US20020008575A1 - Method and system for efficiently transmitting energy from an rf device - Google Patents

Method and system for efficiently transmitting energy from an rf device Download PDF

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Publication number
US20020008575A1
US20020008575A1 US09361865 US36186599A US2002008575A1 US 20020008575 A1 US20020008575 A1 US 20020008575A1 US 09361865 US09361865 US 09361865 US 36186599 A US36186599 A US 36186599A US 2002008575 A1 US2002008575 A1 US 2002008575A1
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Prior art keywords
power
amplifier
stages
stage
level
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Granted
Application number
US09361865
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US6377117B2 (en )
Inventor
Mark Oskowsky
Darioush Agahi-Kesheh
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Skyworks Solutions Inc
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Lakestar Semi Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03FAMPLIFIERS
    • H03F1/00Details of amplifiers with only discharge tubes, only semiconductor devices or only unspecified devices as amplifying elements
    • H03F1/02Modifications of amplifiers to raise the efficiency, e.g. gliding Class A stages, use of an auxiliary oscillation
    • H03F1/0205Modifications of amplifiers to raise the efficiency, e.g. gliding Class A stages, use of an auxiliary oscillation in transistor amplifiers
    • H03F1/0277Selecting one or more amplifiers from a plurality of amplifiers

Abstract

A method and system for efficiently transmitting RF energy from a RF device is disclosed. The method and system comprises a multi-stage power amplifier having a plurality of power amplifier stages arranged in parallel with associated switches for selectively switching on or off the plurality of power amplifier stages to produce a desired power level. By selectively switching on or off each individual power amplifier's associated switches at predetermined operating point's produces the desired power level for maximum efficiency. Additionally, more than one connected multi-stage power amplifiers each having a plurality of power amplifier stages arranged in parallel with associated switches for selectively switching on or off the plurality of power amplifier stages may be used to produce a desired power level.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates generally to power amplifiers used for transmitting RF energy and, in particular, to a multi-stage amplifier wherein the stages are arranged in parallel and switchably turned on or off to provide a desired plurality of power levels with each stage operating at a predetermined operating point.
  • [0003]
    2. Description of Related Art
  • [0004]
    A power amplifier of one type or another is used as the final stage in any RF transmission device. In a cellular telephone, for example, the power amplifier receives a signal as an input and then amplifies that signal to a power level that may be effectively coupled to an antenna and transmitted as RF radiation. Currently, most power amplifiers utilize multiple amplifier stages connected in series to form a multistage power amplifier. In the modern transceiver the transmitted power is adjusted by varying the series connected power amplifier's bias voltage or current.
  • [0005]
    However, by adjusting the bias voltage or current in a series connected multistage amplifier for a plurality of power levels, the efficiency is known to be 60% or less resulting in wasted power to heat. Therefore, there is a need for a multi-stage power amplifier that is capable of operating at a plurality of power levels at a higher overall average efficiency. The subject invention solves this problem in a new and unique manner not previously known in the arts.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0006]
    The method and system comprises a multi-stage power amplifier having a plurality of power amplifier stages arranged in parallel with associated switches for selectively switching the plurality of power amplifier stages on or off to produce a desired power level.
  • [0007]
    Selectively switching on or off each individual power amplifier's associated switches at predetermined operating point's produces the desired power level for maximum efficiency. Additionally, more than one connected multi-stage power amplifier, each having a plurality of power amplifier stages, arranged in parallel with associated switches for selectively switching on or off the plurality of power amplifier stages may be used to produce a desired power level.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0008]
    The exact nature of the invention, as well as the preferred mode of use, and its objects and advantages will be readily understood by reference to the following detailed description of an illustrative embodiment when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals designate like parts throughout the figures thereof, and wherein:
  • [0009]
    [0009]FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a prior art power amplifier system comprising a series configured arrangement of stages;
  • [0010]
    [0010]FIG. 2 is a graph showing the non-linear relationship between PWR OUT and the common control signal Vcontrol provided to the stages of the power amplifier in FIG. 1;
  • [0011]
    [0011]FIG. 3 is an efficiency curve showing the overall transmission efficiency as a function of the control signal; and
  • [0012]
    [0012]FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a multi-stage power amplifier according to the present invention having a plurality of parallel-arranged stages that are independently controlled between an OFF state and an ON state.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0013]
    Referring now to the drawings, FIG. 1 shows a high-level block diagram of a prior art power amplifier system 10 comprising a series configured arrangement of power amplifier stages. The power amplifier system 10 utilizes a conventional, multistage power amplifier 12 wherein three separate power amplifier (PA) stages 14, 16 and 18, respectively, take a PWR IN 20 signal and through a matching network 24 produce a PWR OUT signal 22. The multi-stage amplifier of FIG. 1 uses several power amplifier stages rather than merely one power amplifier stage such that the overall PA 12 may achieve the desired amplification, approx., 20 dB gain, typically required by a cellular telephone with higher fidelity and with less probability of oscillation.
  • [0014]
    In many systems employing RF transmission, it is becoming more and more commonplace to require a plurality of power levels in a cellular telephone based on today's telecommunication standards. By way of example, but not of limitation, current mobile transmit stations (MTS) are required to transmit at 15 different power levels that are designated as PWR LVL 5 to PWR LVL 19 which vary in 2 dBm steps from 5 dBm to 33 dBm. The different power levels are determined by the cellular telephone's proximity to the MTS for maintaining an RF link. The multi-stage PA 12 of FIG. 1 implements the required power level by suitably controlling the voltage on a VCONTROL 26 line that is provided to each of the PA stages and may be suitably varied between two known values that are set in the factory during the calibration process. In an RF device (not shown) such as a cellular phone, the transceiver portion adjusts the transmitted power by varying the PA's 12 bias voltage or current through the VCONTROL 26 line by a PA controller 28 in response to the cellular phones digital signal processor (DSP) 30 which determines its location and associated power level with respect to its location to its MTS. The PA controller 28 further monitors the PWR OUT 22 by a coupler 32 to further tune and adjust the multi-stage PA 12, as shown in FIG. 1.
  • [0015]
    Referring now to FIG. 2, there is shown a graph 34 depicting the non-linear relationship 36 between PWR OUT 22 and the common control signal VCONTROL 26 provided to the stages of the power amplifier 12 in FIG. 1. As shown by FIG. 2, the relationship 36 between PWR OUT 22 and VCONTROL 26 is not linear, as VCONTROL ranges from 0 to 3 volts. In addition, turning to FIG. 3, there is depicted an efficiency curve 40 showing the overall transmission efficiency 38 as a function of the control signal 26. As shown by FIG. 3, the power amplifier has a maximum efficiency at a particular operating point 42 (e.g. 60% at 2 volts). Consequently, as the power amplifier 12 is variably set to different power levels, the overall efficiency of the power amplifier 12 is generally less than the maximum efficiency of 60%. If the transmitter's power amplifier always operates in the range identified as 5 dBm 33 dBm, then the power amplifier 12 has an overall average efficiency that is even less than 60% (e.g. 52%). As a result, approximately only one half of the power being inserted in the device is actually being transmitted as useful RF power, whereas the rest of the power is merely being dissipated as heat.
  • [0016]
    Operating as efficiently as possible is critical when it comes to a portable device. A 3-volt device that transmits at 2 watts of power at 100% efficiency, for example, draws two-thirds of an ampere. If that same device were to operate at 60% efficiency, its current draw when transmitting at 2 watts of power would increase to approximately 1.1 amperes. Given a typical battery capacity of only 1 ampere-hour, this 60% efficiency device would have a total transmit time or “talk time” of less than 1 hour.
  • [0017]
    Referring now to FIG. 4, there is shown a block diagram 60 of the multistage power amplifier according to the present invention having a plurality of parallel-arranged power amplifier stages that are independently controlled between an OFF state and an ON state for maximizing the power in 20 to power out 22 efficiency to solve the above-described drawbacks. In accordance with the present invention, the method for efficiently transmitting RF energy from an RF device such as a cellular phone comprises the step of determining a desired power level for the power out 22 from a plurality of power levels for transmitting RF energy from an RF device based on its geographical location to a mobile transmit station. This information is processed within the digital signal processor (DSP) 30 and delivered to the power amplifier controller 56, as shown in FIG. 4. Within the power amplifier controller 56 is a random access memory (RAM) which stores a predetermined plurality of power levels and associated combinations for independently switching on or off one or more of the power amplifier stages. It should be understood that although a ROM is shown in FIG. 4, any memory device may be used.
  • [0018]
    From the desired power level delivered by the DSP 30, the PA controller 62 utilizing the stored information in the ROM 62 to selectively power or switch on or off the combination of power amplifier stages arranged in parallel for producing the desired power level. In one preferred embodiment, three power amplifier stages 44, 46 and 48 are arranged and connected in parallel to form a multi-stage power amplifier. By selectively switching on or off each individual power amplifier's associated switches 50, 52 and 54 at predetermined operating point's produces the desired power level (PWR OUT) 22 through summer 64 for maximum efficiency.
  • [0019]
    Although not shown, in another preferred embodiment, a plurality of multistage power amplifiers may be connected together wherein each multi-stage power amplifier has more than one power amplifier stage arranged in parallel for also selectively switching on or off one or more of the power amplifier stages in one or more multi-stage power amplifiers to produce the desired power level.
  • [0020]
    While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to a preferred embodiment, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and detail may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
  • [0021]
    Those skilled in the art will appreciate that various adaptations and modifications of the just-described preferred embodiments can be configured without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. Therefore, it is to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced other than as specifically described herein.

Claims (17)

    What is claimed is:
  1. 1. A method for efficiently transmitting RF energy from an RF device comprising the steps of:
    determining a desired power level from a plurality of pre-set power levels for transmitting RF energy from an RF device; and
    selectively switching on or off one or more power amplifier stages arranged in parallel to produce the desired power level.
  2. 2. The method for efficiently transmitting RF energy according to claim 1, wherein each one of the power amplifier stages:
    operate at a predetermined operating point for maximum efficiency.
  3. 3. The method for efficiently transmitting RF energy according to claim 1, wherein the power amplifier stages are arranged in parallel to form a multi-stage power amplifier, whereby selectively switching on or off one or more of power amplifier stages produces the desired power level.
  4. 4. The method for efficiently transmitting RF energy according to claim 1, wherein the power amplifier stages utilizing three power amplifier stages arranged in parallel to form a multi-stage power amplifier, whereby selectively switching on or off individual power amplifier stages at predetermined operating points produces the desired power level at maximum efficiency.
  5. 5. The method for efficiently transmitting RF energy according to claim 1, wherein one or more connected multi-stage power amplifiers are utilized, each multi-stage power amplifier having more than one power amplifier stage arranged in parallel; whereby selectively switching on or off one or more of the power amplifier stages in the multi-stage power amplifiers produces the desired power level.
  6. 6. The method for efficiently transmitting RF energy according to claim 1, wherein producing the desired power level, further comprises the step of:
    storing the plurality of power levels and associated combinations for independently switching on or off the one or more power amplifier stages for use in selectively utilizing one or more power amplifier stages for producing a desired power level from the stored plurality of power levels.
  7. 7. A system for efficiently transmitting RF energy from an RF device comprising the steps of:
    A plurality of power amplifier stages arranged in parallel;
    a controller for determining a desired power level from a plurality of power levels for transmitting RF energy from an RF device; and
    a plurality of switches for selectively switching one or more power amplifier stages arranged in parallel on or off to produce the desired power level.
  8. 8. The system according to claim 7, wherein each one of the power amplifier stages are operated at a predetermined operating point for maximum efficiency.
  9. 9. The system according to claim 7, further comprising:
    switches for selectively switching one or more of three power amplifier stages arranged in parallel to form a multi-stage power amplifier on or off to produce the desired power level.
  10. 10. The system according to claim 7, further comprising:
    switches for selectively switching one or more power amplifier stages arranged in parallel in one or more connected multi-stage power amplifiers on or off to produce the desired power level.
  11. 11. The system according to claim 7, further comprising:
    memory for storing the plurality of power levels and associated combinations for independently switching the one or more power amplifier stages on or off.
  12. 12. A multi-stage power amplifier comprising:
    a plurality of power amplifier stages arranged in parallel; and
    switches associated with the plurality of power amplifier stages for selectively switching the plurality of power amplifier stages on or off to produce a desired power level.
  13. 13. The multi-stage power amplifier according to claim 12, wherein each power amplifier stage has predetermined operating points.
  14. 14. The multi-stage power amplifier according to claim 12, further comprising:
    three power amplifier stages arranged in parallel to form a multi-stage power amplifier wherein selectively switching one or more of the three power amplifier stages on or off produces a desired power level.
  15. 15. The multi-stage power amplifier according to claim 12, further comprising:
    three power amplifier stages arranged in parallel to form a multi-stage power amplifier wherein selectively switching individual power amplifier stages at predetermined operating points on or off produces a desired power level at maximum efficiency.
  16. 16. The multi-stage power amplifier according to claim 12, further comprising:
    one or more connected multi-stage power amplifiers, each said multistage power amplifier having more than one power amplifier stage arranged in parallel wherein selectively switching one or more of said power amplifier stages in the one or more multi-stage power amplifiers produces a desired power level.
  17. 17. The multi-stage power amplifier according to claim 12, further comprising:
    a ROM for storing a plurality of power levels and associated combinations for independently switching the plurality of power amplifier stages on or off for selectively utilizing the plurality of power amplifier stages to produce a desired power level from the stored plurality of power levels.
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Cited By (19)

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US20080136511A1 (en) * 2006-12-06 2008-06-12 Alireza Zolfaghari Method and system for fast calibration to cancel phase feedthrough
US7444124B1 (en) * 2003-05-14 2008-10-28 Marvell International Ltd. Adjustable segmented power amplifier
US20090146784A1 (en) * 2007-12-10 2009-06-11 Mohammad Soleimani Method and System for Variable Power Amplifier Bias in RFID Transceivers
WO2013169209A1 (en) * 2012-05-11 2013-11-14 Agency For Science, Technology And Research Communication devices and methods for controlling a communication device
US20130315348A1 (en) * 2012-05-25 2013-11-28 Qualcomm Incorporated Low noise amplifiers for carrier aggregation
US8774334B2 (en) 2011-11-09 2014-07-08 Qualcomm Incorporated Dynamic receiver switching
US8995591B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2015-03-31 Qualcomm, Incorporated Reusing a single-chip carrier aggregation receiver to support non-cellular diversity
US9026070B2 (en) 2003-12-18 2015-05-05 Qualcomm Incorporated Low-power wireless diversity receiver with multiple receive paths
US9118439B2 (en) 2012-04-06 2015-08-25 Qualcomm Incorporated Receiver for imbalanced carriers
US9154179B2 (en) 2011-06-29 2015-10-06 Qualcomm Incorporated Receiver with bypass mode for improved sensitivity
US9172402B2 (en) 2012-03-02 2015-10-27 Qualcomm Incorporated Multiple-input and multiple-output carrier aggregation receiver reuse architecture
US9178669B2 (en) 2011-05-17 2015-11-03 Qualcomm Incorporated Non-adjacent carrier aggregation architecture
US9252827B2 (en) 2011-06-27 2016-02-02 Qualcomm Incorporated Signal splitting carrier aggregation receiver architecture
US9300420B2 (en) 2012-09-11 2016-03-29 Qualcomm Incorporated Carrier aggregation receiver architecture
US9362958B2 (en) 2012-03-02 2016-06-07 Qualcomm Incorporated Single chip signal splitting carrier aggregation receiver architecture
US9450665B2 (en) 2005-10-19 2016-09-20 Qualcomm Incorporated Diversity receiver for wireless communication
US20160352366A1 (en) * 2015-05-28 2016-12-01 Airoha Technology Corp. Wideband front-end device and rf signal filtering method thereof
US9543903B2 (en) 2012-10-22 2017-01-10 Qualcomm Incorporated Amplifiers with noise splitting
US9867194B2 (en) 2012-06-12 2018-01-09 Qualcomm Incorporated Dynamic UE scheduling with shared antenna and carrier aggregation

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US6683498B2 (en) * 2000-07-03 2004-01-27 Broadcom Corporation Protection circuit for extending headroom with off-chip inductors
US6791407B2 (en) * 2002-01-15 2004-09-14 Mia-Com Eurotec B.V. Switchable power amplifier
US7039377B2 (en) * 2002-06-14 2006-05-02 Skyworks Solutions, Inc. Switchable gain amplifier
US7260377B2 (en) * 2002-12-02 2007-08-21 Broadcom Corporation Variable-gain low noise amplifier for digital terrestrial applications
US7471941B2 (en) * 2002-12-02 2008-12-30 Broadcom Corporation Amplifier assembly including variable gain amplifier, parallel programmable amplifiers, and AGC
US6798286B2 (en) * 2002-12-02 2004-09-28 Broadcom Corporation Gain control methods and systems in an amplifier assembly
US8437720B2 (en) 2002-12-02 2013-05-07 Broadcom Corporation Variable-gain low noise amplifier for digital terrestrial applications
US8064924B2 (en) * 2007-11-20 2011-11-22 Intermec Ip Corp. Utilizing location-based data to manipulate power states of embedded devices
US8212541B2 (en) 2008-05-08 2012-07-03 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Power converter with capacitive energy transfer and fast dynamic response
EP2353219B1 (en) 2008-11-11 2018-05-02 Massachusetts Institute of Technology An asymmetric multilevel outphasing architecture for rf amplifiers
US7982543B1 (en) 2009-03-30 2011-07-19 Triquint Semiconductor, Inc. Switchable power amplifier
US8207798B1 (en) 2009-09-09 2012-06-26 Triquint Semiconductor, Inc. Matching network with switchable capacitor bank
US8824978B2 (en) 2012-10-30 2014-09-02 Eta Devices, Inc. RF amplifier architecture and related techniques
US9537456B2 (en) 2012-10-30 2017-01-03 Eta Devices, Inc. Asymmetric multilevel backoff amplifier with radio-frequency splitter
US9768731B2 (en) 2014-07-23 2017-09-19 Eta Devices, Inc. Linearity and noise improvement for multilevel power amplifier systems using multi-pulse drain transitions
US9166536B2 (en) * 2012-10-30 2015-10-20 Eta Devices, Inc. Transmitter architecture and related methods
US8829993B2 (en) 2012-10-30 2014-09-09 Eta Devices, Inc. Linearization circuits and methods for multilevel power amplifier systems
US9294056B2 (en) 2013-03-12 2016-03-22 Peregrine Semiconductor Corporation Scalable periphery tunable matching power amplifier
WO2014168911A1 (en) 2013-04-09 2014-10-16 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Power conservation with high power factor
JP2015023308A (en) * 2013-07-16 2015-02-02 マイクロン テクノロジー, インク. Semiconductor device, and method for adjusting impedance of output circuit
US9276527B2 (en) 2013-09-30 2016-03-01 Peregrine Semiconductor Corporation Methods and devices for impedance matching in power amplifier circuits
US9331643B2 (en) * 2013-09-30 2016-05-03 Peregrine Semiconductor Corporation Methods and devices for thermal control in power amplifier circuits
WO2015069516A1 (en) 2013-10-29 2015-05-14 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Switched-capacitor split drive transformer power conversion circuit
US9407212B2 (en) * 2013-11-15 2016-08-02 Peregrine Semiconductor Corporation Devices and methods for improving yield of scalable periphery amplifiers
US9438185B2 (en) 2013-11-15 2016-09-06 Peregrine Semiconductor Corporation Devices and methods for increasing reliability of scalable periphery amplifiers
US9391566B2 (en) * 2013-11-15 2016-07-12 Peregrine Semiconductor Corporation Methods and devices for testing segmented electronic assemblies

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US7444124B1 (en) * 2003-05-14 2008-10-28 Marvell International Ltd. Adjustable segmented power amplifier
US7863976B1 (en) 2003-05-14 2011-01-04 Marvell International Ltd. Adjustable segmented power amplifier
US8044716B1 (en) 2003-05-14 2011-10-25 Marvell International Ltd. Adjustable segmented power amplifier
US9026070B2 (en) 2003-12-18 2015-05-05 Qualcomm Incorporated Low-power wireless diversity receiver with multiple receive paths
US9450665B2 (en) 2005-10-19 2016-09-20 Qualcomm Incorporated Diversity receiver for wireless communication
US7436253B2 (en) * 2006-12-06 2008-10-14 Broadcom Corporation Method and system for fast calibration to cancel phase feedthrough
US20080136511A1 (en) * 2006-12-06 2008-06-12 Alireza Zolfaghari Method and system for fast calibration to cancel phase feedthrough
US20090146784A1 (en) * 2007-12-10 2009-06-11 Mohammad Soleimani Method and System for Variable Power Amplifier Bias in RFID Transceivers
US9178669B2 (en) 2011-05-17 2015-11-03 Qualcomm Incorporated Non-adjacent carrier aggregation architecture
US9252827B2 (en) 2011-06-27 2016-02-02 Qualcomm Incorporated Signal splitting carrier aggregation receiver architecture
US9154179B2 (en) 2011-06-29 2015-10-06 Qualcomm Incorporated Receiver with bypass mode for improved sensitivity
US8774334B2 (en) 2011-11-09 2014-07-08 Qualcomm Incorporated Dynamic receiver switching
US9362958B2 (en) 2012-03-02 2016-06-07 Qualcomm Incorporated Single chip signal splitting carrier aggregation receiver architecture
US9172402B2 (en) 2012-03-02 2015-10-27 Qualcomm Incorporated Multiple-input and multiple-output carrier aggregation receiver reuse architecture
US9118439B2 (en) 2012-04-06 2015-08-25 Qualcomm Incorporated Receiver for imbalanced carriers
WO2013169209A1 (en) * 2012-05-11 2013-11-14 Agency For Science, Technology And Research Communication devices and methods for controlling a communication device
US9160598B2 (en) 2012-05-25 2015-10-13 Qualcomm Incorporated Low noise amplifiers with cascode divert switch for carrier aggregation
US9166852B2 (en) 2012-05-25 2015-10-20 Qualcomm Incorporated Low noise amplifiers with transformer-based signal splitting for carrier aggregation
US9154356B2 (en) * 2012-05-25 2015-10-06 Qualcomm Incorporated Low noise amplifiers for carrier aggregation
US9154357B2 (en) 2012-05-25 2015-10-06 Qualcomm Incorporated Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) low noise amplifiers for carrier aggregation
US20130315348A1 (en) * 2012-05-25 2013-11-28 Qualcomm Incorporated Low noise amplifiers for carrier aggregation
US9867194B2 (en) 2012-06-12 2018-01-09 Qualcomm Incorporated Dynamic UE scheduling with shared antenna and carrier aggregation
US9300420B2 (en) 2012-09-11 2016-03-29 Qualcomm Incorporated Carrier aggregation receiver architecture
US9543903B2 (en) 2012-10-22 2017-01-10 Qualcomm Incorporated Amplifiers with noise splitting
US9837968B2 (en) 2012-10-22 2017-12-05 Qualcomm Incorporated Amplifier circuits
US8995591B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2015-03-31 Qualcomm, Incorporated Reusing a single-chip carrier aggregation receiver to support non-cellular diversity
US20160352366A1 (en) * 2015-05-28 2016-12-01 Airoha Technology Corp. Wideband front-end device and rf signal filtering method thereof
US9887712B2 (en) * 2015-05-28 2018-02-06 Airoha Technology Corp. Wideband front-end device and RF signal filtering method thereof

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