US1991756A - Apparatus for changing speed and direction of rotation by reversing a constant speed motor - Google Patents

Apparatus for changing speed and direction of rotation by reversing a constant speed motor Download PDF

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Publication number
US1991756A
US1991756A US663440A US66344033A US1991756A US 1991756 A US1991756 A US 1991756A US 663440 A US663440 A US 663440A US 66344033 A US66344033 A US 66344033A US 1991756 A US1991756 A US 1991756A
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gear
motor
shaft
ratchet
rotation
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Expired - Lifetime
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US663440A
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Lazich Branko
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Hitachi Rail STS USA Inc
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Union Switch and Signal Inc
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Priority to US663440A priority Critical patent/US1991756A/en
Priority claimed from US668235 external-priority patent/US2038082A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H3/00Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion
    • F16H3/003Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion the gear-ratio being changed by inversion of torque direction
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D41/00Freewheels or freewheel clutches
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/19Gearing
    • Y10T74/19172Reversal of direction of power flow changes power transmission to alternate path

Description

Feb. 19, 1935. B, z c 1,991,756

. APPARATUS FOR CHANGING SPEED AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION BY REVERSING A CONSTANT SPEED MOTOR Filed March'SO, 1933 ToLoadfl DS L5 *I 615 6/ 4 18 C [1116, 14/ J {129 @1150 12 3; R1 U 11 mg 11 '55s 40 4, 56 M 7 M@ W 46 6 INVENTOR y Bpazzko Laz'zfc'lz A TTORNE Y operation of a mechanism with a change in the the apparatus embodying my invention may. be 5 Patented Feh. 19, 1935 entree stares APPARATUS FOR CHANGING SPEED AND DIRECTION OF ROTATION BY BEVERSING MOTOR Branko Lazich, Edgewood, Pa., assignor to The Union Switch & Signal Company, Swlssvale, I'm, a corporation of Pennsylvania Application March 30, 1933, Serial No. 663,440

4 Claims.

My invention relates to apparatus for changing the speed and direction of rotation of a mechanism, and has for an object novel and improved means to obtain a change in the speed of direction of rotation by reversibly operating a constant speed motor.

-I will describe three forms of apparatus embodying my invention, and will then point out the novel features thereof in claims.

In the accompanying drawing, Fig. 1 is a view partly diagrammatic and partly in section of one form of apparatus embodying my invention. Fig. 2 is a sectional view at the line 11-11 of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a sectional view of a second form of apparatus embodying my invention, and Fig. 4 is a sectional view along the line 1V---IV of Fig. 3. Fig. 5 is a plan view of a third form of appara-- tus embodying my invention, and Fig. 6 is a sec tional view at the line VI-VI of Fig. 5.

In each of the several views like reference charf acters designate similar parts.

It has been proposed to control a highway crossing signal located at the intersection of a highway and a railway at grade in such a manner that the signal is operated a constant time interval before a train reaches the intersection regardlessgof the speed of the train. Such control involves a mechanism for determining the speed of the train as it approaches the intersection and for subsequently starting the operationof the signal in accordance with the measured speed. It is desirable to determine the speed of a train while the train is traversing a-relatively short track jsect-ion, much shorter than the required operat-' ing section; and furthermore, it is desirable to operate the mechanism while determining the speed of the train and while determining the time for starting the operation of the signal by a single motor, the motor operating at a constant speed throughout the entire period. Such requirements necessitate not only achange in the direction of operation of the mechanism when a train reaches a fixed point; but also a change inthe speed of operating the mechanism, a constant speed reversible electric motor being a reliable and efficient driving unit. A feature of my invention is the provision of novel and reliable means for selecting the speed and direction of rotation of an operating shaft by selecting the direction of operation of a constant speed motor. Other features of my invention will appear as the specification progresses. v

Many different applications for the apparatus of my invention will naturally suggest themselves With relay 4 deenergized and relay 3 energized cuit extending from one terminal of battery 2 tothose skilled in the art, and it will be understood that I do not wish to limit myself to the specificcase cited above; this one case will serve, however, to illustrate the many different places employed- Y Referring to Fig. 1, M designates a constant speed motor of any of the many well known-types, and in this'instance is shown as a direct current motor .ireversibly supplied with current from a battery \through the medium of two controlling relays 3 and'4. Relays 3 and 4 may be controlled in any convenient manner, such for example, as by standard railway track circuits not shown. When both relays 3 and 4.- are energized as illustrated in the drawing, current is supplied to neither the field winding 5 nor to the armature 6 of the motor M and the motor is inactive.

the field winding 5 of motor M is excited by current from the battery 2 over a circuit easily traced and which includes the two back contacts 30 and 31of relay 4. The armature 6 of motor M receives current-from the battery 2 by a cir- 25 over back contact 30 of relay 4, front contact 10 of relay 3, armature 6, front contact 9 and back contact 31 to the opposite terminal-of the battery 2. Under this condition the direction of the flow of current in the armature 6 is such as to cause the motor M to rotate, say, in a clockwise direction at its given constant speed. Deenergizing both relays 3 and 4 causes the field winding 5 to be excited the same as before, but the circuit for the armature 6 is now from the top terminal of battery 2 over had; contact 30, back contact 7 of relay 3, armature 6, and back contacts 8 and 31 to the opposite terminal of battery 2. The direction of the current flow in the armature 6, is reverse to that of the former case and the motor M is operated in a counter-clockwise direction at its given constant speed. It follows that when both relays 3 and 4 are energized, the motor M is'inactive; when relay 4 is deenergized and relay 3 is energized, the motor M' is rotated 45 clockwise at its given constant speed; and with both relays 3 and '4 deenergized, the motor M is rotated counter-clockwise at its-given constant speed. It will be understood, of course, that many other ways may be readily employed to reversibly 50 supply current to the motor M to cause it to rotate clockwise at one time "and to rotate counter-clockwise at another time.

As shown schematically in Fig. 1, the motor M is operatively connected with a shaft 11, and

.- ll'likewise rotates clockwise at a given constant speed; and when the motor is rotated counterclockwise at its given constant speed, the'shaft 11 likewise rotates counter-clockwise at its given constant speed.

Loosely mounted on the motor shaft 11 is a gear G1, on the'arbor 12 of which is keyed a ratchet R1. mounted a second gear G2 on the arbor 13 of which is keyed a second ratchet R2. The physical arrangement of these parts will be readily understood by an inspection of Fig. 1, the ratchets R1 and R2 being arranged for opposite operation as shown in Fig. 2. An arm 14 is rigidly fastened to the motor shaft 11 by a pin 52, and arm 14 carries a pin 15 which fits into a yoke 16 of a ratchet pawl 17 as is best shown in Fig. 2. The pawl 17 is supported by a pin 18 attached to a collar 19 which fits on the arbor 13 of gear G2 with a slight amount of friction between collar 19 and the arbor 13 so that when the direction of rotation is reversed as will be shortly pointed out, the pawl 17 is. driven positively into engagement with the proper ratchet R1 or R2. Gear G1 meshes with a gear G3 pinned to an operating shaft DS by a pin 53, the gear ratio between gears G1 and G3 being arranged as desired. Gear G2 meshes with a gear G4 which is likewise pinned to the operating shaft DS by a pin 54, the gear ratio between gears G2 and G4 being arranged as desired. In Fig. 1 the gears G1 and G3 are selected to produce a reduction in the speed of rotation so that the operating shaft DS is driven at a speed of rotation less than the driving gear G1 when that gear is active. Gears G2 and G4 are selected to produce an increase in the speed of rotation so that the operating shaft DS is driven at a speed of rotation greater than that of the driving gear G2 when that gear is active. The operating shaft DS may beconnected to any desired load,

such for example, as the constant time warning mechanism for a highway crossing signal referred to hereinbefore.

When the motor M and the shaft 11 are rotated in a clockwise direction as viewed in Fig. 1

(counter-clockwise when viewed in Fig. 2) the viewed in Fig. 2) the pin 15 causes the pawl 1'!- to tilt to the left (right in Fig. 2) and engage. the ratchet R1, ratchet R1 being arranged reverse to ratchet R2 -as pointed out above. Ratchet R1 in turn drives the gear G1 and the operating shaft DS is rotated clockwise at a speed of rotationdepending upon the ratio be.- tween gears G1 and G3. Under this condition the ratchet R2 and gear G2 are free-to turn so that when they are driven through the gear G4,

they offer no ap reciable load .to the motor M. It is clear from the foregoing description that the direction of rotation of the motor M selects the ratchet and gear train by which the operating shaft DS is to be operated. The different 1,991,756 thus it follows that when the motorM is rotated On'the arbor 12 of gear-G1 is loosely gear ratios for the two different gear trains cause the shaftDS to be driven counter-clockwise at one speed when the motor M is operated clockwise at its constant speed, and to be driven clockwise at a different speed when the motor M is reversed and operated counter-clockwise at its constant speed.

Referring to Figs. 3 and 4, a friction clutch arrangement for selecting the direction of rotation and for selecting the gear train by which the operating shaft is to be driven is disclosed. This clutch arrangement comprises a clutch case CC, a drive drum DD, clutch segments CS, and a clutch drive plate CDP, all mounted upon the operating shaft DS. The drive drum. DD is keyed to the shaft DS by a key 50, but the drive plate GDP and the clutch case CC are both free to rotate on the shaft DS. The clutch segments CS are made to fit loosely between the outer face ofthe drum DD and the inner face of the case CC. 20

Each segment CS is provided with a slot 55 the two extreme ends of which are of unequal radii with respect to the cc iter of the shaft DS, as will be readily understood by an inspection of Fig. 4.

The clutch drive plate GDP is provided with three motor shaft 11. The clutch case CC is equipped with a gear 22 which engages a gear 23 adapted to freely rotate on an idle shaft 24. A gear 25 on thehub of gear 23 engages the gear RG which as stated above is keyed to the operating shaft DS.

The operation of this clutch arrangement is such that when the clutchplate GDP is driven in a counter-clockwise direction, the pins P move 40 along the slots 55 to force the clutch segments CS toward the center and these segments are .made to clutch the outer face of the drive drum DD with the result that the operating'shaft 'DS is driven in a counter-clockwise direction. When 4 the clutch plate GDP is driven in the clockwise direction, the pins P move along the slots 55 to force the clutch segments CS outward, and the segments CS are made to clutch the inner face of the clutch case CC with the result that the clutch case is rotated a clockwise direction. Under this latter condition, the gear 22 drives the gear 23, and gear 25 on the hub of gear 23, in turn drives the gear RG, with the result that clockwise rotation of the clutch case CC causes a clockwise rotation of the operating shaft DS. Hence, operating the motor M in a direction to rotate the plate GDP in a counter-clockwise direction causes the drum DD and the operating shaft DS to be rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, the speed of rotation of shaft DS being in accordance with the gear ratio between the gear 20 and the pinion 21. Under this condition of operation the clutch segments CS are drawn away from the clutch case CC and it is free to 05 be driven by the shaft DS through the gear train comprising gears RG, 25, 23 and 22 without appreciable load to the motor M. Reversing motor M and thus rotating the plate GDP in a clockwise The clutch plate GDP is equipped 3o with a gear 20 which engages a pinion 21 on the direction, the clutch case CC is engaged by the segments CS and the shaft DS is rotated in a clockwise direction at a speed of rotation depending upon the gear ratio of the gear train comprising the gears 21, 20, 22, 23, 25 and RG.

Under this condition of operation the clutch se'g- 76 ea p 1,901,750

; appreciable load to the motor M.

Referring to Figs. 5 and 6, another clutch and gear train mechanism for-driving an operating shaft in opposite directions at different speeds by reversing a constant speed motor is disclosed. The motor shaft 11 is coupled with the motor M by any suitable means the same as 'in Fig. 1, androtates at a constant speed clockwise or counterclockwise in accordance with the direction oi!v operation of the motor M. A ratchet 33 fits loosely on shaft 11.and has rigidly fastened to its hub 34 a gear 35. -A second ratchet 36 fits loosely on shaft 11 and has rigidly fastened to its hub'37 a gear 38. A screw thread 32 is cut on theshaft 11 and engages a ratchet nut RN causing it to move along the axis of the shaft 11 thereby engaging either the ratchet 33 or the ratchet 36 to drive either the gear or the gear 38. The gears 35 and 38 engage gears 39 and 40, respectively, which are fastened to the operating shaft DS by pins fl'and 42, respectively. A compression spring 43 is provided in back of gear 35 and is held in place by a cup 44 pinned to the shaft 11 by a pin 45. In like manner a compression spring 46 is provided in back of gear 38 and is held in place by a cup 4'1 pinned at 48 to the shaft 11.

Operating the motor M of Fig. 6 in one direc tion causes the shaft 11 to rotate in a corresponding direction and the ratchet nut RN is driven, say, to the right to engage the ratchet 36, and hence drive the operating shaft DS in a. clockwise direction through the-train of gears comprising gears 38 and 40. The speed of rotation of shaft DS is, in this instance, increased in proportion to the ratio of gears 33 and 40. Under this condition of operation the gear 35 and its'associated atchet 33 are free to rotate when driven by the shaft DS through gear 39. Re-- versing the motor M to drive shaft 11 in the reverse direction moves the ratchet nut RN to the left out of engagement with the ratchet 36 and into engagement with the ratchet 33. The shaftDS is now rotated in a counter-clockwise direction through the train of gears comprising gears 35 and 39, the speed of rotation of shaft DS being reduced in proportion to the ratio of gears 35 and 39. This time the ratchet 36 and the gear 38 are free to rotate when driven by shaft DS through the medium of the gear 40.

The compression springs 43 and 46 provide a .certain amount of give in case the tops of the ratchet teeth of the ratchet nut RN engage with the tops of the teeth of ratchet 33 or 36 asthe case may be, the slight motion permitted by these compression springs being sufficient to permit the .two sets of ratchet teeth to slip sufficiently to engage with each other.

It is clear from the foregoing descriptions of Figs. 5 and 6 that. two different speeds'of rota- .tion of shaft DS are obtained by reversing the constant speed motor M. It is to be noted that with the ratchets 33 and 36, and the ratchet nut RN all mounted directly on the motor shaft 11, a reversal in the direction of rotation of the operating shaft DS immediately follows a reversal in the direction of operation of the motor M.

Mechanisms such as here disclosed provide a simple and reliable means for changing the speed of rotation with a reversal in the direction of rotation by reversing a constant speed motor.

Although I have herein shown'and described only three formsof apparatus embodying my insecond ratchet mounted loosely on the motor shaft and having rigidly mounted on its hub a. gear in mesh with said second gear, said ratchets spaced apart and facing each other, a screw 15 thread formed on the motor shaft between said ratchets, a nut engaging the screw thread and having ratchet teeth formed on its opposite ends adapted to engage with the teeth of said first and second ratchets respectively, a motor operatively 20 connected with the motor shaft, control means for reversibly-operating the motor to move said nut into engagement with one or the other ratchetsfor driving the operating shaft through either I said first or second gears, a first cup pinned to 25 the motor shaft-, adjacent the face of the gear mounted on said first ratchet remote from the ratchet, a second cup pinned to the motor shaft adjacent the face of the gear mounted on the second ratchet remote from the ratchet, and a' 30 spring fitted in each of said cups to exert a force on the associated gear whereby full engagement between the teeth of the nut and the teeth of the particular ratchet when the nut is driven toward that ratchet is assured.

2. In combination, an operating shaft, a first and a second gear rigidly-mounted onsaid shaft, a motor shaft, a first ratchet mounted loosely on the motor shaft and having rigidly mounted on its hub a gear in mesh with said first gear, a 40 second ratchet mounted loosely on themotor shaft and having rigidly mounted on its hub a gear in mesh with said second gear, said ratchets spaced apart and facing each other, a screw thread formed on the motor shaft between said 45 ratchets, a nut engaging the screw thread and having ratchet teeth formed on its opposite ends adapted to engage with the teeth of said first and second ratchets respectively, a motor operatively connected with the motor shaft, control 50 means for reversibly operating the motor to move said nut into engagement with one or the other ratchets for driving the operating shaft through either said first or second gears, a first means pinned to the motor shaft. adjacent the face of 55 the gear mounted on said first ratchet remote from the ratchet and including a compression spring for providing a give in case the tops of the teeth of the nut engage the tops of the teeth of the ratchet as the nut is driven toward that 6 ratchet, and a second means pinned to the motor shaft'adiacent the face of the gear mounted on said second ratchet remote from the ratchet and including a compression spring for providing a give in case the tops of the teeth of the nut en- 65 gage the tops of the teeth of the ratchet as the nut is driven toward that ratchet.

3. In combination, an operating shaft, 9. motor; a motor shaft operatively connected with said motor, control means for reversibly operat- 70 ing the motor, a first gear train including a gear rigidly mounted onthe operating shaft and another gearlooselymounted on the motor shaft, a second gear train including a gear rigidly mounted on the operating shaft and another gear 75 loosely mounted on the motor shaft, said gear trains being spaced apart on the shafts, a first ratchet fastened to said other gear of the first gear train, a second ratchet fastened to said other gear of the second gear train, said ratchets being mounted on the respective gears to face each other, a screw thread formed on the motor shaft between the gear trains, a nut engaging the screw thread foroperation along the motor shaft in accordance with the direction of rotation of said shaft, ratchet teeth formed on each end of the nut for engaging with the teeth of said first and second ratchetsrespectively for driving the operating shaft through the first or the second gear train according to the direction of operation of the motor, a first means rigidly mounted on the motor shaft adjacent said other gear of the first gear train remote from the associated ratchet and including a yielding member engaging the gear, and a second means rigidly mounted on the motor shaft adjacent said other gear of the second gear train remote from the associated ratchet and including a yielding member engaging the gear.

4. In combination, an operating shaft, a motor, a motor shaft operatively connected with said motor, control means for reversibly operating the motor, a first gear train including a gear rigidly mounted on the operating shaft and another gear loosely mounted on the motor shaft, a second gear train including a gear rigidly'mounted on the operating shaft and another gear loosely mounted on the motor shaft, said gear tr'ains being spaced apart on the shafts, a first ratchet fastened to said other gear of the first. gear train, a second ratchet fastened to said other gear of the second gear train, said ratchets being mounted on the respective gears to face each other, a screw thread formed on the motor shaft between the gear trains, a nut engaging the screw thread for operation along the motor shaft in accordance with the direction of rotation of said shaft, ratchet teeth formed on each end of the nut for engaging with the teeth of said first and second ratchets respectively for driving the operating shaft through the first or the second gear train according to the direction of operation of the motor, a first collar rigidly mount-. ed on the motor shaft outside said other gear of the first gear train and having a recess in its face adjacent the gear, a second collar rigidly mounted on the motor shaft outside said other gear of the second gear train and having a recess in its face adjacent the gear, and a compression spring fitted into each of said recesses to engage. the associated gear for providing a yielding in case the tops of the teeth of the nut engage the tops of the teeth of the ratchet mounted on the associated gear as the nut is driven toward that ratchet.

- BRAIYKO LAZICH.

US663440A 1933-03-30 1933-03-30 Apparatus for changing speed and direction of rotation by reversing a constant speed motor Expired - Lifetime US1991756A (en)

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US668235 US2038082A (en) 1933-03-30 1935-02-15 Apparatus for changing speed and direction of rotation by reversing a constant speedmotor

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2421188A (en) * 1943-05-24 1947-05-27 Derungs Ernest Alphonse Transmission control device
US2422162A (en) * 1944-02-25 1947-06-10 Honeywell Regulator Co Control system
US2467504A (en) * 1943-07-09 1949-04-19 James L Sharon Reversible drive mechanism
US2643614A (en) * 1949-09-28 1953-06-30 Gen Electric Motor-driven dual pumping unit
US2670826A (en) * 1946-07-23 1954-03-02 George W H Sussdorff Clutch
US2718161A (en) * 1953-03-09 1955-09-20 Bendix Aviat Corp Two speed transmission actuated by reversal of drive shaft
US2788681A (en) * 1955-01-13 1957-04-16 Technicon Instr Speed change mechanism
US2797783A (en) * 1954-09-21 1957-07-02 Jack & Heintz Inc Reversible overrunning clutch
US3200919A (en) * 1964-09-25 1965-08-17 James P Lanigan Reversible double-drive clutch
US3325117A (en) * 1963-01-21 1967-06-13 Olympic Fishing Tackle Co Variable speed fishing reel with friction clutch
US5690287A (en) * 1993-08-31 1997-11-25 Ono; Shigehiko Fishing reel with rotational independence of spool and handle
US6353957B1 (en) * 1999-10-11 2002-03-12 Pioneer Eclipse Corporation Floor maintenance machine including gearbox arrangement
US6390409B1 (en) * 1998-03-09 2002-05-21 Megtec Systems Amal Ab Roll stand transmission device to control web tension
US20060260895A1 (en) * 2005-05-22 2006-11-23 Michael Traner Bidirectional clutch mechanism

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2421188A (en) * 1943-05-24 1947-05-27 Derungs Ernest Alphonse Transmission control device
US2467504A (en) * 1943-07-09 1949-04-19 James L Sharon Reversible drive mechanism
US2422162A (en) * 1944-02-25 1947-06-10 Honeywell Regulator Co Control system
US2670826A (en) * 1946-07-23 1954-03-02 George W H Sussdorff Clutch
US2643614A (en) * 1949-09-28 1953-06-30 Gen Electric Motor-driven dual pumping unit
US2718161A (en) * 1953-03-09 1955-09-20 Bendix Aviat Corp Two speed transmission actuated by reversal of drive shaft
US2797783A (en) * 1954-09-21 1957-07-02 Jack & Heintz Inc Reversible overrunning clutch
US2788681A (en) * 1955-01-13 1957-04-16 Technicon Instr Speed change mechanism
US3325117A (en) * 1963-01-21 1967-06-13 Olympic Fishing Tackle Co Variable speed fishing reel with friction clutch
US3200919A (en) * 1964-09-25 1965-08-17 James P Lanigan Reversible double-drive clutch
US5690287A (en) * 1993-08-31 1997-11-25 Ono; Shigehiko Fishing reel with rotational independence of spool and handle
US6390409B1 (en) * 1998-03-09 2002-05-21 Megtec Systems Amal Ab Roll stand transmission device to control web tension
US6353957B1 (en) * 1999-10-11 2002-03-12 Pioneer Eclipse Corporation Floor maintenance machine including gearbox arrangement
US20060260895A1 (en) * 2005-05-22 2006-11-23 Michael Traner Bidirectional clutch mechanism
US7753184B2 (en) * 2005-05-22 2010-07-13 Michael Traner Bidirectional clutch mechanism

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