95 gtgaaaatgc tggcaagaga 20 96 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 96 tcagaatgct tacagcctgg 20 97 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 97 caacctcccc agcagcggct 20 98 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 98 tcgaggcccg tcgcccgcca 20 99 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 99 cctcggccgt ccgccgcgct 20 100 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 100 tcgatctgct cgaattcctt 20 101 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 101 cctggtaaat agccgcccag 20 102 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 102 tgtcgaatat cctggtaaat 20 103 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 103 actggcttca tgtcgaatat 20 104 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 104 aagtcactgg cttcatgtcg 20 105 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 105 gaagtcactg gcttcatgtc 20 106 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 106 ggaagtcact ggcttcatgt 20 107 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 107 gggaagtcac tggcttcatg 20 108 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 108 tgggaagtca ctggcttcat 20 109 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 109 atgggaagtc actggcttca 20 110 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 110 catgggaagt cactggcttc 20 111 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 111 tttttgttct taggaagttt 20 112 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 112 cggtttttgt tcttaggaag 20 113 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 113 tccgactgtg gtcaaaaggg 20 114 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 114 ttaatccgac tgtggtcaaa 20 115 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 115 atagtcatta tcttcctgat 20 116 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 116 ttgatatagt cattatcttc 20 117 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 117 gcttcctcca tttttatcaa 20 118 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 118 ggccctgggt gaggatatag 20 119 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 119 cacaccatct cccagaagtg 20 120 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 120 tgctcccaca ccatctccca 20 121 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 121 ctgctcccac accatctccc 20 122 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 122 tctgctccca caccatctcc 20 123 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 123 ttctgctccc acaccatctc 20 124 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 124 cccctgctct tctgctccca 20 125 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 125 atgcggttga gcatgaccac 20 126 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 126 tttaacgagc ctttctccat 20 127 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 127 ttttcttctt tctgtggcca 20 128 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 128 gaccatctct ttttcttctt 20 129 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 129 tcagagatca gtgtcagctt 20 130 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 130 cttgacatct tcagagatca 20 131 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 131 taatatgact tgacatcttc 20 132 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 132 aactccaact gccgtactgt 20 133 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 133 tctctcgagc ctcctgggta 20 134 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 134 ccaaagtcag gccaggtggt 20 135 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 135 gggactccaa agtcaggcca 20 136 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 136 agggactcca aagtcaggcc 20 137 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 137 cagggactcc aaagtcaggc 20 138 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 138 tcagggactc caaagtcagg 20 139 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 139 ggtgactcag ggactccaaa 20 140 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 140 cctgactctc ggactttgaa 20 141 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 141 gctgagtgag cctgactctc 20 142 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 142 ccgtgctctg ggctgagtga 20 143 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 143 aaggtccctg acctgccaat 20 144 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 144 tctttcctct tgtccatcag 20 145 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 145 gtctttcctc ttgtccatca 20 146 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 146 ggtctttcct cttgtccatc 20 147 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 147 gggtctttcc tcttgtccat 20 148 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 148 aacagcactt tcttgatgtc 20 149 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 149 ggaacctgcg catctccaac 20 150 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 150 tggtcggccg tctggatgag 20 151 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 151 gagaagcgca gttggtcggc 20 152 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 152 aggtaggaga agcgcagttg 20 153 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 153 gccaggtagg agaagcgcag 20 154 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 154 agccaggtag gagaagcgca 20 155 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 155 cagccaggta ggagaagcgc 20 156 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 156 acagccaggt aggagaagcg 20 157 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 157 cacagccagg taggagaagc 20 158 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 158 tcacagccag gtaggagaag 20 159 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 159 atcacagcca ggtaggagaa 20 160 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 160 gatcacagcc aggtaggaga 20 161 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 161 cgatcacagc caggtaggag 20 162 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 162 tcgatcacag ccaggtagga 20 163 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 163 caccctcgat cacagccagg 20 164 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 164 tccttccact gatcctgcac 20 165 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 165 ctccttccac tgatcctgca 20 166 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 166 gctccttcca ctgatcctgc 20 167 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 167 agctccttcc actgatcctg 20 168 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 168 aagctccttc cactgatcct 20 169 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 169 aaagctcctt ccactgatcc 20 170 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 170 gaaagctcct tccactgatc 20 171 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 171 ggaaagctcc ttccactgat 20 172 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 172 gggaaagctc cttccactga 20 173 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 173 tgggaaagct ccttccactg 20 174 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 174 tggccgggga ggtgggggca 20 175 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 175 tgggtggccg gggaggtggg 20 176 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 176 tgcgtttggg tggccgggga 20 177 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 177 tgcacttgcc attgtgaggc 20 178 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 178 acttcagtgt cttgactcat 20 179 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 179 aacttcagtg tcttgactca 20 180 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 180 taacttcagt gtcttgactc 20 181 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 181 ctaacttcag tgtcttgact 20 182 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 182 gacagatgcc tgagcacttt 20 183 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 183 gaccaggaag ggcttccagt 20 184 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 184 tgaccaggaa gggcttccag 20 185 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 185 ttgaccagga agggcttcca 20 186 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 186 gttgaccagg aagggcttcc 20 187 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 187 gcacacgttg accaggaagg 20 188 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 188 gaggtacgcg ccagtcgcca 20 189 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 189 tacccggtaa cagaggtacg 20 190 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 190 agtgaaaaca tacccggtaa 20 191 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 191 caaatcctaa cctgggcagt 20 192 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 192 ttccagttcc accacaggct 20 193 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 193 ccagtgcaca gatgcccctc 20 194 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 194 acaggttaag gccctgagat 20 195 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 195 gcctagcatc ttttgttttc 20 196 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 196 aagccagcag gaactttaca 20 197 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 197 gggacacctg agggaagcag 20 198 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 198 ggtcatctgc aagatggcgg 20 199 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 199 gccaacctct gatgaccctg 20 200 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 200 tggaagcccc agctctaagc 20 201 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 201 tagtaatgac tttccaatca 20 202 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 202 tgagtcttgc tttacacctc 20 203 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 203 cctgcgcgcg gagtgacttc 20 204 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 204 aggacgtcac tgcagcagga 20 205 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 205 tcaggacaag tcttggcagt 20 206 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 206 gaggctgcac agtaagcgct 20 207 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 207 tcagccaacc agcatcagag 20 208 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 208 acccacagtg tccacctccc 20 209 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 209 agtgcgggct gtgctgctgg 20 210 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 210 cagctcgctc tggcggcctc 20 211 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 211 aggaagggag ctgcacgtcc 20 212 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 212 ccctcacgat tgctcgtggg 20 213 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 213 cagtggagcg gctcctctgg 20 214 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 214 caggctgaca ccttacacgg 20 215 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 215 gtcctacctc aaccctagga 20 216 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 216 ctgccccagc accagccaca 20 217 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 217 attgcttcta agaccctcag 20 218 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 218 ttacatgtca ccactgttgt 20 219 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 219 tacacatgtc atcagtagcc 20 220 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 220 ttttctaact cacagggaaa 20 221 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 221 gtgcccgcca gtgagcaggc 20 222 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 222 cggcctcggc actggacagc 20 223 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 223 gtggaatgtc tgagatccag 20 224 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 224 agggcgggcc tgcttgccca 20 225 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 225 cggtcctggc ctgctccaga 20 226 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 226 tacactgttc ccaggagggt 20 227 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 227 tggtgccagc agcgctagca 20 228 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 228 cagtctcttc agcctcaaga 20 229 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 229 aagagtcatg agcaccatca 20 230 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 230 tgaaggtcaa gttcccctca 20 231 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 231 ctggcaagag gcagactgga 20 232 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 232 ggctctgtgc tggcttctct 20 233 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 233 gccatctcct cagcctgtgc 20 234 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 234 agcgcctgct ctgaggcccc 20 235 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 235 tgctgagtaa gtattgactt 20 236 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 236 ctatggccat ttagagagag 20 237 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 237 tggtttattc tatggccatt 20 238 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 238 cgctcctgca aaggtgctat 20 239 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 239 gttggaaacg gtgcagtcgg 20 240 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 240 atttattgtt gcaactaatg 20 241 2346 DNA Mus musculus CDS (710)...(2008) 241 gaattcggga tccttttgca cattcctagt tagcagtgca tactcatcag actggagatg 60 tttaatgaca tcagggaacc aaacggacaa cccatagtac ccgaagacag ggtgaaccag 120 acaatcgtaa gcttgatggt gttttccctg actgggtagt tgaagcatct catgaatgtc 180 agccaaattc cgtacagttc ggtgcggatc cgaacgaaac acctcctgta ccaggttccc 240 gtgtcgctct caatttcaat cagctcatct atttgtttgg gagtcttgat tttatttacc 300 gtgaagacct tctctggctg gccccgggct ctcatgttgg tgtcatgaat taacttcaga 360 atcatccagg cttcatcatg ttttcccacc tccagcaaga accgagggct ttctggcatg 420 aaggtgagag ccaccacaga ggagacgcat gggagcgcac agacgatgac gaagacgcgc 480 cacgtgtgga actggtaggc tgaacccatg ctgaagctcc acccgtagtg gggaatgatg 540 gcccaggcat ggcggaggct agatgccgcc aatcatccag aacatgcaga agccgctgct 600 ggggagcttg gggctgcggt ggtggcgggt gacgggcttc gggacgcgga gcgacgcggc 660 ctagcgcggc ggacggccgt gggaactcgg gcagccgacc cgtcccgcc atg gag atg 718 Met Glu Met 1 gag aag gag ttc gag gag atc gac aag gct ggg aac tgg gcg gct att 766 Glu Lys Glu Phe Glu Glu Ile Asp Lys Ala Gly Asn Trp Ala Ala Ile 5 10 15 tac cag gac att cga cat gaa gcc agc gac ttc cca tgc aaa gtc gcg 814 Tyr Gln Asp Ile Arg His Glu Ala Ser Asp Phe Pro Cys Lys Val Ala 20 25 30 35 aag ctt cct aag aac aaa aac cgg aac agg tac cga gat gtc agc cct 862 Lys Leu Pro Lys Asn Lys Asn Arg Asn Arg Tyr Arg Asp Val Ser Pro 40 45 50 ttt gac cac agt cgg att aaa ttg cac cag gaa gat aat gac tat atc 910 Phe Asp His Ser Arg Ile Lys Leu His Gln Glu Asp Asn Asp Tyr Ile 55 60 65 aat gcc agc ttg ata aaa atg gaa gaa gcc cag agg agc tat att ctc 958 Asn Ala Ser Leu Ile Lys Met Glu Glu Ala Gln Arg Ser Tyr Ile Leu 70 75 80 acc cag ggc cct tta cca aac aca tgt ggg cac ttc tgg gag atg gtg 1006 Thr Gln Gly Pro Leu Pro Asn Thr Cys Gly His Phe Trp Glu Met Val 85 90 95 tgg gag cag aag agc agg ggc gtg gtc atg ctc aac cgc atc atg gag 1054 Trp Glu Gln Lys Ser Arg Gly Val Val Met Leu Asn Arg Ile Met Glu 100 105 110 115 aaa ggc tcg tta aaa tgt gcc cag tat tgg cca cag caa gaa gaa aag 1102 Lys Gly Ser Leu Lys Cys Ala Gln Tyr Trp Pro Gln Gln Glu Glu Lys 120 125 130 gag atg gtc ttt gat gac aca ggt ttg aag ttg aca cta atc tct gaa 1150 Glu Met Val Phe Asp Asp Thr Gly Leu Lys Leu Thr Leu Ile Ser Glu 135 140 145 gat gtc aag tca tat tac aca gta cga cag ttg gag ttg gaa aac ctg 1198 Asp Val Lys Ser Tyr Tyr Thr Val Arg Gln Leu Glu Leu Glu Asn Leu 150 155 160 act acc aag gag act cga gag atc ctg cat ttc cac tac acc aca tgg 1246 Thr Thr Lys Glu Thr Arg Glu Ile Leu His Phe His Tyr Thr Thr Trp 165 170 175 cct gac ttt gga gtc ccc gag tca ccg gct tct ttc ctc aat ttc ctt 1294 Pro Asp Phe Gly Val Pro Glu Ser Pro Ala Ser Phe Leu Asn Phe Leu 180 185 190 195 ttc aaa gtc cga gag tca ggc tca ctc agc ctg gag cat ggc ccc att 1342 Phe Lys Val Arg Glu Ser Gly Ser Leu Ser Leu Glu His Gly Pro Ile 200 205 210 gtg gtc cac tgc agc gcc ggc atc ggg agg tca ggg acc ttc tgt ctg 1390 Val Val His Cys Ser Ala Gly Ile Gly Arg Ser Gly Thr Phe Cys Leu 215 220 225 gct gac acc tgc ctc tta ctg atg gac aag agg aaa gac cca tct tcc 1438 Ala Asp Thr Cys Leu Leu Leu Met Asp Lys Arg Lys Asp Pro Ser Ser 230 235 240 gtg gac atc aag aaa gta ctg ctg gag atg cgc agg ttc cgc atg ggg 1486 Val Asp Ile Lys Lys Val Leu Leu Glu Met Arg Arg Phe Arg Met Gly 245 250 255 ctc atc cag act gcc gac cag ctg cgc ttc tcc tac ctg gct gtc atc 1534 Leu Ile Gln Thr Ala Asp Gln Leu Arg Phe Ser Tyr Leu Ala Val Ile 260 265 270 275 gag ggc gcc aag ttc atc atg ggc gac tcg tca gtg cag gat cag tgg 1582 Glu Gly Ala Lys Phe Ile Met Gly Asp Ser Ser Val Gln Asp Gln Trp 280 285 290 aag gag ctc tcc cgg gag gat cta gac ctt cca ccc gag cac gtg ccc 1630 Lys Glu Leu Ser Arg Glu Asp Leu Asp Leu Pro Pro Glu His Val Pro 295 300 305 cca cct ccc cgg cca ccc aaa cgc aca ctg gag cct cac aac ggg aag 1678 Pro Pro Pro Arg Pro Pro Lys Arg Thr Leu Glu Pro His Asn Gly Lys 310 315 320 tgc aag gag ctc ttc tcc agc cac cag tgg gtg agc gag gag acc tgt 1726 Cys Lys Glu Leu Phe Ser Ser His Gln Trp Val Ser Glu Glu Thr Cys 325 330 335 ggg gat gaa gac agc ctg gcc aga gag gaa ggc aga gcc cag tca agt 1774 Gly Asp Glu Asp Ser Leu Ala Arg Glu Glu Gly Arg Ala Gln Ser Ser 340 345 350 355 gcc atg cac agc gtg agc agc atg agt cca gac act gaa gtt agg aga 1822 Ala Met His Ser Val Ser Ser Met Ser Pro Asp Thr Glu Val Arg Arg 360 365 370 cgg atg gtg ggt gga ggt ctt caa agt gct cag gcg tct gtc ccc acc 1870 Arg Met Val Gly Gly Gly Leu Gln Ser Ala Gln Ala Ser Val Pro Thr 375 380 385 gag gaa gag ctg tcc tcc act gag gag gaa cac aag gca cat tgg cca 1918 Glu Glu Glu Leu Ser Ser Thr Glu Glu Glu His Lys Ala His Trp Pro 390 395 400 agt cac tgg aag ccc ttc ctg gtc aat gtg tgc atg gcc acg ctc ctg 1966 Ser His Trp Lys Pro Phe Leu Val Asn Val Cys Met Ala Thr Leu Leu 405 410 415 gcc acc ggc gcg tac ttg tgc tac cgg gtg tgt ttt cac tga 2008 Ala Thr Gly Ala Tyr Leu Cys Tyr Arg Val Cys Phe His * 420 425 430 cagactggga ggcactgcca ctgcccagct taggatgcgg tctgcggcgt ctgacctggt 2068 gtagagggaa caacaactcg caagcctgct ctggaactgg aagggcctgc cccaggaggg 2128 tattagtgca ctgggctttg aaggagcccc tggtcccacg aacagagtct aatctcaggg 2188 ccttaacctg ttcaggagaa gtagaggaaa tgccaaatac tcttcttgct ctcacctcac 2248 tcctcccctt tctctgattc atttgttttt ggaaaaaaaa aaaaaaagaa ttacaacaca 2308 ttgttgtttt taacatttat aaaggcaggc ccgaattc 2346 242 20 DNA Artificial Sequence unsure (1)..(20) Antisense Oligonucleotide 242 nnnnnnnnnn nnnnnnnnnn 20 243 75899 DNA Homo sapiens 243 gatcttcctg cctcagcctc cccagcagct gggccccacc acaccggcta attttttaac 60 ttttagtagt gacgaggtct gattctgtta cccaggctgg tctggaactc ctggcctcaa 120 gacatccgcc tgcctctgcc tcccaaagtg ctgggattac agatgtaagc caccgcgcct 180 gggctcctat gatttttatt taacataatg caccatggaa tttgtgctct gcttagttca 240 gtctgagcag gagttccttg atacttcggg aaacactgaa aatcattcca tccccatcca 300 ttcattcctg cagcacccaa gtggaaattc tgcgtttcag acagggacac tacccttaga 360 gagcagtggg cttccccagc agcgtagtga aacatgatac tcctgagttt catgaaaaaa 420 gggcagacat ctggccagag ctgggaggca ggaaatagag cacggtgccc tcctcccata 480 ctccagcttg gattactgag gctggggccc aggccctgca ggaaaggagg tgcatgacta 540 ctttaaggcc actcactctg tgactcaacg ggccgggtcg gggctggaac tcaatgccct 600 cccgggcctg gagagcccac gcgccgtggg cggggctccc ggggtcgcct aggcaacagg 660 cgcgcgccgc gcccgagccc agagccccaa agcggaggag ggaacgcgcg ctattagata 720 tctcgcggtg ctggggccac ttcccctagc accgcccccg gctcctcccc gcggaagtgc 780 ttgtcgaaat tctcgatcgc tgattggtcc ttctgcttca ggggcggagc ccctggcagg 840 cgtgatgcgt agttccggct gccggttgac atgaagaagc agcagcggct agggcggcgg 900 tagctgcagg ggtcggggat tgcagcgggc ctcggggcta agagcgcgac gcggcctaga 960 gcggcagacg gcgcagtggg ccgagaagga ggcgcagcag ccgccctggc ccgtcatgga 1020 gatggaaaag gagttcgagc agatcgacaa gtccgggagc tgggcggcca tttaccaggt 1080 gcgggagcgc cccggagcgt ggcgggccct tcgcttaggc cgcttgaaca tcccctcaga 1140 cctccaggcc ccagactccc tctgggtctt gccctctgcc tcgctcctac tgcttgagga 1200 ttcgatggga cagcgacgca ctgcgtcccc ccaccctttg tccccggggc gggcgtgttt 1260 ctcgccgcag cgtcggagcc cccttcgatc ccccacctcc cttctgttct ccagctcggg 1320 tgatctctca agccggggga ccgccggtct gtgctctcaa cgcgaatccc tcgcaccccg 1380 accccgcccc ctgcctgtcc actctttgtc ccctggggtg atttagcacc cccactattt 1440 ccttttctgg agtggaccac ctcagactct cttcctttgt ctccctgggg gaaaaggtta 1500 ctccccccgt ccctccttca catttccttt cccctagtct cagtgtgcgt cgagtcccag 1560 agatgacagt cccctttccc ctttctgttc attcatttat tggataggag ttggcaagct 1620 tattctgtgc taggcaccgc ttaggcattg gaggtggtgt ttgctaatca ggacaggcaa 1680 gatcctagcc ttagtggggc ctagagtcga atagggcaat caaacacaaa agcaaataat 1740 ttcagatagt gacaggtgct gtgaagagaa cgacttccta acggggtaca gggtgactgc 1800 atagaaggcc ggctgtctta gagaagggga tcagggaagg cctgtcaaag gaggagacat 1860 ttgctttgtg agctgaacca agaggagcag aaagccgtga gaatatgggg ctaaagaacc 1920 ttctagccag gaggcctgcg gtacccactc cattggggcc atgatattat tctttcaggc 1980 agggactcag gaaggttaac gttttaaccc tctctaaaat agcatctttc ctcaatgagc 2040 agcttagtct ttggtcgtgg cagagatgac cttgtcttag gagtcatctc cttgtgtgtt 2100 aaaaagttag gaaaggaggg tttctcatat atctataaaa caagtagtta aaaacacaaa 2160 gagctcttcc tttcacaagc agctgaataa gatacatact cccaattaaa tgtcattgcg 2220 ggggttgtta agattaacta aaaccacact tgcacagtat cttaaataag cgatatacag 2280 aatagagaga ttttgttact tgtgtaaagg gagacagcag atgattctgt tttcagctta 2340 taggctcaaa aggcaaattg tgagatccat cagctgtagt attaaaatct attttgagct 2400 ccgcttagaa aggaaaaaag gtttaagcag ttctttggta tgcttgacta acaaaagcct 2460 ttttttttgg cagccttgat tttcatgtgg atttacatca agcttatttg acaggattct 2520 ttttatttgg actgtagtgt gtatattagt ttctgctaga ctaatatttc taaccactgt 2580 aatctatata ctaataagta tgattgatca gtatataaaa tttgtatgcc atatctggtc 2640 tctgaattag ctgaatgaat tccataaggg actttgagac tgtgtagaca aattttctgc 2700 atcagtttaa tgcagtagag tctaaaatgt ctttaaatga aaattgttgg tctgaagtgt 2760 tggagttgat tatgatacac cccatcacag tggaagcatt gtggagagaa gtcttttcca 2820 ctgaaattga ctgagttgac aacaagaaat acgtattgta acttagttct tagttgaatt 2880 ttatttctta caattttaag ccagagtggg ttgacctgtc acccaagcat ggttaaaatt 2940 gtattcagca tgcaactagc atggagtgtg tcagtcttca attcatttcc ttcattgttc 3000 ttaagttttt ctgccacaat taaaccccac aagttagtca aggtgttgag attttcactg 3060 cttcttaatg gattgccaca ttccctgagg tagtttcttt tggtcttaga gaattgtcag 3120 ggccagcttt tctcacctcc actgtatgga tatttttctt ttctaagatc ttgaaatcag 3180 aagcttttct cctaagtgta aaagtagctc tttgtcatac aactgtagcg ttttctgaaa 3240 cagagttcag atgaccttga gtctaaagtg gctaactttc caaggtgtgt atcgctttac 3300 caaaaccatt atttttcaag gattcaaaga atgtgtttac aattgataga aaatggaagt 3360 ttaaaaaaat taatacttta tagcatgttg aaatgagggc agccttatac aaagtcatac 3420 tttgagcttg cctagcctat tgtgatcaga gaataatgta atttttgctt acaacttggt 3480 aagcaggtca gttattctaa cttattttct gattagaaca aaaagatgta aaaacttgaa 3540 aactattggg aaaagaacaa agagtgaaga ggacttttga gtgctgagga atgtggcagc 3600 ttggaaaaca aactttttag gcagagattc tttgctaggt cagtttgata aagtgagcat 3660 aaccgtattt ttaatcttta atgctaatga atagcataga tgctaataag catctaggtc 3720 tataaaaagt cagctttgat agtgtatata gatggcttta aacattgttt tctagcattt 3780 aaacactttc aaatcatccg gttgcttgat tgggcctagc tgtctaagag gagagaatga 3840 gcccagatga ggaaaagaga ttgattttac tgagctagaa tgagaggaga gagggttgag 3900 tgaatgaaaa gaatagctca tgtgctcccc tccatctgta gtttaagagg ggttgggtcc 3960 ggtgttttgc ttgttttctc gtctgtaaat tctttgattc tctgacacca ctcactatat 4020 ttcattgtga atgatttgat tgtttcagat aaaggggact gcaataatac cttgtgacat 4080 gaaggcaaga tttattcatg ttagaggcag gctttgtaaa atgggccact cttccaattg 4140 acatttgttt ttatagctgt tttcattatg aaatacaatc taatgcctga ctaggttaaa 4200 accatgttgt aacaatagtt cactaaaatt ccttactgat atacagctta tgttgttata 4260 ttccaaaaag atgaatatta aaatttgcca ataatgttta tttaaatact attttcttca 4320 gaggaaaaaa aactatttta tgcaaaggag aaagatctat acactatgac tcacttcact 4380 taaaaaaaaa aagactaacg gaaatgacat ggagagactg ggaagttcta gtcatcttga 4440 gtgacccatt agatctaaat gttcttgttt agccctggtt tgagtgaact aaatttaggt 4500 gtctgatcag tactttggaa atggtgtaaa tgcctttgta attgtctgga ctgatattag 4560 attaactggg agcacaagta gaaatagtga aggaaagaac tttttgctat tgttatttga 4620 catcactggc atatttatag gaatactttg gtgtttttgg aagtaagtaa accaaccagt 4680 ggttctaaaa agtcagctgg gggataatgg taatgccgct gtttcttagc tgcaagttat 4740 ctgccgttac ttctcctcca ttttgcattt tatcttgaat agctcctcaa aacctattaa 4800 aatacctggt attgaataat gtaattgaat gtgtactgaa tttcacagtg gaaatgaata 4860 agaaatttcc tgtggaggtt ttttgactta gctactgaaa taacggcctt ttgttgtgtg 4920 attctttccc ttttctcttt gttaaagaaa actgtcttgt gatcttgtag attacagaat 4980 ccttttggca atttctgttc ctagcactgc tttttctttc tttctttctt ttaaatagaa 5040 atggggtttt gctgtgttgc ccaggttggt cttgaactcc tggcttcaag cgatcctccc 5100 accttggcct cctgaagttg ggattgcagg cgtgagcagg tactttttct gaggcctgcc 5160 tgagcctata tatattttgc acaatttggc attcctccct acagtgttta tgctgatttg 5220 tttctggtaa caactaatac tggcaaatcg gctgggcatg ttactttatg ctgcccatat 5280 tcaggaaaat tggaattcta gctgggtcat tgttcccaga tgatgtagtt tggcaccagc 5340 cattccatgt tcacattttg agtatccagg agggctgggg actttggagt agttggtgat 5400 tccctctgcc acatttcact ggttggtcac tatggcatcc tttccaccac actagtagtc 5460 taggttctca gatgttgctt atgagcctgc aatggtttct agtttcacac tgcagaaatg 5520 agtgaagccg gttacccgtt aatatggtcc catcatcact agagtaattc attgttctaa 5580 aaccagatct gagtctctca ctcctctgca actacttctg attctttcat aacacttgta 5640 aagtccaaac tcctctttag catggcagcc agcttccagt ccttccctcc tatgtggctt 5700 ccattctagc cagacaagaa agggcagcgt tctccaaact catcctcgcc cttcattcct 5760 ctataccatt gctgagcact ttgttgagga tgcctctccc gttcaatcta gcttgcatct 5820 tccagctcga atgtgtgctt ccttgcacca gagttttgtt ccgtcacctg tgtgttttca 5880 tacaagctgg cacatatctc ttctaaagcc ctgctgtcat tgtagctgcg tctttacaaa 5940 catttttttt ttaaattttt ataaagtcaa ggtctcacta tattgcccag gctggtctca 6000 aactcctggg ctcaagtgat cctcctgcct tggcctccca gagtgctggg attataggta 6060 tgagacactg tgcccagctg tagctgctac tttatatccc aggtctatct ccaatggagc 6120 ccaagcttcc tgaggccacc tgttgtatct ttctcattca tcttgaagtc ctctgctcct 6180 ggcacagagt aggtacctaa caagagttgg gattgaattg atggtcagta ctttgctagc 6240 ctgatggtat aaagatgtac aaaacatgtt cctggctccc actctagggg ggcaatgatg 6300 gaaacaaata gattagccca cattagtacc aatagtagag gtcactctgg gagaaggccc 6360 ccaccacatt ttgagtcatg gcctaatgag gtaatttagt attgcctgct gcagtggctt 6420 tggaagaaag gctggcattc ttagccagta gaagctgata ccactgattt gtttcacaga 6480 agctttaaat ataacaataa atttgtgctt ggcctacggt gaactttaca ggcaacttgg 6540 aggtaatatg tttgtctctc taagaattgt tgaattcctc ttccctcatc cctcctgact 6600 ggttctcaca agcctagcgg gcctttgcat gtggttggtt cataaaatac tttttgattt 6660 tgggatataa aatatagttc tccataaaat aacgactgtt accaagtctt tgattttttt 6720 tttcaaacta taaatggtaa tgacattctt tggcctttga tcagaccacc cttaggggca 6780 agagagtagt ttcatgtttt gctttttcta gtgtcccctg tgtctgggta tagttgcagt 6840 ctcagctgtc atactaacag tgctgagtga gtcccttact ttctttgggt tttggtttct 6900 cccttgtaaa aatgatcctg gactaactga tcattaagtt caggtcaagt aataaaaatc 6960 cttaatgtac tcacaaatac aatttaatgt tcctgaataa tccttgtaaa aactgcagca 7020 gttactcagt tttgtaaggt gtggttgggt actattaggc tcaaaagttt ataggagctt 7080 tgtgagtata gttaacaact caaaagaatg gggtgttttt tcccgagggg catgaaatgt 7140 ttttgataaa tagagttcat ttgacttggt aatgtggaaa atgagtagcc ctgacacgta 7200 cgctatgctt ttgcagtttt tctctcaagt agcaattggg tggcttttcc tgtaaaagat 7260 agaggaactg attcttgaga atttacgaaa gcttcaaccc taactaggta tgcaaagaat 7320 agttgccctt tatgttgtaa ttttaggaag aaacctacat ctggtctaag tttcatttga 7380 ataatatgat agtttacaca tctgccatat ttgagaagaa agtacctaag tctccagcat 7440 tttagaaata atgctttact ttgtgtagaa atggtcttta gagtttaata gctgctgccc 7500 tctccttttt caaagcagct tgacataatc atgagtatct tgctgacagc ttgtaaattt 7560 tgattgtatg aaaactgaaa ataagaccat ttcacatgga agattccctc ctgccctgaa 7620 acagccaaag aaaactgtag ccatcaaatc tattgatctc tgggctttgg tacaagtcac 7680 actactacaa ataaaataat accaagtact tataaatgat tttcagtcct tttaaagttt 7740 atttttttaa tatttttttt gagatggggt cttgctgtgt cgtccaggct ggagtgcagt 7800 ggcacaatct tggctcactg caacctccac ctcctgggct caagtgatcc tcccacctca 7860 ggctcccaag tagctgagac tacaggcatg tgccatcacg cccagctaat ttttgtattt 7920 ttttggagta gagatgggat tttgctgtgt tgcccaggct ggtcttgaac tcctgggctt 7980 aagccatctg tctgcctcag gctcccaaag tgttgggatt acaggtgtga gccactgtgc 8040 ccggcccagc ccttttttta agagaaaaac gtatgacatc gttcgattta ctgagtgctt 8100 atggttttac taaggcagta aggttttatg gataccctat ggtaattaga tagaattagt 8160 gctctgaagt cagctctgta atatggactc agagtaaaca tggcaaaggg acacttaagg 8220 tctgcatttt ctctgggaaa taaacgtatt ctttactact ctgaatctag tgctgggaaa 8280 ttctaaatcc ttcttgagga ttaaccactt gaagtaaagt tttgggtccc aagtaggctt 8340 gtgtccctgt ctccttctct ttacttttca gatgtttctt cctagagact gaggtatatt 8400 ttacttttac agatgaagaa ggaagcctcg gctgtgtttg tggcttttgt gggtgagcaa 8460 catcacttgc aaagataaga tgagcatagc aaaactaggc tttcaaaata atttttaaaa 8520 atttcttagt gattagaaaa ggaaaactct tcccttgtct ctgttaagaa acgtttttcg 8580 acttttttcc tttcttaatg gatcttttat tggcacttct cttccttttg cagaatctta 8640 cttaaaagtc actacgttac attacagcaa acagcttagc taatttttat ccagatgggc 8700 cccggttaca ggattgtaca ctattgcgaa tttcttacag gaaagtgaac atcaagtaat 8760 tattccaaat agagttctct taagaacgtg agttacttaa aaatgtctaa ggatgaagtc 8820 acttctgaat ataacttcac tcaagagaac aaataagcaa actgcattta gcataacatg 8880 gtaaattagc tttaactctc cttgatgttt gaacatttgt cgctgttaac tactgtttca 8940 cttttcaaat agtcagggct tagtttgctt ctgtaaggat aaagggaaaa tacgccttca 9000 ctgagtcata aatatttttg tggctaactt ttgcacagag aaaagaggcc tctaagaagg 9060 tacccagtga attttttttt cggggcaggg agagaatatg tcattttttg gtttgttgtt 9120 gttgttgtca ttgttttgct ttgttgtttt tactctgaac tgaactgtat cttgacagca 9180 cttttgaatt aagagcatta ctcttattgt tctctactac ctggacgcca cctccctgtt 9240 gccatagtgt taaggatcat gctccgaggt ggggtgaggc agaatggggc caagatcaga 9300 aagttacatt aagctacatc aggtttatac aagcataaaa ccaaattttt ggagcagtcc 9360 ccagaataca acctggttta gccacaccta aaggttgctc ttgaatattc cttgagaatc 9420 cacatcccta gaatgctggg tttcaatggg ccctttatgt acctatcatg gtgtcatttc 9480 tgagcatttc taaatattcc ttcatgtctt actgacagtt tttcttgaat aaatcttagg 9540 aatattagtg ccattatcag tattttgttt ggtctgttca caccacaaat aactacccag 9600 gtctgctact tgcccctatt tctctacctg ctaatgaaaa tgcttttgaa agtttgagta 9660 acagtattgg agtgtgcaca gtggtattgg taggttctgt actcatcctt aaccacttgt 9720 tttcatcctt tgtgagcttg aagtttctcc aaaaaattta tcacaaaact tatcagacat 9780 agttaataca ctcagagaga gaatcactga aaaagtagat gtagtttaac aaacccagtg 9840 cctttttttt acccatgaat acatatttgt caactaaacc tcattttgca acttgttcca 9900 ctactcgaat ggtaacaaac ttttggtttc ccaatagatt tggaagatgt tgcttttgaa 9960 agtaggaaat agatggcttt agaagatgga agaatatttt gtttgaagtg ggagcgtggt 10020 atgtccttag ctgtctgtga aatgcagctg aagatgggtg tgggccttca tctgcatttc 10080 ccatcttcag tttgaggagg tagttaccct tctaaccact taagaactgc atggtacatg 10140 ctgttttatt tacagggcaa aactgtgctc ccgtagtttc cctggtgctt gccttcacgt 10200 taacacagtg tcatcgtttg gcagtgttta tgtgccaggg tccatgttag aaggaggaaa 10260 ggtatagcga agttaaaggg tgcagttggc ctcccacctt tagttttgta agtgccttta 10320 aagtttgatt tttgtaggtt gatcataagg aagtgataag tatgttaggt tatttgtggt 10380 ttgagctaat tttagtctct ttttacagct tgctttgtat cctttgccat taaaacatgc 10440 tttctagaaa gacaactttt gaatgtagga cacagtctat attctatact tggctacatt 10500 tcaaaaaata ttttctcagt actttggaag ttggacagtt ggaagcatag tgacagtatt 10560 taaaaatctt tgattccggc cgggcatggt ggctcacgcc tgtaatccca gcactttggg 10620 aggccgaggt gggtggatca cttgaggtcc ggagttcagg accagcctga ccaacatggt 10680 gaaaccctgt ctctactaaa aatacaaaat tagccgagcg tggtggtaca tgcctgtaat 10740 cccagctact caggaggctg aggcaggaga atcgcttgaa tctgggaggc ggaggttgca 10800 ttgagccgag atcataccat tgcactacag cctgggggac aagagtgaaa ctctgtctca 10860 aaaaaaaaaa aaaaattaag tgatttcttt gctttgtgac acttctactt ttccagcaag 10920 taaattatat tctttcatac aggtatgaaa ttcttgttcc aagctagtgg ttaaaaaggc 10980 acagttgata ttagaggatt tgtaaaagat tatgaccacg cctgcaatgt actgaagcaa 11040 ggctttgctg ggctgtgtat aggaaacctt ccccagcctg tgcccttgct tgatagaaca 11100 ttttgctcct aagggtaggt gcctgtatct gtctccagta ctggttagtt tcacacagaa 11160 cagttgtgtt tcagagcttt agtctcaagc tgccctgctc ccctgaagca gccaccctga 11220 gcatgtgcac tcacaggagg ggacatgtga ggtcatggaa gaagacgact caggaagaag 11280 aagacttggg tttgggttct gactctgcct ttgactgttg tgggattttg aggagttgca 11340 tacaggatct gtaaaatgta gtcattagac tagactagac agccatatag cattacctag 11400 atgtaacttt ctacaaagac atggtcacag gagaagacca gagggtgggg tgatctttct 11460 ggaaaaattg gggcttcatg ccttactcat gctagatatg gtagcattat atggctgtgc 11520 ctgatccccc taatctaaaa gtgggacaga actttaaaat ttcatattaa ctcaaattaa 11580 aacttgaaaa aaacccatta tttccttaaa aataataaaa tgccctgtgg gggcataagt 11640 cacattatat tttaaaattc ctgaatgcca catggatgaa tgtagttcct tttgaaattc 11700 ttcttttgtc taaagaggaa tgttggattt tgtaattgga ctaaaaaatc ttccatttga 11760 gagagaaaca gtctgctgca tgttctaccc ttgttcagga taaaacccac taatagctaa 11820 catttattga attctgtgtt gtgcctcagg cactgtgcaa agtcctttac atgcaatgct 11880 gtttattata tactgtcaat tggtctataa cagcaggaaa tgtttcagga ggacaatgag 11940 gtcccagacc ctcagtcttc tcctgtgtcc tggattcagc ttcacaatag cactatggca 12000 gtgtggccac tgcttcagct tccacataca tggctgtgaa gagagacagg ggattgtgct 12060 aagcctcccc gatttattag gacataggag gagagagttt gtagtttttg acctttgcct 12120 agttttctaa cctctttcct agatgtcaca aattggccac ccacagtcat attttgcttg 12180 cttcacgcaa tgctttttaa aaaagagaag agtttaattt gtgccattgt ttataaatga 12240 atcaggagaa atgacatgca actctggatt ctggcctctc ttgaaaaatc tgaaaatcac 12300 accgtctgag cttacactgg cagtggtctg ctggactgag ggacacaact ccttttggat 12360 gtacatgtgt gcgttgcaga gtttaccaca gtcccacagt gggtcacact gtccttgtcg 12420 gtgtacacta cctagcactt gagtttgcaa cccctacccc aagctgagtt ttctcgtcaa 12480 gcttgatgtt aatgttatgt gatgcttggc cttgtaggta tttggtatat tatcgttaga 12540 taaaattgaa gcaaagggct aaagggttgg tggcctgagg gagtgccctt gacagtaaag 12600 tctaggataa aatcattggc caggtactcc ttcccttccc gcccttcctc ttttctcttt 12660 atcctcagcc tccttctgct attttgagga agttagaagc caccaccatt ttttcccacc 12720 tcaggcaact gagtgtggct gtatttctgt cccatgttca gttatttcca ggaactattt 12780 ttgatgacca acttgaagtt acattgggtg ggcctaatgg gggctgataa aagaatgagg 12840 tgaccaaata tgcttgcact gagacggcta cgaagtaagg tttttaatga cttgctttgt 12900 gacttggtca ggagtgatac catttgtcat gtgtccaact tcatgactaa atggttgctc 12960 taccttatcc tcatagctat aataaaataa aataaataca tacattgcag ggaggaatgt 13020 atcttgttaa aggtctctcc cttttagcaa caaaagtaca tattatgttg tagaacatgc 13080 tttttctttg atccttcttg aacacctatt actctataga ggtatgttgt gtatggcaaa 13140 ttagaacaag caatagataa ggatgattct ttaccattat aacccagtca aggtctttgt 13200 cctaagtttt gtacctttct ccagagggaa aggtatttgt atttatttat ttatttttga 13260 ggcagagttt tgctcttgtt gcccaggctg gggtgcaatg gcacgatctc agctcactgt 13320 aacatccgcc tcccgagttc aagtgattct cctgcctcag cctcccgagt agctgggatt 13380 acaggtgcct gccacgatgc ccggctaatt tttttttttt tttttgtatt tttagtagag 13440 atggggtttc atcatgttgg ccaggctggt cttgaactcc tgacctcagg tgatccatcc 13500 acctcggcct cccaaagtgt tgggattaca ggcatcagcc actgcctccg gccaggtatt 13560 tgtattttta gtctctatgc cttaccgtct cagatcagga ggatttggtg atttatcgaa 13620 tgtgggggaa ggggaagaag aggaaacggg aggaatgttc cagattaggg aaatagctag 13680 atggaagatg cagcccctca tcaaggtggg gacacaggaa aaggaacgtg tgcaaagaag 13740 atggtgatct ggttgtgacc atgttgttag aggacgtcca gggaagcatc tggtaggtgg 13800 tggggtgttt aaatatagaa cattcggaga atgctccgaa gcttcagaga acccttccca 13860 aaaggacaaa accagctcag tgttttagca ctccgggatc atatggcatg acagcatggc 13920 tgctttatac ttttttgtgt atgtgaaatt aaaaccaacc actcaggacc aatttctctg 13980 aagctttttg tcaatctttc atttgctttt ctcgtctaga ttgtaagctc cttgcagcca 14040 gtgtctgttg attcagtcat tcaaaaaata atacatgaac agctactagg taccaggctc 14100 tgtgctgggc agttgggata tgtggtgagg aagacaaact tggtccctgc ccttaggaag 14160 ttcagtagtc cagcagacaa agtggctgaa taaagataat ctcagttcac agtgataaga 14220 gctcttacag gcctaggctc caggtgctgt ggggatgctc aggaaaaggt atctaattgg 14280 gattgggagc aggcaaaaca aataaaggat agtgtataaa ggtaatatct agttgaagtt 14340 ctgaagggca aggaggagtg agcctgtata ttctctgagt ctctccctaa tctgggattg 14400 acttcttgtc cgtctctgtt catattaagt gtcacctagg cttgaaaggg tgagatcata 14460 tttcacttcc ttcctctttg gtcttaacct ttctctgcta ccccctcaca caatgcatat 14520 gcattattct cttattgtat atatttttcc tctcttcctt ttcatgtttc ctctgccatt 14580 acttttaacc tcgactgcca tatggcctct aaacgcttcc agaagggtag cctagtggag 14640 gttattccat catggccttg agctcatgcg accagatagt gaaggcatct gtgtaggtgt 14700 cttctccagg agggtgatat ttgtttcatt gtaaattttg tagccctaga acaccaacaa 14760 cagtgcacag taattagtag gcaggcagta caggattcat tgaagtgaag tgataacttt 14820 tatccaagta tgtatgcaga taatctttga tttgtacaaa aaaaattata ttttaatatg 14880 taaagatttt ttaaaagaat cttcaagttt tagccttccc actaggaata tattgaaaac 14940 atgtgcctag ttcactgact tgcagctgcc actatgagaa taaaggtctc atttagttgt 15000 tgtgaatttt aagggatatt ttcaatgatg ttggctggtt tatcccatta tgtggtcttt 15060 tttttttttt tttttttttt ttgaggtgga gtctcgctct gtcacccagg ctggagtgca 15120 gtggcgcaat ctcgactcac tgcaacctcc gcctcccggg ttcaagcgat tctgctgtct 15180 cagcctccta agtagctggg attacaggcg cctgccacta cgcccagcta atttttggta 15240 tttttggtag agaagggttt caccatgttg gtcaggctgg tctcgaactc ctgacctcat 15300 gatccactca cttcagcctc ccaaagtgct gggattacag gcgtgagcca ccatgcccag 15360 cctatgtgct cttattagca attctcagta cacagatagc tttgagtgat tctttcaagt 15420 caagtacctt attaaaaaac tcaagtgtac tgataattat cttactttta aatggctaag 15480 tgataagact gaatttttag gtactgtaac acttcagatt acagattctg atatttttat 15540 ggttatttat atttatttat ttttgagatg gagttttgct cttgctgcct aggctggagt 15600 gcaatggcac gatctcggct cactgcaacc tccgcctccc aggttcaagc gattctcctg 15660 cctcagcctc ctgagtagct gggattacag tcacccgcca ctacagccgg ctaatttttg 15720 ttatttttaa tagagacaat gtttcaccat gttggccagg gtggtctcgc acttctgacc 15780 tctggcgatc cgcccgcctc ggcctcccaa agtgctggga ttacaggcgt gagccaccgc 15840 acctggcctg gttacttaaa tttaaataca aaaattatgt tgattaattc tgaatgattt 15900 cctgattgct ccccgtttac cattcacaca tttattaaat tcttcgcttg ccatatagaa 15960 gcagtctctc tgccatatat gccatataga taacagaact agctgtctgc aaaccactga 16020 aattgtgaaa acatctcccc ttttttcctg tttctaattc tagctatgag gattatatac 16080 agaagtagtc ctggatttga tttttttttt tttttgatga ttgttttttg atagttgttg 16140 actacaaatc atttaaacgt ctgaaagggg aaaggttttc cttaaaaatg gatgacaaag 16200 gagaataaaa aggtattttg actatttttt tgaatgatga gttttttttt tctctttctt 16260 gttttctttt ggagtcattt atgtgtcact gagtggatac catggaacat gtggcagaag 16320 tagatatatg gggtaaaaga accatagttc ataagctcct tgacagaatc actgaagtgt 16380 agccgttata tggccactgt cgcaggggga ggcagcagtt ttgaagaagg ggatgagtaa 16440 taatgagtga taaaaaggca tcctggatag aagaccaaac tctgcagaag accccagttt 16500 gattatgctt ttgttttctg atttgcggag gagagtgaaa atgcctgagg ggtgcggggg 16560 agcacatagg gtgtatgtgt gtgtgtgtgc gcgtgcagat tctctctttc actgtatgta 16620 tttgtatgca tgtatgtatc ttaggactta agctttctag tcaataaatt gccatagtgg 16680 ggaattgctt aattgcttgc cttctgttgt tgtatttaat ttaattttat ttttaatgat 16740 ttttttggtg gggtacaggg tcttaactat gttgtccagg ctggtcttga actcctaaac 16800 tcaagtgatc ctcccgcctc gggctcccaa aatgctggga ttacaggtgt gagccaccat 16860 gcccagctta gttgtatttt aaatgggcct gtttgcagca ttccctactc cccttagttt 16920 acctggctca caacctgtct ttccatatca aggcttctgt cacccctggc ccatgtcagt 16980 gcatttgggc agcccaccca gcatcatcac ctcatgtccc agggaacttc ctgttcctct 17040 cttccagcta tttccttccc tggcagttga gatagtctct acctttgacc tactgttaag 17100 ctcagacctt ctgctctcta gttacagcct ctgtgctgcc agattccctc gctcagttgc 17160 tttctctagt ttgggttttc tcctttattc agatttccag ctgtttctct cctcccccca 17220 ccgcagcctc ctcacttccc tccttatgca tctgagactg tggtcagtca ctttagatgc 17280 tgcctctcca ctgtacttgt gtccatcttc ttacctacca cctctagccc tggagcaggc 17340 tcttcccctg tctttgtctt cctgggccca ggctcctaag cgctgctgga aaaaaaatcc 17400 cccagtattg agcccctaga aatccagtct ttaatcccaa atctgtctcc cccagcatct 17460 ggccatcaga tctaaagctt acctgccatc ctttccacct catttctctc acaggggaaa 17520 aggagccttt gctcctagag tctgcgctcc tgaccccttc ccatctcacc tgttcaaggc 17580 atcttgcaat aaggggttgg tgactctcga ggaatggatc ccaggccctc cctattatca 17640 tcttatgtat gccagttcaa cgttctcagc ttcctccagc cgagacggcc cctccagcca 17700 ctgctttata ctctccttct ctggttgaaa tttttgaagt aaataggtca ctctgcccat 17760 cgttcatctt ccagtcactc tgtgtgttta tcttccaggg aagtgaggct ctatgctacc 17820 aagccactga aataattttt ttttttttcc agactgagtc ttgctctgtc acccaggctg 17880 gagtgcagtg ccgcagtctt ggctcactgc aacctctgcc tcccggcttc aggcgattct 17940 cctgccccag cctcctgagt agctgggatt acaggtgcct gtcatcacgc ctggctaatt 18000 ttttgtattt ttggtagaga tggggcttca ccatgttggc caggcttgtt ggcatgttga 18060 ccatgttggc caggctagcc tcaagtgatc cacccgtcag cctcccaaag tgctgagatt 18120 acaggtgtga gccaccgcac ctggcctgaa ataattcttg acaagatctg cttccttgtt 18180 actaatacag tggatatttt gcatcctaat tttaatgcag ttcagtgtgg tagacctgta 18240 tttgcatatt gaatattccc ttccctgttt taataactct attttttcct tttcttttat 18300 atctcctgct tctctagcta gtcctagacc ttactcatcg gtgtcttctc tgtttgttcc 18360 tcaacttgag gagttcctac agggtttacc caatctgctg ctttcattta gcccttttgt 18420 tctttttgag ccatctcatt cactcaccca ggatgtagca tcggcccttg aattcagtgt 18480 gcacacatac actgtgcact atgggacagc cttcagaggc actttgttcc tgaaattgtg 18540 gtggtctttg cctctcatgg agccttgcat atgctgtttc ctctgcctgg aatatcctac 18600 cttttactta actgattctc gttcttcttt ccagtcacat tttgtacatt tcttctggga 18660 agctttctct gatttcccct ttccacaggt ccaagttaac tgccttgtct aggtcctccc 18720 atggccctct gaaggcctcc tttcatagca ccatgtctga gtatactgta ataacacgca 18780 ttgctctgta atagcctgtt tacttaccta ttgccaagta atctatcaag tcttataaag 18840 ggcggggctg cttttgttct agtcatttgt atctcttagt acccaatata gtgtttggca 18900 tatagaaaat acccaacaag gccagtcgca gtggctcata cctgtaatcc gagcactttg 18960 gtaggctgag gtgggcggat cacttgaggt caggagtttg agaccagcct ggccaacatg 19020 gtgaaaccct gtctctacta aaaatacaaa aattagccag gcgtggtggc gggtgcctgt 19080 agtcccagct acttgggagg ctgaggcagg agaatcactt gaactgggga ggtggaggtt 19140 gcagtgagct gagatcactc cactgcactc cagcctgggt gacagagtga gactccatct 19200 taaaaaaaaa aaagactcca tcttaaaaaa aaaaaaaaag aaaaaagaaa gaaaataccc 19260 aataagtagt tcctgaatga atagatgaga atgctgttta gaaggttcat gaattggaaa 19320 ccgtgattgc tagggaggct ttgagttgat ggtattgtgt tgaaccatgt gttacccagg 19380 atcaatttag attttacact ttgttttctc tgttcctttt tatagtaatt ttctgtatgt 19440 ggtgttttcc ccccatgaga ttgtatacca tttctcagcg agaactgtgt gtaatgcttg 19500 gtggctccct catggtgcct tgcatggaat tggacttcgt ttcagtggat ctgatcccag 19560 ttatgttaat gctcgatgga gctaagtctt atctcgaagc agtccatgtc ttcatcagct 19620 ggccctgcct ccatgccctg cacagaccat gccactctgg agaggtagtt tccctgtggc 19680 ttattagtct tatgttccag tgtgctggcc aagtatgaga gacatcagtg gtatgagaga 19740 gtctctctca ttcaaacttc gtaggttttg tagctgggac tgaccagtgc tgacaggaaa 19800 tagaggcatt tattaaaagc cagagatttt tcaagttgca ggaagcaaag ctcttgttag 19860 ctatgatttt gtggtgggtt tggtagtcca atataaaagt aaaaactgga tgacaatggg 19920 aggagcatgc ttgggtctcc aaagttagat catttttcct aagtaatttg tctttaaact 19980 tttactggtt tggaatttcc tgagattttg atcttgccag aaagtttata gcaaaagttc 20040 tgagcagatg acacttttgc gtctgaaacc aaatcattgt ttttgttttt aacttttttc 20100 ttaatatatt atccttagtt cagccctgaa gattattctg ttatttgtgg atctcaactt 20160 tccccccatc tcctggatct ttgtgaaatg aatggtatta attgaataga gaaggaagat 20220 ataaacataa acttagtcaa aaacttgttc ttgactaggc aagttgggct ttatagcttt 20280 gagctgatga catgtctatt cttgtgaaaa agggattttt agtgttggtt tggcttcttg 20340 ttatatttga tttattatta ttatcattat cattattttt gagacagagt cttgctctgt 20400 cgcccaggct ggagtgcagt ggctcaatct cggctcagtg caacctccgc ctcccaggtt 20460 caagcgattc tcgtgcctca gcctctggag tagctgggat tacaggcggg tgccactaca 20520 cctggctaat atttgtattt ttagtagaga caggtttcac catgttggct aggctggtct 20580 tgaactcctg acctcaggtg atccacctgc cttggcctcc caaagtgctg ggattacagg 20640 ccttagccac tgtgcctggc tgattttttt tttttttttt tttttaggtt tgttttaact 20700 ggaactttac gtgaatgtaa ttgaatttag aataaaagca cttaatttca cagtgtgcag 20760 tgaactttct gttacttatt ttaacagtaa aaccccttgc agtaaatgac ttggagcaaa 20820 gattgctttt ttaaaaaatg ttttaatttg tttttctttt cttgagatgg agtcttgctc 20880 tgtcaccagg ctggagtatg gtggcgcgat cttggctcac tgcagcctcc ccgcctccta 20940 ggttcaagcg aatctcctgc ctcagcctcc tgagtagctg ggactacagg cacatgccac 21000 catgcccagc taatttttgt atttttagta gagacagggt ttcaccatgt tggtcaggat 21060 ggtcttgatc tcttgacccc gtgatccacc ctcctcggcc tcccaaagtg ctgggattac 21120 aactgctggg attacaagtg ctgggattac aagcgtgagc caccacgcct ggccaatttt 21180 tttttttttt ttctttttga gacagagttt cactctgtca cccaggctgg agtgcagtgt 21240 cacagtcaaa actcactggc agccttaacc tcctgggctc gaatgatcct cctgcctcag 21300 cctcccaagt aactgagact acaggcatgt accactgtgc ccagctaatt gtttttttat 21360 tttttatttt ttgtagggac agggtctcgc tattttgccc aggctagtct acaactcttg 21420 ggctcaagca gtcctcctgc cttgacctcc caaaatgttg ggattacagg gacaagccac 21480 tgcacctggc caaggattgt tttttaagtg aactgagacc cagccttatt agtggtccca 21540 gagcagacct gggacctgaa gggaaccctt ttcttctggt ccagcgtctt tcctctgatg 21600 ggctactttc ctggagcctt tgattgcctg tcatcagagt aactgagttt gaacagagta 21660 ggtagttcct ctccagacca ccacactcac cagctttcat tctgcttctc tcgtttagac 21720 tgtggttctg aatcctcagt tctatttact gagtgttttt aaacataaaa atgcctttta 21780 atgagattga aggccagagg tgggacagtt gaggacaaag tagaaataaa accttcaagg 21840 cggggttgtt ggtgggagtc tttttttgtt tgtttgtttt ttgagactga gtctcgctct 21900 gtcacccagg ctggagtgca gtggcacaat ctcagctcac tgcaacctcc gcctcccgag 21960 ttcaagctat tctcctgcct cagcctcctt agtagctggg atttcaggct cccgccacca 22020 tgcccagcta atttttgtat ttttggtaga aacggggttt caccatgttg gccaggctgg 22080 tctcaaactc ctgacctcag gtgatctgtc tgcctcagcc tcccaaagtg ctgggattac 22140 aggcgtgagc cactgtgcct ggcagggagt cttatagaag ctgtcgtgga caatgtggga 22200 agtagtgagc ctttgtattc cagtatgctg ggctccactg tgcttgctct ggcccccggt 22260 cgctctctgt gtgttattga gtccccatcc acggccatac tcttcgtcct gcttctctcc 22320 ttaccatcct ctccccgcta gtggtaccac ggctaccact agcaattact gacatgtggg 22380 atcttagggc tacttcccta taaggctgca gggcatgtgg tgttggctac gcgcatggta 22440 accatggtag ccctgtggtt ctccacatgt gcgccttgtg acctgggatt ggctgcagac 22500 tagtaataaa ctgcgtcttc tggtatggaa tctgtctgta gttgtacttt ctacctctgt 22560 atttaagggg agatctgtaa cctaccaatg ccagttgaag aggatggatg atagagatgt 22620 taacaaacag ctgaaaaact aactacaatg gcctgcaaaa tagaacagca ggtttttgtg 22680 gcaaaacttt gtgtccatga gtttgttttt taaatatcct catataatct gttttaaatc 22740 gagaggcttt gggtaaaagc catggctagt cttacatgtc atggagtacc tagcttgtga 22800 ggttcacagt ttattattta cagagtgtcc ccttaaatct tctttgggtc ggttcagcga 22860 atgttgctca gatggacttt tttggctgac atagagtcaa aatggtaatc aagcatgaaa 22920 gtacagacag tccttaacgc acaaatgtgt catgcttgaa aagttggaaa gttggttctc 22980 tggagctctg attgtattgt cctgtagaat ccgtgttgtg aatggtggtt aaatcccaaa 23040 tgagtccgta gaacctatat aatctgcaat atacctgcag tattccaatt aatatgtaat 23100 tcccccatag aactatgtta atgatttgta tgtatggtat ttaatattat acataataat 23160 gattgtatga ataaaaaaca ttctgggctc catgtggatg atggggtgtg tgtgtgtgtc 23220 tgtctatgtg tgggtgggtg tgtgttcata gatccctttt cctgcaatcc tggcactgga 23280 attggtttta tcatttccaa ttaagtttca ttcccatgaa ttttggagta cagactgggt 23340 ccaggtatgc agggcataga ttagagccct gagaaatagg attaggctgg aattgctggg 23400 ttggagatca gtagcttcca ggaacacttt ttgggcctgg ctgtcttcat tatccccttt 23460 tgttttctcc tggggtctgc aggtattgcc ctgttttgtt cctctaatat cacttttttt 23520 ttttttctgc ttttgaccag ggtttttgcc tctggtctac aactgaatat cctatcagac 23580 tctcctgatt ttgaaataaa tatatagttt ttttgaggtg ttctagcgaa tttctaaatc 23640 taaatgttgt ggcagagtta ttacatacta attttgctat gagaggttgt agaatcccag 23700 atgactaatc ttgtaaacca tacacgcatt tccatctaat tctccattgt atatcatgtt 23760 gcagaaaata acagcctcta gagtttacat tgcctccttt gactatattt cttatttaag 23820 attagttttc agataagacc ttttcatggc agtacataac tgtacagagg gcttccaact 23880 tgtcttggga gctctcatct ctgggagaca tcacattacc cactgccccc tgccccccgc 23940 ccccagcctg gatgcactca gcctgtaccc catttctgtc ctcagccaaa cactgctgaa 24000 atgcaagagc tttcaattgc tagccagtga agatgcagac taagggattt ccatgtagaa 24060 gcccgctctt ttcagctggc tcgtcgagag ctggaggccc cttgcttgtt cacatgaggc 24120 tttttgtccc tgacttggtg gctgctgttt cacttctcag cagaaaggga cacccttgcc 24180 cccccccaga aaggaagatt tgatgtacca cttccgaaag gttcagtcgg gcatcactgt 24240 aaccaagaag ataggtcagg tgaggctgga ggtggaacag ggctgctcgc tagaactcca 24300 gattgttcca caagtgcctt ctggcagaga atgatggaag cttccgtgat ttttttttct 24360 ccttaatagt tatgagcaca gaagaggagc agattgtctg gctatagaag ctgtcttatt 24420 ttttattttt gtttttgaga tggagtcttt ctctcttgcc caggctaaag tgcaatggcg 24480 cgatctcggc tcactgcaac ctccgcctcc cgagttcaag cgattctcct gcctcagcct 24540 cctgagtagc tgggaattac aggcatgcgc caccatgcca gactgatttt tgtattagag 24600 acagggtttc accatgttgg tcagtctggt ttcgaactcc tgacctcaag atctgcccac 24660 ctcagcctcc caaagtgttg ggattacagg tgttagccac tgcacccggc cgaagctgtc 24720 atattaaata gcactttctg cttttagcaa atttaatcca aatgagactt tagattttct 24780 tgctctgact taccagcagt tccttgaaac acatttaatt atttttgcca gaaaatcact 24840 caagcactta cgccattttt ttaccgtgaa aatatgctgc attattttaa aatatattag 24900 aagtcagtaa ccataagatt ttatatgttt tctaatgtat tctgtaagct ttctgctgct 24960 tttgtttgga aggtgtattt tgtaacgtag aggactgctt tatctgcttg taagcttgat 25020 ttttgttttt actgtaattt ttttttcttt tgctgtattg agaaatacat tgagtaatta 25080 taaagtcagt ggcatgttta taagttaata tttgtatcta ttccttagtt actctaactc 25140 aaaacctaaa gtaatcttca actctaattt actctgacat ccagttgact gccaagtcct 25200 ccaacttaat ccttatcctt ttttttttaa agagatgcag tcttgctttg tcacccaggc 25260 tggagtgcag tggtgcaatc atagcttact gtaacctcaa attcctgggc tcaaatgatc 25320 ctcccacgtc agcctctgga gtagctgggg ctacaggctc ttgctaccat gcccagctaa 25380 ctttttattt ttatttttta tagagacaga gtctcactgt tgctcaggct ggccttgaac 25440 tcctgccttc aggcggaact cctgccttca ggcggtcctc ctgcattggc ctcccaaagt 25500 gctggaatta caggcccaat tttattcttg ggatgtatgt ctgaaactct ttccttcact 25560 tccttcccaa gccttagttc aggcccttct catctgtggt cttcaaagtc gccttcagct 25620 ggttcaggtc cttcctttct gctgtatctt tcatgggagg acatgttatg tatcactgtc 25680 ctacttgaaa acttccattc cccattgatg agggtgttac ctccagattc ctaacacagg 25740 tgctgaaggc atgcctggat aaaggcactc ccttgatctc ctggccaggt ccccgtacac 25800 ctgcagcgca tgctccacat tctgtcttta ctgatgctgt gtcttctgcc tgcggagcca 25860 cccaccattc tattcacagc ccctgcctca gcggagcacg tgcctccctc ttcctacact 25920 gagctgtcct ttctattgaa tcccctcttt tttgtagtat gggaaatatt ttattatgaa 25980 tactcttttc tctgttgcct ccgtgaccac gttaactttg ccctaattcg ccttaggact 26040 ccatctgctt aggggaaagt taggatttgg ttacagaaag caagctgcta gaaagaacag 26100 tgtttagctt ctgacaggca aaataggatt ttgcaacatg cttttccttt ttaatgctta 26160 gacattttat atgaattaat atttttattt ggttgcttat acattacttt ctttttagct 26220 agaatgtgaa ccctatagga acatggggat tgcctttcac atctttgtat cctcagtacc 26280 taatgttcag tcaccctgtg gtcttgtgtc gtatatacat ttagccttcc ttaattaaac 26340 catatgtact ggtccccgtc ccccaccccc aaatagagag aaagaaattc cttgaatact 26400 acattgccag tatcaaacca caccttgata tcctctgggg aaagggaggt atcagttgaa 26460 aagagaaaag aggttaaaat ctaggcatta aaatgtgtaa ggcttagatg ctggcaattt 26520 aaggtatgtt ttcctgaggt taattttgat tgtgtgcaaa ttttacctca tatctaactg 26580 taggatttag tcaccacata agatgggata cctccataaa tccttcagaa atgtttgtga 26640 aattaaataa agccttattg aagactcagc tcttgagagt catctaccta cctaacagtt 26700 attcttgaac agaagagtct tacttttccc tataaggcag tgtgatagcc atctgtatat 26760 tcatataatt tatgttggcg cttacttcat ttaaaaatgt attccgtgaa tgcagttgcc 26820 aggcggtgtg ctgatcagaa acgtgtacca atggcctctt ttataattat aagaggaaga 26880 ccaacctgaa acagtcacac aaatgattaa ttttaattgt ggaggagtgc tgggaaagaa 26940 aaataaaaga tgcaatgcaa gtgtttacaa aggagctttg agcttgtttg aagtggtcct 27000 tgggcactta agcaaggctt aaagaatgat gtgattagaa gtggcttagc aattctaaag 27060 aacacaggga aggcgtgtgg ccagaacatt ggtccctaga gcacatcgcc tcctgacata 27120 ccatttcctt aagttaatgt tttaccacta tacataggcc ctcccctttg tttacccaga 27180 tttttttaat tttaaggatg tttttaataa cttagaatcc tgtaatttgt tgaacagtcc 27240 tgtattccct ttacttatat tccttgagat tttataaaat attttttaca tgtcccaagt 27300 cttgattata tctttttacc tcttgttaag aaatacttac ttttctattt ttatgctata 27360 tttcatgttt actgtagaaa acaaaaaaag taaaattttt ctttattcct atcactgcag 27420 cttataagca ctctaaacat tttgatctat attttgccaa tcatatattt tagttaaaat 27480 tgttgttgac ataattgtag attcctgtgc agttgaaaga aataatacag agctgagcgc 27540 ggtggctcac gcctgtaatc ccagcacttt gggaggccga ggcaggcaga tcatgaggtc 27600 aggagtttga gaccagactg gccaacatgg cgaaaccctg tctctactaa aaatacaaaa 27660 attagctggg tgtggtggcg ggcacctgta atcccagcta gttgggaggc tgaggcagga 27720 gaatcgtttg aactccggag gcagaggttg cagtgagccg agatggtacc attccactcc 27780 agcctgggca acaagagcaa gactgcatct caaaaataat aataataata ataaataaac 27840 tttaaaaata aaacagagag atcccatgtg cgctttgcct agttccccca tccactgccc 27900 ataacatttt gcagaactgc agtacagtat cacaaccaca atactgacat tgatacagtc 27960 tgctcatctt attcatattt ccccagtgtt actcgtatcc acgtgtgtat gcattgtgtt 28020 ttcaatactc ttttattata aagctgtttt taatgtgatt caattctagg ttgttttgtt 28080 ctgccctcaa aaagcattcc ctctcctaat catatctccg tcataccctt gtatgttttc 28140 tttaaacctg ttttaagaaa gcagctacct gtaagagaaa tgagattgaa aacagaattg 28200 ccaatctgct tgtactttat aagcctgttg attgtttaga tacggtttag ccagtttata 28260 gttaccctgg gtgctgaaag gtatgctgga tgatacctaa ccaacagaga accattgaat 28320 gccgttcaaa atggactgaa gcatcagcaa tgtctgaaaa aggcctgaca gtaatgtaca 28380 tgtcaaatgg cccgtaattt aagcagagta gagtaagtag aagaataaac atggggaaag 28440 ttccagcaac agaggaggct ttgagctttt gctcttcatc ttgagtggat gttgttctca 28500 ggtggtaata ggccatcgag ctttctccac tggctgcctc tctggggaac aaataaccga 28560 aaagatactc agcaccctgg ttggtacata ggtggtcagt tgatttatac ttcctggttt 28620 tcagtgttgc ttgaattttc taaatggaaa cacagtacct ttataatcag aaaacaatcc 28680 cgagttttga tttgagggtg ttgtaaaaag ttaaaaaaaa aaaaacagaa atgtgaaaag 28740 gaagttgtgt tagagtattt ggagttgaga aagcatgaaa aggacagaag agaagctggt 28800 tgtcaggttg catggggtag ctacaagcac actgaccaga aagtcagctg gaaaaaaaat 28860 gtagaaacag gagataaaac ggccaagggg ctatacaagc aaacagcaag gacctgagaa 28920 gaaaaactag ttaggtgtga ctgtcagagt gatgtgtaca gtgtgatcct ttctgtgtaa 28980 aaacaagcag taagaattcg ctgtttacgt ttgcgtgtgt ttggagaaga gtggggaaga 29040 gtaggcactg ccagactgtg aacactggtt aggttattgt tatatctttg tattatatac 29100 actggacatg ttatttgtat aatatgagaa gaaattttat aaatcattaa atcttttggc 29160 atttaggaac atttgtgttt tctaatagtt gcttctatac tattatcttt attatatgcc 29220 cttcatcttc tcagtgtttg gctgttgttg tgattccctt ttgtgagcag tgttgaagtt 29280 agctaatatt catttcttct cccttctttc accctcctcc agagtctgat ttgaagtatt 29340 cctagctgct acctataaaa gcaataagca agattgtttt acttttcaca aactcgtcct 29400 gttctgtgcc tctgcctcgg acatagctgt agtatagagt gttgtctccc ttacatcctt 29460 ctatcttaga cctactagta aatattaatg ctcactctaa gttcttctca attctttttt 29520 tttttttttt tttttttttt gagaaagagt ttcgctcttg ttgcccaggc tggagtgcaa 29580 cggcacgatt tcggctcacc gcaacctcca ccttctgggt ttaagcgact ctcctgcctc 29640 agcctcctga gtagctggga ttacagtcac gtgccaccac ccctggcaaa ttttgtattt 29700 ttagtagaga caaggtttct tccatgttgg ccaggctggt ctcaaactcc cgacctcagg 29760 tgatccacct gcctcagcct tccaaagtgc tgggattcca ggcgtgagcc accgcgccca 29820 gcctcttctc tcaattcttc ctgaagctct ttctgcacta gattcctcag gaagggcttg 29880 tgggaacaat cttctgtgaa tcaacagtac atattcataa tagtttgtca gcagcctatt 29940 attttaaggc catttggtct gtatataaaa atgtttggat cacattttct ttctttaagg 30000 taaatatgtt attctgttgt cttctggtat aaagcattgc tgtaaatgtt tgacagtcta 30060 attatctttt gcttataagt gacttagggt tttttgtcta tgtgcccaaa ggattttttc 30120 cctctttctc tctttttttt tttttttttt tttttttaaa cagacaggat ctcaccctgt 30180 tgcccaggct ttagtgcagt gaggcagtca gagcttactg aagttttgaa ctcctgggct 30240 tgaggaacaa aggatttttt taacctttta attcaaagtc tcatcattta tgcaaccatg 30300 tcttggtgtt ggctgttttg ggttgttctc cctcaaaaat ccatgtgctc tttcaatatg 30360 tagttttaaa tctttttttt ttaatttcag gaaaatcttg aattagagtt ttccgttttt 30420 cgtctggtac attgcttggg tttccttctt caggaactca gcctgttatg tgtatgtttg 30480 atcttctttg cctgtcgtct gtttctttca cttcctctca cttttttaaa cttcatttat 30540 taaaaaaaaa tttttttttc gagacagagt ttcgctcttg ttgcccaggc tggagtgcaa 30600 tggcgtgatc tcggctcact gcaacctccg cctcccaggt tcaagtgatt ctcctgcctc 30660 agtctcccaa gtagctggga ttacaggcat gcgccaccac gcccagctaa ttttttgtat 30720 ttttagtaga gacagggttt ctccatgttg gtcaggctgg tcttgaactc ctgacctcgt 30780 gatctgcccg cctcagcctc ccaaagtgct gggattacag gcgtgagcca ctgtgcccag 30840 ccttattaaa aattttaaaa acatacattt aaacttaaca gaaaaattat gagagagaag 30900 ggggtggtgc caggcttttt taaacaacca gctcttacat gaactcatag agtgataact 30960 cattaccatg aggacggcat caagccgttc atgaaggatc tggccccgtg acccagacac 31020 ctcctactag gtccattttt aacattgggg atcacatttc aacgtgagat ttggaggggg 31080 caaaactaca aaccatgtca ctcagggatt ggaggagcaa gtaccaccta tactttggac 31140 tcaggtagaa aggcaaaata tccaggaaat aagctgctac cgtccagggt tcagcagagg 31200 tgcccatcag cctgccaagt actcaagagt ccagcctcta gggagctaat catcatggtg 31260 agctcttcga ggcacaggga gctgggaaga cagtgcttgc cacccctgcc tgaatagtgt 31320 ttgcacagag agttctgttg tgtcttgatt gggtcctcct gccactggga atgctgtgga 31380 ttatactagg tctctatctg gcttgtttca gggctccatg tgaaaacctt cttgatatcc 31440 tagccatcca cctgctcagt ccctagtttg caaggaggct gtggggagcc tagattctgt 31500 gtcagataga atgtactaca ttccgtctca ggaatgtacc acatcagaaa acagtgcgac 31560 ctgcaggaga agtagaggtg aagaggcaca ttcttccgag aaatgtttct ctcaacaccc 31620 agcattccct ggatatcagc aggaaattac tcactgctag aaaatgcccc atgagccttc 31680 tgttaaggag gtcaagggag agaacagaga aagttctcaa agttgacttg gtcactggta 31740 ctttcttatg cggttcttat tttgtttgcc atcgtcatca tcatgctatg tctattttct 31800 caatccaaat ccactgcttt caccttggtt ctttctgacc ggtttggcac actcattcag 31860 taaatcctta tggagagccc aatgtctgca taattgtgct gtgctgatga ccaagctaga 31920 cctacgagtg tcggctcctt tgagatgtac gggacagctc ttctgtcatc tcttctggga 31980 agcctctcca ggcttggtga acagtggcaa gatgtttaac agttgtacat gtgtcccatg 32040 ttcctttcta agagcctggg caaaccagac ccggtcgcag gtcatcgtag tatggcgtga 32100 gcttcctctc tcctttctga ccttttgtgt gatggcaaga acctgcagag tgacacaagc 32160 agcaggcttc tgaggttgct ctagcctcag aatggccgtc ccttctccac cctggccctc 32220 attgctgagg tttcctttga agcaacagtg ccggaacaga ctaggggaag cagcttggac 32280 atagctgtat gatttattac cacccattga ggccaaccaa agtcggcaag gagaggtagc 32340 aggtcagtgg tgcctggaag cttcctcttt cctttgcacc agatgtgact gctctgcaat 32400 tactcctaaa tttgctactc tcgtttttac tagccaacct tgatgttttt cccttcttcc 32460 tgtagaatag acttcccctc tgatcagtac tttctactca acactatttg tggccacagt 32520 gggaactcat tgaggacagg gaccatgaca ttactacctg acccatcaac acttggcata 32580 acttgaaatg caaggacaaa aattggctgc aagtacaatg tggtcttcac tctgaaggtg 32640 atccttaaaa cttggctttg gcatcatatt gccttaatat acctagggga ttgggtaaaa 32700 ccagttactt taaaagagtt ttacaattct ggccttctag ctatcttgtc ttcttaaaca 32760 agagcacaag atgaatgtat cttagtgaaa ttttatatgg tttgctttga gtaatcttgc 32820 gaagattgat ttttagcaca gtaggaaaga cacattctaa tagtgatttt tttccccgag 32880 tttatgtact gctgttgcat gaaaatctga ctagatttaa tgttcctaaa gttctttgtt 32940 catcctgatt tttgcaggtc ctagggaaag ctttgttttc ctcttaacct aacttagatg 33000 ttgtcatttc atgagctttg gaggaagagt gtatagccaa ttgtgtaatg tctttaaagg 33060 atattatctc tgcaatagtt gtttataagg cctaagttat tcatgtaata atagtggccc 33120 cggatctgtt tctagcaata ggtatatgga ttttggttcc tatatagttg tagttgtggc 33180 tttgagatat tgagcaagcc cttttaagaa aggatttggc atccctcagc cttcaaaagc 33240 ttctcaaaat tgatcatatg ttattagcaa aggtttactg cctgcttcca ttgtatagac 33300 aatttatttt ttatgtattc cgttctaaga aggcagatga ccaaaagatc ttgcatctgt 33360 tgcccaaggc ttgtgactag agaggaaaga gataagaata cttttttaaa atcccatttt 33420 actaaatatg ttgaggaagt ggtaagatat attaatttgt tgagattttt ctgttatgcc 33480 tattatatga aataggtact ctgaacatgg cttcttaatt aaatatattt gataaaatac 33540 aacttgcttc ccctggagtt tagaagtcag ataactgcca tggagagcta tgctttcttt 33600 gttttaaaga tctgcttatg aacatgataa acaggaacaa tttaatgttt tcaatatttt 33660 cttgtatttt actgcaagtt tatacacaac ataaatatgg gggaaggggg aaatgtttat 33720 accagagcca tcctgcccat tctttcctta cagaaggaca aaggagcagt atttatttta 33780 actacaaaaa tactattgta ggttttaaaa attccgtata ttttgatatc ttgtgttcct 33840 cttgaccttt aatttgctaa atagttgcaa agaatgaagg taacctgcat catcttctta 33900 aaaaccaact ctatctaatt ataatagttt gtctatctct gaaaaatagt gatgtgttca 33960 ttctgaaatc agaactaccg gatgcagctg cattttgtta ctatttgaat ttcgggagag 34020 ggaggaggat gcagcctttc gagctgctga aatacacaaa cacaaagaag acaccaagca 34080 tagtagaact gtgttaagct gaccaagcca gaagaagcac ctattctcag catagtatga 34140 gacgtaaagg caatataatg ggcatagttg aagatggtag aaggaaaata gactctgatg 34200 gtttaatgtt aaatgctttt tttaaaaaag tggtattcca atatcgaaga agaagacttt 34260 ctacttttag aagcaataaa ggaaattgca gaggaaaggg tcaataggtt ggaatacata 34320 aaaattaaaa acttttaaac tttttttttt tgagacagag tctcactctg tcacccaggc 34380 tggagtgcaa tggtgcaatc tcggctcgct acaacctccg cttcctgagt tcaagcaatt 34440 ctcctgcctc agcctcccga gtagctggga ttacaggcat gggccaccac tcctggctaa 34500 tatttgtatt tttagtagag acagggtttc accatgttgt ccaggctgat ctcaaactcc 34560 tgacctcgtg atccgcctgc ctcggcctcc caaagtgctg ggattacagg catgagccac 34620 cgcgcctgga ctaaattgtt tcagtattaa ttttttttaa aacaagatct tactgttgcc 34680 caggctgaag tacagtggcc caatcatggc taactgcagc cttgacttct gggcctcaag 34740 ggatcctccc acctcagcgt cccgagtagc tgggaccaca gacatgtacc accacaccca 34800 gctacttgtt ttatttttat ttttgtagag atgaggtttc accatgttgc ccaggctggt 34860 ctcgaactcc tgggcccaag caatcctcct cccttggcct cccaaagtgc tggtattaca 34920 ggtgtaagcc attgcgccct gcctgatttt ttaaatgtgc aaacagataa gttggaaaag 34980 tgatttccaa taaagataaa gagttgatgg ttttaaaata cgtaaagagc ttatatgaat 35040 gagaaaaaca ctaacattcc aaaagattag aaggcaaagg acagaaagaa acaaatcact 35100 atgtctggga agggacatga aggagcaggt tcccactggg ccagcggggc tcaaacccac 35160 tggggacgtc cgagagactg caagggccat gccttcacat tgccgtacct gagaagcaag 35220 gagctggggt atttatctct ttcacacttt gggaggctga ggtgggcgga tcacctgagg 35280 tcaggagttc gagactagcc tggccaacac agtgaaaccc cgtctctact aaaactagaa 35340 ataattagct gggtgtggtg gcacacacct gtaatcccag ctacttggaa ggctgaggca 35400 tgagaattgc ttgagcccag gaggtagagg ctgcagtgag cataaattgc accactgcac 35460 tccagcctgg gtgaaactct gtctcaaaaa gtaataataa tcatgataaa taaaataaca 35520 ttagattgtt agcagaagta gccacaggtt tctcccacct ctctgcaagt tgctgagtgt 35580 gattcccatc aagaggtaca atgtcttttt atttttattt tatttatttt atttatattg 35640 cctatgttgt ctaggctggt tccaaactcc tgagctcaag tgatccttct acgtcagccc 35700 cccaaagtgt tgggattaca ggcatcagcc actgcacctg gcccagatac tttttcttga 35760 gtaggaattt cgagtcaccc tgaacattgc atgccttcgt agtggggaag acaataggaa 35820 accacaggct gtaggctaaa atgggttgtg tttcttgtaa cgtcatgaca aggcataacc 35880 catcttggca tagtaaatag taagcactca ctgaactgat gattttaaat ctttgctgtt 35940 tattcagcaa tatcctaaat tagcgctatg ttagtggagt tgcatctccc tcatggatta 36000 gtctgaaaaa gatgagaaat ctgtatgtag accaagttat ccttaaactg ctcataatgt 36060 atgatgcacg tggttttacg tgtacagcct ggtaccattg ttcttaggca catttcagtg 36120 ccagaactct taatacccag gaagaagcaa aaagaaagat ggaggtgcag ctagaggttg 36180 tggcctttga acgattcatt ctgccttaat aagagtggtc tggctgagct cggtggctca 36240 cacctgtaat cccagcactt tgggaggcca aggcaggcag atcgcttgag cccaggagtt 36300 caagaccagc ccaggcagca tagcgagacc ccccctcccc ccgtctctac aaaaaaatag 36360 aaacaatgag ccaggcatgg tggaacgtag tgcgtggtgc ctgtagtctc agctacccag 36420 ttggctgagg tgggaggatc acctgagccc tagaagtcga ggcttcagtg agcccttatt 36480 gtgccactgc actccactct aggtgacaga gcgagacagg tcctgtctcg aaaagaaaga 36540 agaagaatta aaaaaagtga ttagatccct tgtgtttggg acacttgttg gcagcaggga 36600 tggtagcgtt tatgagggtt gcatgtaaca tcgcctagct cagacatctg tttgactgtc 36660 ttcccccctg aagcgcaggc tctgtgaggg caggtctttt gtctttcttg ttaatcttca 36720 tatgcttagt gcttgccaca tagttgatgc tcagtcgata tttggatgaa ttgaagggat 36780 taatgcattg aatctgaacc ttgctttctt aatgcatatg gggagttctt tggaaagcca 36840 cacagaggag cttggttgcc tgcttcctct cttccccaga ttgtcttttt attgttgtgg 36900 cttcactgaa gcactctcac ttcaaataat tttgggcatt ggtcgtattt tattctttgt 36960 tccttcttca tccttacccc tcagatggta tgtagaaaag tacactacat ctagaaagta 37020 ctttataaac tcatttggtt gataataata catatgcctt ttccttggtc ctggtagcag 37080 aatcttgtgc cactcttgga atacaaacga aattcttaac caaagccagt ttcattttga 37140 tgttctattt tcctcccatt cacactccaa attgtgcacc aaagtatcat cctagttttg 37200 tgaggatggt tctccatact tcagggtagg agtatcatgt ggattcctat gatacctttc 37260 tccctgggac catggagggc agcagctggt gattgatagt ctgattcccg gtgaggaaag 37320 ctgtgagcct tccacttgca gatgtctgcc aactacatgt gtccttagtc aactgtacca 37380 ctgtcctccg gcaaacagca gaagcccagg gcctgaagtt cttaagctgt cattatggaa 37440 agcagaaggt aaacaaaaca gaagtgaaag tagatttaat tttttagact gttctcttac 37500 aggaatggtt ttgtggttct cagcatttta aaaaaaatag tggttccaat atgttttatt 37560 gacatcaatt actgtaagtc tgattcattt tctgcctatt gatttctacc caaggtgaaa 37620 ttcatgacat ttaacagaaa gcataagtga ttttttaaaa gcagacacta ttagggacgg 37680 taaaaataag atttaaagtc gggacacttg aaaaagcaat ttttatacct ttggtaacga 37740 ttctattctg attctttgta taaataatat aaacaaaggc tctagaagct tactataatg 37800 aagttggtgt gctgtttcta aattctggtt taaggcccaa attcatttta tctgcattaa 37860 cttttttttt tttgagagtc tcgctctgtc acccaggcta gagtgcaatg gtatgatctc 37920 ggctcactgc aacctctgcc tcccgggttc aagcgattct cctgcctcag cctcccgagt 37980 agctgggatt ataggtgtgc gccaccacgc ccggctaatt tttgtatttt tagtagagac 38040 ggggtttcac tatgctggtc aggctggtct caaactcctg accttgtgat ccgcctgcct 38100 cggcctccca aagtgctggg attacaggcg tgagccactg cacccggccg tgttaaaatt 38160 tttcagtggt agaccactat gtcaatatgt tgctttcact gacaacagta ttttcttaaa 38220 gataggatac cccatttcta gatgaatctc attctagctg gaaaataatt tttcagttct 38280 gaaactacat caggcctcag ggaatcaaaa ctagctatta gccacacaca tataaagtgg 38340 ctttgcttta taaacgattt agggtcacca tcaatgacaa tggtcccttt ttattgtatt 38400 tttaagagtt tcttatctta aatggctgca taactgtaga gttttaaaaa aattaagtaa 38460 atgaccatgt taatgctcta ttaagcttcc aaacaatatt gtaatttact ttgaagattt 38520 ttttttattc tcaacatcct gcagcttgac cgtttgcctc cgtgtctcag tgctgcttat 38580 tttgaggtgt ggactggagt ccatctgtcc cccttgcctc tgaactgctc cgttttgtgt 38640 ttcgtaattc ttcatgctgc atcctgggcg catttctctg tagtagcttt caatttgctc 38700 atgctttgac tgggcttagt ctagcgttta tcctatctct taaggttttt taaaaaattt 38760 tcatgattat tcatttattt ccaggatttc tcatttcttc agtcacatct ccttgttctg 38820 gttttacttc ttcctgtttt tattcataac atctttttta tacacgattc cttcatgtat 38880 ttctaatctt aagtatattt aattgcttat ttgattcttt ttttttttta ttgagacagg 38940 gtcttactct gccaccaggc cggagtgcag tgacatagtc atagctcact gcagcctcaa 39000 ctacttggac tcaagcgacc ttcccacctc agcctcccag gtagctagga atacaggtgt 39060 gagagccgcc acacccagct gatttgtctt actatgttgc ccaggctggt cttgaattcc 39120 tgggctcatg tgatctgccc ttcttggcct cctgaagtgc tgagattata ggtgtgaacc 39180 actgcacctg gccaagtatg tttatttatt tattctaatt tgagagggag tctcgctctg 39240 tcgtgcccag gctgtagtgc agtggcacaa tcccagctca ctgcaacctc tgcctcctgg 39300 gttcatgcga ttctcttgcc tcagcctcct gagtacctgg ggttacagtt gcgtgccacc 39360 acacctagct aatttttgtg tttttagtac aggcggggtt ttaccctgtt ggccaggctg 39420 gtcttgaact tgtgacctga agtgatccgc ccgccttggc ctcccaaagt gctgggatta 39480 caggcatgag ccaccacgct tggcccaagt atgtttattt ttaaagtccc caacaagcta 39540 tacaataaat tgcatatgga atggattttt gttctagttg atttgttggt tatcatttgt 39600 agaactaact agttgtcttc tgtgtttgat accttgcttc taggtcattt tgagttggga 39660 gccttttgtt ttgtttttat tctcatgctg tttttgagcc tagctgtgcc tttatggttt 39720 tctctaaatt taattgacca ttgttttata tttggagcag tgggtgtaca tcagagtgtg 39780 aaagcagccc caccctctcc accagaaggt ctccatgcca gtttcacgaa gcatttttca 39840 tgccctcatt cctgccctta tcccttgatt tgtggggagt ttgtaaagca gttgattgtt 39900 ttttttccac gtagttttcc aagtgcacat aattgttctg ttagtgactt gtagctccat 39960 tatctattaa ccttgcccca gaccactgta caagcggacc caacgcttcc tccagctgtg 40020 gcagggacag ttacttggta tcctgctgcc ttttcaatgc tgaccagttt tgccccttcc 40080 tcccctcaac ccctgtcttt cattcaacta tcaccaaacc aaaagattct ggtttgcttt 40140 ttagtatgtg ttcttattca gtacatagtc attttaaaat ttaaaccaaa acagacttgg 40200 tactgattag cttaatttta agctttttct ttattattaa acagtgtagt ttatcttagc 40260 atttcatatt aagtatatga tttatttcat attgcttata tgaatgtaca cataaatata 40320 ataaaaatat tttcctaagg tttttgtagt aaattatatc gtttcattaa ctttcatata 40380 tagcattgct tttgacctgg aagacattga acctctgatg atttgtatat tcctcggagt 40440 atactttgtt acatagaaat tttctcattt ataatgagat ttgtgattaa caaaatttgt 40500 tcaacatgca ttactttgaa gatctggttt ctaaaatttt atgctagtta ccccaccccc 40560 ccttctatat atatctccct attcagcgac tactgcaaga gttccaggaa atgtacactg 40620 tgtgttcact tactgcattt taaatcattg cctttactat atttctgcat ttcccttcaa 40680 tctagctctg tctgtacatt tctgaaagcc agtagcttcc ctgaagaacc aggtaacaac 40740 ccgaacaatc aaattagata accatttgta gaatggaggt tccgggagat cttagaagat 40800 gtgatgggtg ctaagggact ttgtagttcc ctgaagttcc agtgagtaaa aggtaccctt 40860 ggaatttttt attccttcag acttttaaaa cagagatcac tttcaaaaat tactctttct 40920 gctttgaatc catgttttag taactatttt gacactgttt ggtcagaagg ctgtgtgggt 40980 caactgcaaa taaataaaat aaatgtgatt tcagtaattt ccattttgta acaagtaatt 41040 gagaaaatag gattggatca gatatttgct tatacacatt ccctttcagg agcacttctg 41100 ttctataaag aatgttggta tattgttaag gacacttcaa gctttgggaa cctttgaagt 41160 atccattgat tcagttaaca aaattatgtt gagtgcctac cctgggcctg ggcctgtgtt 41220 aggaggggac actaagatga gagtccaaag cacttcttct cagactcctg gctgctaatg 41280 ggttgctgcc tctacttctt cacttagcag atagctttaa aatgagtaat gcattttacc 41340 atggagcccg taagagacat tcacccagtt gtggaccgag gagaagggtg ttaaacccag 41400 attgtgatgt ttcacttgat gaagtgctta atataaacat ggaaatattt ccgcaaggat 41460 aaactggctt ttatgcctgt gtgttttcag gagaaataga aatctctaat caaatattgc 41520 cagcttttca cccaagtttg actttttgcc taattgagtt tgggaggtgt ctgaataatg 41580 gataatgagc tttcctgaat aaatataaaa attaattaac tccaggctct aattcattct 41640 gttaccagag ttttgtaagc atgttacccc tttgtgttca ttgggagatc atctgttacc 41700 ttcttaaatg agtggggaag gatgggaaat gaggaagagc tataaaaact attcaggtga 41760 agaaggtttc tgcccctcct tgcccctttt aaaatctcca gctcagcaga tgctttgttt 41820 aaacttgatc aagtgcttgt gaatcttcct agcctagcta aatcataact ttggaaggac 41880 ttgctttttt ctctcatgac aatggtttac cacagaaatg attcagatca ctttgtgtgc 41940 ctgatgccta tgtaaaatga tacagtgaaa tggaaaccat ttacctgtaa gctttgggca 42000 cacccaagcc tgcttcagga gcacatgatc aggcgtgcac tctgggagag ccgtacacat 42060 ttgacatcta tgatgtgtgg cgttttattc tatcacattt ctgaaatcta cactaagaga 42120 aaggaggctc ttaaaaaacc actgaggtgt ggactggggg aaggagagat ccgtaaagaa 42180 cctgtttgtt acctgttgat actatttccc attggtaaaa tttctaattt agtgtgatcc 42240 agccctgaaa tgctgaggca cacactgaat gactcctgac atctttagtg tttttgttca 42300 ggggactctt ctgggaatct gtttcatggc aagtttatta ttcccttttg gtttggctca 42360 tcagtttacc cagcagtcat cttaatcggt tttaaaggct tttattttat tttgttttct 42420 ctgtggaaat tttacacatt cagtagatta gaagtagtta tttaatcttt ggttagcata 42480 ataaaagatc ttctagggac attttttgct tgcagtggaa ggctagttaa atgtgttcat 42540 tagtcatgaa tctgcttttt ctatagctgt tggaaacgta gctcccctgt gatacagttg 42600 tagaatacag aaatctcgtt ttgctgttac ggtacggtag tctacttact ttcttccaaa 42660 ccattaatgt tatagttacc tttaattgcg taggtcctat cacccctcaa ttttaagact 42720 ctaagcctgg cattttatct tacaaaatga aatataaaga cttgtactca gagtatgtgt 42780 gtgttttcca tataccattc taaagtagag aaagatgagg gattcgccag aaactgattt 42840 ctaataaatt atccagaaac tgaccccttc tcacctcttc tgttactgtc actgtggttt 42900 cagccacagc atcctttgct gcattgttac cttagtttcc tgactgtatc cttccttaca 42960 ccattgatcc ctgcaatccc atctgcgcgt agcagccaga agggatccac ttactgctgt 43020 gatcagaaat cctcagccag gtgcagtggc tcatgcctgt aatctcagca ctatgggagg 43080 ctgagactgg agaattattt gagcccagga gtttgagacc agcctcaaac tgggtaatat 43140 aatgagacct catctctaca aacaggaaaa aaaaaatttt tttttttttt ttaactagcc 43200 aggtatagtg ctaatatacc tgttctggga tccagcatgc tctccctgac ctgcagcttc 43260 atctccacca ctttgcccct cactcccacc acaatggctt tcttctcttc ctcagacatg 43320 ccgtgcgtcc tcctacctgg aatattcccc tccaaacatt cccatggctc actccctcac 43380 cttcatcaga tctctgttcc agtgtcactt ttactggaag gtcttttgtg accatcctac 43440 ttattataaa aaaataatct gcccaacctt ctccttttat ttcctctact tgatttttca 43500 atttagtact tatcagctga catatatttt gtctctctgt ctctctctgt ctctcataga 43560 aggtaaattc tataaaggaa ggaattttta tgtttggttc tttgctgtag ctccaatatt 43620 caaaacagtg cctgacacac agtaggccct ttatatttgt tgaataaatg ttgacactct 43680 gatatctaat ttttgtctgg tgactaatac gaaaactata gagtgataat aaaagcatta 43740 ccttagtaga ctggaaaggg atgagcgcta ggatgaactt tctgcctggc gatcttgctg 43800 aatttaggag gcagattggg gttcaaagga ggctgaaatg gctaggattt gcagagcagg 43860 gtactaagga tgagcaggct atgacagaaa gaactccaga aatctgcaaa gggatcacct 43920 tgagtctggc tggatacagt gtacactttg tagggtgtct cttcatgagc ttggataaag 43980 aacaactgtt ggggagtgga taattcccag cactcattca agcttgcatc ggccagaacg 44040 gagagagaca gacctctgta atacgtagga tatttggtag aaacattcaa ccgaaaacca 44100 tcagatatgc aaaaagtaat aataataagt aaacaatgtg atgcatagct agaagaaaaa 44160 tcagacatta gaagcaagcc cagaaatgac agatgataaa ttagcagata aggacattaa 44220 aacagctatt ataaataact tagcagattt aaagaaaaac aacataatga ggataatgga 44280 agaaaaacaa ccgaatacca tttctaaaga agaaaaatac aatatctgaa atgagaattt 44340 agctggatag gattaatagt ttaggcactg cagaagaaaa aaacagcatc tatatgagaa 44400 tatacccaag ggaagtacag agaggaaaaa aatgtggatt ggggggtgcc tcagtgacat 44460 atggaacaat attaaacaag tctgccccca aaatacttga aggaataagg ttcaagtttt 44520 ttccaggttt aatgaaaact ataagcctac agattcaagc atttcaacaa accttcagca 44580 aaataaacaa aaccacagta ggcctggcac actgtctcat gcctgcaatc ccagcacttt 44640 gggagcctga gtcaggagga ttgcttgaga tctgcttggg caacatagcc agaccctgtc 44700 tctacaaaaa ataaaatgaa ataaattagc tggatgtgga ggtccacacc tgtaactcta 44760 gctagcctgg aggctaagaa gggaggattg cctgagccca gtagttcaag gctggagtga 44820 gctaggactg catcactgca ctccagccta ggcaacagca agaccacatc tctctctctc 44880 tctctctctc tctctcaaaa ggcagtgaaa taacgactta tttggggaaa aaataaaggc 44940 agagaatttg ttgccagcag actagcataa aaaaaaggaa gtccttgaaa cagaagagaa 45000 atgataaaag atggaaattt ggatatatac taaagaatga ggattgctaa aagtgacata 45060 catagataaa tatgaaatat atttttattt taaaatttat ttaaagcaaa aataaaaata 45120 catcatattt ataacataga aataaaaaat gtatgataat agcataaagg ataagtggac 45180 aaatgctgtt gtcgtatttt tggtaaaatg cactattatt tgaaagtaga ccatcgtgaa 45240 ttcgatgcat attgtaaacc aaatagaaca ctaaaaaatg aaaataaaga gatatggcta 45300 atgtgccaat ggtggagata agatagatgc aaaaaaagaa aaacattcaa aagaaggcag 45360 agacagagga aaaaaggacc aaagatcaaa tgagtcaaat agaaagcagc taaactagca 45420 atatggcaga tttaaatcta gccatgtcaa tagttatatt aaatgtaaat gttctaaata 45480 cctgaattaa aggatgaaga ttgtcagatt agattgaaaa agcatgaccc aactacatgc 45540 tgtctgtaag aaattagaaa aagaacaaat taaatccaaa gtaagaagaa aggaaataga 45600 gtagaagtta gtgaagtata aaacaaagag caaagaaaat caattaaatg aaaagctggt 45660 tctttgtaaa gatcagtaaa attgataaat ttctagctaa actggccaag aaaaaagaaa 45720 agacatacaa attaacagta tcaggaagaa aaacagagaa ttcaaaggag tgtaatgcaa 45780 actttatgct agtaaatgca ataagttaga tggtatggaa aaaaatgtga acaatacaaa 45840 gcagactgtg gttgcctttg gtggcagtag cggggtggga gtggaaggtt gaattgactg 45900 gaaccagaag cacaagtgaa ctttttgggg tgatggaaat gttttgtatc ttggttgcat 45960 tgatagttaa atggttgtag acattgctta aaactcactg aacacttaag tgggtatgtt 46020 ttattatttg taaaatatac ctcaaaagca gttttaaaaa tgtattcaag tacatactta 46080 agatctttgc attttactct gagtatacct taattttaaa atctgttttt taaaaagtat 46140 tatgtagata ccttttattt tcccaatgtc tttattaaat gacatctcca cgttttgctt 46200 cttacctcta tttttttttt tttatttctc tgtctctcag gcatgcacac acacacacca 46260 aaaaaagtac atatgcataa tccttttggc tgaataaaat cagttgcaac tgttatttcg 46320 gcccttattt gctccgggta aatattcgtt agctgagtgg tttatctgta tcagatattt 46380 cttacatctt catccagtca caccagctgg actgaccaga ttgtttttca cttcaagggc 46440 agaatttgta ctcactgctg aatgcttcca aatgatacgt agaataacaa atttaagact 46500 tagattttta ctttttcagg tctttttttt tttttctgtg ctgtatagca tttccctgaa 46560 agcttaatct catctgtaag tgatgcagtg gatgtgttac tattggatta atttatttac 46620 tcttaggtag gtttgtaatc tgtcatcatg ctgttgtttt tttgtgtggg tttgtttttg 46680 gttttgagac agggtctcac tctgctgccc aggctggaga ggctagagtg cagtgatgtg 46740 tttatgggtc actgcagatt caatctcctg ggctcaagtg atcttcctgc ctcaacccct 46800 tgtgtagatg gaagcacagg tgcacgccac cacacccggc tattttttta aatgtattgt 46860 agagacgagg catcattttt ttgcccaagg ctgatcttga actcctgggc tcaaacaatc 46920 ctcccacctc ggctcccaaa gtgctgggat tacagatgtg aaccaccact cgagctccat 46980 cattctgtta ttagttgttc tctagtatga gtcaaaaact cttacctgcc cttttacagt 47040 tttataaata agtaagcaga atagcagaat gtggacattt tttaaatcca aattgaatat 47100 gcacatgact caaggagtca aatagtaccg taatcggttt atgataaaat ccagtggttt 47160 ggctgggtgt cgtggctcac acttgtaatc ccagcacctt gggaggctga ggcaggtgga 47220 tcacctgaag tcaggagttt gagaccagtc tgacctacat ggtgaaacta ctaaaataca 47280 aaattagctg ggcatggtgg tgcatgcctg taatcccagc tacttgggag gctgaggcag 47340 gagaattgct tcaacccggg aggcagaggt tgtggtgagc cgatatcgca ttatttcaga 47400 acaattttcc acaagatcag tgagtgctgt ccaatagaca tataatacaa cccacataca 47460 tgactttaca ttttcttgta gccatagtag aaaaggtcaa aagaagcaga tgaaattaat 47520 agcctgggca acaagagcaa aaccccatct tttaaaaaat aaaataaaat atggtggttt 47580 gctgtcccca cctcagacca tttctctggt ctttctcatt gaccaccact cccaatcttt 47640 gttctgctga ttgattacag cttgtatata tctccatatt tctaagcaaa atgtttatct 47700 tttttaaatt tataaattct ttttattatt tttcagagac agggtcttaa ctctgtcgcc 47760 caggctggag tacagtggca ccatcgtagc tcactgtagc ctcgaactcc tgggctcaag 47820 cagtcttcct gcctccgcct ctcaggtagc tgagactacg ctacaggcac ataccaccat 47880 gcccagctca aaatgtttat cttttgatac attattcgag accattatta aggtggatga 47940 tttagttttc ttaaacagcc atcccctttc ttttcctccc ctctgcttca ccgcccccat 48000 tttcccaatg ttttaccttt tggttaaatc agtactcatt gtttacatta tttgcctctg 48060 cacatagtca cagatagtat tgtactgtac tgtactgtgt ttctttttta aacattattt 48120 ctgttgttaa taattgactt tttaattttt ttcctatttt gttttttaaa gagatggggt 48180 cttactatat tgcccaggct agagttcagt ggctcttcgc gggcatgatc ccactgctga 48240 tcagtacagg aatttccacc tgctccattt ccaacctgga ccagttcacc ccttcttagg 48300 caacctggtg gtcccccatt cccgggaggt cagcatattg atgccaaact tagtgcggac 48360 acccgatcgg cataacgcat gcagcccagg actcctgggc tcaagcagtc ctcccgggct 48420 caagcagtcc tcccacctaa gcctcccgcg tagctgagac tacagacact tgccaccaca 48480 ccaggttaat ttttgtgttt tttgtagagg tggggttttg ccatgttgtc cagactcatc 48540 tcaaacttct cagctcaagt gagcctcctg cctcagcttc ccaagtagct gggattatag 48600 acgcatgcca ccacacccca tgataattgc cttttttttt aatttgcata attttctttg 48660 tagcttttgc taatgttccc atatcttctt atagccttac agaatgattt tccacaagat 48720 cagtgagtgc tgtccagtag acatataata caacccacat acatgatttt accttttttt 48780 gtagccatag taaaaaaggt caaaagaagc agatgaaatt aatagtatct tttacttaac 48840 ccagttcatt caaaatgtta tttcaataaa tggtcaatat ttaaaatact tgagatattt 48900 tgcttttatt tatttctttt gttactaagt cttcaaaatc caatgtgtat tttacactta 48960 cagaacatct ctttttagac tggccacatg tagctcaggg ttactgtatt ggacagagtg 49020 gtttcagttt caagtttttc cttggagaca tcctacttga aatttccatt ctccatgtat 49080 ctgggtggtt ggtctataga cttgccactc acagctgtca tcttgagact ttctttgctt 49140 ttcttctcta ttggatattc agtttcctgg atttcaggtc ttctcatttt cctctagtag 49200 ttttgttagg tcatggttgg tatggcatgg ttgggatagc gtgttcacac agctatctcg 49260 tgagtcatac tcctccaatc cagcctgctc gcttcccgtg tctgtcatgt agttgtcacc 49320 ctgctatctc tccctccagt ttttgcagaa atttcctttg tcttcactct tggtcttcct 49380 ctcccatccc ccatgtatcc tatatctttc tctttcttgg tttatttcat cactcaggtg 49440 gaaaagatgc tccagtggat tactgggaaa agggggagca tggatgataa aggtattgag 49500 accttacacg tcagggaatt tttttttttt tttttttttg agacggagtt ttgctcttgt 49560 ccaggttgga gtgcagtggc gccaactcgg ctcactgcaa cctccacctc ctgggttcaa 49620 gtgattctcc tgcctcagcc tcctgagtag ctgggattac aggtgcccgc caccacgccc 49680 agctaatttt ttgtattttt aatagagacg aggtttcact gtgttggcca ggctggtctt 49740 gaactcctac ttcaggcaat ccacccacct cggaatgttt ttattgtccc ttctcatttc 49800 atgactgctg ggctaggtat agaattccag aatcattgtt cttagaatct cgaaggcatt 49860 gcttcattgc tggccagctt tcagtgttct tgcaaagtct gaagctgtgc taatcacctc 49920 atcctttgaa agtgaactgt tttttcttcc cagaaactta cagaacattc tctttgtccg 49980 cagaattctg ggattgcaat tactgtgcct tagaatgggt ctgtttttat cattatgaag 50040 agtactggat gggtcgggag gttttcttga attacttctt gatgttttct ttccttgtat 50100 ttttttgttt gctaattttc tatttttttt tcttggttta ctttcttggg cagggggatt 50160 tcttctactt atatttgatt cttcagttga gcttgtcatt tttgctatct tgtttttaag 50220 tttcgagaga catctttgtt ttatataaca ttctgttctt aatacataga tgcaagatct 50280 tttctttctg agtatattaa tatgtatttg aaatctttct attctctgca gtttgtttcc 50340 cccaagggtt tttttttttt tctggttttt gttttttgtt tttatgttag agactttcct 50400 gttatatctg gtcatcagtg gtacctgcat gtggtggaga gtaggggctt attggagtat 50460 gagaaccttg agcaggtgta aggagcctgt caacactgcg ctggcctcag ggcctctagg 50520 gaggctgcca gttgtgcatt ctgaggatac cttttggttg tgccttttgt ctggtcagat 50580 tatctagaga tgctctgcct cctacctgga ggagaagggt ctagctgcca gcggtgtgag 50640 tgtctcttgg ggaaaaggac tcgagttcct ggtgtttggc ttgtgtatgg ccgcttaccc 50700 catttttggt ggagcgctca catcttccac tgtgccaaca gtcttgctgc agttcataga 50760 ccttctggtt tacatttttc cagaaagtat gtctttagat ttctgcagaa gtctgaggag 50820 catggaagga gcttggggaa tgagatggca atccaggtct tcccagatgg ctctaccttt 50880 atcccctgca gggaatccca ctcctccttc ctgactggga gcacagccag agccttggga 50940 ggaatctgga gtggaaatct cgggcggtct ggctttctta ctgttcactt gtaattttgc 51000 tttctcacaa ctgccaacca ctaatcagcc tgatttccag cttccagaat tctattgctg 51060 ttgtctgctc tcctattccc accgtagggg atggggctgt cttttttttt ttttttaatt 51120 ttggtaaaac atacaaaaca taaagtgttc cattttagcc atttttaggt acacagttca 51180 gtggcagtaa gtacattcac gttgtgtgta tttgtttttt tagtaataaa caatataaaa 51240 ttttttaagt aataaaacac aaataaaaga ttgtttaatg tgattatcgt ggaattttag 51300 gtgtgatcag gagccatggt gtagtcttct gttgaaacag ggtgatagga tttgtttacc 51360 acctcctagg aaagcagttg gatagtttgt tggcataaaa gtacatttta tctattttta 51420 ataatcgtag ctttatagaa attgcagttg gaactcccag gcctggcatt caaggctctc 51480 tgagatctgg gctacccacc catgtcctcc agccgtctgt cgcacctcct actgcccact 51540 cactgttcct ggcatgagat gtgatctcca gcccccatgc ctttgctgtg cagggtgttc 51600 cagagtgaat tgtccctcct gtctgtctct ctgccctctt cctcgtcttt ccatcttcct 51660 gccccacatc actgcctcct acccaaggcc tgtgctcatt cctcctcggt tttcccccat 51720 ggcctggtac atacctctga attatcacct tgcatttccc atattgcccg gctctctttg 51780 atgtctgttt ctttgctggg tcttcctcag tgtctgacgg tcagttaaat gtctttattc 51840 ttttttgtag gatatccgac atgaagccag tgacttccca tgtagagtgg ccaagcttcc 51900 taagaacaaa aaccgaaata ggtacagaga cgtcagtccc tgtaagtatc cacgtggccg 51960 gtaccagtct tgctcttcct ttgctgcagg cctttttagt caagactcct ttcgcctcag 52020 ggtttagtat aataataaat caatgtagca gaggtttatg acgcgattgt ttcctatagt 52080 aaaggcatta gagacttata gtaatagctc atttttccac cattatagaa gggctcaggt 52140 ttcagtttct ggaaaattca gtgaagttca aagcactttt cttaagcttt gactgttttt 52200 gtgatgaatc attttcctac cagctgaagc agagtatagc aggcataata aaaccttttc 52260 tggatgactc agcagcagcg tcattagggc atgagcactg tgttccgctg taatgaagcc 52320 ccgcacaggc attcggggtg ggcactgtcg tcccctgcgc tgaatatgca aggcagctct 52380 gtctggagtc cccaccgcct ccacccccgc caacctcatc atttttctcc ctctttcctg 52440 ctgttagttc ttcctaggat tgtcagtgtg cctgctggcc tgtggcagcc ctgtccgcct 52500 tctgagtgat tggctgtcag tctgccggta gctgaaaagt aaataactta acatgttaga 52560 atttgcataa agtaaggaaa actggagctg agtacaggac ttgaactgcg ccatctcctc 52620 taggccacag aggccttttt gacccccttc caggtcttta gacattgtca ggcagtgagg 52680 ggtcgtagct gccagtgtct ccatggtagc gtgctctgcc agggatgcag aagattctcc 52740 agtcattcct ccagtgggca cttcctgcag gtcctgtgcc catggctggg agtggtggct 52800 gtcattgttc tctgccagaa gggttagcag tgcatcctga cctgacttat gtggcgccca 52860 gattcctgga aggggtctaa aaatggacct agacttggtg tagaacgtgt gcctcttggc 52920 ctgccaccat ggttccctgc ctggttttgt gtgtcagctc tgccgcttaa gaactgagtg 52980 gcttcgggca agttgttctc tctcatagga gtgtgtgaag atgaagcaac ataagctgct 53040 tagcccagcg cccagtacct cacgcagaca taagtgctca gtaaatgttg tctgtggtgg 53100 ggatggttgt caccaacatc tgaagtgcac ttctaggtca tcaggtgaca tgattggcgc 53160 caacacatgg tactcttgat ttagcacatc tcagctgagg cacctcattg atatttgttt 53220 aaaaacaaaa acaaaaaacc ttggtgattc tgctgtgaag tcctggccag aaacctccag 53280 accgctgatc aacacgcaac agaaccatca ccgttcacct ctttgacatg gtgccaggat 53340 accctggatc tctagctttt gctatagttg ctctaattag ggaataatct tgtctttaat 53400 attcctttgc tacatttttt aacatttctt atctaaatgg ttttatgaat cagttttaca 53460 gagaaaaaaa accagtattt aaaatattct tccaggggct ggtccaagta cagtagtgtt 53520 tacaactatg tgatcacaac cagttacaga tttctttgtt ccttctccat ccccactgct 53580 ttacttgact agccaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaagttattc cagggaaaca attctccaac 53640 tttttcactc ccaatctcac tcctcttatc ttcctcccgt actcctatcc tcctcccgta 53700 ctcctatcct cctcccctac tcctatcctc cagtagaaac agtcatttgc tgtgaaggtt 53760 atgggggaga atgagtcaag gtagaaggtc acctgctgcc cagctcacag tgctgctggt 53820 gatgacagca gtccacagtt acaggcactt gctgaacgag gggctctgta tacacctcag 53880 ctcattgact cttcccacaa ccctcttgtc acctaccatt tagcaaatga aaaaaccaag 53940 gctctgaggt gagttgtttg cccagagtca cccagtgctg tttgaaccca ctcacataac 54000 caaccaatac cattatgtaa tttttgaggt cttttatctc tgtgatccac ttaaaaatta 54060 tccaagtatc tttatttgta ctaagcctcc ataatgagaa acagtgttcc agatggtggc 54120 tagttttcaa agacatctct ctttggaatt cttctttaga acaaaaagcc ccagaccact 54180 tatccccatt catatcccct ttggacctag ggagaaggta ctatttatag gtgatcacct 54240 gagtttattg tcccttgtgc tgtgccagaa ataaaggtcc ccacctgctc ttattagctc 54300 tactaacagg ataaggaaag tggccctcag agagctactg cttttgtgac aaacaaatga 54360 tacaagaaaa aaaaagtggc tttttaattt tagtgacctg gggcaggact tccaaatgaa 54420 agtttatttc taaaaactaa aaggtaaatt taatatactt tcagtgtttg ggcttaaatt 54480 ctctttcaag tgtctttgtg atatgctctg aattttaaaa atttagaatc attgaagttc 54540 attatacttg aactttaaaa aaaaaaaaca aaaacctcgt ataaaggtca aggtatgact 54600 tcatgctgct gtgtacttag gtcatttaat cttcaaacca ctggatagag gttaggttga 54660 agttcgatct taaatcctac ctactgtagc tcattgtacc agcaacagct gtagggacta 54720 ggtggaattc atggtgggtt ttgttccctt ttaaagattg aagccaccat attttctgcc 54780 ctctaaaagt ttatgtcagc caggcatggg tggctcacac ttgtaatccc agcactttgg 54840 ggaggctgag gtgggtggat cacttgaggc caggagttcg agaccagcct ggccaacatg 54900 gtgaaacccc atctctacta aaaatagaaa aattaggtga gcatggtggc ctgcgcctgt 54960 aatcccagct actcgggagg ctgaggcagg agaaacattt gaatccggga gatggaggct 55020 gcagtgagct gagaacatgc cactgcactc cagcctgggt gacagagtga gactcttgac 55080 tcaaaaaaaa aagttatgca tcagagaaca gatcctttga tgccctcctc tgccctgaaa 55140 ggtttttggg ggagagtaat aagtatcaca acaagatatg acctgagaac agatttccca 55200 gataggacat gatccatgtt ttaatatggc ttactgctgt tgcttcatag tgtgaagctt 55260 cagacacttc tgaaaaccct ttcagaaaat cccagtcgcc ccatactgat gactaatctc 55320 aactaaaaca gggcttcagc cagtgtgaat gccactaatg ccaccaactc acctttgctt 55380 ttctgtaggg tgtgcacctg tatgtacaca ttcagctttt ccgggattaa cctctgagtt 55440 ctggtttgtc tttcagttga ccatagtcgg attaaactac atcaagaaga taatgactat 55500 atcaacgcta gtttgataaa aatggaagaa gcccaaagga gttacattct tacccaggta 55560 agcagattgt ctgaattttc tatttaatgt caatttaaga gtttgagagt gctgttatcc 55620 acacctcaaa taaaatctgc cacatccttt agaaggtcag gatttcagca taccaaaaag 55680 cagcaaggaa gggggaaaaa tcatccttca aaggttcagt ttggttataa ggaacgctaa 55740 tcttttctgg gaagcataag atgacattgc tggaaatgag agcttataga aaacaacatt 55800 aaaatgccag agttgcctgt gtggtctgtt ggcagagaca gcagagccat ggctggagga 55860 gggtctgtac ctgtgttgct tccagaagta tttgtcgtag agcacttgtg atggcaaatc 55920 taagaacgtt agcagtagac caggaatctc tgtccagagc cattcagagt agctcagcat 55980 ggttctcatt ctttggccag aagaaaggca tcattggatc atgtgaacaa gcatgaaaaa 56040 tgacttaaaa tttctgttgg cttttggcat ctttatggaa acaaaatcct gaaagtggtt 56100 taataattga gcctcttgta aaacactcag tggcatgtga ccaaaagggt atctgggaaa 56160 gaggataaaa agagtttctt tttaattaat cttctcaagt cttaacttgt tacctgtaag 56220 ttggtctaaa aagactgggt ttcttatttt gtttttcatc ataatttttg tttctcattc 56280 catgtcagct ttcagtctta tatggcttta ggccacaggg cgattttgaa catttgtaat 56340 tttgcttaat aattaggaaa ttaaaattct ggggaagaca gaatgctcta tgaagaaagg 56400 ctgctttgag caaggagcta ggtcagggcg cgttcaactg aggcctttct tcactgcctt 56460 tttgtcttgt cccagttcct ccccatttat gactaaaatc agcccagatg cttctcgtca 56520 tctgggatgc agagcatcag cccagctgtg ttcagtccta tggggccatt gagtaagttc 56580 ttggtgcatg gatacagggc aggcctttac caggccctga gcccctggtc ctcccagcac 56640 ctctggggta tttaggggag gctgatgggg gagggggttg ataaggcggg agatgtctgg 56700 ggatgaggtt gaggcaaaag tgacttcttg aggactttgc tttttggaga agtcaaattt 56760 cctacttctt gatttcagcc cttcaactct ggtatggagt caggaagccc tttaaatacc 56820 tgttgtcggg tgtatcatgt caagtgttgc attagcaaat gaccatgtat ccttgtgcta 56880 ctgtcctgcc taccccgcat cctagcgctt ccttgggaca tgagaagctc tgtctggttt 56940 gtgaggtggc actggggatg ttgagaaact gtttacacag tttccctttg ccctggggat 57000 ttactaaagg agtcgaggca gcctgacccc aaagcatcac ccctggacac tatgaccgaa 57060 acatttcccc agtgcccaaa ccaagaacac ccttcccatt tttttttcag tggtgttcat 57120 tatgtaataa tacaagtctc tcttctcatt ttttaaaagt cagaagtaca gaagagcaga 57180 gaataatgtc caaggggccc tccttcacct cccccgtgca gtgtcagcta agtgtggtgc 57240 gtgtccttgc agatcttagg ggattgtgat ccttcagacc attctaaact ggggtggtgc 57300 tgggagttag ggaaggcatg aagggagtag tggagagctg cagtgactgg ggtcttcatg 57360 ccagggtgga gaatgcaagg cccaggtggc cagccatgtg ccacgggatt tctggctgcc 57420 aagagctgtt tatctgttca ctggggaggg aagagttaaa tgtggtctgc ttttctccga 57480 gtcccttcag cacagggagt gctgacttgt cttgttcagg tagtaagttc aagatgagct 57540 caggaaagaa agtgagagga cactgagggc tagtggttga gccaagtgtg atgggactta 57600 aagggagaag atttaaagaa taaggagctt atgggccggg gacggtggct tacgcctgta 57660 atcccagcac tttgggaggc tgaagcaggt ggatcacttg ggtcaggagt tcgaggccag 57720 cctggccaac atggtgaaac cccgtctcta ctaaaaatac agaaattagc tgggtgtggt 57780 agtgtgcacc tgtaatccca gctacttggg aggctgagac aggagaatcg cttgagccca 57840 ggaggcagag gttgcagtga gccaggattg cgcccctgta ctccagcctg ggtgatggag 57900 cgagactctg cctcaaaaaa aattaaaaaa aaataaagag gttaggtgaa aatagatgag 57960 aatggaaacc atgagaagaa gtgatgctgg ccaaggacat gacaggttct gatgtggagg 58020 tgataggcaa tgtctcttcc agccactgct aataattgag acaaactcaa ggcattcata 58080 ccctgtgtcc agtaaacatc tgtgcccatt gccaggtgag ctggattgaa atgggccagc 58140 tgctcagcag acaccctcat gccccagtga ctctgttccc cttgggccac ctcattgacc 58200 atttatgttt ctacatctcc taagtttgtt gggccaagga tggaggctgt ctgccgtcag 58260 ggtcctcatt gctgatggta ggaatagttg ctgatgtttc attggatgtt gctgtattct 58320 agggactgtg ctaagtactt tatagaaatg aacatacttc attttcacag ttttatgaat 58380 agggactatt attagtcaag taagcgatgg ggaaactggg gcagggagcg atgaagtgac 58440 ttgcgcaagg tcacaagatg atgtgattgg aaccaagaga agtgttgtgg ttggccacgc 58500 ccccacactg cctctcatct gcaccaagga gttttgtccc atagcccaag ggccttgggg 58560 acgaatctca gtggaggccc ttagcgggcc tgcctgagcc agaaagcaga atcggcattt 58620 ttctgtcctt ggttggccca gccctgaact gagatgcgga aatcgccttt cgctgcctgg 58680 tagaaaatgg agctgcagtt actgaccacc aggcagagag aggtgggtcc ctgtcccagc 58740 ctcagccacc actctgccta agctgtgggg actgagggcg ctgtcgttag ctgactgcag 58800 aaggtgagca cacgctgtag catgttatgt ttcagatgtc acatgttgtg ttattgtgtc 58860 tttgcagggc cctttgccta acacatgcgg tcacttttgg gagatggtgt gggagcagaa 58920 aagcaggggt gtcgtcatgc tcaacagagt gatggagaaa ggttcggtaa gtctcggctt 58980 catttgctgt gtatgtgatc atgcatacca ctccatatag ttaccatttt cgtccagatt 59040 tttaaattat ttttcttgcc tttgtatttc ctttacgtag tatttttatt taaaaaaatt 59100 aaaacagcag catataaatg catgttggtt gtcaaccagt taatgaagtg aataaaaggg 59160 aggaggcgga agaactgcac ggacctcttc gcccccgcct tctcctgtgt ggtgcgtgtg 59220 gcgctccgcc cacctgtgct gcctgtgcgg ctctcatcac agtgtggagt tgtgtgtgga 59280 gttatggaga cctgctttta tcttgaaaag caagttctta gtgcatcttc atggtgtctg 59340 attttttggc tggtgagagt gtggctacct ctgcggagct gtgggagcgg ctgactagat 59400 gagatttgcc tccattcagt acctagactc ttgccctgcc acacctcttc ggagtgagca 59460 ttgacttcag gatgtgtgtc attctaagtt cctgcaactt ttcaaacacc cctcgggcta 59520 gcgtgtggct gcacggtgtc catttgtgca ggccaccact cctcttgcat ctgggtctag 59580 ccacctctcc ttcttgactt accatagttc attttgtacc atgctttcag aatgagcttt 59640 ctcaaatcca agtctcacca cggttcttcc cagctgaaaa cccttgtgcg gttccctttg 59700 cctcacagga taatacatgg tgtggcttac ggaaccctgc aggtctggcc ctaggcccct 59760 ggacacagac ctctcaccac tcttggaact ttagccagga caaagttttc tgtttttagt 59820 ttcttaccat gttctctggg ccgaggagtc ccagtgccca cgttcatccc acttgcaggc 59880 acccctggac ggctgccccc agctccccaa ctgcctgcat tctcccctgc cctcctcact 59940 ctgttggaat agctgagaat agccgatttc tgggcagccg gcctcctgtg tagactgtcc 60000 tgtgtagact gtcctgtgta gattgtctgt gtagactgtc ctgtgtagat tgtctgtgta 60060 gactgtcctg tgtagactgt ccatgtaaac tgtcctgtgt agattgtctg tgtagactgt 60120 cctgtgtaga ctgtcctgtg tagattgtct gtgtagactg tctctgtaga ccgtcgtgta 60180 tagactgtcc tgtgtagact gtctctgtag accgtcgtgt atagactgtc ctgtgtagac 60240 tgtctctgta gaccgtcctg tgtagattgt ctgtgtagac catcctgtgt agaccatccc 60300 atttagacca tctgcctgtg caggcgcagg ccagtgttca gcagggccac aggctcctcg 60360 gcctccctgc cctcgctgct ccccaacact gccaaccctg ctgcggggtc caggaggaga 60420 tgggctgagg atcgtggaga ccagcaggag cgtgtggccc aggagcaggg aactgggtgt 60480 ccttgggcct tgccaggtcc aggctcagct aggacacggc tctcacagct gtcctggttg 60540 cctccggcca cagaagaagg tgagggctcc agagaggcca cctttccaaa aaaagcacag 60600 tcatggccct agaatgtaaa aaatccaagt gttaagaagg aacacatcaa aggaaacttc 60660 agcagtgaaa acttgaagca ttaaccacga agcctctgcc tccaccacac acaaagaaac 60720 ggctttagtt actcgcagaa agtcttcctc ttaggacagc gcgtgtttaa aatcataggg 60780 gtttggtttg ttttgttttg gggttggggt tttttggggg ttttttaccc ttgcctactt 60840 tttaaaaaat gaaagtgttt atttgcccaa caataacaga cagggagctt gcctaagtgt 60900 tctgttgatg atataatgta tcttgtctta gaaaaaaact ttttcagtga aaggtggttt 60960 ttaaattttt tcttccctcc ttagtagctt gattagtaaa atgtgaagtt acaaatgtga 61020 agcaaacccc cacccttcac cactagtcag caattttgag taaagaaaca aagcatcagg 61080 tgctcacagc acacactgtc ttagagggaa ggggaagcct ggtggcctgt ggaagccttc 61140 agcatagctc catctgcagg cttctgaccc tcagcactac tgacacttgg gctggatcat 61200 tgtctgctag ggatccgggc agggagtggc tgtgctgggc gctgtaggaa gtttagcagc 61260 atctctggcc tctatccacc agatgccagt agcaccccct ccccagatgt ggcagtcaga 61320 tgtgtttctg tctagactcc agactttgtc caacgtcccc tggtaggcca aattgccccc 61380 ggttgagaac caccgctcta gatggtattg agggttggga attttaaatc aagacattta 61440 ttcagaaatt accagatata gtagcatttg cttcttattt atttctttgt tgctaagtgt 61500 ttggcaaaac ctctttgctg tgagcacaag gtttgcttta gcaattgttg tcacattaca 61560 gcaaggagtg gtgtccagcg ctgtagttat gtatttgagc agtgtccagt gctgtagtta 61620 tgtgttccag cctcaccagg ccctgtgctt cattgtctcc cactcaagac tgaccacaaa 61680 tggcccacag atccactgtg acaacctttc cctttgggtt actgtggtgg catcgagaac 61740 atggctggtt ggctttgctg tagtttactg tgataactgt gccagcagtc cctgctttcc 61800 tttgttaagt atcccattcc actggaggat tacttgggcg tgcagattgg catgaaaagc 61860 aatgtatggt ttgagattgt taaagtttct ttgggatcaa cattttcaat tctgtatcag 61920 cattatccct cccagagggc tggctgggag aaatcatgag aagttacagt atcttatttg 61980 ctcagctaat ctaattataa atgatccaca cagcttgtgg taaaaccagc ttttggggag 62040 ttttcattta atgcatactt gtcttctgat ttccttcctt caccaaatag tgtaggatgc 62100 tccctcttat ttttggcaaa catgcctgtt atcttttggg accctgggct tcctggaaac 62160 cagttatgca gaagatgatt gtgtgtgtta gactggggtc atccagatgg ctagagttct 62220 cactggttct gtttaaggat tgactttaga cacctcagtg taggctgcac catggcgtaa 62280 gggttgggat tgttgtttag aagggggaag taagcaaggt gagtttaatt ggccattgca 62340 gaatctcacc cgtatctccc tcctgaaatc ctcactaaag ctgccgtttg ctttcaggtg 62400 ctttcatgca caagacactg cattttgtat cacagggtcc atataattca tttttctctc 62460 gtacttagtt ctctgtgtta agaattactt acttagttct ctgtgttaat aatttttggc 62520 gaaaccaaat tacccgtcac agggttactg tagatgtctt tcataggttt tccaaacacc 62580 acttgcccac ttgtttggga aggccccaag gactgtttaa catctgcctt catggtggaa 62640 acagcaacta tgagagatgc tagcatgttg gcactgccat gttcctctgg taccagccca 62700 agataggact caatttgagg cctggtgaag tactgtgttc taataaaaat ccatctactt 62760 ttcatggccg tatatatcaa tgtaataggg taactggaaa tgtgatcttg tgccttttaa 62820 aaattttgtg tgtttaaaac aaaaatttct attggaaatg acagagcata gcttgttgct 62880 gtagacacct gagagtcctt aaaaataaat attgggttat tgacacttag ttgcatgaca 62940 gaattcctca cttgtacagt tccaaagtct tagtctttac ccagattaca gagggttatt 63000 aagcattagg tttggttttg aaagtgagtg cttgctgtct ggaggtgagc tttaagactc 63060 gtctgccctg cttatgagat gaggaagggt ggcctcttcc tcctgcattt ctgttcttcg 63120 cttccttctc tgtctgctca ctctgtggaa tgcccacccc agcacgggtg gggtggaacc 63180 tgtcagatca gtctcttgtt tctggggtct tgaggcatta taagatctag ttgttagaag 63240 tgtgggatta attcatcttt tcacattctt ctaagttcct gcttttagct gccacaccca 63300 ctttggctaa gtgggggtct tgccatgtaa ttagcgcctc catgccaagt ggcagaattg 63360 cttcaatggt gacagattgt ccccattcaa gagttcactt ttggcaactc atcattgatc 63420 caggaaggtg acatggatga aactggctaa gacttcagac aggcttgtgt ccagactctt 63480 gagaaagctc tgttggcttc tggtctggca ctgtgaagtt tgctgtgatg ctggcaccac 63540 aacctggtgt ttcctaattt gtttctccca cattttgctt tggttttgtc ttttgggcag 63600 cttccagctc cagtagagca ggaccaatag gcatttgtgg ttctatattc accctcctca 63660 cgtgcttcct ggctcctcat tgcccccaga tgatgccaca ggtccctggg cctgctgcca 63720 gtcgtctgtg atctgggcct ctgctggccc cttctccagc tgctcttttc agcctcttat 63780 ttgcagtcac tgcctaggaa atcctagtca tccttcaaaa cctgcctctt gcacagagct 63840 ttctctgatc tctcttttct gtaaccttgg ctgacctgaa acatttccct cttctgaatt 63900 cctgctgcat gtccgtagca tttccccctc agccctcccc catagtccac cttgtcactg 63960 ctgggcacag cagtgtcttc tgacagacag ctggccctga agtggttccc ttcacccaca 64020 ccatcctttg ccccagagga ggtattgagt gggtcagtgc acgtgaactg ccagtgtcat 64080 ttgccaaaga gctgttgaca cacgctgaca tttcttttgc tgaaaatcat aagggctttg 64140 agcttccctc tgtccaggca catggtcagg ctgacccggt agctctgccc ctgctgacct 64200 gccatttttg tccacaacag ttatccatga gcagaaacat ttgtgtaact gaggcagaaa 64260 cttagttcaa gtaaaatgtc actaaattcg agtcagtttt tgtcttagac cctaaatgaa 64320 accaaatttt cataaatttt cttgttttaa agaaaaattt aatgagctac atttaaactg 64380 agaacatcag atagtgtctg agattatcaa aatagaacat caaaagtatt tttctgaatg 64440 aactgaacca aaccagaatg aaagggcaag ccctggggag cctgtctcca agccttctct 64500 gaaagggagt ctgtatttgg tgataactgc tcagcctctc caaagggcct cacctgctgt 64560 ctctcccagt tttattttta attgcctgtg agttttctgt gcagggtaag gcacctacat 64620 tctatgccag cagcctgatc aggtcctggg taatgtttga aatggctaca cagaggagtt 64680 tcaaagcctt ttgttcaatc tggcttcacc tcgtagacgg tgagaaagcg tcagagccct 64740 gcaggatccc gttgccacgt ttgaccgggg agccgatggg tttggaagtc tgagccctgt 64800 ctgcacaacc tgccccggtc agcagcttcg tgcccccacc cccatctccc catgaggcag 64860 gcatctgtgc tgaccatggc ttccatgttc agaaaccccc aggcctttga gttatcatga 64920 agcttgtggg atgtgctcca agcctcctgc catagaaaaa ctgccatatt gctcacaata 64980 attcactatt atttgtttcc ccagttaaaa tgcgcacaat actggccaca aaaagaagaa 65040 aaagagatga tctttgaaga cacaaatttg aaattaacat tgatctctga agatatcaag 65100 tcatattata cagtgcgaca gctagaattg gaaaacctta cagtgagtat agcacacact 65160 tcagcacttc aggcggctac tggttcacat gcctcttcct ttatcccttg ggtgatatta 65220 cctaatgtca gtgttcctgg cttttgtata ccccgagcaa gatgtggttt gggcactgtg 65280 gtgagcggag cttacttgtg tacctaccaa gtgcccaggg agggtggagg ccacagtgct 65340 ctctctgacc tttaacaaca gttaacacca gttcttaggg aaaggagagt ttcttaccca 65400 aaagactggt tcctgcttgt gcagctgcag agggactgga gcggcagcct gcaagtccca 65460 gtgaagcatg ctgccttctt tgtggtcctc agtcttcgag tctgaagaga gggaagaagg 65520 ggtatagggg ctcactccag tttcatagct agtgaaagtt ttctgggcca ggtcttgggt 65580 ttttttgttg tgggaagagt ttataacacc agctacttgc ttggtaaaag ttggtcttgg 65640 aacatggcaa ggcattgtgg caagcagcac tgccgctgaa cgcgctgctc ctggggcttt 65700 ggaataattc ccctggatcc gtaacttggg ggtgttcatg tcattctggg gaacagtgga 65760 gggagtgcgc ggcagcacct gggggcacca gtgaagagtg gccagccacc aacctctaga 65820 acctaactgg ggtcgaatcc tggccccacc ttactagctc atcacagtgt ctccgtttcc 65880 tcttctgtca aactcaggtt ttgcgagggt tctgggaggt cctatacggg aagggttagc 65940 agttaccatg ggtgtgtagc acgggcttta tctgaaggga aggtggagcc gtagggagac 66000 catgtggagt ggggctccag ggctgtgtgg gtggggaggg atctgcttct gggttacccc 66060 atgcctcccc ttctcaagta ctacttttta atcatcatgg ctcctgccat tcatttcata 66120 gttgatgtaa gccaggtgcg gtggctcacg tctttaatcc cagcacttgg ggaggctgag 66180 gccaggagga tcactcgagg ccaggagttc aagaccagct tgggcaacat agtgagaccc 66240 ccgtctctac aaaaaaacaa aaacagttag tcagacatcg tggtgctccc ctatagtcca 66300 gctactcagg aggctgaggc aggaggattg cttgtgcccg ggagttcaag gctgcagtga 66360 gctatgcttg caccactgca ctctagcctg ggtgacagag caagaccctg tctcaaaaat 66420 aaataaataa aaaaaatagt agaagtaaga tctagaatgt agcacaggtt accaggacgt 66480 aggcaagggg ttcgggctgc ctggctcttg aggatggtag cagtgcagct gatgtgagtg 66540 ctttctgccc tctggtggtg accgcgccgg agtcaccagc cctgccatag ccctgatggg 66600 gcagagggtt ctgagtacgg tggatggagg tgctttctgg aagattctca ggagtaacat 66660 gggcagtgtg ttggaatgtg ctagaggatt tatgcagtag ccttttaaaa gaatgctttt 66720 tagcatttgc aagcctgaca ttaagagtga cttctgggaa actatttgct tgttgaggga 66780 aactgaattt caacagagca gaagagctgt gcgctttttg cttggcagag tgaatacagc 66840 cagctcagag gttttgatgt taggatctgt ttgctccaac agactttgtt tttaaaaggc 66900 ttttctcagc catagctgtc tgttctagca caaggctgga atgagttcct tgtgaaagag 66960 gtgagcaggt gtgagggagg gtgtcagtgg gcggtaaccc acaccttcaa ggattaaagg 67020 aaaacttgca tttggcatgc ttgcttctta ttcaatttta aaatacattt taacggccgg 67080 gcacggtggc taacacctgt aatcccagca ctttgagggg ctgaggtggg tggttcacga 67140 ggccaggggt tcaagaccag cctggccaag atggtgaaac cccatctcta ctaaaaatac 67200 aaaaaaaaaa aaaattagcc gggcgtggtg gcgggcacct gtaatcccag ctactcggga 67260 ggctgaggca gagaattgct tgaacccagg aggcggaggt tgcattgagc cgagatcatg 67320 ccactgcatt ccagcctggg cggcagagca agactctgtc tcaaaataat aataataatt 67380 ttttaaaaat acattttaag tccttttctt ccccacctgc ctccacccac caaatagaag 67440 aggtatttct tcttctttaa tgtcattaag gttatatgga taccattttc tagagaggaa 67500 agaatgatgg aattgcctag tgtgagtcta gcaattatcc taacatacac aaatttctcc 67560 ttgttctgtg ccaagatact gtatttaata tttaatgaac attaaatatt atttactagt 67620 gtatttaatg gctgaggcag ggttaaatat gtattatttt catcccagca gagttggggg 67680 aggtcctagt aactatgcca tgagctctgt gagggtgagg tggtgtcttt gcccccgcct 67740 ccctggcaca gtgactggca catgattggc atagtgtgga cattcgtcaa gtgaaggaag 67800 gcatcatgag cagatctctg gcctgaatcc ttctgccatc agctgctcgc caggtggccc 67860 tggcactggg ccacagggaa actctccagg ctggtatggt tcctgtctgt ggctgtcttc 67920 ccgggcccat gttaggagac tttcacttcc agagcccttt ccctctcagg gccttgctta 67980 ccaagtgact ggttcccatt tactaggagc tcttaggtca ttgaagatgt tgcgtactcc 68040 ccccagtgag ggctgccttt tgatcacagc cgccagaagc ctcaaggaag gagcagagct 68100 ggaaacagac gccaggccat tgcttctgtt cctctggggc agacccagcc acggaagaga 68160 cattctggga caagggctgg ggtccacctt tcaaacgtgt ctgcagcagg ctctcagcat 68220 ggactctctg cctccaaaca tccacctcct catcggaaaa tggatgggag tgcctgcctg 68280 gagcagctgg tgggagagcg cagcgccagc acgtaggaca cactcggttc atgggctgat 68340 gccgttcgca ttgactgcct cttcagctgg gtgttgagcc acaccttgga gtcaccagtc 68400 tttggagacc aagtctgcta cttttttctc taaagtgaca atcctctgaa acctccagat 68460 catcttgaag cccccgtctg aaagttgccc agagccagtg cctcacctgc tgttccttgt 68520 tcactttttc acgggaggcc ttgcagggct ttatgacaag attttatggg tggctgccca 68580 gcatcattgt gactcgtgag acagagagaa accagttgta accatgtaga cagtggaagt 68640 gatagggaga aaagaggtga ggggactctt caatccgaag ggaaatgaag tctaagcagg 68700 cgcaccctgc aggttcagtg tcaagcccag ggcctggccc cagggtgtgg tatttgttga 68760 ctgggtgtgt ggaccctggg agaaagtctg agaatgaatg ttcctcttag aggtagagag 68820 tggaaggtga ctctgtgtgt acttggaatt agtgatttct gtacagatga ttcttttaga 68880 atcatcatga gtatttttct ctttcagacc caagaaactc gagagatctt acatttccac 68940 tataccacat ggcctgactt tggagtccct gaatcaccag cctcattctt gaactttctt 69000 ttcaaagtcc gagagtcagg gtcactcagc ccggagcacg ggcccgttgt ggtgcactgc 69060 agtgcaggca tcggcaggtc tggaaccttc tgtctggctg atacctgcct cttgctggta 69120 aggaggccct cgcgggtgcc ctggggagct cctctacctg ctctgctgtg atgttttttc 69180 ctaagtagaa actgaagcgc tcctcttcca aaatacagag actcactgtg ttagtctgtt 69240 tttgcgttac taataaaggc gtacctgaga ctcggtaatt tgtaaagaaa agaggtttaa 69300 ctggctcccg gttctgcagg ctgtacaagc atggcaccag catctgctcg gctcctgggg 69360 aggcctcagg gagcttccag tcatggtgga aggtgaaggg gagcaggagc aagagatggg 69420 ggaggtccca gactcttaac cagctctctt gtgaatgcat tgcctcaggg agggcaccaa 69480 gcctttcatg agggacctgt ccccctgacc cagacacctc ccacccagcc ccacctccaa 69540 cactagggat cacatttcag catgagattg ggaggggaca gacatctaac ggtgttatta 69600 acgttgccct tgagaattgg acctggctga cttatatctc ctctctggct ttcagatgga 69660 caagaggaaa gacccttctt ccgttgatat caagaaagtg ctgttagaaa tgaggaagtt 69720 tcggatgggg ctgatccaga cagccgacca gctgcgcttc tcctacctgg ctgtgatcga 69780 aggtgccaaa ttcatcatgg gggactcttc cgtgcaggtc agcattgcct ttgtttgaat 69840 ccaggtgtga ccattttaac ttttttgtct ttgaaggagg ctgtcagttg taaaagttca 69900 aacaccgtct ggtgtcaggg gaaatagcta cccttcatgt ttaaaatagc tagaaagttg 69960 tcaaaatgtt caccatgttg cactttgtgc ctttgaagtg ctcacataga gagcattgat 70020 aggaagacga gactttattt tcaaaagatt tcatcttcca agtacatggc tgcagccctg 70080 agaggccgag agcccctcgc caagccgtca cctctgctca tgcaaaggga tttcctgaca 70140 aaccagccga agtgaacact aataggactt cctcttgctg ctctttcaag gatcagtgga 70200 aggagctttc ccacgaggac ctggagcccc cacccgagca tatcccccca cctccccggc 70260 cacccaaacg aatcctggag ccacacaatg ggaaatgcag ggagttcttc ccaaatcacc 70320 agtgggtgaa ggaagagacc caggaggata aagactgccc catcaaggaa gaaaaaggaa 70380 gccccttaaa tgccgcaccc tacggcatcg aaaggtaata tgattgggtc ccagcttgtt 70440 ggggtgaggg gaaatgactt tctgttctag aaacacacgc tggtactgaa accctgtgga 70500 tgcagcctcc tgttggcaag cagcgcttcc gcatccttgg ggaacagggc gcgtggacca 70560 cagccactcc actcctggct gctggaggtc cggtattggg cacagggtgg ccgcaggaca 70620 tgagccactt ctgtgggctt ctagtgccac cttgtggtgc ttgttggaat gaggggctcg 70680 gagccaccga gtagggtttt tctgcccccc ctgacgacag cgccctcccc caggtttccg 70740 gacagtcctg aaatgtgatg tccaggcttg agtgccctca gtccccacag tggtcctttg 70800 gggaatgtaa ccttttttat gtggtcttga ttaaatccca ttttacttcc ttgcaggtta 70860 acaaccatta ttgagtacct attgatatgt gtggtgtact gagttaacta gaacatgtcc 70920 cctggtctgt gttctagacc atcttgctgg gaaaaaggca gacccaaagc atattttggt 70980 gggggcccat ggacagtgat gtgatagagg tgtccgctga ggtggtcagg gaaggctgct 71040 tgcagtaggt ggccgtgcac ggaaagtttg cagaatgagc aggtgttagt tccagctgga 71100 gatgactgcc ggctgtgccc ttggtacctg ctttctggag ggaagtttta agacgtgtgc 71160 atacttgacc cagcagttgt atacatggag aaatttactt tgcagcaact ctcaaaacaa 71220 gcgtgtaaag atgtgtatag gtagttgtgt ttgttgtggc attgtttgta gtagtgaaaa 71280 attagagaca ggccaatgat ataaccaggg acctgatcaa ttatgttctc tcccggtgtt 71340 gggatattct gtagctctta aagaatgaga tctgggtgta ctgatgtggc cagacattgc 71400 aattgcagta catgagaagg caaatcatac agtagtgtgt acaccagtga gtcctccagc 71460 cagataaatc ctcacagtga ccagtcgccc aggcaccttg tgaaccctac cctgggtgtg 71520 ggtgctatct gaagtacctg ggggaggggg tgacaagtgg acttcaggct gatgtgggcc 71580 ctggcctggc cctccctcca agcagagggg gctggctcgc tggaaggtta acatcatcca 71640 actctgtcta cacgtggctt gttttttcct agaattcctg ccacaatagc agcatccttg 71700 ccattcattt tctccaaagt gagtaaccca tctctgccct ctgattcctc agcatgagtc 71760 aagacactga agttagaagt cgggtcgtgg ggggaagtct tcgaggtgcc caggctgcct 71820 ccccagccaa aggggagccg tcactgcccg agaaggacga ggaccatgca ctgagttact 71880 ggaagccctt cctggtcaac atgtgcgtgg ctacggtcct cacggccggc gcttacctct 71940 gctacagggt atgtttccac tgacagacgc gctggcgaga tgctcgtgtg cagagagcac 72000 tggccgctag cccgatggta ggattcagtt ctgtggtgca tctgagccag tctcagaaga 72060 aacagatcaa aggtttttaa agtctggaac tgtggaaggg ctaacaagag aattaaggat 72120 cgatgcactg gggttttaag gagccctctg gtcccaagaa tataagagtc taatctcagg 72180 gccttaacct attcaggagt aagtagagaa aatgccaaat acgtctgttt ctctctctct 72240 tttttttttt attcctttgt ttttggaaaa aaatagagtt acaacacatt gttgttttta 72300 acctttataa aaagcagctt tttgttattt ctggaacaaa aaaaaacaaa gtaggcactt 72360 atgaaacttt ctcataccct taggtgatgt aatcagccat ataatttata tttgatttcc 72420 cagggaagga atcccaaact tttacgaatg taaactccct tggagaagag ggttaggacg 72480 ctgttgcgct caagcccccc tcagctgtgt gcacactgag ccaggacagg gtctttgagc 72540 tttcccacta taagaagaac agcaacaaaa ggccgtctag aaaaacagaa cctgcctctg 72600 cttctgctca gggtgtcccc gctgggtttc cattgtcctt tctccattgc tccctcctgt 72660 gacagccatc ttgctcatgt accagccctc atcaccccat ccccataaat gggtgtcctc 72720 gaggcctctg cctgggggtc agaggtcacc acagggtggc cattggcatg tcaacccgct 72780 gttaattcag agaagtgggc tccacctcat tgggagaagt gccatttcag cagaaattca 72840 cacgttagac gtgtgttgct gttaagtaag gggaagagag aggactagcc tcagagctct 72900 ggccatggaa atgacctcct aagacttttt cgtggtttta aatattttac ctctttccag 72960 gtggcatctg agtacatcag atggttttgc aaaatgcaaa caattttttc cttggggatg 73020 atttttgggg agagggggct actgtaaaaa ataaaaccaa aacccccttt gctccctcgg 73080 aggttgaagt tgccgggggg tgtggccggg gtcatgcatg aggcgacagc tctgcaggtg 73140 cgggtctggg ctcatctgaa ctgtttggtt tcattccagt tcctgttcaa cagcaacaca 73200 tagcctgacc ctcctccact ccacctccac ccactgtccg cctctgcccg cagagcccac 73260 gcccgactag caggcatgcc gcggtaggta agggccgccg gaccgcgtag agagccgggc 73320 cccggacgga cgttggttct gcactaaaac ccatcttccc cggatgtgtg tctcacccct 73380 catcctttta ctttttgccc cttccacttt gagtaccaaa tccacaagcc attttttgag 73440 gagagtgaaa gagagtacca tgctggcggc gcagagggaa ggggcctaca cccgtcttgg 73500 ggctcgcccc acccagggct ccctcctgga gcatcccagg cgggcggcac gccaacagcc 73560 ccccccttga atctgcaggg agcaactctc cactccatat ttatttaaac aattttttcc 73620 ccaaaggcat ccatagtgca ctagcatttt cttgaaccaa taatgtatta aaattttttg 73680 atgtcagcct tgcatcaagg gctttatcaa aaagtacaat aataaatcct caggtagtac 73740 tgggaatgga aggctttgcc atgggcctgc tgcgtcagac cagtactggg aaggaggacg 73800 gttgtaagca gttgttattt agtgatattg tgggtaacgt gagaagatag aacaatgcta 73860 taatatataa tgaacacgtg ggtatttaat aagaaacatg atgtgagatt actttgtccc 73920 gcttattctc ctccctgtta tctgctagat ctagttctca atcactgctc ccccgtgtgt 73980 attagaatgc atgtaaggtc ttcttgtgtc ctgatgaaaa atatgtgctt gaaatgagaa 74040 actttgatct ctgcttacta atgtgcccca tgtccaagtc caacctgcct gtgcatgacc 74100 tgatcattac atggctgtgg ttcctaagcc tgttgctgaa gtcattgtcg ctcagcaata 74160 gggtgcagtt ttccaggaat aggcatttgc ctaattcctg gcatgacact ctagtgactt 74220 cctggtgagg cccagcctgt cctggtacag cagggtcttg ctgtaactca gacattccaa 74280 gggtatggga agccatattc acacctcacg ctctggacat gatttaggga agcagggaca 74340 ccccccgccc cccacctttg ggatcagcct ccgccattcc aagtcaacac tcttcttgag 74400 cagaccgtga tttggaagag aggcacctgc tggaaaccac acttcttgaa acagcctggg 74460 tgacggtcct ttaggcagcc tgccgccgtc tctgtcccgg ttcaccttgc cgagagaggc 74520 gcgtctgccc caccctcaaa ccctgtgggg cctgatggtg ctcacgactc ttcctgcaaa 74580 gggaactgaa gacctccaca ttaagtggct ttttaacatg aaaaacacgg cagctgtagc 74640 tcccgagcta ctctcttgcc agcattttca cattttgcct ttctcgtggt agaagccagt 74700 acagagaaat tctgtggtgg gaacattcga ggtgtcaccc tgcagagcta tggtgaggtg 74760 tggataaggc ttaggtgcca ggctgtaagc attctgagct gggcttgttg tttttaagtc 74820 ctgtatatgt atgtagtagt ttgggtgtgt atatatagta gcatttcaaa atggacgtac 74880 tggtttaacc tcctatcctt ggagagcagc tggctctcca ccttgttaca cattatgtta 74940 gagaggtagc gagctgctct gctatatgcc ttaagccaat atttactcat caggtcatta 75000 ttttttacaa tggccatgga ataaaccatt tttacaaaaa taaaaacaaa aaaagcaagg 75060 tgttttggta taataccttt tcaggtgtgt gtggatacgt ggctgcatga ccgggtgggt 75120 gggggggagt gtctcagggt cttctgtgac ctcacagaac tgtcagactg tacagttttc 75180 caacttgcca tattcatgat gggtttgcat tttagctgca acaataaaat ttttttctaa 75240 agaacatgaa tttggggtgc ttcccatttt tttctttgct taatagagct aaaccaggat 75300 gagtaactcc tgtttctttc tatccctgct gatgtgaaac agatgttgtc aatcagctgg 75360 ggttagagtt ttccacttct aagaattaac ctcagcatcc ctgcattgcc agcaccctca 75420 ggctggagcg ctttccttga ctgtgagctt gttgaacacc ttaggcctca gcccatttcc 75480 ttcccaaatt gacgctttgc ctgtgtaggg ccctcagata acttaacaaa cttaccagtg 75540 ttgtttgaag aacagtgttt tgagttgtaa tctcaaaacc atatccctta cccaattacc 75600 tgtaagacac aatggttacc acatctcagt acgtaaagtc cacttgatat agaattgact 75660 tagaaataag acagattagt atagtttttc atttgtgtac aaaattaaac aatgtaaatt 75720 ccccccaaag tgattttttt gactttttga agtaattttg gacttgcaaa atgttgccaa 75780 aatagtacga agagttcccc agtaccctcg aagtttcctc gactgtttca aagctggctg 75840 caggcccagg ctcatgagac tgggaagagg acaggctgtg gtcatgtgga cccacaggg 75899 244 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 244 gcgctcttag ccccgaggcc 20 245 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 245 ccagggcggc tgctgcgcct 20 246 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 246 catctccatg acgggccagg 20 247 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 247 ttttccatct ccatgacggg 20 248 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 248 actccttttc catctccatg 20 249 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 249 ttgtcgatct gctcgaactc 20 250 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 250 gacttgtcga tctgctcgaa 20 251 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 251 gctcccggac ttgtcgatct 20 252 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 252 ccagctcccg gacttgtcga 20 253 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 253 tccactgatc ctgcacggaa 20 254 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 254 ccttccactg atcctgcacg 20 255 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 255 atgcctgcta gtcgggcgtg 20 256 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 256 cgggtgtagg ccccttccct 20 257 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 257 atggagtgga gagttgctcc 20 258 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 258 ttgtactttt tgataaagcc 20 259 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 259 cagtactggt ctgacgcagc 20 260 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 260 tctcacgtta cccacaatat 20 261 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 261 tttcttatta aatacccacg 20 262 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 262 aagtaatctc acatcatgtt 20 263 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 263 ttcagcaaca ggcttaggaa 20 264 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 264 gacaatgact tcagcaacag 20 265 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 265 tgcctattcc tggaaaactg 20 266 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 266 ggaagtcact agagtgtcat 20 267 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 267 ccaggacagg ctgggcctca 20 268 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 268 ctgctgtacc aggacaggct 20 269 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 269 tggaatgtct gagttacagc 20 270 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 270 agagtgttga cttggaatgg 20 271 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 271 gctcaagaag agtgttgact 20 272 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 272 tgcctctctt ccaaatcacg 20 273 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 273 tgtttttcat gttaaaaagc 20 274 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 274 tcccaccaca gaatttctct 20 275 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 275 gctctgcagg gtgacacctc 20 276 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 276 aggaggttaa accagtacgt 20 277 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 277 ggtggagagc cagctgctct 20 278 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 278 tattggctta aggcatatag 20 279 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 279 gacctgatga gtaaatattg 20 280 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 280 ttcttcatgt caaccggcag 20 281 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 281 gccccgaggc ccgctgcaat 20 282 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 282 tagtgaacta ttgttacaac 20 283 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 283 tgctaagcca cttctaatca 20 284 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 284 caggattcta agttattaaa 20 285 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 285 tgggcaggat ggctctggta 20 286 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 286 tacaatacta tctgtgacta 20 287 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 287 gatacttaca gggactgacg 20 288 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 288 aaccctgagg cgaaaggagt 20 289 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 289 ccccaggtca ctaaaattaa 20 290 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 290 aaagcaaagg tgagttggtg 20 291 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 291 gctcaattat taaaccactt 20 292 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 292 agtcctcaag aagtcacttt 20 293 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 293 gaaagcaggg actgctggca 20 294 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 294 aaaactggga gagacagcag 20 295 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 295 acatggaagc catggtcagc 20 296 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 296 attgctagac tcacactagg 20 297 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 297 ggctgtgatc aaaaggcagc 20 298 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 298 cactggctct gggcaacttt 20 299 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 299 gctgggcagc cacccataaa 20 300 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 300 agtcccctca cctcttttct 20 301 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 301 cctccttacc agcaagaggc 20 302 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 302 tgtattttgg aagaggagcg 20 303 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 303 acagactaac acagtgagtc 20 304 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 304 acaaattacc gagtctcagg 20 305 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 305 tcatgaaagg cttggtgccc 20 306 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 306 ttggaagatg aaatcttttg 20 307 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 307 agccatgtac ttggaagatg 20 308 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 308 cgagcccctc attccaacaa 20 309 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 309 cacctcagcg gacacctcta 20 310 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 310 gaaacatacc ctgtagcaga 20 311 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 311 cagagggctc cttaaaaccc 20 312 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 312 attcgtaaaa gtttgggatt 20 313 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 313 ccctcttctc caagggagtt 20 314 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 314 ggaatgaaac caaacagttc 20 315 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 315 aaatggttta ttccatggcc 20 316 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 316 aaaaatttta ttgttgcagc 20 317 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 317 ccggtcatgc agccacgtat 20 318 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 318 gttggaaaac tgtacagtct 20 319 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 319 attttattgt tgcagctaaa 20 320 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 320 cgcctccttc tcggcccact 20 321 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 321 gggcggctgc tgcgcctcct 20 322 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 322 gtggatttgg tactcaaagt 20 323 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 323 aaatggcttg tggatttggt 20 324 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 324 atggtactct ctttcactct 20 325 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 325 gccagcatgg tactctcttt 20 326 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 326 gagagttgct ccctgcagat 20 327 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 327 ggagtggaga gttgctccct 20 328 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 328 ccttgatgca aggctgacat 20 329 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 329 aaagcccttg atgcaaggct 20 330 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 330 agtactacct gaggatttat 20 331 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 331 ttccattccc agtactacct 20 332 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 332 ccatggcaaa gccttccatt 20 333 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 333 caggcccatg gcaaagcctt 20 334 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 334 caactgctta caaccgtcct 20 335 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 335 ccacgtgttc attatatatt 20 336 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 336 ttaaataccc acgtgttcat 20 337 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 337 taagcgggac aaagtaatct 20 338 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 338 cagataacag ggaggagaat 20 339 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 339 gagaactaga tctagcagat 20 340 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 340 agtgattgag aactagatct 20 341 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 341 gacacaagaa gaccttacat 20 342 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 342 ctcatttcaa gcacatattt 20 343 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 343 ggcaggttgg acttggacat 20 344 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 344 aaccacagcc atgtaatgat 20 345 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 345 ttgctgagcg acaatgactt 20 346 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 346 ctggaaaact gcaccctatt 20 347 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 347 gctgggcctc accaggaagt 20 348 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 348 ttacagcaag accctgctgt 20 349 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 349 acccttggaa tgtctgagtt 20 350 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 350 ttcccatacc cttggaatgt 20 351 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 351 atatggcttc ccataccctt 20 352 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 352 gtgtgaatat ggcttcccat 20 353 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 353 cctgcttccc taaatcatgt 20 354 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 354 gtgtccctgc ttccctaaat 20 355 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 355 cggaggctga tcccaaaggt 20 356 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 356 caggtgcctc tcttccaaat 20 357 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 357 gtggtttcca gcaggtgcct 20 358 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 358 gctgtttcaa gaagtgtggt 20 359 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 359 ggaccgtcac ccaggctgtt 20 360 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 360 caggctgcct aaaggaccgt 20 361 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 361 accatcaggc cccacagggt 20 362 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 362 gttccctttg caggaagagt 20 363 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 363 gtggaggtct tcagttccct 20 364 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 364 ccacttaatg tggaggtctt 20 365 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 365 agctacagct gccgtgtttt 20 366 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 366 ccacgagaaa ggcaaaatgt 20 367 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 367 gaatttctct gtactggctt 20 368 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 368 ccacagaatt tctctgtact 20 369 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 369 gaatgttccc accacagaat 20 370 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 370 gcctggcacc taagccttat 20 371 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 371 atgcttacag cctggcacct 20 372 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 372 ctacatacat atacaggact 20 373 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 373 tttgaaatgc tactatatat 20 374 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 374 ggataggagg ttaaaccagt 20 375 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 375 gccagctgct ctccaaggat 20 376 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 376 ctacctctct aacataatgt 20 377 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 377 gctcgctacc tctctaacat 20 378 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 378 aggcatatag cagagcagct 20 379 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 379 gtcaaccggc agccggaact 20 380 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 380 cctgcagcta ccgccgccct 20 381 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 381 cgctgcaatc cccgacccct 20 382 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 382 accaaaacac cttgcttttt 20 383 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 383 gtattatacc aaaacacctt 20 384 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 384 cacacacctg aaaaggtatt 20 385 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 385 acccggtcat gcagccacgt 20 386 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 386 gtgaggtcac agaagaccct 20 387 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 387 gtacagtctg acagttctgt 20 388 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 388 atggcaagtt ggaaaactgt 20 389 20 DNA Artificial Sequence Antisense Oligonucleotide 389 aatgcaaacc catcatgaat 20

Claims (44)

What is claimed is:
1. A compound 8 to 50 nucleobases in length targeted to a nucleic acid molecule encoding PTP1B, wherein said compound specifically hybridizes with and inhibits the expression of PTP1B.
2. The compound of claim 1 which is an antisense oligonucleotide.
3. The compound of claim 2 wherein the antisense oligonucleotide has a sequence comprising SEQ ID NO: 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 72, 73, 75, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 86, 87, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126, 127, 128, 130, 131, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 191, 193, 195, 196, 198, 201, 202, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 217, 219, 223, 225, 226, 228, 229, 230, 232, 233, 235, 236, 237, 239, 240, 244, 245, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 267, 268, 269, 271, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 281, 282, 283, 288, 290, 291, 292, 294, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 302, 303, 307, 310, 311, 313, 315, 317, 318, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 337, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 347, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 368, 369, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 377, 378, 380, 381, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, or 389.
4. The compound of claim 2 wherein the antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified internucleoside linkage.
5. The compound of claim 4 wherein the modified internucleoside linkage is a phosphorothioate linkage.
6. The compound of claim 2 wherein the antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified sugar moiety.
7. The compound of claim 6 wherein the modified sugar moiety is a 2′-Q-methoxyethyl sugar moiety.
8. The compound of claim 2 wherein the antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified nucleobase.
9. The compound of claim 8 wherein the modified nucleobase is a 5-methylcytosine.
10. The compound of claim 2 wherein the antisense oligonucleotide is a chimeric oligonucleotide.
11. A composition comprising the compound of claim 1 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.
12. The composition of claim 11 further comprising a colloidal dispersion system.
13. The composition of claim 11 wherein the compound is an antisense oligonucleotide.
14. A compound 8 to 50 nucleobases in length which specifically hybridizes with at least an 8-nucleobase portion of an active site on a nucleic acid molecule encoding PTP1B.
15. A method of inhibiting the expression of PTP1B in cells or tissues comprising contacting said cells or tissues with the compound of claim 1 so that expression of PTP1B is inhibited.
16. The method of claim 15 wherein the cells or tissues are human cells or tissues.
17. The method of claim 15 wherein the cells or tissues are rodent cells or tissues.
18. The method of claim 17 wherein the rodent cells or tissues are mouse cells or tissues.
19. The method of claim 17 wherein the rodent cells or tissues are rat cells or tissues.
20. The method of claim 15 wherein the cells or tissues are liver, kidney or adipose cells or tissues.
21. A method of treating an animal having or suspected of having a disease or condition associated with PTP1B comprising administering to said animal a therapeutically or prophylactically effective amount of the compound of claim 1 so that expression of PTP1B is inhibited.
22. The method of claim 21 wherein the animal is a human.
23. The method of claim 21 wherein the disease or condition is a metabolic disease or condition.
24. The method of claim 21 wherein the disease or condition is diabetes.
25. The method of claim 21 wherein the disease or condition is Type 2 diabetes.
26. The method of claim 21 wherein the disease or condition is obesity.
27. The method of claim 21 wherein the disease or condition is a hyperproliferative condition.
28. The method of claim 27 wherein the hyperproliferative condition is cancer.
29. A method of decreasing blood glucose levels in an animal comprising administering to said animal the compound of claim 1.
30. The method of claim 29 wherein the animal is a human or a rodent.
31. The method of claim 29 wherein the blood glucose levels are plasma glucose levels or serum glucose levels.
32. The method of claim 29 wherein the animal is a diabetic animal.
33. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of a disease or condition associated with PTP1B in an animal comprising administering to said animal a therapeutically or prophylactically effective amount of the compound of claim 1.
34. The method of claim 33 wherein the animal is a human.
35. The method of claim 33 wherein the disease or condition is a metabolic disease or condition.
36. The method of claim 33 wherein the disease or condition is diabetes.
37. The method of claim 33 wherein the disease or condition is Type 2 diabetes.
38. The method of claim 33 wherein the disease or condition is obesity.
39. The method of claim 33 wherein the disease or condition is a hyperproliferative condition.
40. The method of claim 39 wherein the hyperproliferative condition is cancer.
41. A method of preventing or delaying the onset of an increase in blood glucose levels in an animal comprising administering to said animal the compound of claim 1.
42. The method of claim 41 wherein the animal is a human or a rodent.
43. The method of claim 41 wherein the blood glucose levels are plasma glucose levels or serum glucose levels.
44. The method of claim 41 wherein the animal is a diabetic animal.
US09/854,883 2000-01-18 2001-05-14 Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression Abandoned US20020055479A1 (en)

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US09/629,644 US6602857B1 (en) 2000-01-18 2000-07-31 Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression
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US09/854,883 US20020055479A1 (en) 2000-01-18 2001-05-14 Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression
CA2447004A CA2447004C (en) 2001-05-14 2002-05-13 Antisense modulation of ptp1b expression
IL15877802A IL158778D0 (en) 2001-05-14 2002-05-13 Antisense modulation of ptp1b expression
JP2002589640A JP2004535179A (en) 2001-05-14 2002-05-13 Antisense modulation of Ptp1b expression
PCT/US2002/015301 WO2002092772A2 (en) 2001-05-14 2002-05-13 Antisense modulation of ptp1b expression
AU2002309819A AU2002309819B2 (en) 2000-01-18 2002-05-13 Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression
EP02736842A EP1392867B1 (en) 2001-05-14 2002-05-13 Antisense modulation of ptp1b expression
EP20100176164 EP2365094B1 (en) 2001-05-14 2002-05-13 Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression
EP10075264A EP2246443A1 (en) 2001-05-14 2002-05-13 Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression
US10/360,510 US7179796B2 (en) 2000-01-18 2003-02-07 Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression
IL158778A IL158778A (en) 2001-05-14 2003-11-06 Antisense and in vitro method for modulating ptp1b expression and use thereof in the preparation of medicaments
US11/008,747 US7563884B2 (en) 2000-01-18 2004-12-09 Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression
AU2007221812A AU2007221812B2 (en) 2000-01-18 2007-10-03 Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression
US12/046,421 US8017760B2 (en) 2001-05-14 2008-03-11 Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression
JP2010041991A JP2010158249A (en) 2001-05-14 2010-02-26 Antisense modulation of Ptp1b expression
AU2010203025A AU2010203025A1 (en) 2000-01-18 2010-07-16 Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression
US13/177,462 US8853178B2 (en) 2001-05-14 2011-07-06 Antisense modulation of PTP1B expression
HK12100929.2A HK1160494A1 (en) 2001-05-14 2012-02-02 Antisense modulation of ptp1b expression ptp1b

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