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Vessel cutting devices

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Publication number
US20010016752A1
US20010016752A1 US09850021 US85002101A US2001016752A1 US 20010016752 A1 US20010016752 A1 US 20010016752A1 US 09850021 US09850021 US 09850021 US 85002101 A US85002101 A US 85002101A US 2001016752 A1 US2001016752 A1 US 2001016752A1
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
structure
cutting
organ
sheath
access
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Abandoned
Application number
US09850021
Inventor
Todd Berg
Christopher Prigge
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St Jude Medical ATG Inc
Original Assignee
St Jude Medical, Cardiology Division, Inc
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Filing date
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/11Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for performing anastomosis; Buttons for anastomosis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/32Surgical cutting instruments
    • A61B17/320016Endoscopic cutting instruments, e.g. arthroscopes, resectoscopes
    • A61B17/32002Endoscopic cutting instruments, e.g. arthroscopes, resectoscopes with continuously rotating, oscillating or reciprocating cutting instruments
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/32Surgical cutting instruments
    • A61B17/3205Excision instruments
    • A61B17/32053Punch like cutting instruments, e.g. using a cylindrical or oval knife
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/00234Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for minimally invasive surgery
    • A61B2017/00238Type of minimally invasive operation
    • A61B2017/00243Type of minimally invasive operation cardiac
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/00234Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for minimally invasive surgery
    • A61B2017/00238Type of minimally invasive operation
    • A61B2017/00243Type of minimally invasive operation cardiac
    • A61B2017/00247Making holes in the wall of the heart, e.g. laser Myocardial revascularization
    • A61B2017/00252Making holes in the wall of the heart, e.g. laser Myocardial revascularization for by-pass connections, i.e. connections from heart chamber to blood vessel or from blood vessel to blood vessel
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B2017/00535Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets pneumatically or hydraulically operated
    • A61B2017/00557Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets pneumatically or hydraulically operated inflatable
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/11Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for performing anastomosis; Buttons for anastomosis
    • A61B2017/1107Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets for performing anastomosis; Buttons for anastomosis for blood vessels

Abstract

A catheter-based system for accessing specific body cavities percutaneously and minimizing patient trauma is provided. In the preferred embodiment, in order to create an aperture at an access site in a patient's existing tubular body organ structure, a delivery sheath is passed axially along the interior of a portion of the existing tubular body organ structure to place a distal end of the delivery sheath near the access site. A centering wire is passed axially along the interior of the delivery sheath, piercing through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site by causing an end portion of the centering wire to emerge from the distal end of the delivery sheath. A cutting catheter is passed substantially coaxially over the centering wire and axially along the interior of the delivery sheath. The aperture is formed by advancing a distal end of the cutting catheter through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site and advancing the distal end of the delivery sheath through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site.

Description

  • [0001]
    This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 09/014,759, filed Jan. 28, 1998, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    This invention relates to vessel cutting devices for use in the repair, replacement or supplement of a medical patient's natural body organ structures or tissues. More particularly, this invention relates to vessel cutting devices for use in vascular anastomosis (the surgical connection of vessels).
  • [0003]
    An example of the possible uses of the invention is a minimally invasive cardiac bypass procedure. This and other examples are considered in detail in Goldsteen et al. U.S. Pat. No. 5,976,178, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
  • [0004]
    Vascular anastomosis is a delicate and time-consuming procedure in which fast and accurate vessel cutting plays a particularly important role.
  • [0005]
    In view of the foregoing, it would be desirable to provide a catheter-based system for accessing specific body cavities percutaneously, thereby minimizing patient trauma.
  • [0006]
    It would also be desirable to provide fast and accurate vessel cutting devices.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0007]
    It is an object of the present invention to provide a catheter-based system for accessing specific body cavities percutaneously, thereby minimizing patient trauma. It is also an object to provide fast and accurate vessel cutting devices.
  • [0008]
    These and other objects are accomplished by providing a method and apparatus for creating an aperture at an access site in a patient's existing tubular body organ structure by passing a delivery sheath axially along the interior of a portion of the existing tubular body organ structure to place a distal end of the delivery sheath near the access site, passing a centering wire axially along the interior of the delivery sheath, piercing through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site by causing an end portion of the centering wire to emerge from the distal end of the delivery sheath, passing a cutting catheter substantially coaxially over the centering wire and axially along the interior of the delivery sheath, forming the aperture by advancing a distal end of the cutting catheter through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site and advancing the distal end of the delivery sheath through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site.
  • [0009]
    In one embodiment, the distal end of the cutting catheter is rotated to cut through the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site. In another embodiment, a cutting catheter with a conical (preferably star-shaped) cutting edge is pushed through the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site.
  • [0010]
    The present invention can also be used to create an aperture in the patient's existing tubular body organ structure by advancing a distal end of the cutting catheter through from outside to inside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site.
  • [0011]
    In the most preferred embodiment, all or substantially all necessary apparatus is inserted into the patient via the patient's existing body organ vessel. In addition, all or substantially all apparatus functions are controlled by the physician (a term used herein to also include supporting technicians) from outside the patient's body.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0012]
    The above and other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference characters refer to like parts throughout, and in which:
  • [0013]
    [0013]FIG. 1a is a simplified sectional view showing the distal end of a delivery sheath in the interior of a portion of the existing tubular body organ structure with a centering wire piercing through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site;
  • [0014]
    [0014]FIG. 1b is a view similar to portions of FIG. 1a showing a centering wire piercing through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site, wherein the end portion of the centering wire includes a selectively enlargeable structure;
  • [0015]
    [0015]FIG. 1c is another view similar to portions of FIG. 1a showing a centering wire piercing through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site, wherein the end portion of the centering wire includes fasteners;
  • [0016]
    [0016]FIG. 2 is yet another view similar to FIG. 1a showing a cutting catheter positioned for cutting at the distal end of a delivery sheath at the access site;
  • [0017]
    [0017]FIG. 3 is still another view similar to FIG. 1a showing forming the aperture by advancing a distal end of the cutting catheter through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site;
  • [0018]
    [0018]FIG. 4 is yet another view similar to FIG. 1a showing advancing the distal end of the delivery sheath through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site;
  • [0019]
    [0019]FIG. 5 is a simplified elevational view, partly in section, showing the distal end of the cutting catheter advancing through from outside to inside to create an aperture in the patient's existing tubular body organ structure;
  • [0020]
    [0020]FIG. 6 is a side view of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure of FIG. 5, showing the aperture created;
  • [0021]
    [0021]FIG. 7a is still another view similar to FIG. 1a showing the distal end of a delivery sheath in the interior of a portion of the existing tubular body organ structure with a centering wire piercing through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site, wherein the cutting catheter includes a dilator;
  • [0022]
    [0022]FIG. 7b is yet another view similar to FIG. 1a forming the aperture by advancing a distal end of the cutting catheter through from inside to outside of the patient's existing tubular body organ structure at the access site, wherein the cutting catheter includes a dilator;
  • [0023]
    [0023]FIG. 7c is still another view similar to FIG. 1a showing advancing the delivery sheath through the aperture at the access site; and
  • [0024]
    [0024]FIG. 8 is yet another view similar to FIG. 1a showing a delivery sheath which includes distal and proximal selectively enlargeable structures.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0025]
    As a preliminary step in creating an aperture at an access site 10 in a patient's existing tubular body organ structure 1, a delivery sheath 20 is passed axially along the interior of a portion of tubular body organ structure 1 to place a distal end of delivery sheath 20 near access site 10. When the distal end of delivery sheath 20 is adjacent to access site 10, a centering wire 30 is passed axially along the interior of the sheath until the end portion of centering wire 30 emerges from the distal end of the sheath and pokes through from inside to outside of tubular body organ structure 1. Centering wire 30 provides a pilot track for cutting catheter 40 to follow. FIG. 1a shows the distal end of delivery sheath 20 in the interior of a portion of tubular body organ structure 1 with a centering wire 30 piercing through from inside to outside of the organ structure at access site 10.
  • [0026]
    The distal end of centering wire 30 is preferably deformable to facilitate deployment and removal, but resumes its operational (preferably hooked) shape once deployed. Centering wire 30 is kept relatively straight when it is inside sheath 20. But, when centering wire 30 is pushed axially out the distal end of sheath 20, it curves to one side, as shown in FIGS. 1a, 1 b and 1 c. FIGS. 1b and 1 c show alternative structures for centering wire 30. In FIG. 1b, the end portion of centering wire 30 includes a selectively enlargeable structure (such as a balloon 50 which extends annularly around the exterior of the centering wire and projects radially outwardly from the centering wire in all radially outward directions when inflated). In FIG. 1c, the end portion of centering wire 30 includes struts 55 spaced circumferentially around centering wire 30 and which are resiliently biased to project from the centering wire after the end portion of the centering wire pierces through body organ structure 1 at access site 10. By providing a selectively enlargeable structure disposed on the exterior of the centering wire at a predetermined distance proximally from the distal end of the centering wire and enlarging that structure after the centering wire has pierced organ structure 1, it is possible to prevent the portion of centering wire 30 which is distal of the enlargeable structure from passing back into the organ structure. In addition to the retaining function, the enlargeable structure serves to seal the aperture and displace tissue from around the outside of organ structure 1 near access site 10, thereby creating a space. Such a space helps to prevent cutting head 45 from cutting other tissues after exiting organ structure 1 at access site 10.
  • [0027]
    After piercing through organ structure 1 at access site 10 with centering wire 30, cutting catheter 40 is passed substantially coaxially over the centering wire and axially along the interior of sheath 20. FIG. 2 shows cutting head 45 of cutting catheter 40 positioned for cutting at the distal end of delivery sheath 20 at access site 10.
  • [0028]
    Centering wire 30 holds cutting catheter 40 and delivery sheath 20 against organ structure 1 at access site 10, thereby preventing undue bleeding during and after the creation of the aperture that could occur if the cutting catheter and the delivery sheath were to move away from the access site. FIG. 3 shows how the aperture is formed by advancing the distal end of cutting catheter 40 (i.e., cutting head 45) through from inside to outside of organ structure 1 at access site 10 by rotating and/or pushing the distal end of the cutting catheter.
  • [0029]
    As shown in FIGS. 2, 3, and 4, the distal end of cutting catheter 40 has a circular cutting edge. Cutting catheter 40, which when advanced by rotation, cuts through tissue and removes tissue plug 60. The preferred embodiment of cutting head 45 also includes a serrated cutting edge and an axially aligned recess for accepting tissue plug 60. By removing plug 60 of tissue (rather than merely displacing tissue, as in FIGS. 5 and 6), the elastic recoil of organ structure 1 at access site 10 is reduced, which may be a desirable condition for optimal graft attachment.
  • [0030]
    [0030]FIG. 4 shows advancing the distal end of delivery sheath 20 through from inside to outside of organ structure 1 at access site 10 and removing centering wire 30 and cutting catheter 40 along with tissue plug 60 contained within cutting head 45.
  • [0031]
    As shown in FIG. 5, non-rotating cutting catheter 40 can be used to create specific geometric aperture shapes (e.g., oblong aperture 70 for coronary anastomosis). FIG. 5 also shows the use of the present invention in creating an aperture in organ structure 1 by advancing a distal end of cutting catheter 40 through from outside to inside of the organ structure at access site 10. Centering wire 30 is tracked through cutting catheter 40 and is shown piercing organ structure 1 at access site 10. Following such an outside-to-inside aperture, delivery sheath 20 can be passed axially along the interior of a portion of organ structure 1 to place a distal end of delivery sheath 20 near second access site 10 where an inside-to-outside aperture can be created. (Note that organ structure 1 is shown smaller in scale relative to sheath 20 and cutting catheter 40.) FIG. 6 is a side view of organ structure 1, showing aperture 70 created using non-rotating cutting catheter 40 of FIG. 5.
  • [0032]
    Cutting catheter 40 shown in FIG. 7a is a rotating catheter. Cutting head 45 could be a saw-tooth or a razor-edge type, for example. The distal end of delivery sheath 20 is shown in the interior of a portion of organ structure 1 with centering wire 30 piercing through from inside to outside of the organ structure at access site 10, wherein cutting catheter 40 includes dilator 80. Dilator 80 facilitates advancing sheath 20 through the aperture (as is shown by the succession of steps illustrated by FIGS. 7b and 7 c).
  • [0033]
    The outer diameter of dilator 80 is close to the inner diameter of sheath 20 and is typically larger than the diameter of cutting head 45. As shown in FIG. 7 b, as dilator 80 advances through the aperture at access site 10, the aperture is simultaneously sealed against bleeding.
  • [0034]
    [0034]FIG. 8 shows delivery sheath 20 which includes proximal and distal selectively enlargeable structures 90, 100. Preferably, both selectively enlargeable structures 90, 100 are balloons which extend annularly around the exterior of delivery sheath 20 and project radially outward when inflated. Although the embodiment shown in FIG. 8 includes both proximal and distal selectively enlargeable structures, either one or both may be included. When enlarged, proximal selectively enlargeable structure 90 prevents more than the portion of delivery sheath 20 which is distal of the enlargeable structure from passing out of the tubular structure via the aperture. Similarly, when enlarged, distal selectively enlargeable structure 100 prevents the portion of delivery sheath 20 which is distal of the enlargeable structure from passing back in to the tubular structure via the aperture.
  • [0035]
    As an illustrative example of the application of the present invention, consider the following. Delivery sheath 20 (preferably about 4.0 mm in diameter) including cutting catheter 40 is introduced into organ structure 1 percutaneously through the femoral artery near the thigh. Cutting catheter 40 includes cutting head 45 (preferably about 3.5 mm in diameter). Delivery sheath 20 is positioned at access site 10, here the ascending aorta. Centering wire 30 is tracked through cutting catheter 40 and is caused to pierce the aortic artery at access site 10. Cutting catheter 40 is then tracked over centering wire 30 by either pushing or rotating (or a combination of both pushing and rotating) and caused to advance through the aortic wall. An approximately 3.5 mm aperture is created with tissue plug 60 retained in cutting head 45 and removed along with the cutting catheter 40. Delivery sheath 20 can now be advanced through the approximately 3.5 mm aperture created by the cutting catheter 40, causing organ structure 1 to stretch slightly (i.e., about 0.5 mm). This stretching is desirable because it provides a blood seal around delivery sheath 20 to prevent bleeding into the chest cavity. Delivery sheath 20 can now be used to introduce other catheters (including cameras, for example) from the femoral artery into the chest cavity for the purpose of diagnosis or intervention (e.g., grafts or TMR laser surgery).
  • [0036]
    To minimize patient trauma, delivery sheath 20, cutting catheter 40 and centering wire 30 are all preferably coupled to and controlled by a controller located on the outside of the patient.
  • [0037]
    Various methods and apparatus for delivering and installing plugs in walls of organ structures, as well as methods and apparatus for promoting the closing and healing of apertures in walls of organ structures, are available (e.g., of the type shown in Goldsteen et al. U.S. Pat. No. 5,976,178; Goldsteen et al. published PCT patent application WO 98/47430; and Sullivan et al. published PCT patent application WO 98/55027, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference herein).
  • [0038]
    Thus, it is seen that a method and apparatus for creating an aperture at an access site in a patient's existing tubular body organ structure and making it possible to access specific body cavities percutaneously, thereby minimizing patient trauma, is provided. One skilled in the art will appreciate that the present invention can be practiced by other than the described embodiments, which are presented for purposes of illustration and not of limitation, and the present invention is limited only by the claims which follow.

Claims (12)

What is claimed is:
1. Apparatus for cutting an aperture in a side wall of a patient's blood vessel comprising:
a tissue-piercing structure having a longitudinal axis and being configured to pierce the side wall by passing through the side wall substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis;
a plurality of resilient structures mounted on the tissue-piercing structure so that they do not substantially increase dimensions of the tissue-piercing structure transverse to the longitudinal axis as the tissue-piercing structure and the resilient structures pass through the side wall, the resilient structures being resiliently biased to spring radially outwardly from the tissue-piercing structure after the tissue-piercing structure and the resilient structures have passed through the side wall; and
a hollow annular tissue-cutter structure disposed annularly around the tissue-piercing structure and configured for movement substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis to produce an annular cut through the side wall and to thereby sever from the side wall a disc of tissue that was previously pierced by and that remains impaled on the tissue-piercing structure, the outwardly sprung resilient structures serving to at least help hold the disc on the tissue-piercing structure.
2. The apparatus defined in
claim 1
wherein the resilient structures are mounted on the tissue-piercing structure in an array which is annular about the longitudinal axis.
3. The apparatus defined in
claim 1
wherein each resilient structure is mounted on the tissue-piercing structure so that the resilient structure is resiliently deflectable substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis.
4. The apparatus defined in
claim 1
wherein each resilient structure has a distal portion and a proximal portion, the distal portion being closer to an end of the tissue-piercing structure that is first to pass through the side wall, the resilient structure being secured to the tissue-piercing structure adjacent the distal portion, and the proximal portion being resiliently biased to spring radially outwardly from the tissue-piercing structure.
5. The apparatus defined in
claim 1
wherein the tissue-cutter structure is mounted for movement relative to the tissue-piercing structure substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis.
6. The apparatus defined in
claim 1
wherein the tissue-cutter structure is rotatable about the longitudinal axis.
7. The apparatus defined in
claim 1
wherein the tissue-cutter structure is rotatable relative to the tissue-piercing structure about the longitudinal axis.
8. The apparatus defined in
claim 1
wherein the tissue-cutter structure has a serrated tissue cutting edge.
9. The apparatus defined in
claim 1
wherein a distal portion of the tissue-piercing structure is configured to deflect transversely to the longitudinal axis after passing through the side wall.
10. The apparatus defined in
claim 1
wherein the tissue-cutter structure is configured to cut through the side wall in the same direction that the tissue-piercing structure is configured to pierce through the side wall.
11. The apparatus defined in
claim 1
wherein the tissue-cutter structure is configured to receive the disc in its hollow.
12. The apparatus defined in
claim 1
wherein the tissue-cutter structure has a substantially circular tissue cutting edge.
US09850021 1998-01-28 2001-05-07 Vessel cutting devices Abandoned US20010016752A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09014759 US6416527B1 (en) 1998-01-28 1998-01-28 Vessel cutting device
US09850021 US20010016752A1 (en) 1998-01-28 2001-05-07 Vessel cutting devices

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09850021 US20010016752A1 (en) 1998-01-28 2001-05-07 Vessel cutting devices
US10456180 US20030204198A1 (en) 1998-01-28 2003-06-06 Vessel cutting devices
US10659951 US20040049218A1 (en) 1998-01-28 2003-09-10 Vessel cutting devices
US11901550 US8382784B2 (en) 1998-01-28 2007-09-17 Vessel cutting devices

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09014759 Continuation US6416527B1 (en) 1998-01-28 1998-01-28 Vessel cutting device

Related Child Applications (2)

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US10456180 Continuation US20030204198A1 (en) 1998-01-28 2003-06-06 Vessel cutting devices
US10659951 Continuation US20040049218A1 (en) 1998-01-28 2003-09-10 Vessel cutting devices

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US20010016752A1 true true US20010016752A1 (en) 2001-08-23

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US09014759 Active 2018-09-11 US6416527B1 (en) 1998-01-28 1998-01-28 Vessel cutting device
US09850021 Abandoned US20010016752A1 (en) 1998-01-28 2001-05-07 Vessel cutting devices
US10456180 Abandoned US20030204198A1 (en) 1998-01-28 2003-06-06 Vessel cutting devices
US10659951 Abandoned US20040049218A1 (en) 1998-01-28 2003-09-10 Vessel cutting devices
US11901550 Active 2019-09-17 US8382784B2 (en) 1998-01-28 2007-09-17 Vessel cutting devices

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09014759 Active 2018-09-11 US6416527B1 (en) 1998-01-28 1998-01-28 Vessel cutting device

Family Applications After (3)

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US10456180 Abandoned US20030204198A1 (en) 1998-01-28 2003-06-06 Vessel cutting devices
US10659951 Abandoned US20040049218A1 (en) 1998-01-28 2003-09-10 Vessel cutting devices
US11901550 Active 2019-09-17 US8382784B2 (en) 1998-01-28 2007-09-17 Vessel cutting devices

Country Status (4)

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US (5) US6416527B1 (en)
DE (2) DE69937288D1 (en)
EP (2) EP1776926B1 (en)
WO (1) WO1999038441A1 (en)

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US20040049218A1 (en) 2004-03-11 application
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US20030204198A1 (en) 2003-10-30 application
EP1776926B1 (en) 2011-12-07 grant
EP1051115B1 (en) 2007-10-10 grant
WO1999038441A1 (en) 1999-08-05 application
DE69937288T2 (en) 2008-02-07 grant
EP1051115A1 (en) 2000-11-15 application
EP1776926A1 (en) 2007-04-25 application

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