US20020000957A1 - Multicolor display element with enable input - Google Patents

Multicolor display element with enable input Download PDF

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US20020000957A1
US20020000957A1 US09/373,437 US37343799A US2002000957A1 US 20020000957 A1 US20020000957 A1 US 20020000957A1 US 37343799 A US37343799 A US 37343799A US 2002000957 A1 US2002000957 A1 US 2002000957A1
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bus
buffer
light emitting
color
input
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US6424327B2 (en
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Karel Havel
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Texas Digital Systems Inc
HAVEL KAREL
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Texas Digital Systems Inc
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Priority to US06/819,111 priority Critical patent/US4794383A/en
Priority to US19732288A priority
Priority to US07/628,328 priority patent/US5122733A/en
Priority to US07/865,460 priority patent/US5283517A/en
Priority to US08/187,350 priority patent/US5475300A/en
Priority to US08/571,246 priority patent/US5656935A/en
Priority to US08/910,080 priority patent/US6018237A/en
Priority to US09/373,437 priority patent/US6424327B2/en
Application filed by Texas Digital Systems Inc filed Critical Texas Digital Systems Inc
Assigned to TEXAS DIGITAL SYSTEMS, INC. reassignment TEXAS DIGITAL SYSTEMS, INC. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). Assignors: HAVEL, KAREL
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R13/00Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms
    • G01R13/20Cathode-ray oscilloscopes ; Oscilloscopes using other screens than CRT's, e.g. LCD's
    • G01R13/22Circuits therefor
    • G01R13/26Circuits for controlling the intensity of the electron beam or the colour of the display
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R13/00Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms
    • G01R13/02Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms for displaying measured electric variables in digital form
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R13/00Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms
    • G01R13/40Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms using modulation of a light beam otherwise than by mechanical displacement, e.g. by Kerr effect
    • G01R13/404Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms using modulation of a light beam otherwise than by mechanical displacement, e.g. by Kerr effect for discontinuous display, i.e. display of discrete values
    • G01R13/405Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms using modulation of a light beam otherwise than by mechanical displacement, e.g. by Kerr effect for discontinuous display, i.e. display of discrete values using a plurality of active, i.e. light emitting, e.g. electro-luminescent elements, i.e. bar graphs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R15/00Details of measuring arrangements of the types provided for in groups G01R17/00 - G01R29/00 and G01R33/00 - G01R35/00
    • G01R15/12Circuits for multi-testers, i.e. multimeters, e.g. for measuring voltage, current, or impedance at will
    • G01R15/125Circuits for multi-testers, i.e. multimeters, e.g. for measuring voltage, current, or impedance at will for digital multimeters
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/04Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of a single character by selection from a plurality of characters, or by composing the character by combination of individual elements, e.g. segments using a combination of such display devices for composing words, rows or the like, in a frame with fixed character positions
    • G09G3/06Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of a single character by selection from a plurality of characters, or by composing the character by combination of individual elements, e.g. segments using a combination of such display devices for composing words, rows or the like, in a frame with fixed character positions using controlled light sources
    • G09G3/12Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of a single character by selection from a plurality of characters, or by composing the character by combination of individual elements, e.g. segments using a combination of such display devices for composing words, rows or the like, in a frame with fixed character positions using controlled light sources using electroluminescent elements
    • G09G3/14Semiconductor devices, e.g. diodes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2300/00Aspects of the constitution of display devices
    • G09G2300/04Structural and physical details of display devices
    • G09G2300/0439Pixel structures
    • G09G2300/0452Details of colour pixel setup, e.g. pixel composed of a red, a blue and two green components
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2310/00Command of the display device
    • G09G2310/02Addressing, scanning or driving the display screen or processing steps related thereto
    • G09G2310/0264Details of driving circuits
    • G09G2310/0275Details of drivers for data electrodes, other than drivers for liquid crystal, plasma or OLED displays, not related to handling digital grey scale data or to communication of data to the pixels by means of a current
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/06Adjustment of display parameters
    • G09G2320/0666Adjustment of display parameters for control of colour parameters, e.g. colour temperature

Abstract

A multicolor display element includes a plurality of display areas arranged in a pattern, each including light emitting diodes of respective primary colors, which are coupled to the buses in accordance with their colors. A single enable input is provided for receiving an enable signal having an active level and an inactive level, for selectively extinguishing the entire display element and for illuminating the selected display areas in a desired color. The enable input jointly controls the conductivity of tri-state buffers which are respectively coupled to the buses.

Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • 1. Field of the Invention [0001]
  • This invention relates to multicolor display devices utilizing light emitting diodes. [0002]
  • 2. Description of the Prior Art [0003]
  • An electronic display having segments wherein each segment is capable of selectively illuminating two colors is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,488,149 issued on Dec. 11, 1984 to William A. Givens, Jr. Two AND gates are provided for biasing, in each display segment, either a first light emitting diode, for emitting a first color, or a second light emitting diode, for emitting a second color. It is not contemplated to illuminate both light emitting diodes in each segment simultaneously for blending the colors. A multi-element display is not contemplated. [0004]
  • A driving circuit for light emitting diodes, disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,740,570, issued on Jun. 19, 1973 to George R. Kaelin et al., uses special light emitting diodes which emit different color light in response to different currents. The driving circuit selects either a relatively high current for green display, or a relatively low current for red display, or an intermediate current for yellow display, by selectively applying pulses of different amplitudes to the light emitting diodes. The display device is not capable of producing other colors. It is not contemplated that light signals of primary colors may be blended. [0005]
  • A multi-color LED display for seven segment figures is disclosed in German Patent No. 3,009,416 issued on Sep. 17, 1981 to Klaus Gillessen. The LED circuit consists of seven group of diodes, each group made up of two diodes, one red and one green. The cathodes of all red diodes are terminated in a common connection, and the green ones likewise, the anodes of each pair of diodes being common for that pair. Two transistors connected in cascade are utilized for activating either all green LEDs, or all red LEDs, but not both simultaneously. When a low level signal is applied to the base of the first transistor, the first transistor is blocked, and the second transistor is turned ON to illuminate the second set of the diodes. When a high level signal is applied to the input of the first transistor, the first transistor is turned ON, while the second transistor is blocked, whereby the first set of the diodes is illuminated. Since the first transistor cannot be simultaneously turned ON and OFF, it would be impossible to illuminate the two sets of the diodes simultaneously. In another embodiment is shown a multi-color LED display utilizing three sets of LEDs: red, green, and blue, which are respectively commonly connected and may be activated by manual switches. It is not contemplated that the three sets of LEDs be activated in selective combinations to blend the colors. [0006]
  • A digital electrooptical display with anti-parallel light emitting diodes is disclosed in East German Patent No. 220,844 issued on Apr. 10, 1985 to Thomas Hoffmann et al. Two light emitting diodes for emitting light of different colors are connected in each segment back-to-back. Since the light emitting diodes are connected to conduct currents in opposite directions, it would be impossible to illuminate them simultaneously, because the opposite currents attempting to pass through a single conductor would cancel. [0007]
  • The prior art does not contemplate a multicolor display element which includes a plurality of display areas with light emitting diodes of respective primary colors, and which also includes a single enable input, for receiving an enable signal, for either extinguishing the entire display element or for illuminating the selected display areas in a desired color. [0008]
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • It is the principal object of this invention to provide an improved multicolor display device. [0009]
  • It is another object of the invention to provide a multicolor display element using two primary color light emitting diodes and including an enable input. [0010]
  • It is still another object of the invention to provide a multicolor display element using three primary color light emitting diodes and including an enable input. [0011]
  • It is still another object of the invention to provide a multicolor display element including a plurality of buses, to which the light emitting diodes of primary colors are connected in accordance with their colors, and a plurality of color control inputs for the respective buses. [0012]
  • It is still another object of the invention to provide a multicolor display element including a plurality of tri-state buffers, each interposed between the color control input and the bus. [0013]
  • It is still another object of the invention to provide a multicolor display element including a plurality of tri-state buffers, each of them may be selectively controlled to be conductive and non-conductive. [0014]
  • Other objects of the invention will be obvious from the appended drawings and their description. [0015]
  • In summary, a multicolor display element of the invention includes a plurality of display areas, each including light emitting diodes of respective primary colors. The buses are provided, to which the light emitting diodes are coupled in accordance with their colors. Each bus includes a color control input for receiving color control signals. [0016]
  • The invention resides in the addition of tri-state buffers, each interposed between the color control input and the corresponding bus, which may be commonly controlled, by a single enable input, to be conductive and non-conductive. [0017]
  • A new and unexpected result was achieved by the instant invention: it is possible to interconnect the color control inputs of multiple display elements, to commonly present the color control signals to the interconnected color control inputs, and to control the individual display elements by their respective enable inputs to be either extinguished or illuminated in a color in accordance with the color control signals. The prior art does not contemplate such a display system. [0018]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • In the drawings in which are shown the preferred embodiments of the invention, [0019]
  • FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a single 2-primary color [0020] 7-segment display element.
  • FIG. 2 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of one display segment in FIG. 1, taken along the line [0021] 2-2.
  • FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a single 3-primary color [0022] 7-segment display element.
  • FIG. 4 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of one display segment in FIG. 3, taken along the line [0023] 4-4.
  • FIG. 5 is a block diagram of a 2-primary color multicolor 4-digit display. [0024]
  • FIG. 6 is a block diagram of a 3-primary color multicolor 4-digit display.[0025]
  • Throughout the drawings, like characters indicate like parts. [0026]
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • Referring now, more particularly, to the drawings, in FIG. 1 is shown a schematic diagram of a 2-primary color common cathodes 7-segment display element [0027] 42 which can selectively display various digital fonts in different colors on display segments a, b, c, d, e, f, g, and DP (Decimal Point). Each display segment includes a pair of LEDs (light emitting diodes): red LED 2 and green LED 3, which are closely adjacent such that the light signals emitted therefrom are substantially superimposed upon each other to mix the colors. To facilitate the illustration, the LEDs are designated by segment symbols, e.g., the red LED in the segment a is designated as 2 a, etc.
  • The anodes of all red and green LED pairs are interconnected in each display segment and are electrically connected to respective outputs of a commercially well known common-cathode 7-segment decoder [0028] 23. The cathodes of all red LEDs 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d, 2 e, 2 f, 2 g, and DP are interconnected to a common electric path referred to as a red bus 5. The cathodes of all green LEDs 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, 3 e, 3 f, 3 g, and DP are interconnected to a like common electric path referred to as a green bus 6.
  • The red bus [0029] 5 is connected to the output of a tri-state inverting buffer 63 a, capable of sinking sufficient current to forwardly bias all red LEDs 2 a to 2 i in display element 42. The green bus 6 is connected to the output of a like buffer 63 b. The conditions of red bus 5 and green bus 6 can be controlled by applying valid combinations of logic level control signals to color control inputs R (red), Y (yellow), and G (green), to illuminate display element 42 in a selected color.
  • The tri-state inverting buffers [0030] 63 a and 63 b can be simultaneously enabled by applying a logic low level signal to the input E of an inverter 64 a, and disabled by applying a logic high level signal therein. When tri-state inverting buffers 63 a and 63 b are jointly enabled, the conditions of red bus 5, green bus 6, and blue bus 7 can be selectively controlled by applying valid combinations of logic level signals to color control inputs R, Y, and G, for illuminating display element 42 in a selected color. When tri-state inverting buffers 63 a and 63 b are jointly disabled, all three buses are effectively disconnected, and display element 42 is extinguished.
  • The color control inputs R, Y, G are applied to the inputs of two [0031] 2-input OR gates 60 a, 60 b, whose outputs respectively drive inverting buffers 63 a, 63 b. Color control R is applied directly to the input of OR gate 60 a. In a similar fashion, color control input G is applied directly to the input of OR gate 60 b. However, color control input Y is applied simultaneously to the inputs of both OR gates 60 a, 60 b.
  • The operation of display element [0032] 42 will be now explained by the example of illuminating a digit ‘7’ in three different colors. Any digit between 0 and 9 can be selectively displayed by applying the appropriate BCD code to the inputs A0, A1, A2, and A3 of common-cathode 7-segment decoder 23. The decoder 23 develops at its outputs a, b, c, d, e, f, g, and DP drive signals for energizing selected groups of the segments to visually display the selected number, in a manner well known to those skilled in the art. To display decimal number ‘7’, a BCD code 0111 is applied to the inputs A0, A1, A2, and A3. The decoder 23 develops high voltage levels at its outputs a, b, and c, to illuminate equally designated segments a, b, and c, and low voltage levels at all remaining outputs (not shown), to extinguish all remaining segments d, e, f, g, and DP.
  • To illuminate display element [0033] 42 in red color, color control input R is raised to a high logic level, and color control inputs Y and G are maintained at a low logic level. As a result, the output of OR gate 60 a rises to a high logic level, thereby causing the output of buffer 63 a to drop to a low logic level. The current flows from the output a of decoder 23, via red LED 2 a and red bus 5, to current sinking output of buffer 63 a. Similarly, the current flows from the output b of decoder 23, via red LED 2 b and red bus 5, to the output of buffer 63 a. The current flows from the output c of decoder 23, via red LED 2 c and red bus 5, to the output of buffer 63 a. As a result, segments a, b, and c illuminate in red color, thereby causing a visual impression of a character ‘7’. The green LEDs 3 a, 3 b, and 3 c remain extinguished because the output of buffer 63 b is at a high logic level, thereby disabling green bus 6.
  • To illuminate display element [0034] 42 in green color, color control input G is raised to a high logic level, while color control inputs R and Y are maintained at a low logic level. As a result, the output of OR gate 60 b rises to a high logic level, thereby causing the output of buffer 63 b to drop to a low logic level. The current flows from the output a of decoder 23, via green LED 3 a and green bus 6, to current sinking output of buffer 63 b. Similarly, the current flows from the output b of decoder 23, via green LED 3 b and green bus 6, to the output of buffer 63 b. The current flows from the output c of decoder 23, via green LED 3 c and green bus 6, to the output of buffer 63 b. As a result, segments a, b, and c illuminate in green color. The red LEDs 2 a, 2 b, and 2 c remain extinguished because the output of buffer 63 a is at a high logic level, thereby disabling red bus 5.
  • To illuminate display element [0035] 42 in yellow color, color control input Y is raised to a high logic level, while color inputs R and G are maintained at a low logic level. As a result, the outputs of both OR gates 60 a and 60 b rise to a high logic level, thereby causing the outputs of both buffers 63 a and 63 b to drop to a low logic level. The current flows from the output a of decoder 23, via red LED 2 a and red bus 5, to current sinking output of buffer 63 a, and, via green LED 3 a and green bus 6, to current sinking output of buffer 63 b. Similarly, the current flows from the output b of decoder 23, via red LED 2 b and red bus 5, to the output of buffer 63 a, and, via green LED 3 b and green bus 6, to the output of buffer 63 b. The current flows from the output c of decoder 23, via red LED 2 c and red bus 5, to the output of buffer 63 a, and, via green LED 3 c and green bus 6, to the output of buffer 63 b. As a result of blending light of red and green colors in each segment, segments a, b, and c illuminate in substantially yellow color.
  • In FIG. 2, red LED [0036] 2 e and green LED 3 e are placed on the base of a segment body 15 which is filled with a transparent light scattering material 16. When forwardly biased, LEDs 2 e and 3 e emit light signals of red and green colors, respectively, which are scattered within transparent material 16, thereby blending the red and green light signals into a composite light signal that emerges at the upper surface of segment body 15. The color of the composite light signal may be controlled by varying the portions of the red and green light signals.
  • In FIG. 3 is shown a schematic diagram of a one-character 3-primary color common anodes 7-segment display element [0037] 43 which can selectively display digital fonts in different colors. Each display segment a, b, c, d, e, f, and g includes a triad of LEDs: red LED 2, green LED 3, and blue LED 4, which are closely adjacent such that the light signals emitted therefrom are substantially superimposed upon one another to mix the colors. The cathodes of all red, green, and blue LED triads in each display segment a, b, c, d, e, f, and g are interconnected and electrically connected to respective outputs of a commercially well known common anode 7-segment decoder 24. The anodes of all red LEDs 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d, 2 e, 2 f, and 2 g are interconnected to form a common electric path referred to as red bus 5. The anodes of all green LEDs 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, 3 e, 3 f, and 3 g are interconnected to form a like common electric path referred to as green bus 6. The anodes of all blue LEDs 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, 4 d, 4 e, 4 f, and 4 g are interconnected to form a like common electric path referred to as blue bus 7.
  • The red bus [0038] 5 is connected to the output of a tri-state non-inverting buffer 62 a, capable of sourcing sufficient current to illuminate all red LEDs in display element 43. The green bus 6 is connected to the output of a like tri-state non-inverting buffer 62 b. The blue bus 7 is connected to the output of a like tri-state non-inverting buffer 62 c. The conditions of red bus 5, green bus 6, and blue bus 7 can be selectively controlled by applying valid combinations of logic level signals to color control inputs B (Blue), P (Purple), BG (Blue-Green), G (Green), Y (Yellow), W (White), and R (Red).
  • The tri-state non-inverting buffers [0039] 62 a, 62 b, and 62 c can be simultaneously enabled by applying a logic low level signal to the input E of an inverter 64 b, and disabled by applying a logic high level signal therein. When all tri-state non-inverting buffers 62 a, 62 b, and 62 c are enabled, the conditions of red bus 5, green bus 6, and blue bus 7 can be selectively controlled by applying valid combinations of logic level signals to color control inputs B, P, BG, G, Y, W, and R, for illuminating display element 43 in a selected color. When all tri-state non-inverting buffers 62 a, 62 b, and 62 c are disabled, all three buses are effectively disconnected, and display element 43 is extinguished.
  • The color control inputs B, P, BG, G, Y, W, R are applied to the inputs of three 4-input OR gates [0040] 61 a, 61 b, and 61 c, whose outputs respectively drive non-inverting buffers 62 a, 62 b, 63 c. Color control R is applied directly to the input of OR gate 61 a; color control input G is applied directly to the input of OR gate 61 b; color control input B is applied directly to the input of OR gate 61 c. Color control input Y is applied simultaneously to the inputs of both OR gates 61 a, 61 b; color control input BG is applied simultaneously to the inputs of OR gates 61 b, 61 c; color control input P is applied simultaneously to the inputs of both OR gates 61 a, 61 c. Color control input W is applied simultaneously to the inputs of all three OR gates 61 a, 61 b, 61 c.
  • The operation of 3-primary color 7-segment display element [0041] 43 shown in FIG. 3 will be now explained in detail by the example of illuminating a digit ‘1’ in seven different colors. To display decimal number ‘1’, a BCD code 0001 is applied to the inputs A0, A1, A2, A3 of common anode 7-segment decoder 24. The decoder 24 develops low voltage levels at its outputs b, c, to illuminate segments b, c, and high voltage levels at all remaining outputs (not shown), to extinguish all remaining segments.
  • To illuminate display element [0042] 43 in red color, color control input R is raised to a high logic level, while all remaining color control inputs are maintained at a low logic level. As a result, the output of OR gate 61 a rises to a high logic level, thereby causing the output of buffer 62 a to rise to a high logic level. The current flows from the output of buffer 62 a, via red bus 5, red LED 2 b, to the output b of decoder 24, and, via red LED 2 c, to the output c of decoder 24. As a result, segments b, c illuminate in red color, thereby causing a visual impression of a character ‘1’. The green LEDs 3 b, 3 c and blue LEDs 4 b, 4 c remain extinguished because green bus 6 and blue bus 7 are disabled.
  • To illuminate display element [0043] 43 in green color, color control input G is raised to a high logic level, while all remaining color control inputs are maintained at a low logic level. As a result, the output of OR gate 61 b rises to a high logic level, thereby causing the output of buffer 62 b to rise to a high logic level. The current flows from the output of buffer 62 b, via green bus 6, green LED 3 b, to the output b of decoder 24, and, via green LED 3 c, to the output c of decoder 24. As a result, segments b, c illuminate in green color.
  • To illuminate display element [0044] 43 in blue color, color control input B is raised to a high logic level, while all remaining color control inputs are maintained at a low logic level. As a result, the output of OR gate 61 c rises to a high logic level, thereby causing the output of buffer 62 c to rise to a high logic level. The current flows from the output of buffer 62 c, via blue bus 7, blue LED 4 b, to the output b of decoder 24, and, via blue LED 4 c, to the output c of decoder 24. As a result, segments b, c illuminate in blue color.
  • To illuminate display element [0045] 43 in yellow color, color control input Y is raised to a high logic level, while all remaining color control inputs are maintained at a low logic level. As a result, the outputs of OR gates 61 a, 61 b rise to a high logic level, thereby causing the outputs of buffers 62 a, 62 b to rise to a high logic level. The current flows from the output of buffer 62 a, via red bus 5, red LED 2 b, to the output b of decoder 24, and, via red LED 2 c, to the output c of decoder 24. The current also flows from the output of buffer 62 b, via green bus 6, green LED 3 b, to the output b of decoder 24, and, via green LED 3 c, to the output c of the decoder 24. As a result of blending light of red and green colors, segments b, c illuminate in substantially yellow color.
  • To illuminate display element [0046] 43 in purple color, color control input P is raised to a high logic level, while all remaining color control inputs are maintained at a low logic level. As a result, the outputs of OR gates 61 a, 61 c rise to a high logic level, thereby causing the outputs of buffers 62 a, 62 c to rise to a high logic level. The current flows from the output of buffer 62 a, via red bus 5, red LED 2 b, to the output b of decoder 24, and, via red LED 2 c, to the output c of decoder 24. The current also flows from the output of buffer 62 c, via blue bus 7, blue LED 4 b, to the output b of decoder 24, and, via blue LED 4 c, to the output c of decoder 24. As a result of blending light of red and blue color, segments b, c illuminate in substantially purple color.
  • To illuminate display element [0047] 43 in blue-green color, color control input BG is raised to a high logic level, while all remaining color control inputs are maintained at a low logic level. As a result, the outputs of OR gates 61 b, 61 c rise to a high logic level, thereby causing the outputs of buffers 62 b, 62 c to rise to a high logic level. The current flows from the output of buffer 61 b, via green bus 6, green LED 3 b, to the output b of decoder 24, and, via green LED 3 c, to the output c of decoder 24. The current also flows from the output of decoder 62 c, via blue bus 7, blue LED 4 b, to the output b of decoder 24, and, via blue LED 4 c, to the output c of decoder 24. As a result of blending light of green and blue colors, segments b, c illuminate in substantially blue-green color.
  • To illuminate display element [0048] 43 in white color, color control input W is raised to a high logic level, while all remaining color control inputs are maintained at a low logic level. As a result, the outputs of OR gates 61 a, 61 b, 61 c rise to a high logic level, thereby causing the outputs of respective buffers 62 a, 62 b, and 62 c to rise to a high logic level. The current flows from the output of buffer 62 a, via red bus 5, red LED 2 b, to the output b of decoder 24, and, via red LED 2 c, to the output c of decoder 24. The current also flows from the output of buffer 62 b, via green bus 6, green LED 3 b, to the output b of decoder 24, and, via green LED 3 c, to the output c of decoder 24. The current also flows from the output of buffer 62 c, via blue bus 7, blue LED 4 b, to the output b of decoder 24, and, via blue LED 4 c, to the output c of decoder 24. As a result of blending light of red, green, and blue colors, segments b, c illuminate in substantially white color.
  • Since the outputs of 7-segment decoder [0049] 24 may be overloaded by driving a triad of LEDs in parallel in display element 43, rather than a single LED in a monochromatic display, it would be obvious to employ suitable buffers to drive respective color display segments (not shown).
  • In FIG. 4, red light emitting diode [0050] 2 e, green light emitting diode 3 e, and blue light emitting diode 4 e are placed on the base of a segment body 15 b, which is filled with transparent light scattering material 16. Red LEDs are typically manufactured by diffusing a p-n junction into a GaAsP epitaxial layer on a GaAs substrate; green LEDs typically use a GaP epitaxial layer on a GaP substrate; blue LEDs are typically made from SiC material.
  • When forwardly biased, light emitting diodes [0051] 2 e, 3 e, and 4e emit light signals of red, green, and blue colors, respectively, which are scattered within transparent material 16, thereby blending the red, green, and blue light signals into a composite light signal that emerges at the upper surface of segment body 15 b. The color of the composite light signal may be controlled by varying the portions of the red, green, and blue light signals.
  • To illustrate how the present invention can be utilized in multi-element multicolor display configuration, in FIG. 5 is shown a detail of the interconnection in a 2-primary color 4-digit display. The color control inputs R, Y, and G of all display elements [0052] 46 a, 46 b, 46 c, and 46 d are interconnected, respectively, and the enable inputs E1, E2, E3, and E4 are used to control the conditions of respective display elements. A high logic level at the enable input E extinguishes the particular display element. A low logic level at the enable input E illuminates the display element in a color determined by the instant conditions of the color control inputs R, Y, and G.
  • In FIG. 6 is shown a like detail of the interconnection in a 3-primary color 4-digit display. Similarly, the color control inputs B, P, BG, G, Y, W, and R of all display elements [0053] 47 a, 47 b, 47 c, and 47 d are interconnected. The conditions of respective display elements are controlled by the enable inputs E1, E2, E3, and E4. A high logic level at the enable input E extinguishes the particular display element. A low logic level therein illuminates the display element in a color determined by the instant conditions of the color control logic inputs B, P, BG, G, Y, W, and R.
  • In brief summary, the invention describes a multicolor display element which comprises a plurality of display areas arranged in a pattern for exhibiting, upon selective activation, a plurality of display units. Each said display area includes a first light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of a first primary color, a second light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of a second primary color, and means for combining said light signals in the display area to obtain a light signal of a composite color. Each light emitting diode includes a first terminal and a second terminal. All first terminals are of the same polarity, and all second terminals are of the same polarity, opposite of the polarity of the first terminals. The display element further includes a plurality of decoder inputs for receiving decoder signals for selectively activating the light emitting diodes in the display areas. The decoder inputs are equal in number to the plurality of the display areas and are respectively coupled to the first terminals of the light emitting diodes, in accordance with their positions in the pattern. A first bus is provided to which the second terminals of all first light emitting diodes are coupled. A second bus is further provided to which the second terminals of all second light emitting diodes are coupled. The invention resides in the provision of a first tri-state buffer and a second tri-state buffer, or like first semiconductor device and a second semiconductor device of controllable conductivity. The first tri-state buffer includes a buffer control input, for receiving a buffer control signal having an active level, for causing the first tri-state buffer to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing the first tri-state buffer to be non-conductive, The first tri-state buffer further includes a buffer input, for receiving first color control signals, and a buffer output, coupled to the first bus. The second tri-state buffer includes a buffer control input, for receiving a buffer control signal having an active level, for causing the second tri-state buffer to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing the second tri-state buffer to be non-conductive. The second tri-state buffer further includes a buffer input, for receiving second color control signals, and a buffer output, coupled to the second bus. A single enable input is provided for receiving an enable signal having an active level and an inactive level. The buffer control input of the first tri-state buffer and the buffer control input of the second tri-state buffer are jointly connected to the enable input; As a result, the enable signal of the active level causes the first bus and the second bus to be conductive, for illuminating those of the first light emitting diodes and those of the second light emitting diodes selected by the decoder signals, in a color in accordance with the first color control signals and the second color control signals, and the enable signal of the inactive level causes the first bus and the second bus to be non-conductive, for extinguishing all first light emitting diodes and second light emitting diodes. [0054]
  • It would be obvious, in the view of the present disclosure, that other types of gates, or like devices, may be also used in the design of the multicolor display element of the invention. It would be further obvious that the hardware design of the present invention may be also implemented by software. It would be further obvious that persons skilled in the art may resort to modifications in the construction of the preferred embodiment described herein, without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims. It is contemplated that the principles of the invention are also applicable to numerous diverse types of display devices, such as luminescent devices, liquid crystal display devices, plasma display devices, fluorescent display devices, cathode ray tube display devices and the like. [0055]
  • Correlation Table [0056]
  • This is a correlation table of reference characters used in drawings herein, their descriptions, and examples of commercially available parts. [0057]
    # DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE
     2 red LED
     3 green LED
     4 blue LED
     5 red bus
     6 green bus
     7 blue bus
    15 segment body
    16 light scattering material
    23 common cathode 7-segment decoder 74LS49
    24 common anode 7-segment decoder 74LS47
    42 multicolor 7-segment display element (2 LEDs)
    43 multicolor 7-segment display element (3 LEDs)
    46 one multicolor display character (2 LEDs)
    47 one multicolor display character (3 LEDs)
    52 color control (2 LEDs)
    53 color control (3 LEDs)
    60 2-input OR gate 74HC32
    61 4-input OR gate 4072
    62 non-inverting buffer 74LS244
    63 inverting buffer 74LS240
    64 inverter part of 74LS240,4
  • The parts in the Correlation Table are merely exemplary. It would be obvious to those skilled in the art that other components may be readily and effectively used. [0058]

Claims (6)

What I clam is:
1. A multicolor display element comprising:
a plurality of display areas arranged in a pattern for exhibiting, upon selective activation, a plurality of display units, each said display area including a first light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of a first primary color, a second light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of a second primary color, and means for combining said light signals in said display area to obtain a light signal of a composite color, each said light emitting diode including a first terminal and a second terminal, all said first terminals being of the same polarity, and all said second terminals being of the same polarity, opposite of the polarity of said first terminals;
a first bus to which said second terminals of all said first light emitting diodes are coupled;
a second bus to which said second terminals of all said second light emitting diodes are coupled;
a first semiconductor device of controllable conductivity including a control input, for receiving a control signal having an active level, for causing said first semiconductor device to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said first semiconductor device to be non-conductive, a device input, for receiving first color control signals, and a device output, coupled to said first bus;
a second semiconductor device of controllable conductivity including a control input, for receiving a control signal having an active level, for causing said second semiconductor device to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said second semiconductor device to be non-conductive, a device input, for receiving second color control signals, and a device output, coupled to said second bus;
a single enable input for receiving an enable signal having an active level and an inactive level;
said control input of said first semiconductor device and said control input of said second semiconductor device being jointly connected to said enable input;
whereby said enable signal of said active level causes said first bus and said second bus to be conductive, for illuminating the selected display unit in a color in accordance with said first color control signals and said second color control signals, and said enable signal of said inactive level causes said first bus and said second bus to be non-conductive, for extinguishing the selected display unit.
2. A multicolor display element comprising:
a plurality of display areas arranged in a pattern for exhibiting, upon selective activation, a plurality of display units, each said display area including a first light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of said first primary color, a second light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of said second primary color, a third light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of a third primary color, and means for combining said light signals in said display area to obtain a light signal of a composite color, each said light emitting diode including a first terminal and a second terminal, all said first terminals being of the same polarity, and all said second terminals being of the same polarity, opposite of the polarity of said first terminals;
a first bus to which said second terminals of all said first light emitting diodes are coupled;
a second bus to which said second terminals of all said second light emitting diodes are coupled;
a third bus to which said second terminals of all said third light emitting diodes are coupled;
a first semiconductor device of controllable conductivity including a control input, for receiving a control signal having an active level, for causing said first semiconductor device to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said first semiconductor device to be non-conductive, a device input, for receiving first color control signals, and a device output, coupled to said first bus;
a second semiconductor device of controllable conductivity including a control input, for receiving a control signal having an active level, for causing said second semiconductor device to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said second semiconductor device to be non-conductive, a device input, for receiving second color control signals, and a device output, coupled to said second bus;
a third semiconductor device of controllable conductivity including a control input, for receiving a control signal having an active level, for causing said third semiconductor device to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said third semiconductor device to be non-conductive, a device input, for receiving third color control signals, and a device output, coupled to said first bus;
a single enable input for receiving an enable signal having an active level and an inactive level;
said control input of said first semiconductor device, said control input of said second semiconductor device, and said control input of said third semiconductor device being jointly connected to said enable input;
whereby said enable signal of said active level causes said first bus, said second bus, and said third bus to be conductive, for illuminating the selected display unit in a color in accordance with said first color control signals, said second color control signals, and said third color control signals, and said enable signal of said inactive level causes said first bus, said second bus, and said third bus to be non-conductive, for extinguishing the selected display unit.
3. A multicolor display element comprising:
a plurality of display areas arranged in a pattern for exhibiting, upon selective activation, a plurality of display units, each said display area including a first light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of a first primary color, a second light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of a second primary color, and means for combining said light signals in said display area to obtain a light signal of a composite color, each said light emitting diode including a first terminal and a second terminal, all said first terminals being of the same polarity, and all said second terminals being of the same polarity, opposite of the polarity of said first terminals;
a plurality of decoder inputs for receiving decoder signals for selectively activating said light emitting diodes in said display areas, said decoder inputs being coupled to said first terminals of said light emitting diodes, in accordance with their positions in said pattern,
a first bus to which said second terminals of all said first light emitting diodes are coupled;
a second bus to which said second terminals of all said second light emitting diodes are coupled;
a first tri-state buffer including a buffer control input, for receiving a buffer control signal having an active level, for causing said first tri-state buffer to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said first tri-state buffer to be non-conductive, a buffer input, for receiving first color control signals, and a buffer output, coupled to said first bus;
a second tri-state buffer including a buffer control input, for receiving a buffer control signal having an active level, for causing said second tri-state buffer to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said second tri-state buffer to be non-conductive, a buffer input, for receiving second color control signals, and a buffer output, coupled to said second bus;
a single enable input for receiving an enable signal having an active level and an inactive level;
said buffer control input of said first tri-state buffer and said buffer control input of said second tri-state buffer being jointly connected to said enable input;
whereby said enable signal of said active level causes said first bus and said second bus to be conductive, for illuminating those of said first light emitting diodes and those of said second light emitting diodes selected by said decoder signals, in a color in accordance with said first color control signals and said second color control signals, and said enable signal of said inactive level causes said first bus and said second bus to be non-conductive, for extinguishing all said first light emitting diodes and said second light emitting diodes.
4. A multicolor display element comprising:
a plurality of display areas arranged in a pattern for exhibiting, upon selective activation, a plurality of display units, each said display area including a first light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of said first primary color, a second light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of said second primary color, a third light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of a third primary color, and means for combining said light signals in said display area to obtain a light signal of a composite color, each said light emitting diode including a first terminal and a second terminal, all said first terminals being of the same polarity, and all said second terminals being of the same polarity, opposite of the polarity of said first terminals;
a plurality of decoder inputs for receiving decoder signals for selectively activating said light emitting diodes in said display areas, said decoder inputs being coupled to said first terminals of said light emitting diodes, in accordance with their positions in said pattern,
a first bus to which said second terminals of all said first light emitting diodes are coupled;
a second bus to which said second terminals of all said second light emitting diodes are coupled;
a third bus to which said second terminals of all said third light emitting diodes are coupled;
a first tri-state buffer including a buffer control input, for receiving a buffer control signal having an active level, for causing said first tri-state buffer to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said first tri-state buffer to be non-conductive, a buffer input, for receiving first color control signals, and a buffer output, coupled to said first bus;
a second tri-state buffer including a buffer control input, for receiving a buffer control signal having an active level, for causing said second tri-state buffer to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said second tri-state buffer to be non-conductive, a buffer input, for receiving second color control signals, and a buffer output, coupled to said second bus;
a third tri-state buffer including a buffer control input, for receiving a buffer control signal having an active level, for causing said third tri-state buffer to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said third tri-state buffer to be non-conductive, a buffer input, for receiving third color control signals, and a buffer output, coupled to said first bus;
a single enable input for receiving an enable signal having an active level and an inactive level;
said buffer control input of said first tri-state buffer, said buffer control input of said second tri-state buffer, and said buffer control input of said third tri-state buffer being jointly connected to said enable input;
whereby said enable signal of said active level causes said first bus, said second bus, and said third bus to be conductive, for illuminating those of said first light emitting diodes, those of said second light emitting diodes, and those of said third light emitting diodes selected by said decoder input code, in a color in accordance with said first color control signals, said second color control signals, and said third color control signals, and said enable signal of said inactive level causes said first bus, said second bus, and said third bus to be non-conductive, for extinguishing all said first light emitting diodes, said second light emitting diodes, and said third light emitting diodes.
5. A multicolor display element comprising:
a plurality of display areas arranged in a pattern for exhibiting, upon selective activation, a plurality of display units, each said display area including a first light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of said first primary color, a second light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of said second primary color, and means for combining said light signals in said display area to obtain a light signal of a composite color, each said light emitting diode including a first terminal and a second terminal, all said first terminals being of the same polarity, and all said second terminals being of the same polarity, opposite of the polarity of said first terminals;
a plurality of decoder inputs for receiving decoder signals for selectively activating said light emitting diodes in said display areas, said decoder inputs being equal in number to the plurality of said display areas, said decoder inputs being respectively coupled to said first terminals of said light emitting diodes, in accordance with their positions in said pattern,
a first bus to which said second terminals of all said first light emitting diodes are coupled, said first bus including a first color control input for receiving first color control signals;
a second bus to which said second terminals of all said second light emitting diodes are coupled, said second bus including a second color control input for receiving second color control signals;
a first tri-state buffer including a buffer control input, for receiving a buffer control signal having an active level, for causing said first tri-state buffer to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said first tri-state buffer to be non-conductive, a buffer input, coupled to said first color control input, and a buffer output, coupled to said first bus;
a second tri-state buffer including a buffer control input, for receiving a buffer control signal having an active level, for causing said second tri-state buffer to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said second tri-state buffer to be non-conductive, a buffer input, coupled to said second color control input, and a buffer output, coupled to said second bus;
a single enable input for receiving an enable signal having an active level and an inactive level;
said buffer control input of said first tri-state buffer and said buffer control input of said second tri-state buffer being jointly connected to said enable input;
whereby said enable signal of said active level causes said first bus and said second bus to be conductive, for illuminating those of said first light emitting diodes and those of said second light emitting diodes selected by said decoder input code, in a color in accordance with said first color control signals and said second color control signals, and said enable signal of said inactive level causes said first bus and said second bus to be non-conductive, for extinguishing all said first light emitting diodes and said second light emitting diodes.
6. A multicolor display element comprising:
a plurality of display areas arranged in a pattern for exhibiting, upon selective activation, a plurality of display units, each said display area including a first light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of said first primary color, a second light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of said second primary color, a third light emitting diode for emitting, when forwardly biased, light signals of a third primary color, and means for combining said light signals in said display area to obtain a light signal of a composite color, each said light emitting diode including a first terminal and a second terminal, all said first terminals being of the same polarity, and all said second terminals being of the same polarity, opposite of the polarity of said first terminals;
a plurality of decoder inputs for receiving decoder signals for selectively activating said light emitting diodes in said display areas, said decoder inputs being equal in number to the plurality of said display areas, said decoder inputs being respectively coupled to said first terminals of said light emitting diodes, in accordance with their positions in said pattern,
a first bus to which said second terminals of all said first light emitting diodes are coupled, said first bus including a first color control input for receiving first color control signals;
a second bus to which said second terminals of all said second light emitting diodes are coupled, said second bus including a second color control input for receiving second color control signals;
a third bus to which said second terminals of all said third light emitting diodes are coupled, said third bus including a third color control input for receiving third color control signals;
a first tri-state buffer including a buffer control input, for receiving a buffer control signal having an active level, for causing said first tri-state buffer to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said first tri-state buffer to be non-conductive, a buffer input, coupled to said first color control input, and a buffer output, coupled to said first bus;
a second tri-state buffer including a buffer control input, for receiving a buffer control signal having an active level, for causing said second tri-state buffer to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said second tri-state buffer to be non-conductive, a buffer input, coupled to said second color control input, and a buffer output, coupled to said second bus;
a third tri-state buffer including a buffer control input, for receiving a buffer control signal having an active level, for causing said third tri-state buffer to be conductive, and an inactive level, for causing said third tri-state buffer to be non-conductive, a buffer input, coupled to said third color control input, and a buffer output, coupled to said first bus;
a single enable input for receiving an enable signal having an active level and an inactive level;
said buffer control input of said first tri-state buffer, said buffer control input of said second tri-state buffer, and said buffer control input of said third tri-state buffer being jointly connected to said enable input;
whereby said enable signal of said active level causes said first bus, said second bus, and said third bus to be conductive, for illuminating those of said first light emitting diodes, those of said second light emitting diodes, and those of said third light emitting diodes selected by said decoder input code, in a color in accordance with said first color control signals, said second color control signals, and said third color control signals, and said enable signal of said inactive level causes said first bus, said second bus, and said third bus to be non-conductive, for extinguishing all said first light emitting diodes, said second light emitting diodes, and said third light emitting diodes.
US09/373,437 1986-01-15 1999-08-11 Multicolor display element with enable input Expired - Fee Related US6424327B2 (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US06/819,111 US4794383A (en) 1986-01-15 1986-01-15 Variable color digital multimeter
US19732288A true 1988-05-23 1988-05-23
US07/628,328 US5122733A (en) 1986-01-15 1990-12-14 Variable color digital multimeter
US07/865,460 US5283517A (en) 1986-01-15 1992-04-09 Variable color digital multimeter
US08/187,350 US5475300A (en) 1986-01-15 1994-01-27 Variable color digital multimeter
US08/571,246 US5656935A (en) 1986-01-15 1995-12-12 Variable color display system
US08/910,080 US6018237A (en) 1986-01-15 1997-08-12 Variable color display system
US09/373,437 US6424327B2 (en) 1986-01-15 1999-08-11 Multicolor display element with enable input

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US09/373,437 US6424327B2 (en) 1986-01-15 1999-08-11 Multicolor display element with enable input

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US08/910,080 Division US6018237A (en) 1986-01-15 1997-08-12 Variable color display system

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US20020000957A1 true US20020000957A1 (en) 2002-01-03
US6424327B2 US6424327B2 (en) 2002-07-23

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US07/628,328 Expired - Fee Related US5122733A (en) 1986-01-15 1990-12-14 Variable color digital multimeter
US07/865,460 Expired - Fee Related US5283517A (en) 1986-01-15 1992-04-09 Variable color digital multimeter
US08/187,350 Expired - Fee Related US5475300A (en) 1986-01-15 1994-01-27 Variable color digital multimeter
US08/571,246 Expired - Fee Related US5656935A (en) 1986-01-15 1995-12-12 Variable color display system
US08/910,080 Expired - Fee Related US6018237A (en) 1986-01-15 1997-08-12 Variable color display system
US09/039,850 Expired - Fee Related US6535186B1 (en) 1986-01-15 1998-03-16 Multicolor display element
US09/065,805 Expired - Fee Related US6208322B1 (en) 1986-01-15 1998-04-23 Color control signal converter
US09/073,393 Expired - Fee Related US6239776B1 (en) 1986-01-15 1998-05-05 Multicolor multi-element display system
US09/109,948 Expired - Fee Related US6300923B1 (en) 1986-01-15 1998-07-06 Continuously variable color optical device
US09/268,769 Expired - Fee Related US6281864B1 (en) 1986-01-15 1999-03-15 Digital display system for variable color decimal point indication
US09/275,711 Expired - Fee Related US6121767A (en) 1986-01-15 1999-03-24 Digital multimeter with variable color range indication
US09/334,335 Expired - Fee Related US6133722A (en) 1986-01-15 1999-06-16 Variable color digital measuring and testing system with error memory
US09/335,282 Expired - Fee Related US6119073A (en) 1986-01-15 1999-06-17 Variable color digital measuring instrument for sequentially exhibiting measured values
US09/335,281 Expired - Fee Related US6181126B1 (en) 1986-01-15 1999-06-17 Dual variable color measuring system
US09/335,970 Expired - Fee Related US6166710A (en) 1986-01-15 1999-06-18 Variable color display system for sequentially exhibiting digital values
US09/373,437 Expired - Fee Related US6424327B2 (en) 1986-01-15 1999-08-11 Multicolor display element with enable input
US09/788,695 Expired - Fee Related US6577287B2 (en) 1986-01-15 2001-02-20 Dual variable color display device

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US07/628,328 Expired - Fee Related US5122733A (en) 1986-01-15 1990-12-14 Variable color digital multimeter
US07/865,460 Expired - Fee Related US5283517A (en) 1986-01-15 1992-04-09 Variable color digital multimeter
US08/187,350 Expired - Fee Related US5475300A (en) 1986-01-15 1994-01-27 Variable color digital multimeter
US08/571,246 Expired - Fee Related US5656935A (en) 1986-01-15 1995-12-12 Variable color display system
US08/910,080 Expired - Fee Related US6018237A (en) 1986-01-15 1997-08-12 Variable color display system
US09/039,850 Expired - Fee Related US6535186B1 (en) 1986-01-15 1998-03-16 Multicolor display element
US09/065,805 Expired - Fee Related US6208322B1 (en) 1986-01-15 1998-04-23 Color control signal converter
US09/073,393 Expired - Fee Related US6239776B1 (en) 1986-01-15 1998-05-05 Multicolor multi-element display system
US09/109,948 Expired - Fee Related US6300923B1 (en) 1986-01-15 1998-07-06 Continuously variable color optical device
US09/268,769 Expired - Fee Related US6281864B1 (en) 1986-01-15 1999-03-15 Digital display system for variable color decimal point indication
US09/275,711 Expired - Fee Related US6121767A (en) 1986-01-15 1999-03-24 Digital multimeter with variable color range indication
US09/334,335 Expired - Fee Related US6133722A (en) 1986-01-15 1999-06-16 Variable color digital measuring and testing system with error memory
US09/335,282 Expired - Fee Related US6119073A (en) 1986-01-15 1999-06-17 Variable color digital measuring instrument for sequentially exhibiting measured values
US09/335,281 Expired - Fee Related US6181126B1 (en) 1986-01-15 1999-06-17 Dual variable color measuring system
US09/335,970 Expired - Fee Related US6166710A (en) 1986-01-15 1999-06-18 Variable color display system for sequentially exhibiting digital values

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US6239776B1 (en) 2001-05-29
US5475300A (en) 1995-12-12
US6121767A (en) 2000-09-19
US5122733A (en) 1992-06-16
US6300923B1 (en) 2001-10-09
US5283517A (en) 1994-02-01
US6208322B1 (en) 2001-03-27
US6424327B2 (en) 2002-07-23
US20020003511A1 (en) 2002-01-10
US6535186B1 (en) 2003-03-18
US6181126B1 (en) 2001-01-30
US5656935A (en) 1997-08-12
US6166710A (en) 2000-12-26
US6577287B2 (en) 2003-06-10
US6133722A (en) 2000-10-17
US6119073A (en) 2000-09-12
US6018237A (en) 2000-01-25
US6281864B1 (en) 2001-08-28

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