US20020032123A1 - Exhaust gas catalyst and method of manufacturing same - Google Patents

Exhaust gas catalyst and method of manufacturing same Download PDF

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US20020032123A1
US20020032123A1 US09/511,592 US51159200A US2002032123A1 US 20020032123 A1 US20020032123 A1 US 20020032123A1 US 51159200 A US51159200 A US 51159200A US 2002032123 A1 US2002032123 A1 US 2002032123A1
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oxide mixture
method
wt
oxide
catalyst
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US09/511,592
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Albert Shigapov
George Graham
Haren Gandhi
Hung-Wen Jen
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Ford Global Technologies LLC
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Ford Global Technologies LLC
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/92Chemical or biological purification of waste gases of engine exhaust gases
    • B01D53/94Chemical or biological purification of waste gases of engine exhaust gases by catalytic processes
    • B01D53/9445Simultaneously removing carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons or nitrogen oxides making use of three-way catalysts [TWC] or four-way-catalysts [FWC]
    • B01D53/945Simultaneously removing carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons or nitrogen oxides making use of three-way catalysts [TWC] or four-way-catalysts [FWC] characterised by a specific catalyst
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J23/00Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00
    • B01J23/38Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of noble metals
    • B01J23/54Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of noble metals combined with metals, oxides or hydroxides provided for in groups B01J23/02 - B01J23/36
    • B01J23/56Platinum group metals
    • B01J23/63Platinum group metals with rare earths or actinides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J37/00Processes, in general, for preparing catalysts; Processes, in general, for activation of catalysts
    • B01J37/02Impregnation, coating or precipitation
    • B01J37/0215Coating
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J23/00Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00
    • B01J23/10Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of rare earths
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A50/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE in human health protection
    • Y02A50/20Air quality improvement or preservation
    • Y02A50/23Emission reduction or control
    • Y02A50/232Catalytic converters
    • Y02A50/2322Catalytic converters for exhaust after-treatment of internal combustion engines in vehicles
    • Y02A50/2324Three way catalysts, i.e. for controlled oxidation or reduction of exhaust gases, e.g. stoichiometric equivalence ratio
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/20Exhaust after-treatment
    • Y02T10/22Three way catalyst technology, i.e. oxidation or reduction at stoichiometric equivalence ratio

Abstract

The present invention involves an exhaust gas catalyst and method of manufacturing same. The invention provides for a cost-effective material which lowers the cold-start emissions from the exhaust of vehicles. The invention is a passive system which accelerates the light-off temperature of catalyst in a cost-effective fashion. The invention includes a method of manufacturing an exhaust gas catalyst capable of lowering cold-start emissions including the steps of providing an oxide mixture having praseodymium and cerium, doping about 0-10% weight zirconium and about 0-10% weight yttrium to the oxide mixture, adding about 0-2% weight metal including palladium, platinum, or rhodium to the oxide mixture, mixing gamma aluminum to the oxide mixture for washcoating and washcoating the oxide mixture onto a monolithic substrate.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • This invention relates to an exhaust gas catalyst capable of lowering cold-start emissions and a method of manufacturing the exhaust gas catalyst. [0001]
  • BACKGROUND ART
  • The need to lower vehicle exhaust emissions continues to create challenges, especially in the wake of stringent environmental regulations. The need to lower cold-start emissions is at the heart of most emissions reduction strategy, since cold-start emissions account for a significant portion of exhaust emissions from any given vehicle. During startup, hydrocarbons can be passed through the exhaust system before the catalyst can heat up and convert the hydrocarbons to more desirable gases. Although a large portion of hydrocarbons are reduced, an amount of hydrocarbons and other undesirable gases may be allowed to pass through the exhaust system without reduction thereof. [0002]
  • One solution to the cold-start emission problem is providing a material that is able to give off oxygen to the catalyst during startup conditions such that the “light-off” temperature of the catalyst is accelerated. The light-off temperature is the temperature at which the catalyst reacts with hydrocarbons and other exhaust gases to reduce these gases, which are undesirable, to more desirable gases such as carbon dioxide. Oxygen, when fed to the catalyst, creates an exothermic reaction to the catalyst, resulting in increased temperature which allows the catalyst to reach the light-off temperature more quickly. [0003]
  • Currently, palladium is used with a cerium-zirconium mixed oxide support, an aluminum oxide support, or a mixture thereof to give off oxygen at startup conditions (low temperature), in order to accelerate light-off of the catalyst. However, palladium is an extremely expensive material which typically contributes to approximately 95% of the total cost of the catalyst. Recent studies have thus focused on methods and materials to reduce the consumption of palladium while providing an effective means for accelerating the light-off temperature of the catalyst. [0004]
  • The use of additional hardware has also been proposed to solve the cold-start problem. In some cases, the additional hardware allows the exhaust system catalyst to be heated directly in order to accelerate light-off of the catalyst. For example, an electrically heated catalyst may be used where the catalyst is heated directly by an electric heater. Prior to startup, current is run through the heater via the vehicle battery, and the heat produced accelerates light-off of the catalyst and, in turn, lowers the cold-start emissions. [0005]
  • Another example of an active approach is to allow fuel to combust near the catalyst to quickly raise the temperature thereof. This is accomplished by running lines and having an ignition system disposed on the vehicle. Generally, systems that incorporate additional hardware, such as the examples mentioned above, result in high costs for implementation. [0006]
  • Thus, what is needed is a cost effective solution to the cold-start emissions problem. [0007]
  • DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION
  • Accordingly it is an object of the present invention to provide a cost effective material which lowers the cold-start emissions from the exhaust of vehicles. [0008]
  • It is another object of the present invention to provide a passive system which accelerates the light-off temperature of catalysts in a cost-effective fashion. [0009]
  • Yet another object of this invention is to provide a method of manufacturing an exhaust gas catalyst capable of lowering cold-start emissions through a three-way catalyst including mixed metal oxides. [0010]
  • The method provides an exhaust gas catalyst having an oxide mixture with substantially equal molar content of praseodymium and cerium, doping about 0 to 10 weight % zirconium and about 0-10 weight % yttrium to the oxide mixture, and adding or doping about 0-2 weight % precious metal including palladium, platinum, or rhodium to the oxide mixture. The method further involves mixing gamma alumina to the oxide mixture for washcoating, and washcoating the mixture onto a monolithic substrate. [0011]
  • Another specific object of this invention is an exhaust gas catalyst supported on a monolithic substrate in which the catalyst is capable of lowering cold-start emissions. The catalyst comprises an oxide mixture which is washcoated on the monolithic substrate. The oxide mixture has substantially equal molar content of praseodymium and cerium. The oxide mixture also has about 0 to 10 weight % zirconium and about 0-10 weight % yttrium, and about 0-2 weight % precious metal which includes palladium, platinum, or rhodium. [0012]
  • In another object of this invention provides for a method of manufacturing an exhaust gas catalyst capable of lowering cold-start emissions through a three-way catalyst including mixed metal oxides. [0013]
  • The method provides an exhaust gas catalyst having an oxide mixture of praseodymium and cerium, doping about 0 to 10 weight % zirconium, about 0-10 weight % yttrium to the oxide mixture, and about 0-2 weight % precious metal including palladium, platinum, or rhodium to the oxide mixture. The method further involves mixing gamma alumina to the oxide mixture for washcoating, and washcoating the mixture onto a monolithic substrate. [0014]
  • In yet another embodiment of the invention, a method of making an oxygen storage material for automotive exhaust catalysts is provided wherein oxygen storage materials having a low temperature of oxygen release, such as praseodymia can be made thermally stable by an organic-templating method that incorporates low levels of zirconia, yttria and possibly other additives.[0015]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a table which shows the effect of surface area of mixed oxides as concentration of zirconium is increased in an equal molar concentration mixture of praseodymia and ceria; [0016]
  • FIG. 2 is another table which shows the effect of oxygen storage capacities of mixed oxides as the concentration of zirconium is increased in an equal molar concentration mixture of praseodymia and ceria; [0017]
  • FIG. 3 is a graph which shows the oxygen storage capacities of mixed oxides having praseodymia verus mixed oxides without praseodymia; and [0018]
  • FIG. 4 is a bar graph which shows the oxygen storage capacities of mixed oxides having praseodymia and adding precious metal at the time the mixed oxide is made versus mixed oxides without praseodymia.[0019]
  • BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
  • The invention is a method for manufacturing an exhaust gas catalyst capable of lowering cold-start emission. More specifically, the method teaches the formation of high surface area, thermally stable oxygen storage materials for automotive exhaust catalysts. The method generally includes providing an oxide mixture having praseodymium and cerium, doping about 0-10 weight % zirconium and about 0-10 weight % yttrium to the oxide mixture, and adding about 0-2 weight % precious metal to the oxide mixture. The precious metal may include palladium, platinum, rhodium or mixture thereof. The method generally further includes mixing gamma alumina to the oxide mixture for washcoating and washcoating the mixture onto a monolithic substrate. As a result, a material may be manufactured that lowers cold-start emissions. The resulting material is an exhaust gas catalyst supported on a monolithic substrate in which the catalyst comprises a praseodymium-cerium oxide mixture washcoated on the monolithic substrate. [0020]
  • Throughout the specification, the term “oxide mixture” or “mixed oxide” refers to a solid solution mixed oxide, or alloy, rather than a physical mixture of single oxides. [0021]
  • A surprising and unexpected advantage of the present method is that the oxide mixture so produced has been found to have high surface area and high oxygen storage capacities at lower temperatures while consuming lower contents of metals such as palladium. As described below the presence of zirconium with the praseodymium increases surface area stability of the oxide mixture. Such advantage provides for significant cost savings in manufacturing exhaust gas catalyst capable of lowering cold-start emissions through an exhaust stable catalyst, such as a three-way catalyst. The resultant praseodymium-cerium oxide mixture requires less metals to be added thereto in order to accelerate light-off of the catalyst. Thus, total consumption of palladium, platinum or rhodium will be reduced with implementation of the present invention method. [0022]
  • According to the present invention an oxide mixture is provided having preferably substantially equal molar content of praseodymium and cerium. Alternatively, the oxide mixture may be of different molar contents of praseodymium and cerium, e.g., about 40%/60%, 60%/40%, respectively. The oxide mixture may be prepared by any suitable means. Preferably, the oxide mixture is prepared as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/966,729, entitled Thermally Stable, High-Surface-Area Metal Oxides Made By Organic Templating, which is hereby incorporated by reference. However other suitable ways of preparing the oxide mixture may be used, such as sol gel methods or precipitation methods do not fall beyond the scope and spirit of this invention. [0023]
  • The oxide mixture is then doped with zirconium, yttrium, or both to enhance the thermal stability of the high surface area oxide mixture. [0024]
  • Generally, between 0 to about 10 weight % zirconium and between 0 to about 10 weight % yttrium may be doped to the oxide mixture. As described below, it has been found that higher doses of zirconium may reduce the oxygen storage capacities of the oxide mixture. It is preferred that the least amount of zirconium be doped to the oxide mixture that achieves the desired characteristics. [0025]
  • In a preferred embodiment, 0-2 weight % zirconium and/or yttrium is doped to the oxide mixture. More specifically, it has been found that the addition of zirconia tends to promote an undesirable transformation of tetravalent praseodymia (Pr+4) to trivalent praseodymia (Pr+3) in the praseodymia-ceria mixed oxide. This was confirmed by thermal gravimetric analysis which showed that the amount of oxygen reversibility released upon heating from 200° to 800° celsius in air decreases with increasing levels of zirconia. Thus, only small portions of zirconium are preferably added in order to enhance stability of the surface area of the mixed oxides. [0026]
  • As shown in FIG. 1, oxide mixtures having substantially equal molar content of praseodymium and cerium increase in surface area as the levels of zirconium are increased in the mixtures thereof. Moreover, FIG. 1 shows that increased contents of zirconium in oxide mixtures having equal molar contents of praseodymium and cerium increase the surface area of the resulting oxide mixture for fresh or air aged oxide mixtures. The increase in surface area of the oxide mixtures with respect to zirconium illustrates their enhanced ability as catalyst support. [0027]
  • As shown in FIG. 2, increased levels of zirconium in oxide mixtures having equal molar content of praseodymium and cerium result in a decrease of the oxygen storage capacities of the resulting oxide mixtures. Moreover, FIG. 2 shows that as levels of zirconium increase in oxide mixtures, oxygen storage capacities of such oxide mixtures also decrease consistent with temperature. The decrease of oxygen storage capacities of the oxide mixtures illustrates an adverse effect of zirconium on catalyst support. Additionally, FIGS. 1 and 2 together illustrate the need to optimize the amounts of zirconium doped to the oxide mixture. [0028]
  • As shown in FIG. 3, resulting oxide mixtures having praseodymium at 100° to 250° celsius have typically higher oxygen storage capacities than the resulting oxide mixture without praseodymium contents. Additionally, FIG. 3 also shows that oxide mixtures having greater contents of zirconium typically have a lower oxygen storage capacity than oxide mixtures having less zirconium contents. [0029]
  • Doping of the oxide mixture with zirconium, yttrium, or both may be achieved according to the preparation of preparing oxide mixtures as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/966,729 entitled Thermally Stable, High-Surface-Area Metal Oxides Made By Organic Templating which has been hereby incorporated by reference. [0030]
  • After the oxide mixture is doped, precious metal is added to the oxide mixture. Generally, 0-2 weight % precious metal is added to the oxide mixture. Specifically, the precious metals which may be added include palladium, platinum or rhodium. Preferably, 0.1 to 1.5 weight % of metal may be added to the oxide mixture. Moreover, a combination of the three precious metals may be added at any suitable ratios. Addition of the precious metal may be performed by impregnating the oxide mixture therewith, as known in the art. [0031]
  • It has been found that if precious metal is added to the mixed oxide at the time the mixed oxide is made, then oxygen storage capacities and surface areas of the mixed oxides are typically higher than when precious metal is added at a time after the oxide is made. Thus, it is preferred that the precious metal be added to the oxide mixture at the time the oxide mixture is prepared and doped. However, it is to be noted that adding precious metal at a later time does not fall beyond the scope and spirit of this invention. [0032]
  • FIG. 4 illustrates that by providing an oxide mixture having praseodymium and by adding precious metals to the mixed oxide at the time the oxide mixture is made, a catalyst with higher oxygen storage capacity at low temperatures is obtained. As shown in FIG. 4, a catalyst having praseodymium has a higher oxygen storage capacity than catalysts without praseodymium. In turn, less precious metals, such as palladium, are required to obtain a given oxygen storage capacity. A decrease in content of palladium per unit weight of catalyst results in a substantial cost savings in manufacturing exhaust gas catalysts. [0033]
  • After the precious metal is added, gamma alumina is mixed with the oxide mixture for washcoating. Gamma alumina aids in bonding the contents to achieve a monolithic catalyst having increased oxygen storage capacities. Gamma alumina may be mixed with the oxide mixture at about 0.1/1 to 1/1 in gamma alumina/oxide mixture molar ratios. [0034]
  • As known, there are a number of ways to mix gamma alumina with the oxide mixture for washcoating. All of such known methods may be used in this invention for such purpose and do not fall beyond the scope and spirit of this invention. [0035]
  • The resulting oxide mixture may then be washcoated onto a monolithic substrate. As known, there are a number of ways to washcoat the mixture onto the monolithic substrate. Any such methods may be used for this purpose and do not fall beyond the scope and spirit of this invention. Among the list of known methods, there is included dipping the washcoat into a slurry containing the oxide mixture, and blowing the resulting oxide mixture onto the washcoat, etc. [0036]
  • The substrate typically may be a substrate including cordierite substrate or metallic substrate. The additional weight of the resulting oxide mixture to be washcoated onto the substrate is about 30%-50% of the weight of the initial substrate. [0037]
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • Praseodymium-cerium oxide mixture is prepared at equally molar contents, specifically 45 weight percent each. Ten weight percent zirconium is doped to the oxide mixture and 2 weight percent palladium was added thereafter. Gamma alumina is then mixed to the oxide mixture for washcoating and the oxide mixture is then washcoated onto a monolithic substrate, specifically cordierite substrate. [0038]
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • Praseodymium-cerium oxide mixture is prepared at equally molar contents, specifically 42.5 weight percent each. Fifteen weight percent zirconium was doped to the oxide mixture and 2 weight percent palladium is added thereafter. Gamma alumina is then mixed to the oxide mixture for washcoating and the oxide mixture is then washcoated onto a monolithic substrate, specifically cordierite substrate. [0039]
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • Praseodymium-cerium oxide mixture is prepared at equally molar contents, specifically 40 weight percent each. Twenty weight percent zirconium is doped to the oxide mixture and 2 weight percent palladium was added thereafter. Gamma alumina is then mixed to the oxide mixture for washcoating and the oxide mixture is then washcoated onto a monolithic substrate, specifically cordierite substrate. [0040]
  • EXAMPLE 4
  • Praseodymium-cerium oxide mixture is prepared at equally molar contents, specifically 31 weight percent each. Thirty-eight weight percent zirconium is doped to the oxide mixture and 2 weight percent palladium was added thereafter. Gamma alumina is then mixed to the oxide mixture for washcoating and the oxide mixture is then washcoated onto a monolithic substrate, specifically cordierite substrate. [0041]
  • While embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described, it is not intended that these embodiments illustrate and describe all possible forms of the invention. Rather, the words used in the specification are words of description rather than limitation, and it is understood that various changes may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. [0042]

Claims (9)

What is claimed is:
1. A method of manufacturing an exhaust gas catalyst capable of lowering cold-start emissions, the method comprising:
providing an oxide mixture of praseodymium and cerium;
doping the oxide mixture with 0-10 wt % zirconium and 0%-10 wt % yttrium;
doping the oxide mixture with 0-2 wt % precious metal;
mixing gamma alumina to the oxide mixture for washcoating; and
washcoating the mixture onto a monolithic substrate.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the oxide mixture has praseodymium and cerium in substantially equal molar content.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of doping further comprises doping about 0-2 wt % zirconium and about 0-2 wt % yttrium to the oxide mixture.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of doping further comprises doping about 0.1-1.5 wt % precious metal to the oxide mixture.
5. The method of claim 4 wherein the step of doping the precious metal occurs immediately after the step of doping the zirconium and yttrium to the oxide material.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein gamma alumina is mixed with the oxide mixture at a ratio of 0.1-1 mole of gamma alumina to the oxide mixture.
7. The method of claim, wherein the precious metal is selected from the group consisting of platinum, rhodium, palladium, and mixtures thereof.
8. An exhaust gas catalyst supported on a monolithic substrate, the catalyst capable of lowering cold-start emissions, the catalyst comprising:
an oxide mixture washcoated on the monolithic substrate, the oxide mixture having substantially equal molar content of praseodymium and cerium, about 0-10 wt % zirconium and about 0-10 wt % yttrium, and about 0-2 wt % precious metal.
9. A method of manufacturing an exhaust gas catalyst capable of lowering cold-start emissions, the method comprising:
providing an oxide mixture of praseodymium and cerium;
doping the oxide mixture with 0-10 wt % zirconium, 0%-10 wt % yttrium, and 0-2 wt % precious metal;
mixing gamma alumina to the oxide mixture for washcoating; and
washcoating the mixture onto a monolithic substrate, whereby providing praseodymium increases oxygen storage capacity of the catalyst and decreases a required amount of the precious metal doped to the oxide mixture of the catalyst.
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US09/511,592 US20020032123A1 (en) 2000-02-23 2000-02-23 Exhaust gas catalyst and method of manufacturing same
JP2001031748A JP4776789B2 (en) 2000-02-23 2001-02-08 Exhaust catalyst and method for producing the same
DE60124967T DE60124967T2 (en) 2000-02-23 2001-02-19 Catalytic converter and process for its preparation
EP01301409A EP1127605B1 (en) 2000-02-23 2001-02-19 Exhaust gas catalyst and method of manufacturing same
US10/144,507 US6893998B2 (en) 2000-02-23 2002-05-13 Exhaust gas catalyst and method of manufacturing same
US10/905,855 US7229948B2 (en) 2000-02-23 2005-01-24 Exhaust gas catalyst and method of manufacturing same

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US6893998B2 (en) 2005-05-17
JP4776789B2 (en) 2011-09-21

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