US20010008158A1 - Pneumatic radial tire and method for manufacturing same - Google Patents

Pneumatic radial tire and method for manufacturing same Download PDF

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Publication number
US20010008158A1
US20010008158A1 US08827458 US82745897A US2001008158A1 US 20010008158 A1 US20010008158 A1 US 20010008158A1 US 08827458 US08827458 US 08827458 US 82745897 A US82745897 A US 82745897A US 2001008158 A1 US2001008158 A1 US 2001008158A1
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Prior art keywords
belt
band
tire
winding
cord
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US08827458
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Yoshihide Kojima
Hiroaki Sakuno
Masao Takami
Katsunori Kadowaki
Yoshinobu Miyanaga
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Yoshihide Kojima
Hiroaki Sakuno
Masao Takami
Katsunori Kadowaki
Yoshinobu Miyanaga
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29DPRODUCING PARTICULAR ARTICLES FROM PLASTICS OR FROM SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE
    • B29D30/00Producing pneumatic or solid tyres or parts thereof
    • B29D30/06Pneumatic tyres or parts thereof (e.g. produced by casting, moulding, compression moulding, injection moulding, centrifugal casting)
    • B29D30/08Building tyres
    • B29D30/20Building tyres by the flat-tyre method, i.e. building on cylindrical drums
    • B29D30/30Applying the layers; Guiding or stretching the layers during application
    • B29D30/3028Applying the layers; Guiding or stretching the layers during application by feeding a continuous band and winding it helically, i.e. the band is fed while being advanced along the drum axis, to form an annular element
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29DPRODUCING PARTICULAR ARTICLES FROM PLASTICS OR FROM SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE
    • B29D30/00Producing pneumatic or solid tyres or parts thereof
    • B29D30/06Pneumatic tyres or parts thereof (e.g. produced by casting, moulding, compression moulding, injection moulding, centrifugal casting)
    • B29D30/08Building tyres
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60CVEHICLE TYRES; TYRE INFLATION; TYRE CHANGING OR REPAIRING; REPAIRING, OR CONNECTING VALVES TO, INFLATABLE ELASTIC BODIES IN GENERAL; DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS RELATED TO TYRES
    • B60C9/00Reinforcements or ply arrangement of pneumatic tyres B
    • B60C9/18Structure or arrangement of belts or breakers, crown-reinforcing or cushioning layers
    • B60C9/20Structure or arrangement of belts or breakers, crown-reinforcing or cushioning layers built-up from rubberised plies each having all cords arranged substantially parallel
    • B60C9/22Structure or arrangement of belts or breakers, crown-reinforcing or cushioning layers built-up from rubberised plies each having all cords arranged substantially parallel the plies being arranged with all cords disposed along the circumference of the tyre
    • B60C9/2204Structure or arrangement of belts or breakers, crown-reinforcing or cushioning layers built-up from rubberised plies each having all cords arranged substantially parallel the plies being arranged with all cords disposed along the circumference of the tyre obtained by circumferentially narrow strip winding
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T152/00Resilient tires and wheels
    • Y10T152/10Tires, resilient
    • Y10T152/10495Pneumatic tire or inner tube
    • Y10T152/10765Characterized by belt or breaker structure
    • Y10T152/10783Reinforcing plies made up from wound narrow ribbons

Abstract

A pneumatic radial tire and a method for manufacturing the same, a device for forming a band of radial tire, and a method of and device for forming a belt-band-tread rubber assembly. The pneumatic tire including a belt arranged on the radially outer side or a carcass, and a band arranged on the radially outer side of the belt and composed of continuous one to several organic fiber cords wound spirally and approximately parallel to the circumferential direction of the tire. The radial tire manufacturing method including the steps of laminating the predetermined number of belt plies on a belt drum or belt ring for forming a belt, and winding one to several organic fiber cords continuously and spirally in the cicumferential direction of the belt on the outer surface of the formed belt in order to form a band. The band forming device including a means for drawing out a cord to be wound, a means for traversing the letting-off means in the widthwise direction of the belt, and a means for controlling the traverse of the letting-off means. The method of forming belt-band-tread rubber assemblies comprising a step of expanding the diameter of belt drum so that the shape in axial section of belt drum becomes the same or approximately the same as the finished shape of the band in vulcanization mold. The assembly forming device including a diameter-variable belt drum comprising a stretchable forming annular body made of an elastomer, and a means for expanding and contracting the diameter of the annular body, wherein the shape in axial section of the circumferential surface of the annular body in the diameter.

Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • This invention relates to a pneumatic radial tire equipped with a band for reinforcing a belt and a method for manufacturing the same, and further relates to an apparatus for forming the band, and a method of and apparatus for forming a belt-band-tread rubber assembly. [0001]
  • BACKGROUND ART
  • Pneumatic radial tires having a belt in which metallic cords are arranged and which is disposed in the tread portion have been conventionally attached to high performance passenger cars, and high-speed durability, high-speed driving stability and steerability have been accomplished owing to a strong hooping effect of the belt. The conventional speed range from 100 to 200 kw/h, however, has been accelerated these days, and some passenger cars driving at 200 km/h or more, and sometimes at 300 km/h, have been introduced. In the field of racing cars, machines driving at such a speed range already exist, but the driving is only in a limited condition, so that the tires mounted on them have been manufactured by sacrificing general performances required in ordinary driving, for example, wearing resistance and fuel economy. They are hence unable to withstand the general use. [0002]
  • If conventional radial tires having a metallic cord belt are used in the high-speed driving as mentioned above, their tread portions are deformed by centrifugal force and repeated distortions are generated in the tread portion. This deformation appears as various phenomena depending on the size, structure and materials of the tire, for example, as a lifting phenomenon in which the outer diameter at the shoulder portion increases, a phenomenon in which the outer diameter at the center portion increases and the radius of curvature of the tread decreases or the surface becomes an irregular curve, or a standing wave phenomenon. [0003]
  • Furthermore, owing to the heat generated by the repeated distortion in the tread caused by such a deformation, the temperature at the tread portion rapidly rises and the adhesion between the metallic cord surface and the rubber in the belt is broken; that is, so-called ply separation occurs. In particular, the tires used in such a high-speed driving as described above require a broad ground contact area to secure the grip on the road surface and, therefore, a flattened tire having a wide tread is employed. In such a low-profile flattened tire having a wide tread, since the occupied rate of the tread portion in the entire tire is large, the above-mentioned phenomena of deformation and heat generation tend to occur. [0004]
  • Use of a rubber with a small loss tangent (tan δ) is effective for decrease of the heat generation, but when such a rubber with a small loss tangent (tan δ) is employed, the grip lowers and required high motional performances are hard to obtain. [0005]
  • Also, decrease of the deformation at the tread portion without changing the formulation of the tread rubber can be achieved by raising the hooping effect of the belt, but if the number of plies of the belt composed of metallic cords is increased, the weight of the tire increases, thus exerting adverse effects on the high-speed property of the entire car. [0006]
  • To solve these problems, a band formed by arranging a multiplicity of independent cords parallel with each other in the circumferential direction of the tire, adhering with rubber, and shaping into a sheet is disclosed in Japanese Patent Publication Kokai No. 47-14805, and Japanese Patent Publication Kokoku No. 55-45402. This band, however, has at least one joint portion extending in the widthwise direction. The stiffness in the circumferential direction decreases at this joint portion, thus large distortion tends to occur to induce breakage. In addition, the joint portion may impair the uniformity of the tire. Accordingly, the band is not sufficient for use in the high speed range described above. The tire having such a band makes no trouble in ordinary speed range but in a high speed range as fast as more than 200 km/h or more than 300 km/h, it is impossible to prevent deformations caused by the centrifugal force on the tread portion and no sufficient durability is obtained. [0007]
  • It is hence a primary object of this invention to provide a tire having a structure capable of withstanding use in such a high speed range without sacrificing other general performances. [0008]
  • As a means of solving the above problems, a jointless band which is formed by winding one or a plurality of organic fiber cords spirally on the belt parallel to the central circumferential line of the tire, and a joint band in which the densities of a spirally wound cord are different between the crown portion and the shoulder portion of the tire so as to enhance the tirr performances, are disclosed in Japanese Patent Publication Kokoku No. 44-17801 and Japanese Patent Publication Kokoku No. 57-61601. [0009]
  • But this means has the problem that it takes much time to wind the cord, thus its productivity is inferior, and since the wound cord becomes asymmetrical at the section of the tire, the uniformity such as conicity is poor. [0010]
  • Furthermore, upon changing the cord density, if the density is set too high, the cord surfaces contact each other, which sometimes induces breakage at that point. [0011]
  • It is hence another object or this invention to provide a radial tire having a superior uniformity of the tire and excellent productivity in which the breakage at the shoulder portion of the belt due to the lifting in driving is surely prevented and the contact between cord surfaces is inhibited, and its manufacturing method. [0012]
  • It is still another object of this invention to provide an assembly of belt, band and tread rubber which can improve the high-speed durability of the radial tire as mentioned above, and a method of and apparatus for forming the band. [0013]
  • Generally, in the manufacturing process of radial tires, an integrally assembled body is previously formed by winding these belt, band and tread rubber sequentially on a belt drum. [0014]
  • As shown in FIGS. 39, 40 and [0015] 42, conventional belt drum 300 is supported rotatably at one side on a shaft 301 and has a belt-forming surface S1 of which shape in the circumferential direction is annular and of which sectional shape in the axial direction is linear. The belt-forming surface S1 is formed by plural slats 303 each having a width of approximately 40 mm arranged radially on its entire circumference, and both ends of the slat are fastened with a pair of annular springs 302. An air bag 304 equipped with an air pipe 306 is fixed inside the slats in the radial direction by a supporting base 305. Drum outer diameter defining rings 308 are detatchably mounted on frames 307 disposed on both sides of the slats.
  • A conventional method of manufacturing an assembly of the belt, band and tread by using the above existing belt drum is explained below: [0016]
  • the drum outer diameter is expanded by inflating the air bag with air supplied through the air pipe; at this time, the outer diameter of the drum is restricted to a specified belt adhering diameter by the drum outer diameter defining ring; [0017]
  • a belt B is formed (see FIG. 40) by winding up a plurality of plies composed of cords which are coated with a rubber and are woven in the form of cord fabric, on the belt-forming surface S[0018] 1 so that the cords of each ply cross each other at an angle of 10 to 40 degrees with regard to the circumferential direction;
  • a band BR is formed by further winding one ply or two plies of cords which are coated with a rubber and are woven in the form of cord fabric, on the circumferential surface of the belt B at an angle of nearly 0 degree with respect to the circumferential direction; and [0019]
  • a tread rubber T is wound on the radially outer side of the band BR, thus forming an assembly A into one body. [0020]
  • The thus formed assembly is taken out from the belt drum by using a holding means and transferred to the center of a cylindrical carcass of the tire on a tire forming drum. The carcass of tire is sequentially swollen in a toroidal shape by an air pressure so as to have its circumferential surface pressed tightly against the belt inside the assembly. The belt is furthermore pressed and attached to the tire carcass over the full width of the belt by a tread attaching roller, whereby the assembly is combined integrally with the tire carcass to provide a raw tire. [0021]
  • Also, in Japanese Patent Publication Kokal No. 61-51979 there is disclosed a method for forming a band by spirally and continuously winding one or a multiplicity of synthetic fiber cords in the circumferential direction on the circumferential surface of the belt formed on the belt ring, covering in a range of at least 70% of the belt width, with a pitch of 5 to 15 mm in the widthwise direction. [0022]
  • In this method, since the winding pitch of the cord is set as wide as 5 to 15 mm, a disadvantageous expansion of the equatorial diameter of the raw tire due to the shaping internal pressure in vulcanizing process can be effectively prevented, but thermal shrinking force of the band becomes weaker at shoulder portions that at the center portion as shown in FIG. 42. Consequently, one of the band characteristics, that is, a function to prevent the lifting phenomenon of the belt owing to the centrifugal force during running cannot be fully executed. In other words, a reinforcing effect for the failure of the belt due to the lifting while running is insufficient. [0023]
  • Such a problem results from the fact that the band is formed by winding on a cylindrical belt drum having a linear sectional shape in the axial direction as described above and shown in FIGS. 39, 40 and [0024] 22, in spite of the belt and band of the finished tire in the mold being convex in its sectional shape in the axial direction (final shape) as shown in FIG. 20.
  • That is, though the circumferential winding lengths in forming are identical at shoulder portions and the center portion of the belt, the cicumferential lengths of the belt after vulcanization of tire become short at belt shoulder portions and long at the belt center portion due to the shaping (expanding) process in vulcanization. As a result, the stretch becomes large at the center portion and small at the shoulder portions of the belt, and the thermal shrinking force is lessened at the shoulder portions. Since a larger stretch is applied on the center portion of the belt, a stretch difference exceeding 2% usually occurs. [0025]
  • The trouble mentioned above is induced because the stretch difference appears as the differences in residual elongation and thermal shrinking force as shown in FIGS. 41 and 42. Here, the term “stretch” means percentage of finishing diameter to the winding diameter of the belt. [0026]
  • Accordingly, another object of this invention is to provide an assembly of belt, band and tread rubber in which the difference of the stretches between the center portion and the shoulder portions of the band is made as small as 2% or less and in order to raise the thermal shrinking force at the shoulder portion, in its turn raise a function to prevent lifting of the belt layer by which a high-speed durability can be improved, and a method of and apparatus for forming the band. [0027]
  • DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION
  • In one of the aspects, this invention relates to a pneumatic radial tire having a band disposed outside a carcass with respect to the radial direction or the tire, which is characterized in that the band is composed of continuous one to several organic fiber cords spirally wound almost parallel to the circumferential direction of the tire. [0028]
  • In another aspect, this invention relates to a method for producing a radial tire comprising the steps of deforming a cylindrical tire carcass into a toroidal shape and adhering a belt and a tread onto the outer surface of the carcass, which is characterized in that the method includes the step of spirally winding one to several organic fiber cords on the circumferential surface of the formed belt continuously in the circumferential direction of the belt in order to form a band for reinforcing the belt. [0029]
  • In still another aspect, this invention relates to an apparatus for forming a band by continuously and spirally winding one to several organic fiber cords on the circumferential surface of the belt formed on a belt drum or belt ring, which is characterized in having a let-off means for drawing out the cord to be wound to the belt side, a traverse means for causing the let-off means to traverse in the widthwise direction of the belt, and a traverse control means for controlling the traverse of the letting out means. [0030]
  • In another aspect, this invention relates to a method for forming an assembly composed of a belt, a band and a tread rubber by using a belt drum capable of changing its diameter, which is characterized by including a step of expanding the diameter of the belt drum so as to make the axial sectional shape of the band drum identical or close to the finishing shape of the belt in a mold, and a step of forming a band composed of an organic fiber cord on the outside of the belt with respect to the radial direction of the belt on the belt drum expanded to the above-mentioned shape. [0031]
  • In a still another aspect, this invention relates to an apparatus for forming an assembly composed of a belt, a band and a tread rubber suitable for radial tires, which is characterized in that the apparatus is provided with a diameter-variable belt drum comprising an annular forming body of an elastomer capable of expansion and contraction and a diameter changing means for changing the diameter of the annular molded body. [0032]
  • In another aspect, this invention relates to an apparatus for forming an assembly composed of a belt, a band and a tread rubber which comprises a belt drum capable of changing its diameter, and a band forming device for forming the band by continuously and spirally winding one to several organic fiber cords on the circumferential surface of the belt formed on the belt drum. [0033]
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • FIG. 1 is a section view showing an embodiment of the pneumatic radial tire of this invention; [0034]
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing an arrangement of a belt, a band and a tread rubber in another embodiment of the pneumatic radial tire of this invention; [0035]
  • FIG. 3 is a perspective view showing schematically the state of the winding of a cord of the band; [0036]
  • FIG. 4 is a section view showing a still another embodiment of a pneumatic radial tire of this invention; [0037]
  • FIG. 5 is a view showing a distribution of elongation of the cord of the band under a prescribed load; [0038]
  • FIG. 6 is a view showing an instance of the relationship between the ratio of the width of edge band layer to the width of full band layer and the rate of breakage of a tire; [0039]
  • FIG. 7 is a perspective view showing cords formed into a tape shape by incorporating several cords into a body with a rubber; [0040]
  • FIG. 8 is a perspective view showing a single cord coated; [0041]
  • FIG. 9 is a perspective view showing a non-coated cord; [0042]
  • FIGS. [0043] 10 to 13 are section views for showing examples of a method for producing radial tires of this invention, respectively;
  • FIGS. [0044] 14 to 16 are views showing a manner of winding a cord for forming a band of symmetrical structure;
  • FIG. 14[0045] a is a view showing a manner of winding to provide an asymmetrical structure;
  • FIGS. [0046] 17 to 19 are views showing a distribution of elongation under a prescribed load of a cord of the band of the tire used in a test;
  • FIGS. [0047] 20 to 22 are views for illustrating a method for forming a belt-band-tread rubber assembly of this invention, in which FIG. 20 shows a state of curing of a tire, FIG. 21 shows a state of forming of the assembly and FIG. 22 shows a conventional forming method;
  • FIG. 23 is an axial section view showing an embodiment of an apparatus for forming the belt-band-tread rubber assembly of this invention; [0048]
  • FIG. 24 is a section view taken along the line [0049] 24-24 in FIG. 23;
  • FIG. 25 is a section view showing a diameter-expanded state of the apparatus; [0050]
  • FIG. 26 is a perspective view showing its outer diameter defining member; [0051]
  • FIGS. 27 and 28 are views showing a manner of finding the shape in axial section of the above-mentioned apparatus in diameter-expanded state; [0052]
  • FIGS. [0053] 29 to 31 are section views showing another embodiment of the apparatus for forming a belt-band-tread rubber assembly of this invention;
  • FIG. 32 is a view showing a step in a method for producing radial tires; [0054]
  • FIG. 33 is a front view showing an embodiment of the band forming apparatus of this invention; [0055]
  • FIG. 34 is a side view thereof; [0056]
  • FIG. 35 is a view showing an instance of use thereof; [0057]
  • FIG. 36 is a view showing another instance of use thereof; [0058]
  • FIG. 37 is a front view showing another embodiment of the band forming apparatus of this invention; [0059]
  • FIG. 38 is a side view thereof; [0060]
  • FIGS. [0061] 33 to 40 are axial section views showing a conventional belt drum;
  • FIG. 41 is a view showing a distribution of residual elongation of a cord of a band; [0062]
  • FIG. 42 is a view showing a distribution of thermal shrinking force of a cord of a band; and [0063]
  • FIG. 43 is a view showing another assembly which can be formed by using the method for forming belt-band-tread rubber assemblies of this invention and the forming apparatus of this invention. [0064]
  • BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
  • Referring now to the drawings, embodiments of the pneumatic radial tire of this invention are explained below. [0065]
  • FIG. 1 is a sectional view showing a first embodiment of the pneumatic radial tire according to the present invention, where a tire [0066] 1 comprises a pair of bead cores 3, a pair of bead apexes 4, a carcass 2, an annular tread 5, a pair of side walls 6, a belt 7 and a band 8.
  • The bead cores [0067] 3 are arranged in bead portions of the tire. The bead apexes 4 are made of a hard rubber and disposed outside the bead cores with respect to the radial direction of the tire.
  • The carcass [0068] 2 is composed of cords arranged in the radial direction of the tire, and is turned up around the bead cores and fastened. This embodiment shows a carcass composed of one ply, but the carcass may be composed of a plurality of plies.
  • The belt [0069] 7 is arranged on the radially outer side of the carcass 2, which is composed or two or more plies of metallic cords. In this embodiment, it is composed of an inner ply 7 i and an outer ply 7 o, but one or two plies may be interposed between them. In the drawing, the inner ply has a larger width than the outer ply but it does not matter if vice versa. If the two plies have the same width, however, the bending stiffness in the section varies drastically at the edges, which makes an adverse effect on the durability, so that it is necessary to set these plies in different widths.
  • Also, the above metallic cords of the belt are arranged at an angle or 10 to 30 degrees with regard to the equatorial line of the tire. [0070]
  • The band [0071] 8 is located on the radially outer side of the belt 7. The band comprises a full band layer 8 f and a pair of edge band layers 8 e.
  • The full band layer [0072] 8 f is disposed over the full width of the belt, that is, over the full width of the inner ply having the maximum width. Each edge band layer 8 e is arranged between the full band layer 8 f and the belt or between the full band layer 8 f and the annular tread 5 in the region near the belt edge.
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing the arrangement of the carcass, belt and band in the case where the disposition of the edge band layers and full band layer is reversed. [0073]
  • It is preferable to match the edges of the full band layer, edge band layers and the inner ply or the belt. When the edges of the full band layer and the edge band layers are located inward from the belt edge, the lifting described above is difficult to be prevented. Even if they are located outside the belt edge position, no specific effect is obtained thereby. Moreover, extra materials are required for the exceeding portion. Also, since organic fiber cords must be wound on the rubber member in an area where no metallic cord is present, it induces a problem in maintaining the uniformity of cord tension and cord position in the manufacturing. [0074]
  • The ratio We/Wf of the width We of the edge band layer [0075] 8 e measured in the axial direction of the tire to the width Wf of the full band layer 8 f measured in the axial direction of the tire is set in a range from 0.2 to 0.3. When the ratio We/Wf is less than 0.2, the durability drops down sharply. On the other hand, even if We/Wf exceeds 0.3, no further improvement of durability is expected. Also, it has been found that a tire in which We/Wf is larger than 0.3, tends to control a car body with difficulty because the stiffness of the entire tread portion becomes stronger. From such reasons, it is necessary that the value We/Wf is within a range of 0.2 to 0.3.
  • The edge band layers and full band layer are composed of organic fiber cords substantially parallel to the equatorial line of the tire. The organic fiber cord is a single long cord composed of a multiplicity of single yarns or twisted yarns such as spun yarn, monorilament yarn and multifilament yarn of organic fibers made of nylon [0076] 66, nylon 6, polyester, Kevlar and the like. This cord C is formed or one to several cords wound spirally in the circumferential direction of the tire in each layer as shown schematically in FIG. 3. Consequently, conventional joint parts no longer exist in each layer and the troubles caused by the existence of the joints can be completely prevented. At the conventional joint portion, both ends in the circumferential direction of each layer are only put to overlap each other, so that this portion cannot endure a large tension in the circumferential direction. It therefore often induces the breakage due to use in high-speed range. The joint portions also spoil the uniformity of the tire.
  • FIG. 4 is a sectional view showing a second embodiment of the pneumatic radial tire of this invention. In this embodiment, the band [0077] 8 has only a full band layer 8 f with no edge band layer.
  • This full band layer [0078] 8 f is composed, in the same way as in the former embodiment, of one to three organic fiber cords C spirally wound in the circumferential direction as shown in FIG. 3. The elongation at given load of the organic fiber cord has such a distribution as to become smaller from the crown portion to the shoulder portions of the tire. Here, the elongation at given load is measured by a method specified in JIS L1017, and expresses the elongation of the cord under a load determined according to the material and the thickness of the cord.
  • FIG. 5 shows an example of the distribution of the elongation at given load of the organic fiber cord contained in the full band layer. In this graph, the axis of ordinates indicates the elongation at given load or each tire, which is expressed by an index where the value at the crown portion of each tire is regarded as [0079] 100. The axis of abscissas indicates the portions of the tire, and the expressions “CR: crown portion”, “SH: shoulder portion” show the position where the tire equatorial surface intercrosses with the band layer, and the position of the belt edge, respectively. In the distribution of conventional products, as shown by a dot-and-dash line, the values tend to become larger at the shoulder portions than at the crown portion, so that the binding force of the band at the shoulder portions become lower in comparison with that at the crown portion. In contrast, the distribution of the product of this invention shown by a solid line denotes that the elongation at given load becomes smaller as approaching nearer to the shoulder portions.
  • This distribution can be obtained by winding organic fiber cords while applying a larger tension as coming nearer to the shoulder portions when winding the cords in the tire forming process. [0080]
  • The tire of this invention can be produced by either [0081]
  • (a) a method comprising the steps of winding a belt, at first, on the belt drum and then spirally and continuously winding a rubberized organic fiber cord on the belt to form a band, winding a tread on the band, thus forming an annular assembly composed of the belt, band and tread rubber on the belt drum, positioning this annular assembly at the tire forming drum, and adhering a separately formed carcass to this assembly by shaping it, or [0082]
  • (b) a method by winding the belt, band and tread directly on the carcass which has been formed and subjected to shaping. [0083]
  • In winding the organic fiber cord C, it is acceptable to wind several cords, e.g. 2 to 3 cords, while gathering so as to be aligned, or to wind only one cord. [0084]
  • FIG. 7 shows cords in which several cords are aligned and combined into one body by coating rubber R and formed into a tape shape (belt or ribbon-like body). If a plurality of cords are arranged and united in a body as described above, it becomes easy to accurately set a pitch p between the cords. This tape-like body can be easily formed by an extruding machine or a calender ball. In case of making the cords into a ribbon, it is preferable from the viewpoint of uniformity of the tire to set the number of cords to such an extent that the angles of the wound cords to the circumferential direction may not exceed 0 degree so much. Here, the drawing shows a tape-like body [0085] 11 composed of three cords, but the number of cords may be selected in a range not exceeding about 5-10.
  • When embedding several cords in the coating rubber, the amount of the rubber contained in one pitch is expressed by the equation: [0086]
  • Tp−πd 2/4
  • where T indicates the thickness of the tape-like body. [0087]
  • In the case of winding single organic fiber cord, preferably the cord is previously covered with a coating rubber R as shown in FIG. 8. The thickness t of this coating rubber should satisfy the relation: [0088]
  • 0.1 mm≦t<0.2 mm
  • The diameter d of the organic fiber cord C is set so that the pitch p which is the distance between the centers of the cords becomes: [0089]
  • p=d+2t
  • The diameter d is measured by the method specified in JIS L 1017. The amount of rubber contained in one pitch is [0090]
  • (p 2 −d 2)/4
  • and when T=p, the band is short of rubber in an amount expressed by: [0091]
  • (p 2 −πd 2/4)−π(p 2 −d 2)/4=3πp 2/4
  • The shortage of the rubber induces corrugations on the band surface in the finished tire. If the corrugations are large, an adverse effect is given on the durability. [0092]
  • The present inventors made a test by changing the thickness of the rubber to be applied onto organic fiber cords, and as a result, they have found that a sufficient durability is obtained when the rubber thickness t is 0.1 mm or more. If the rubber thickness t exceeds 0.2 mm, the pitch p becomes so large that the organic fiber cords may be insufficient, thus a sufficient tread stiffness cannot be obtained. [0093]
  • The diameter d of the above cords, meanwhile, is determined by the strength required in preventing the lifting and it is, for example, [0094]
  • 0.5 mm≦d≦1.5 nm
  • Also, the thickness t of the rubber coating is determined by the necessary durability and it is, for example, [0095]
  • 0.05 mm<t<0.8 mm, preferably,
  • 0.1 mm≦t≦0.2 mm, as mentioned above.
  • As the coating rubber R, the same or equivalent rubbers as those used as a coating rubber of conventional bands (nylon band having a joint portion extending in the widthwise direction) can be employed, for example, a rubber compound mainly composed of natural rubber, a blend of natural rubber and SBR, and other rubbers which have a good adhesion to the cords. [0096]
  • When winding the above-mentioned organic fiber cords, a tension is applied to the cords. This winding tension may be uniform in the widthwise direction of the belt, but preferably the cords are wound so that the cord tension after vulcanization of the tire becomes uniform without having any difference in the entire width of the belt, or that the winding tension of the cord becomes maximum at the shoulder portions of the belt and minimum at the center portion so as to make the elongation of the cord at given load small at the shoulder portions of the belt and large at its center portion. By taking such a means, necessary stiffness at the tread portion with a necessary distribution throughout the section of the tire can be obtained without providing any edge band layer or changing the density of cords. Moreover, the high-speed durability of the finished tire can be further enhanced. In this ease, the value of winding tension can be arbitrarily selected depending on the size and the structure of the tire, but if it is set so as to be minimum at the crown portion of the tire and to gradually increase toward the shoulder portions to reach maximum at the shoulder portions of the belt, the cord tension of the band in the vulcanized tire becomes more uniform in the entire width or the belt. Besides, if the increment of the winding tension at that time is set at a value necessary for giving an elongation corresponding to the differences of the outer diameters between the crown portion and other positions of the band in finished tire, a uniform stiffness in the circumferential direction can be obtained. [0097]
  • For instance, when using nylon 66 1260 d/2 as the organic fiber cord, the winding tension is set minimum at the crown portion as 20 g, and is gradually increased toward the shoulder portions to reach maximum at the shoulder portions as 40 g. When defined in this way, the cord tension of the band in vulcanized tire becomes uniform in the entire width at 50 g. [0098]
  • Similar effects can be obtained by setting the winding tension constant, and instead of this, by gradually increasing the cord diameter from the crown portion toward the shoulder portions. For example, when using nylon 66 1260 d/2 as an organic fiber cord, it is preferable to set the winding tension constant in a range from 30 g to 50 g. [0099]
  • Also, the organic fiber cord C is preferably wound so that the radius of curvature at the section of the band in forming coincides with the radius of curvature of the band in the finished tire, in order that the difference between the stretch at the center of the band and the stretch at the shoulder portions falls within 2% (this will be explained in more detail in the method for forming an assembly of belt, band and tread rubber of this invention mentioned after. By doing so, the residual elongation or thermal shrinking force of the organic fiber cord of the band in the finished tire becomes uniform between the center portion and the shoulder portions or becomes higher at the shoulder portions, thus the lowering of the hooping effect of the band at the shoulder portions of the belt can be prevented. [0100]
  • FIGS. [0101] 10 to 13 are sectional views showing the winding process of organic fiber cord in a manufacturing process of the tire, respectively. FIGS. 14 and 15 are sketches showing the way of winding, respectively.
  • FIG. 10 shows a state of forming a band comprising only a pair of so-called edge hand layers wherein one to several rubber-coated cords C mentioned above are wound only at both shoulder portions BS of the belt [0102] 7 on the circumferential surface of the belt 7 of two-ply structure wound on the belt drum or belt ring 21. In this case, it is necessary to set the winding pitch of the cord at 0.5 to 5.0 mm as described above to prevent the lifting of the shoulder portions of the belt. The above-mentioned spiral winding should be made in one turn or more, in compliance with necessity, outward from the equatorial plane of the tire or in the opposite direction so as to have a symmetric structure to each other.
  • FIG. 11 shows a state of formation of a band comprising only a so-called full band layer by continuously winding the rubber-coated cord C over 70% or the entire width of belt [0103] 7 on the outer surface of the belt 7 of two-ply structure wound on the belt drum or belt ring 21. It is necessary that the winding pitch is from 0.5 to 5.0 mm at shoulder portions BS or the belt to prevent the lifting at belt shoulder portions, and also the pitch is from 0.5 to 15.0 mm at the center portion BC of the belt. This spiral winding is also made, in the same way as the above, in one turn or more in compliance with necessity so as to be in a symmnetric structure outward from the equatorial plane of the tire or in the reverse direction.
  • FIG. 12 shows a state that a thin rubber sheet [0104] 23 is wound on the outer surface of the belt 7 of two-ply structure wound on the belt drum or belt ring 21, and one to several non-rubber-coated cords C are wound continuously and spirally on the rubber sheet in the circumferential direction at a pitch of 0.5 to 5.0 mm at the belt shoulder portions and 0.5 to 15.0 mm at the belt center portion, and further the second rubber sheet 24 is wound thereon to sandwich the spirally wound cords between the rubber sheets. In this case, as the material for the rubber sheet, it is preferable to use a material having a good adhesiveness with the cord in the same way as the material used as the above-mentioned coating rubber. In case of this embodiment, after winding the second rubber sheet 24, the rubber sheet 24, cord C and the rubber sheet 23 are pressed by pressure rollers to cause the rubber to enter between the cords before winding the tread rubber.
  • FIG. 13 shows an example of a band composed of a combination of a full band layer and edge band layers. [0105]
  • In this band, the number of layers, number of cords per unit length (density), cord size and pitch can be changed as occasion demands. [0106]
  • In any cases, winding is conducted so as to be symmetric in structure with regard to the tire equatorial plane in the same way as described above. That is, in case of a structure having two layers at BS portion and one layer at BC portion, there are some methods such as winding cords Cl and C[0107] 2 from the center position 30 toward both sides symmetrically and folding them over at both edges as shown in FIG. 15, or starting the winding from BS portion and folding it over to return to the center as shown in FIG. 14. In case of winding only on BS portion, it may be wound by folding over at the edges as shown in FIG. 16. Also, FIG. 14a shows a way of winding asymmetrically.
  • (Comparative Test) [0108]
  • Sample tires in a size of 255/40 VR17 were produced and tested. [0109]
  • These test tires have the sectional structure shown in FIG. 1 and the following basic structure, and they are formed identically except for the band structure. [0110]
  • Basic Structure [0111]
  • Belt material: Metallic cord [0112]
  • Number of belts: 2 plies [0113]
  • Belt angle: 24 degrees [0114]
  • Carcass material: Polyester [0115]
  • Band material: Nylon 66 1260 d/2 (by single winding) [0116]
  • The test was an indoor durability test using an indoor bench tester, in which test tires having various values of We/Wf from 0 (that is, without any edge band layer) to 0.45 were driven for 20 minutes at prescribed speed by stepping up the speed at 10 km/h increments under the conditions of standard internal pressure and load, and the speed at which each tire was broken (hereinafter referred to as breaking speed) was measured. [0117]
  • FIG. 6 is a graph showing the results, in which the axis of ordinates indicates the breaking speed, and the axis of abscissas denotes the value We/Wf. [0118]
  • It is found from the graph that the breaking speed drastically falls down when We/Wf is smaller than 0.2, and that the breaking speed does not rise remarkably even if We/Wf exceeds 0.3. It was also found that tires having a value We/Wf of more than 0.3 tend to be difficult in controlling in actual car test because the stiffness of the entire tread portion becomes high. [0119]
  • Another three kinds of tires of the same size as above having a sectional structure as shown in FIG. 4 and a structure shown in Table 1 were produced and subjected to the same indoor durability test. [0120]
    TABLE 1
    Example 1 Example 2 Com. Ex.
    Tire size 255/40 VR17 255/40 VR17 255/40 VR17
    Belt material metal cord metal cord metal cord
    Number of belts 2 2 2
    Angle of belt 24 degrees 24 degrees 24 degrees
    Carcass material polyester polyester polyester
    Structure of band full band full band full band
    1 ply 1 ply 1 ply
    joint: none joint: none joint: present
    Band material nylon 66 nylon 66 nylon 66
    1260d/2 1260d/2 1260d/2
    Cord diameter (d) 0.60 mm 0.60 mm 0.60 mm
    Rubber 0.15 mm 0.15 mm
    thickness (t)
    Pitch (p) 0.90 mm 0.90 mm 0.90 mm
    Tension of cord
    in winding (T)
    Crown part 35 g 35 g
    Shoulder part 45 g 45 g
    Distribution of shoulder part shoulder part shoulder part
    elongation < crown part > crown part > crown part
    under given shown in shown in shown in
    load of band
    cord
    Breaking speed 350 km/h 300 km/h 260 km/h
  • Example 1 has a distribution of elongation at given load of the cord of the full band layer as shown in FIG. 17. [0121]
  • Example [0122] 2 is similar to Example 1 in apparent structure, but the distribution of elongation at given load of the cord of the full band layer is reverse to the profile of Example 1 as shown in FIG. 18.
  • Comparative Example 1 wherein on the belt was provided a conventional full band layer possessing a joint extending in the widthwise direction at one position in the circumferential direction of the tire, has a distribution of elongation at given load of the cord of the full band layer as shown in FIG. 19. [0123]
  • As a result of indoor durability test of these tires in the same conditions as mentioned above, Example 1 of this invention presented a marked improvement effect as compared with Comparative Example, and its durability performance was nearly equal to that of the structure with an intervening edge band layer mentioned above. [0124]
  • Also, in the case of Example 1 wherein the band is formed by gradually increasing the cord tension in winding from 35 g to 45 g from the crown portion toward the shoulder portion, the breakdown level was further raised in comparison to Example 2 in which the winding was conducted at a constant tension of 35 g. [0125]
  • The distribution of stiffness in the peripheral direction of the band at each of various positions in the widthwise direction corresponds very well to the elongation at given load of the cord at each position. The elongation at given load is an elongation (%) at a load determined according to the code specified in JIS L 1017, and the larger this value, the smaller the stiffness in the peripheral direction, and the smaller the elongation at given load, the larger the peripheral stiffness. As shown in FIGS. [0126] 17 to 19, it is evident that the distribution tendency of the elongation at given load of the cord of the band is reverse in Example 1, as compared with Comparative Example and Example 2. It means that the peripheral stiffness of the shoulder portion of Example 1 is higher, and as a result, Example 1 possesses a high breaking speed.
  • Furthermore, in actual car tests, the grip performance of the tire of Example 1 is equal to that of the Comparative Example, and its control performance is the best of the three tires. [0127]
  • As explained above, since one or several organic fiber cords were continuously spirally wound parallel to the peripheral direction on the outer surface of the belt so as to be dense in cord pitch at the belt shoulder portion, and so that the winding tension may be maximum at the belt shoulder portion, thus forming a band, the stretch difference between the belt shoulder portion and the belt middle portion of a vulcanized tire becomes small, whereby the thermal shrinking force at the belt shoulder portion is raised, and accordingly an action of preventing the lifting of belt in traveling is markedly exhibited. Accordingly, separation damage of the belt due to lifting in traveling can be surely prevented. [0128]
  • Furthermore, since the cord has a symmetrical spiral structure with respect to the tire equatorial plane, the uniformity of the tire is excellent. Also, the cord of symmetrical structure is easy to make winding simultaneously, so that the productivity is excellent, too. [0129]
  • The full band layer placed in the entire width of the belt serves to decrease the deformation of the entire tread caused by the centrifugal force applied to the tread portion in the before-mentioned high speed region, while the shoulder edge band layer works to prevent the lifting and standing wave phenomena. [0130]
  • Therefore, there can be controlled the deformation of tread due to centrifugal force occurring in tires used in high speed region of over 200 km/h or even faster than 300 km/h, In particular in superflattened tires with a flat ratio of 50% or less, whereby the damage resulting from this deformation can be prevented, and accordingly the durability performance can be improved without decreasing other necessary traveling performances. [0131]
  • Besides, when the full band layer possesses such a distribution that the elongation at given load of the organic fiber cords contained therein becomes smaller as approaching closer to the shoulder portion, the combined effect of the shoulder edge band layer and the full band layer can be obtained by one layer of full band. [0132]
  • Next is explained the method of forming the assembly of belt, band and tread rubber of this invention. [0133]
  • This invention relates to a step of forming an integral assembly of belt, band and tread rubber by using a belt drum of which diameter can be expanded or contracted, in manufacturing processes of radial tires, and with respect to other steps, conventionally known forming steps of radial tires can be adapted. [0134]
  • What is completely different between this method and the conventional method wherein both the belt and band are formed in a cylindrical shape is that first the belt is formed cylindrically as in the conventional method, but the band is formed from the outset in a shape finally finished in a mold or in a similar shape. This is the most characteristic point of this method. To this method it is also applicable to form the band in a convex shape so that the difference between the stretches or the organic fiber cord of the band at its center portion and shoulder portion is within 2%, or to wind the organic fiber cord at a specified winding tension, or to wind the cord at a specified winding pitch. [0135]
  • The final finished shape in mold of the band means, as shown in FIG. 20, the sectional shape in the axial direction (contour) of the band [0136] 8 of the finished tire in the mold M when the vulcanization of tire is over, and it is a convex or arc shape.
  • The stretch of band means the percentage of the finished diameter (CD[0137] 0, SD0) to the winding diameter (CD1, SD1) as shown in FIGS. 20 and 21. The winding diameter, in turn, refers to the diameter when the band 8 is wound on the radially outer side of the belt 7 on the belt drum 21, while the finished diameter indicates the diameter when expanded to the final finished shape of the band in the mold M by the shaping internal pressure P in vulcanization.
  • The middle portion stretch is (CD[0138] 0/CD1−1)×100(%), for example, 2.5%, and the shoulder portion stretch is (SD0/SD1−1)×100 (%), for example, 1.5%.
  • In this invention, the sectional shape in the axial direction of the band [0139] 8 in the assembly of belt, band and tread rubber formed on the belt drum 21 is formed in a convex shape such that the difference between the both stretches falls within a range of 0% to 2%.
  • In case that the difference of both stretches is within 2%, the radius difference a1 at the middle portion between the radius when forming the middle portion of the band [0140] 8 and the radius when finishing in the mold, and the radius difference b1 at the shoulder portion between when forming the shoulder portion and when finishing in the mold are equal to or nearly equal to each other, as shown in FIGS. 20 and 21. That is, the center portion radius difference and the shoulder portion radius difference becomes identical or nearly identical, thus the band exhibits a sufficient hooping effect even at the shoulder part of the belt.
  • When the difference or both stretches exceeds 2% wherein the center portion stretch is larger than the shoulder portion stretch, the result becomes similar to that of a conventional method using a belt drum [0141] 22 being linear in axial section as shown in FIG. 22, and hence it is not preferable because no sufficient hooping effect of the band is exhibited at the shoulder portions of the belt as mentioned above.
  • In contrast with this, when the stretch difference exceeds 2% such that the shoulder portion stretch is larger than the center portion stretch, the radius at the shoulder portion becomes relatively small at the time of winding the band cord. Therefore, a gap is easy to be formed between the outer surface of the shoulder portion and the inner surface of a mold when placing the raw tire in the mold for curing. Consequently, the belt, particularly its edge portion, stretches in excess by inner pressure applied upon curing, thus this portion is easy to be abnormally deformed, resulting in defective tire. [0142]
  • Accordingly, the stretch difference should be kept within a range of 0% to 2%. [0143]
  • The belt is formed in a cylindrical shape by winding a plurality of rubberized belt plies composed of inorganic fiber cords such as steel or organic fiber cords such as an aromatic polyamide arranged at an angle of 10 to 40 degrees with respect to the circumferential direction and woven in the form of cord fabric onto non-expanded cylindrical belt drum [0144] 21 as shown in FIG. 23 so that the cords of one ply cross the cords of the other ply. Also, the band formation may be conducted (1) by winding only one ply, (2) by winding 2 or more plies, or (3) by winding one ply and thereafter winding to form 2 plies only in the both shoulder zones.
  • In another embodiment, the band may be formed by cutting a long sheet in the form of cord fabric composed of a multiplicity of organic fiber cords and coated with a rubber to a width covering the full width of a belt, cutting it to a length at least equal to the length of the circumference or the belt plus overlapping joint width, dividing it in the widthwise direction into three or more tapes, and winding them in order on the belt over the full width thereof at an angle of approximately 0 degree with respect to the circumferential direction. [0145]
  • In the above embodiment, the winding tension is constant in principle. Also, if the cord angle of band exceeds 5 degrees, so-called hooping effect (an effect of preventing a growth of the belt layer, namely the lifting, by fastening the belt layer tight over the full circumference like a hoop) is not sufficiently exhibited. [0146]
  • Described below is an embodiment of a device for forming the assembly of belt, band and tread rubber of this invention used in execution of the above forming method. [0147]
  • The forming device has a belt drum of which diameter can be expanded or contracted. [0148]
  • In FIGS. [0149] 23 to 25, belt drum 21 has an extendable forming annular body 31, and a diameter expanding means 32 for expanding or contracting the outer diameter of the forming annular body.
  • The forming annular body [0150] 31 is composed of an elastomer material (for example, polyurethane or hard rubber) of which JIS-A hardness is 70 to 98 degrees and thickness is uniform (for example, 5 mm to 30 mm), and it possesses an outer circumference continuous in the peripheral direction. If the hardness is less than 70 degrees, when the segment method described below is used as the means for expanding and contracting the diameter, the portion to cover the gap between segments is recessed, and the entire forming annular body does not form a desired roundness on the forming plane.
  • The forming annular body possesses—air of large diameter parts [0151] 33 at its both edges. Each large diameter part is detachably supported by a pair of clamp rings 35, 36. One clamp ring 36 is fixed to a shaft 37, while the other clamp ring 35 is fixed to the first clamp ring by bolt 38.
  • The majority of the outer circumferential surface S[0152] 2 of the forming annular body forms a forming surface to be wound with belt 7, as shown in FIG. 23, when not expanding the diameter, with the sectional shape in the axial direction presenting a linear form. When expanding the diameter, as shown in rig. 25, the sectional shape in the axial direction of the forming surface is the same as or close to the sectional shape in the axial direction of the band in the finished tire in a mold, and more particularly presenting a convex shape of which difference between the center portion stretch of the band and the shoulder portion stretch to within 2%, thus the already would belt 7 is deformed in the same shape, and the winding forming surface for the band 8 Is presented.
  • The first embodiment of the diameter expanding means is the one particularly called as segment method by the present applicant, and as shown in FIGS. [0153] 23 to 25, a plurality of segments 41, for example, 8 to 32 segments, having the predetermined width and length are arranged over the entire circumference radially inside of the forming annular body.
  • The segments [0154] 41 are made of a hard material, such as aluminum and iron. The sectional shape of each segment in the axial direction of the drum is the same as or similar to the sectional shape (final finished shape) of the band of the finished tire in the mold, and more practically a convex shape of which absolute value of the difference between the middle portion stretch of the band and the shoulder portion stretch is 0% to 2%. The length SL of each segment is determined by the number of segments, and the width SW is determined by the belt width.
  • Each segment is mounted on the rod of cylinder [0155] 42, and each cylinder is fixed to the base frame 12, and the base frame 43 is supported by-a post 44, and the post is set up on a base 45, and the base is fixed to the shaft 37. The both ends of the base in the axial direction are abutting against the lower end of the clamp ring 36. Inside the both sides of each segment in the axial direction, a pair of guide rods 46 are set up toward the axial center X of the shaft 37. The guide rods penetrate slidably through the holes provided in the base frame and the guides 47, and a stopper 49 is fixed at the radially inner end of each rod.
  • Inside the base frame [0156] 43 (at the drum shaft side), a drum outer diameter defining member 48 with a magnet (FIG. 26) is detachably mounted so as to surround the guide rod.
  • As shown in FIG. 25, when the forming annular body is expanded in diameter as the segments advance in the radial direction by the going stroke of the cylinder, the stopper [0157] 49 hits against the outer diameter defining member 48, thus a desired expanded drum outer diameter D2 is obtained. At this time, the sectional shape in the drum axial direction of the outer circumferential surface S2 of the forming annular body 31 is, as shown in FIG. 25, similar to the shape of the segment in the widthwise direction. That is, the sectional shape in the axial direction of the outer circumference of the forming annular body is deformed into the same or similar shape of the final finished shape in the mold of the band. Concretly, it is deformed into a convex shape such that the absolute value of the difference between the stretches at the center portion and shoulder portion of the band is from 0% to 2%.
  • By the returning stroke of the cylinder, each segment periodically retreats in the radial direction, and the forming annular body becomes a non-expanded state. The outer surface S[0158] 2 of the forming annular body at this time is, as shown in FIG. 23, linear in section in the axial direction of the drum, thus forms a belt winding and forming surface (non-expanded drum outer diameter D1).
  • This is an example of a practical technique for designing the shape of the segment in the drum shaft direction (widthwise direction) in a convex shape of which absolute value of stretch difference between the middle portion and shoulder portion of the band is within 0% to 2%. For example, if the tire size is A and stretch difference is 0%, an arbitrary value is selected from the effective stretch range of 1.0% to 5.0% (preferably 2.0% to 3.5%) for the belt middle portion, for example, 2.5%. Next, as shown in FIG. 27, on the basis of the profile P[0159] 1 (convex solid line) of the sectional shape in the axial direction of the band (final finished shape) of the finished tire mentioned in the tire structural design sectional drawing, points 2.5% remote from the middle portion C0 point and end portion E0 point in the axial line X-direction, that is, the points at which difference of the middle portion stretch and shoulder portion stretch is zero (E1, C1, E1) are specified on the drawing. Linking these points, a profile P2 is obtained. This profile P2 has a similar figure to profile P1. Further, points E2, C2, E2 shifted by a distance corresponding to the belt thickness in the axial line X-direction are linked. This profile P3 is the axial section profile of the surface of the forming annular body in the diameter expanded state. Linking points E3, C3, E3 shifted parallel in the axial line X-direction by the portion of the design thickness d of the forming annular body from the profile P3, a profile P4 is obtained. This profile 4 is the sectional shape of the segment to be obtained when the tire size is A, the band middle portion stretch is 2.5%, and the stretch difference between the middle portion and shoulder portion is 0%. Therefore, point C3 corresponds to the peak of the segment in expanding mode.
  • In FIG. 28, if C[0160] 0 is the center position of finished band, C10 is the center position of finished belt, C12 is the center position of the non-expanded surface of the forming annular body, and C11 is the center position of the wound belt, point C11 is the point shifted somewhat in the axial line X-direction from the end E1 of the profile P2 in FIG. 27 (as a result, it becomes possible to take out the assembly of the belt, band and tread after the completion of forming from the forming annular body in non-expanded state), and the point further moved in the axial line X-direction by the portion of material thickness is the middle position C12 of the surface of the non-expanded forming annular body. The point C4 further moved from this point in the axial line X-direction by the thickness d of the forming annular body corresponds to the peak of the segment 41 In the non-expanded state.
  • Meanwhile, the thickness h1 of the middle portion of the segment and thickness h2 of the shoulder portion may be arbitrarily designed in consideration of the required strength and the positional relation with other constituent parts. [0161]
  • As stated above, the fastening force of the band at the shoulder portions of the belt can be prevented from lowering by setting the difference in stretch within 0% to 2%. This stretch difference can also be achieved, for instance, by using a conventional belt drum linear in axial section shape as shown in FIG. 22 as well as the case using a belt drum having the above-mentioned convex shape as shown in FIG. 25. That is to say, the cord is slackened at the belt center portion upon winding the band cord or is wound with a very small winding tension so that the shape of the belt when the tension is substantially acted on the band cord by application of inner pressure in a curing mold becomes substantially the same as the convex shape as shown in FIG. 25. The pneumatic radial tires of this invention comprehend the tires formed by such a process. [0162]
  • The operation of the belt drum having the diameter expanding means of the above segment system is explained below together with an embodiment of a method for forming the assembly of belt, band and tread rubber. [0163]
  • As shown in FIG. 23, when air cylinder [0164] 42 is in the unoperated state, and therefore, the segments 41 and the forming annular body 31 covering the outside thereof are in non-expanded state, two belt plies made of steel cords having a cord angle of 20 degrees with respect to the circumferential direction are overlaid in the mutually intersecting directions to form a cylindrical belts 7 on the outer surface S2 (drum outer diameter D1) of which sectional shape in the axial direction is linear, of the forming annular body of the belt drum 21.
  • In succession, as shown in FIG. 25, each air cylinder acts in the going stroke, and each segment moves in the radial direction, and the movement is stopped by stopper [0165] 49 of each segment hitting against the outer diameter defining member 48. Thus the sectional shape in the axial direction of the outer surface of the forming annular body is deformed into the same or similar convex shape (drum outer diameter D2) of the final finished shape of the band, and as a natural consequence, the belt wound thereon is similarly deformed in a convex shape.
  • Then, a rubber-coated single nylon cord is spirally wound continuously in the circumferential direction by using a device described after, at an angle of about 0 degree with respect to the circumferential direction on the radially outside of the deformed belt over at least its entire width so as to cover the deformed belt. If the above angle exceeds 5 degrees, the hooping effect (effect of preventing the growth, namely lifting, of the belt by tightening the belt over the full circumference like a hoop) is not sufficiently exhibited. [0166]
  • Similarly winding again thereon over the entire width, band [0167] 8 of a two-layer structure is formed. In addition to such a two-layered full band structure, the band may be formed, for example, into a structure composed of only full band single layer, a structure composed of 3 or more layers of full band, or a structure composed of at least one layer of full band and edge band wound on the both edges of the belt.
  • Then, a tread rubber in a belt-like shape cut into a prescribed size is wound radially outwardly of this band, and successively the tread rubber is pressed by a pressure-fitting roller (not shown), whereby the belt, band and tread rubber is pressed tightly and sufficiently into one body. [0168]
  • By these steps, an assembly [0169] 9 of belt, band and tread rubber is formed.
  • A second embodiment of the diameter expanding means is particularly called the internal pressure system by applicant, and it comprises, as shown in FIGS. 29 and 30, a clamp ring [0170] 51 for holding the both ends of the forming annular body 31, a post 44 for supporting the entire structure, a base 45 linking with the rotational shaft, and an air intake and discharge port 24. The forming annular body and clamp ring are sealed so as to shut off air leaks. The forming annular body is inflated with internal air pressure, whereby the structure of the forming annular body becomes convex in the axial direction. This convex shape varies depending on the internal air pressure, distribution of thickness d of the forming annular body and the width W thereof. The required convex shape is designed in the same concept as in the segment type. That is, on the basis of the convex shape of the tire structural drawing, a shape at the position lowered by 2.5% is drafted, which determines point D2 and shape (FIG. 31). To reproduce this shape, the outer diameter D, thickness d, and width W (which is usually determined wider than the belt width) of the forming annular body when the internal pressure is zero, and the internal pressure P are determined. Therefore, this forming annular body presents, at internal pressure P2, a band winding and forming surface of the same or similar convex shape as the sectional shape of the band (final finished shape) of the finished tire.
  • The operation of the belt drum having the diameter expanding means of this internal pressure system is as follows. [0171]
  • The forming annular body [0172] 31 has a rather concave surface in the axial section shape when the internal air pressure is zero as shown in FIG. 99. Therefore, the internal pressure is raised to P1 (about 0.5 kg/square cm), whereby the sectional shape in the axial direction is made nearly linear as shown in FIG. 31, and a belt 7 is formed on its outer circumference (drum outer diameter D1) in the same manner as in the above embodiment.
  • Next, as shown in FIG. 31, the internal pressure is raised to P[0173] 2 (for example, 2.0 kg/square cm), whereby the forming annular body is expanded to increase the diameter, thus the sectional shape in the axial direction is deformed to the same or similar convex shape as the final finished shape of the band. Therefore, the belt wound thereon is similarly deformed, too.
  • Band [0174] 8 is formed radially outwardly of this deformed band 7 in the same manner as in the foregoing embodiment by using a device mentioned below.
  • Then, outside this band [0175] 8 in the radial direction, a tread rubber 5 is wound in the same manner as in the above-mentioned embodiment, thus assembly 9 of belt, band and tread rubber is formed.
  • In the above-mentioned embodiment of the method for forming the belt-band-tread rubber assembly of this invention, the winding tension of the band cord is constant in principle. According to the other embodiments or this invent ion, (a) tile winding can be made so as to have a tension distribution such that the winding tension is maximum at the belt shoulder portions and is minimum at the belt center portion, (b) the winding can be made so that the winding pitch of the band cords is from 0.5 to 5.0 mm at the belt shoulder portions, and (c) these (a) and (b) can be combined. [0176]
  • The entire method for manufacturing radial tires including the band forming method of this invention is illustrated with an embodiment below. [0177]
  • As stated above, the assembly [0178] 9 of belt, band tread rubber formed on the belt drum 21 is conveyed onto a tire forming drum 55 by means of a transfer ring (not shown) waiting between the tire forming drum 55 and belt drum 21 as shown in FIG. 32. This conveying ring holds the outer circumference of the assembly 9 made into one body by contraction of its diameter.
  • The cylindrical carcass [0179] 2 on the tire forming drum is deformed into a toroidal shape, and the both bead holding tools are synchronously moved inward in the axial direction, and the inflated outer surface of the carcass is pressed to the entire width of the inner surface of the belt 7 of the waiting assembly 9.
  • When the transfer ring returns to the waiting position, a stitcher roller [0180] 56 presses the tread 5, thus the assembly 9 is press-fitted to the carcass 2, thereby completing a raw tire.
  • The band forming apparatus of this invention is described below with reference to FIGS. [0181] 33 to 35. The band forming apparatus has a winding device 14 for winding a cord. When it is combined with a belt drum, there can be provided an apparatus for forming a belt-band-tread rubber assembly. In that case, the belt drum may be a drum having a linear band forming surface as conventionally used.
  • The band forming apparatus of this invention is described below with reference to FIGS. [0182] 33 to 35.
  • The band forming apparatus has a winding device [0183] 14 for winding a cord.
  • This winding device [0184] 14 comprises a let-off means 73 for drawing out the cord C to be wound toward the belt drum 21, a traverse means for transversing the let-off in the bolt widthwise direction, and a traverse control means for controlling the traverse of the let-off means. To this basic construction may be further added a tension control means for controlling the cord winding tension.
  • This traverse means comprises a pair of guide shafts [0185] 72, and a screw shaft 71 disposed between them and rotated and driven by a motor 108. Each guide shaft and screw shaft are supported by a frame 70 in the both end portions. The screw shaft is screwed to the let-off means, and its rotation causes the let-off means to traverse. The guide shaft guides this traverse.
  • The let-off means [0186] 73 is screwed to the screw shaft 71, and it is passed through by the guide shaft 72 and possesses a moving frame 73 a which is supported so as to be capable of traversing.
  • In the upper part of the moving frame [0187] 73 a, there is provided an arm 77 for rotatably supporting a plurality of guide pulleys 75 d to 75 f. The arm 77 has a support bar 78 a which has a guide roller 78 rotatably attached to the end thereof.
  • This arm [0188] 77 is slidably supported in the belt drum direction by a guide rail 73 c disposed in the upper part of the moving frame 73 a, and it is always thrust toward the belt drum 21 by the spring 85. As a result, said guide roller 78 is press-fitted to a copying plate (drum shaft direction moving guide means) 79 disposed on the frame 70, and therefore the let-off means 73 is moved and guided in the belt widthwise direction while keeping a specified spacing to the surface of belt drum.
  • The copying plate [0189] 79 is formed identically with the sectional shape in the axial direction of the belt drum. As a result, the spacing between the belt drum surface and the cord let-off means becomes uniform, thereby preventing overlapping of cords or irregularity of cord intervals experienced when not uniform. In the case where the belt drum is expandable in its diameter as mentioned before and the shape in axial section of the drum at the time of band formation is deformed into the same or similar convex shape as the shape of finished band in a mold, the copying plate having the same convex shape is used. Also, in the case where the sectional shape is linear, the copying plate should be linear.
  • Incidentally, the arm [0190] 77 may be integrally fixed to the moving frame 73 a.
  • The traverse control means is to control the movement of the let-off means to the start position or end position of cord winding or to the changing point of winding pitch or winding tension, and also to control the winding pitch by synchronizing the winding pitch with the belt drum rotating speed (constant). It comprises a servo motor [0191] 108 with encoder for driving to rotate the screw shaft 71, its drive unit 93, and rotation pulse counter 91 for the belt drum 21.
  • The servo motor may be a DC motor, and the drive unit is, for example, a digital servo positioner “Position pack ID” made by Yasukawa Electric Co. When an AC motor is used as the servo motor, it is needless to say that the above-mentioned drive unit is not required. [0192]
  • In case of winding the cord at a predetermined tension, a tension control means is necessary. [0193]
  • This tension control means is comprised of a brake pulley [0194] 74 rotatably supported by the moving frame 73 a of the let-off means 73, a press roller 74 a being thrust to the guide pulley side by spring 86, a powder brake 74 c coaxially provided with the brake pulley 74, and a power supply unit 92 for causing the powder brake 74 c to generate a rotational resistance corresponding to a predetermined winding tension, thereby providing the cord C with a predetermined tension. The power supply unit is, for example, DMP type power supply box DMP manufactured by Shinko Electric Co.
  • Therefore, by threading this brake pulley [0195] 74 with cord C, it is possible to send out and wind the cord around the belt drum through the guide pulley 75 at a predetermined tension.
  • It is needless to say that the power supply unit is not necessary, when a mechanical brake such as air brake is used. [0196]
  • On the other hand, in a setting board [0197] 106, winding start position, winding end position, single or plural winding pitch set values, single or plural winding tension set values, winding pitch changing position, winding tension changing position and other data are set.
  • A control unit [0198] 90, which is a sequencer or a relay, is connected with the setting board, an encoder 81 through counter 91 in order to put in the rotation speed of the drum, and the power supply unit 92, respectively. The control unit is designed so that brake pulley 74 provides the cord with a predetermined winding tension.
  • The control unit is also connected with a drive unit [0199] 93, and by the output from the drive unit 93, the servo motor 108 is driven to rotate the screw shaft 71, so that the let-off means 73 is traversed to the predetermined direction and position at a predetermined speed as described above.
  • The cord winding device [0200] 14 has the lower end of the frame 70 slidably supported by guide rails 70 a, so that the spacing between the end of arm 77 and belt drum 21 can be adjusted.
  • Cord send-out device [0201] 15 has, as shown in FIG. 35, guide pulley Pa, send-out roller Pb and press roller Pd which are disposed in the upper part of the frame 170, a pair of pull rollers Pc in the middle part, and drive pulley Pm in the lower part.
  • The rotating force of the drive motor M is transmitted to the pulleys Pb, Pc through belt V applied on them and pulley Pm. [0202]
  • A cord take-up roll [0203] 200 is rotatably mounted on a let-off stand 201, and around the roll the cord C is rolled with liner L or a cord having a coating rubber whose surface is coated with a sticking preventing agent is wound without liner. The pull rollers Pc draw out the liner L through their rotation, and the send-out roller Pb and the press roller Pd send out the cord C toward the winding device 14 while the guide pulley Pa is guiding the cord C.
  • The cord being sent out is led to the guide pulley [0204] 75 a of the let-off means 73 disposed on the frame 70.
  • When not applying a specified winding tension to the cord by means of the tension control means, the cord is passed through the guide pulley [0205] 75 a, and then only through guide pulleys 75 a to 75 f without passing through brake pulley 74, thus letting off the cord onto the belt drum 21. As a result, a sligt tension due to only resistance of the guide pulley itself is applied to the cord (so-called tension-free state). In this case, as shown in FIG. 35, a pair of phototubes Sa, Sb are disposed above and below between the frame 70 and frame 170. The cord between the send-out roller Pb and guide pulley 75 a is slackened in U-form, and the upper limit and lower limit of this slack are detected by the phototubes Sa, Sb, whereby the cord feed rate is adjusted (so-called festoon).
  • Incidentally, as shown in FIG. 36, it is also possible, without using such a send-out device, to connect the winding device [0206] 14 directly to a rubber coating device 16 for cord C, and to lead the rubber-coated cord directly to the guide pulley 75 a of the let-off means 73 of the winding device sequentially without once taking up on the take-up roller. In the drawing, numeral 141 shows a cord take-up bobbin, 142 is an extruder, 143 is an extrusion die, 44 is a cord festoon, and 21 is a belt drum as mentioned before. In this method, since the cord is wound on the belt while coating with rubber, deterioration of material and entry of foreign matter (sticking preventing agent, etc.) may be prevented as compared with the foregoing take-up roll sending-out method. Moreover, because of hot feeding, the adhesion between the belt and the cord is large, and also the take-up liner is not needed.
  • FIGS. 37 and 38 show other examples of the band forming device of this invention, in which the basic construction is nearly the same, but a pair of let-off means for drawing out the cord C are provided. As a result, two cords can be simultaneously and symmetrically wound from the center position toward each shoulder portion of the belt. [0207]
  • In other words, a pair of let-off means [0208] 73 b, 73 c are disposed side by side in the widthwise direction of the belt drum 21, and are slidably supported by rails 71 e, 71 f disposed parallel on the frame 70 c. The let-off means 73 b, 73 c are respectively screwed to the screw shafts 71 a, 71 b arranged parallel to the rails and mutually in identical direction. THe screw shafts 71 a, 71 b are rotated in the reverse direction along with the rotation of the motor 71 c by the gear, and therefore the pair of let-off means traverse in the mutually departing directions (arrow directions) from the center position, or, to the contrary, in the mutually opposite directions and at the same speed.
  • Besides, these let-off means [0209] 73 b, 73 c are furnished with upward projecting arms 77 a, 77 b, and each arm is equipped with plural guide pulleys 75. This arm, same as in the foregoing embodiments, is independently thrust by means of spring 85 toward the drum and slidably on the rail 71 g, and this roll 78 a abuts against the copying plate 79, and it may be possible to design so that each let-off means may be movable in the belt widthwise direction, while keeping a desired spacing to the belt drum surface.
  • On the frame [0210] 70 c, furthermore, a tension detector (a differential transformer type) 80 is mounted.
  • When the cord C passes through the guide roll [0211] 80 a and detection roll 80 b of this tension detector 80, the tension is detected, and the deviation from the set value is fed back to the brake pulley 74, and the braking extent is adjusted. Numeral 74 a is a press roll which is thrust to the brake pulley 74 side by the spring 84 through a link.
  • The guide pulley [0212] 75 a is rotatably supported on the arm 81 b of the L-shaped arms 81 a, 81 b. A proximity switch 82 is provided opposite to the arm 81 a, and a spring 83 is fixed, so that the guide pulley 75 a is thrust in the arrow direction, turning about the shaft 83 a as the fulcrum. If an excess tension is applied on the cord due to some reason, the arm 81 a actuates the proximity switch 82, and stops the feed of the cord.
  • Incidentally, the two screw shafts [0213] 71 a, 71 b may form threads in the mutually opposite directions, and these two shafts may be rotated in a same direction. Or, instead of a pair of screw used. Or, instead of traversing by rotating the screw shaft by motor, other means such as cylinder may be used to traverse. Still more, the independent control unit is not needed if the power supply unit 92 and drive unit 93 are additionally furnished with arithmetic functions of the control unit 90.
  • In the devices shown in FIGS. [0214] 33 to 35, a winding start position 231, winding end position 232, winding pitch, winding tension and other data are set in the setting board 109, and they are stored in the control unit 90. The winding start position and end position denote the positions in the widthwise direction of the belt drum, and mean, for example, the distance from the middle of the belt drum 21. In consequence, by the output from the drive unit 93, the servo motor 108 is driven, and the let-off means 73 traverses from the waiting position, and moves to the predetermined winding start position. Then the lead end of the cord is pressed manually by an operator to the start position of the belt to fit tightly. It is easy to mechanize this step by means of cylinder and link mechanism. Then when the automatic operation button is pressed, the belt drum begins to rotate, and the powder brake 74 c is put in action by the output from the power supply unit 92, thus the cord is let out in the state of being loaded with a predetermined tension by the brake pulley 74. At the same time, against the belt drum rotating at constant speed, the let-off means is traversed toward the winding end position, and the cord is continuously and spirally wound at a predetermined pitch. The speed of traverse at that time is set so that the winding pitch may be synchronized with the signal from the encoder 61 of the belt drum, that is, the rotating speed of the belt drum.
  • The cord is wound on the belt [0215] 7, as shown in FIGS. 10 to 16, by the above-mentioned sending out of cord to the belt drum.
  • This winding operation is done in a so-called one-stroke scribbling process. [0216]
  • That is, using the devices shown in FIGS. [0217] 33 to 35, when winding is conducted to form a combined band of full band and edge bands as shown in FIG. 13, the cord should be wound so that its trace may be drawing in an S-form in the arrow direction as shown in FIG. 14. In that case, as a natural consequence, the portion of band formed in the initial stage of winding and the portion formed in the finishing stage becomes asymmetrical to each other.
  • Also, when winding shown in FIG. 13 is conducted by using the devices shown in FIGS. 37 and 38, two cords C[0218] 1 and C2 are wound to draw traces in the arrow directions as shown in FIG. 15, whereby the cords C1, C2 are wound continuously and spirally at a predetermined pitch in mutually symmetrical structures. It is preferable to shift the winding start position (winding start end) and winding end position (winding finishing end) of cords C1, C2 mutually in the circumferential direction. The reason is that since the strength changes suddenly at cord end parts, it is necessary to disperse the influences of these end parts as widely as possible. Since the stress tends to be concentrated on the belt end parts, it is also preferable to position the end of each cord at the middle part of the belt as far as possible. Thus, by operating the pair of let-off means 73 b, 73 c simultaneously in the mutually reverse directions, the time required for winding the cord may be reduced to half of the time required for winding by a usual single winding means, so that the productivity may be doubled.
  • Moreover, particularly, when a tape-like material [0219] 11 composed of integrally formed several cords as shown in FIG. 7 is used, the winding efficiency can be further enhanced.
  • As explained above, according to the method of this invention, upon forming an assembly of belt, band and tread rubber by using a belt drum, the band is formed into the same or similar shape as its final finished shape in the mold, in the sectional shape in the axial direction, namely a convex shape of which absolute value of the difference between the middle portion stretch and shoulder portion stretch of the band is within 2%. Consequently, the residual elongation and thermal shrinkage of the cord in the mold-finished tire is made approximately uniform between the middle portion and the shoulder portions, thus the lifting of the belt by centrifugal force in running is prevented and the high speed durability of radial tires can be enhanced. [0220]
  • Also, one to several organic fiber cords are continuously and spirally wound, parallel to the circumferential direction, on the outer surface of the belt, so that the winding tension may be uniform over the entire width of the belt, or be maximum at the shoulder portion, or the winding pitch may be dense at the belt shoulder portion. Consequently, the difference in stretch between the belt shoulder portion and belt middle portion of a vulcanized tire is reduced, and the thermal shrinking force of the belt shoulder portion is improved, so that the action to prevent lifting of the belt in traveling is potently exhibited. whereby separation damage of the belt due to lifting in traveling can be prevented more securely. [0221]
  • Besides, by using the device of this invention, the execution of the above method can be done more efficiently and precisely. [0222]
  • Further, according to this invention, since the belt drum is deformed in a convex shape after winding belt on the cylindrical belt drum, and thereon one tape-like material formed by covering one to several cords with a rubber is spirally wound to adhere it tightly on the entire width of the belt drum, the belt is prevented from unusual moving when winding the band, and hence the belt is free from deformation, crease slack. Still more, in the method of this invention, since the belt is wound on a cylindrical belt drum, the belt can be wound in rood alignment. without causing meandering, when winding. Furthermore, in the device and the method of this invention, since the belt drum is an annular body continuous in the circumferential direction, different from a conventional segment type in which the drum surface is formed by segments, it becomes possible to adhere the belt without steps, especially at both ends of the both sides in the circumferential direction, and therefore the corrugated application as experienced by the conventional type drum is avoided, and separation damage of the belt shoulder portion can be prevented. [0223]
  • INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY
  • This invention is applicable to radial tires having various structures, tread patterns and tire sizes, and in particular this invention is effectively applicable to flattened tires for high speed running. [0224]

Claims (38)

  1. 1. A pneumatic radial tire comprising:
    a pair of bead cores disposed at bead portions of the tire;
    a carcass having at least one ply of radially arranged cords turned up around said bead cores;
    a tread portion over said carcass;
    a belt arranged on the radially outer side of said carcass and having at least two plies of metallic cords arranged at an angle of 10 to 30 degrees to the circumferential direction or the tire; and
    a band located on the radially outer side of said belt, wherein
    said band is composed of continuous one to several organic fiber cords spirally wound approximately parallel to the circumferential direction of the tire.
  2. 2. The tire as set forth in
    claim 1
    , wherein said band comprises a full band layer extending over the entire width of said belt and a pair of edge band layers arranged near the both edge portions of said belt, and
    the width of each of the edge band layers in the axial direction of the tire is within a range of 20 to 30% of the width of said full band layer in the axial direction of the tire.
  3. 3. The tire as set forth in
    claim 1
    , wherein said band comprises a full band layer extending over the entire width of said belt, and
    the elongation at given load of the organic fiber cord of said full band layer decreases from the crown portion of the tire toward the shoulder portions.
  4. 4. The tire as set forth in
    claim 1
    , wherein said band has a spiral structure symmetric with regard to the tire equatorial plane.
  5. 5. The tire as set forth in
    claim 1
    , wherein the pitch of said organic fiber cord in the axial direction of the tire is from 0.5 to 5.0 mm at the circumferential surface of said belt at the shoulder portions and from 0.5 to 15.0 mm at the center portion of said belt.
  6. 6. The tire as set forth in
    claim 1
    , wherein a plurality of organic fiber cords of said band are embedded in a rubber and formed into a tape shape.
  7. 7. The tire as set forth in
    claim 1
    , wherein said band is folded back at both edges.
  8. 8. The tire as set forth in
    claim 1
    , wherein in the final finished shape of said band in a vulcanization mold, the difference in stretch between the center portion and the shoulder portion is from 0% to 2%.
  9. 9. A method for manufacturing radial tires comprising steps of:
    deforming a cylindrical tire carcass into a toroidal shape; and
    adhering a belt and a tread onto its outer surface, characterized in that said method comprises steps of:
    laminating the predetermined number of belt plies on a belt ring or a belt drum to form said belt; and
    winding one to several organic fiber cords on the outer surface of said formed belt continuously and spirally in the circumferential direction of the belt to form a band for reinforcing said belt.
  10. 10. The method as set forth in
    claim 9
    , wherein the organic cords of said band ply are coated with a rubber.
  11. 11. The method as set forth in
    claim 10
    , wherein the thickness of the rubber coating is 0.1 to 0.2 mm; and
    the pitch of adjacent organic fiber cords in the axial direction of the tire is substantially equal to the sum of twice said thickness and the diameter of said organic fiber cord.
  12. 12. The method as set forth in
    claim 9
    , wherein said organic fiber cord is not coated with a rubber, and said step of winding the cord comprises steps of:
    winding a wide rubber sheet on the outer surface of said belt in advance of winding the cords; and
    further winding a wide rubber sheet on the wound cords.
  13. 13. The method as set forth in
    claim 9
    , wherein the tension applied to said organic fiber cord when winding the cord is changed so as to be minimum at the crown portion of the tire and maximum at the shoulder portions of the tire.
  14. 14. The method as set forth in
    claim 9
    , wherein the tension applied to said organic cord when winding the cord is constant; and
    the diameter of the cord in the wound state gradually decreases from the crown portion toward the shoulder portions of the tire.
  15. 15. The method as set forth in
    claim 9
    , wherein the pitch in the tire axial direction of said organic fiber cord is from 0.5 to 5.0 mm at the circumferential surface of the shoulder portion of said belt.
  16. 16. The method as set forth in
    claim 8
    , wherein the pitch in the tire axial direction of said organic cord is from 0.5 to 15.0 mm at the middle portion of said belt.
  17. 17. A band forming device to form a band by winding one to several organic fiber cords continuously and spirally on the circumferential surface of a belt formed on a belt drum or a belt ring in the production of radial tires by deforming a cylindrical tire carcass into a toroidal shape and adhering a belt and a troad onto its circumferential surface, which comprises:
    a let-off means for drawing out the cord to be wound toward the belt side;
    a traverse means for traversing the let-off means in the widthwise direction of the belt; and
    a traverse controlling means for controlling the traverse of said let-off means.
  18. 18. The device as set forth in
    claim 17
    , wherein said let-off means comprises:
    a moving frame capable of traversing;
    an arm mounted on the moving frame; and
    a plurality of guide pulleys supported by the arm and guiding the cord to be wound.
  19. 19. The device as set forth in
    claim 17
    , wherein said traverse means comprises:
    a screw shaft driven to be rotated and screwed with the let-off means; and
    a guide shaft for guiding the traverse of the let-off means.
  20. 20. The device as set forth in
    claim 19
    , wherein said traverse controlling means comprises:
    a motor for driving said screw shaft;
    the drive unit thereof; and
    a pulse counter for the belt ring or belt drum.
  21. 21. The device as set forth in
    claim 17
    , wherein said let-off means includes a tension control means for controlling the winding tension of the cord.
  22. 22. The device as set forth in
    claim 21
    , wherein said tension control means comprises a brake pulley and its power supply unit.
  23. 23. The device as set forth in
    claim 21
    , wherein said tension control means is composed of a plurality of guide pulleys threaded with a cord to be wound.
  24. 24. A method of forming an assembly composed of a belt, a band and a tread rubber by using a belt drum capable of changing the diameter, comprising the steps of:
    forming a cylindrical belt by winding a plurality of belt plies made of an inorganic or organic fiber cord on the circumferential surface of said belt drum whose diameter is not expanded so that the angle of the cord with regard to the circumferential direction is from 10 to 40 degrees;
    expanding the belt drum so as to make the sectional shape of said belt drum in the axial direction identical or close to the finishing shape of the band in a mold;
    forming a band composed of organic fiber cords arranged at an angle of 0 to 5 degrees with regard to the circumferential direction, on the radially outer outside of said belt on the belt drum which has been expanded into said shape; and
    winding a tread rubber on the radially outer side of said and making them into one body.
  25. 25. The method as set forth in
    claim 24
    , wherein the axial section shape of said belt drum in the diameter expanded state is convex such that the value of the difference between the stretch at the center portion of the band and the stretch at the shoulder portions of the band is from 0 to 2%.
  26. 26. The method as set forth in
    claim 24
    or
    25
    , wherein said band forming step comprises a step of winding one to several organic fiber cords on the radiallY outer side of the belt on the belt drum in the diameter-expanded state continuously and spirally at an angle of approximately 0 to 5 degrees with regard to the circumferential direction.
  27. 27. The method as set forth in
    claim 25
    or
    26
    , wherein the tension in winding said organic fiber cords is constant both at the center portion and the both edge portions of the belt.
  28. 28. The method as set forth in
    claim 25
    or
    26
    , wherein the tension in winding said organic fiber cords is maximum at the both edge portions of the belt and minimum at the center portion of the belt.
  29. 29. The method as set forth in
    claim 26
    or
    28
    , wherein the pitch of said organic fiber cords is from 0.5 to 5.0 mm at the both edge portions of the belt.
  30. 30. A method as set forth in
    claim 26
    , wherein said organic fiber cords are coated with a rubber.
  31. 31. A device of forming an assembly composed of a belt, a band and a tread rubber for radial tires, equipped with a diameter-variable belt drum comprising a forming annular body made of an elastomeric material, which is continuous in the circumferential direction and is stretchable, and a means for expanding and contracting the diameter of the forming annular body, wherein
    the circumferential surface of the forming annular body in the diameter-nonexpanded state is linear in axial section and forms the surface for winding the belt, and
    the circumferential surface of the forming annular body in the diameter-expanded state is in a shape identical or close to the finishing shape of the band in a mold in axial section and forms the surface for winding the band.
  32. 32. The device as set forth in
    claim 31
    , wherein the shape of said circumferential surface of the forming annular body in the diameter-expanded state is convex such that the difference between the stretch at the center portion and that at the shoulder portions of the band is from 0 to 2%.
  33. 33. The device as set forth in
    claim 31
    , wherein said expanding and contracting means comprises:
    a multiplicity of segments which are arranged inside the entire circumference of the forming annular body, and of which sectional shape in the axial direction is convex such that the difference between the stretch at the center portion and that at the shoulder portions of the band on the forming annular body is from 0 to 2%; and
    a driving means for making the forming annular body into expanded state or contracted state by advancing or going back said segments synchronously in the radial direction.
  34. 34. The device as set forth in
    claim 31
    , wherein said expanding and contracting means is a fluid in the forming annular body of which pressure is increased and decreased.
  35. 35. An apparatus for forming a belt-band-tread rubber assembly comprising a diameter-variable belt drum and a band forming device for forming a band by winding one to several organic fiber cords continuously and spirally on the outer surface of a bell formed on said belt drum;
    said belt drum comprising a forming annular body made of an elastomer which is continuous in the circumferential direction and is stretchable, and a means for expanding and contracting the diameter of the forming annular body, wherein the circumferential surface of the forming annular body in the diameter-non-expanded state is linear in axial section and forms the surface for winding the belt thereon, and the circumferential surface of the forming annular body in the diameter-expanded state is in a shape same or similar to the finished shape of the band in a mold in axial section and forms the surface for winding the band, and
    said band forming device comprising a let-off means for drawing out the cord to be wound toward the belt, a traverse means for traversing the let-off means in the widthwise direction of the belt, and a traverse controlling means for controlling the traverse of said let-off means.
  36. 36. The apparatus as set forth in
    claim 35
    , wherein said let-off means includes a tension control means for controlling the winding tension or the cord.
  37. 37. The apparatus as set forth in
    claim 35
    , wherein said let-off means is provided with a copying plate, the shape of which is the same as the shape in axial section of the belt drum in the diameter-expanded state.
  38. 38. The method as set forth in
    claim 24
    , wherein said band forming step includes a step of sequentially winding a plurality of tape-like materials on the radially outer side of the belt on the expanded and deformed belt drum at an angle of about 0 to 5 degrees with regard to the circumferential direction of the drum respectively, where said tape-like material is obtained by:
    coating a cord fabric of a multiplicity of organic fiber cords with a rubber to form a long sheet;
    cutting it to the width to cover the entire width of the belt;
    cutting it to the length at least as long as one cycle of the belt plus an overlap joint width; and
    dividing it into plural pieces in the widthwise direction.
US08827458 1987-06-18 1997-03-28 Pneumatic radial tire and method for manufacturing same Abandoned US20010008158A1 (en)

Priority Applications (11)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP15198787A JPH07112763B2 (en) 1987-06-18 1987-06-18 Pneumatic radial tire
JP62-151987 1987-06-18
JP16743587A JPH0524827B2 (en) 1987-07-03 1987-07-03
JP19352387A JPH0584734B2 (en) 1987-07-31 1987-07-31
JP24477587A JPH0651368B2 (en) 1987-09-29 1987-09-29 Molding method and apparatus of the belt-tread assembly for a radial tire
JP8049588A JPH0544914B2 (en) 1988-03-31 1988-03-31
JP8567188A JP2672966B2 (en) 1988-04-06 1988-04-06 Flat radial tire
US07315786 US5032198A (en) 1987-06-18 1988-06-17 Method for manufacturing an assembly of a belt, a band, and a tread rubber
US69363991 true 1991-04-30 1991-04-30
US23522094 true 1994-04-29 1994-04-29
US08827458 US20010008158A1 (en) 1987-06-18 1997-03-28 Pneumatic radial tire and method for manufacturing same

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08827458 US20010008158A1 (en) 1987-06-18 1997-03-28 Pneumatic radial tire and method for manufacturing same

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US23522094 Division 1994-04-29 1994-04-29

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US20010008158A1 true true US20010008158A1 (en) 2001-07-19

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Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US07315786 Expired - Lifetime US5032198A (en) 1987-06-18 1988-06-17 Method for manufacturing an assembly of a belt, a band, and a tread rubber
US08827458 Abandoned US20010008158A1 (en) 1987-06-18 1997-03-28 Pneumatic radial tire and method for manufacturing same

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US07315786 Expired - Lifetime US5032198A (en) 1987-06-18 1988-06-17 Method for manufacturing an assembly of a belt, a band, and a tread rubber

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US (2) US5032198A (en)
EP (5) EP0524702B1 (en)
DE (10) DE3855332D1 (en)
WO (1) WO1988010199A1 (en)

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EP1318006A2 (en) * 2001-12-07 2003-06-11 Continental Aktiengesellschaft Method and apparatus for spirally winding a reinforcing element onto a tyre carcass
US20040155666A1 (en) * 2003-02-07 2004-08-12 Boris Kesil Method and apparatus for measuring thickness of thin films with improved accuracy
WO2005037531A1 (en) * 2003-10-11 2005-04-28 Continental Aktiengesellschaft Method and device for the production of a belt assembly of a vehicle tyre
EP1625931A1 (en) * 2003-05-20 2006-02-15 The Yokohama Rubber Co., Ltd. Method of producing pneumatic radial tire
EP1683654A1 (en) * 2005-01-24 2006-07-26 Sumitomo Rubber Industries, Ltd. Runflat tire
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DE3850643T2 (en) 1994-10-20 grant
EP0524702B1 (en) 1995-08-23 grant
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WO1988010199A1 (en) 1988-12-29 application
EP0319588B2 (en) 1998-02-04 grant
EP0319588A1 (en) 1989-06-14 application
DE3855488D1 (en) 1996-09-26 grant
EP0319588A4 (en) 1990-06-27 application
EP0524703A2 (en) 1993-01-27 application
EP0524702A3 (en) 1993-06-09 application
EP0524704A2 (en) 1993-01-27 application
DE3854356D1 (en) 1995-09-28 grant
DE3855488T2 (en) 1997-01-09 grant
DE3855332D1 (en) 1996-07-04 grant
DE3850643D1 (en) 1994-08-18 grant
DE3854357D1 (en) 1995-09-28 grant
EP0524702A2 (en) 1993-01-27 application
DE3855332T2 (en) 1996-10-02 grant
US5032198A (en) 1991-07-16 grant
DE3854357T2 (en) 1996-02-29 grant
EP0524704B1 (en) 1996-05-29 grant
EP0524704A3 (en) 1993-06-30 application
DE3850643T3 (en) 1998-05-07 grant
EP0524703B1 (en) 1996-08-21 grant
EP0319588B1 (en) 1994-07-13 grant
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EP0524703A3 (en) 1993-07-07 application
EP0524701A2 (en) 1993-01-27 application

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