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Electrode

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Publication number
US1983669A
US1983669A US66683933A US1983669A US 1983669 A US1983669 A US 1983669A US 66683933 A US66683933 A US 66683933A US 1983669 A US1983669 A US 1983669A
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Prior art keywords
electrode
conductors
invention
present
conducting
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
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Inventor
Harley E Kimble
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GEN ELECTRIC X RAY CORP
GENERAL ELECTRIC X-RAY Corp
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GEN ELECTRIC X RAY CORP
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating
    • A61B18/12Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating by passing a current through the tissue to be heated, e.g. high-frequency current
    • A61B18/14Probes or electrodes therefor
    • A61B18/1485Probes or electrodes therefor having a short rigid shaft for accessing the inner body through natural openings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B18/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
    • A61B18/04Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating
    • A61B18/12Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body by heating by passing a current through the tissue to be heated, e.g. high-frequency current
    • A61B18/14Probes or electrodes therefor
    • A61B18/1402Probes for open surgery

Description

H. E. KIMBLE ELECTRODE Filed April 19, 1953 m n T N m w a In /A I M FE Y Erv H RE UU 0Q 5:. mm

Patented Dec. 11, 1934 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ELECTRODE a corporation of New Application April 19,

3 Claims.

The present invention has to do with an electrode and relates particularly to a device for use in coagulation in small orifices of the human body. The device is highly useful in the cervix.

5 The utility of the electrode is most noticeable when it is employed for coagulation in openings of small diameter and in fissured openings.

The primary object of the present invent-ion is the provision of an electrode in which the conductors are spaced closely together.

A second object of the present invention is the provision of an electrode of novel structure. Another object of the invention is the provision of an electrode comprising twisted conductors suitably insulated one from the other.

Still another object of the invention is the provision of an electrode which comprises closely positioned conductors, the distance between the opposed conductors being less than in the usual type of device of this character and the separation being helical rather than linear.

A further object of the present invention is the provision of an electrode which may be moved rotatively, longitudinally or laterally during treatments therewith, as preferred.

These objects, and such other objects as may hereinafter appear, are obtained from the novel construction, improved combination, and superior arrangement of the elements shown in the electrode illustrated in the accompanying drawing and embodying one form of the invention, and in which drawing:-

Figure l is an elevation of an electrode embracing the subject matter of the invention; and

Figure 2 is a transverse section of the electrode taken on the line 2-2 of Figure 1, looking in the direction of the arrows.

Like reference characters are used to designate similar parts in the description which follows and in the drawing.

Heretofore it has been proposed to employ for diathermy an electrode in which the current is applied by two independent and linearly spacedapart conducting points. It is true that in some such devices the points, when disposed at the ends of an electrode may be bent to regulate the distance therebetween, that is, to bring them into approximation or to space them apart.

But no matter how closed the conducting points are when brought together, it is necessary in such an electrode to impart a lateral movement thereto to insure against the electrode points sticking as they will do if not continuously moved across the tissue to which applied.

Thus electrodes with two conducting points York 1933, Serial No. 666,839

with linear spacing, while highly effective for certain conditions, possess other inherent limitations. Such limitations the present device overcomes.

In the drawing, an elongated electrode of rodlike configuration is shown. This comprises a core 10 which later will be described in greater detail. About such core 10 is an insulator 11. In a rigid type of electrode, the insulator 11 may be of hard rubber or any other suitable dielectric. The ends of the body 11 may be provided with collars 12 and 13 as shown. Such collars 12 and 13 generally are of hard rubber or of an equivalent dielectric. When and if a flexible electrode body is desired, the body may be of a pure gum rubber either with or without end collars of hard rubber or other dielectric material.

At one end of the electrode are paired spacedapart contacts 14 and 15 which extend in parallelism for insertion into a socket 16 from which suitable cords 17 and 18 providing conduits to a source of electromotive force which is to be impressed upon the tip of the electrode.

Within the body 11 and preferably adjacent to the usual tips of the device, the two contacts 14 and 15 may become the core 10 and are maintained against contact with each other by the material of the body 11 of the handle. These then are twisted one about the other with an insulatory meaterial 19 intermediate the contiguous portions of the conductors so that no short circuit may occur between such conductors.

Thus the entire exposed usable tip portions of the conductors comprise two twisted wires, 20 and 21, charged with high frequency energy. The wires 20 and 21 are separated one from the other by the laminations of insulatory material 19 which is an effective dielectric for use with high frequency. The two conductors 20 and 21 thus are brought into close proximity with little space between them at any place.

Due to the propensity of conductors carrying high frequency to fry the tissue if allowed to remain too long in one position and thus stick to the tissue, it is necessary to continuously move the conductors over the part under treatment. Hence, when a two point electrode with linearly spaced conductors is employed, it is advisable to move the two tips laterally across the treated tissue so that each of the conductors contact the area for limited and substantially equal periods of time.

This is possible with linearly separated conductors so long as the orifice of the body is suinciently large to permit of lateral movement of the electrode. But in the cervix and. perhaps in trode.

other relatively small orifices, or in fissured orifices, the electrode with linearly spaced conductors cannot possibly be moved laterally without distorting the part and hence such electrode is inefficient. Under some circumstances, such an electrode is almost useless'because of the inability to contact the affected area with both conductors at the sametime.

It is for'better meeting-such conditions as those which have just been described that the present invention was conceived.

As the only movements possible when an elece trade is placed in small orifices or the fissured sides of an orifice are oneyofz penetration anchremoval, which movementsarein the direction: of the axis of the electrode, or of rotation after' insertion, the present type of. twisted electrode.- has been developed. At all times, the two conductors are in close proximity. This approximation is greater than inany other type of electrode. The twistingoftwo conductors of'the' electrode-permits-of a constant change in-conductors incontact withanyportion ofthe tissue by'a slight longitudinal movement of the elec- Likewise a rotary movement of the'electrode brings the two conductors oneafteranother over an area in close-succession.

No lateral movement is necessary for such change of the conductorsof the electrode in contact with the part subject to coagulation.-

Inthe event that it is desired to move the electrode laterally, however,- exactly the same results obtain. Movement of the electrode in a line tangential to'thesurface of the electrodebrings tips of the electrodes-maybeused for linear-work;

The electrode illustrated may be used with but a small portion of its length in any orifice into which it is inserted. On the other hand, substantially its entire length may be employed for effective large surface coagulation.

The electrode as described and illustrated may be made into many forms and may be materially modifiedwithout-departingafromthe spirit of the invention; Inthe simpleiorm of the invention which is shown, the electrode is equally effective whether longitudinally, rotatively or laterally moved.

An effective form of electrode is provided by employing: two .halfi round members as conductors; Thesemayibesemi-circular in cross section. Intermediate' the fiat-faces of the two members insulation isdisposed. The unit formed of the two half round members and the intermediate insulationisthen spirally twisted.

What is claimed as new and is desired to be securedbylletters Patent of the-United Statesis:

1; An: electrode comprising" two helical conducting members with insulation therebetween,

said electrode'beingsubstantially'circular in cross section; the "periphery of the insulation intermediate the conducting members in such cross section having-a radius slightlylessthan the radius of the periphery of the-conducting memhers-therein:

2. An electrodecomprisinga-harxdie; and conduct0rsprojecting" therefrom; said conductors comprising one member twistedfabout another; with insulatory material therebetween; the two conductors" providing a rod like part; generallycircular in cross section with exposed substantiallycylindrical conducting areas ihaving a narrow" helix of insulatory material therebetween:

3." The electrode describedin' claim- 2 inwhich said" conductors are half round members; and

the insulatory'material is between the flat faces

US1983669A 1933-04-19 1933-04-19 Electrode Expired - Lifetime US1983669A (en)

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Cited By (53)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2458601A (en) * 1944-03-24 1949-01-11 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Method of and apparatus for measuring pressure
US3831607A (en) * 1973-02-10 1974-08-27 H Lindemann Electrocoagulation grasping forceps for tube sterilization by means of bipolar high frequency heat radiation
US3901242A (en) * 1974-05-30 1975-08-26 Storz Endoskop Gmbh Electric surgical instrument
US3920021A (en) * 1973-05-16 1975-11-18 Siegfried Hiltebrandt Coagulating devices
US3970088A (en) * 1974-08-28 1976-07-20 Valleylab, Inc. Electrosurgical devices having sesquipolar electrode structures incorporated therein
FR2450099A1 (en) * 1978-11-16 1980-09-26 Corning Glass Works Surgical cutting instrument
WO1981003272A1 (en) * 1980-05-13 1981-11-26 American Hospital Supply Corp A multipolar electrosurgical device
US4476862A (en) * 1980-12-08 1984-10-16 Pao David S C Method of scleral marking
US4532924A (en) * 1980-05-13 1985-08-06 American Hospital Supply Corporation Multipolar electrosurgical device and method
US4548207A (en) * 1982-11-17 1985-10-22 Mentor O & O, Inc. Disposable coagulator
US4674499A (en) * 1980-12-08 1987-06-23 Pao David S C Coaxial bipolar probe
US4765331A (en) * 1987-02-10 1988-08-23 Circon Corporation Electrosurgical device with treatment arc of less than 360 degrees
US4805616A (en) * 1980-12-08 1989-02-21 Pao David S C Bipolar probes for ophthalmic surgery and methods of performing anterior capsulotomy
US5290285A (en) * 1992-04-23 1994-03-01 Kirwan Surgical Products, Inc. Electrocautery device having two electrically active areas of the terminal end spaced from each other
WO1994010924A1 (en) * 1992-11-13 1994-05-26 American Cardiac Ablation Co., Inc. Fluid cooled electrosurgical probe
US5342357A (en) * 1992-11-13 1994-08-30 American Cardiac Ablation Co., Inc. Fluid cooled electrosurgical cauterization system
US5507744A (en) * 1992-04-23 1996-04-16 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for sealing vascular punctures
GB2308981A (en) * 1996-01-09 1997-07-16 Gyrus Medical Ltd An electrosurgical instrument
WO1997024994A1 (en) * 1996-01-09 1997-07-17 Gyrus Medical Limited An underwater electrosurgical instrument
US5810810A (en) * 1992-04-23 1998-09-22 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for sealing vascular punctures
US5938658A (en) * 1997-12-02 1999-08-17 Tu; Hosheng Device and methods for treating canker sores by RF ablation
US5944715A (en) * 1996-06-20 1999-08-31 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6004319A (en) * 1995-06-23 1999-12-21 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6013076A (en) * 1996-01-09 2000-01-11 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6027501A (en) * 1995-06-23 2000-02-22 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6063085A (en) * 1992-04-23 2000-05-16 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for sealing vascular punctures
US6090106A (en) * 1996-01-09 2000-07-18 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6093186A (en) * 1996-12-20 2000-07-25 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6210405B1 (en) 1996-06-20 2001-04-03 Gyrus Medical Limited Under water treatment
US6261286B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2001-07-17 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6277114B1 (en) 1998-04-03 2001-08-21 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrode assembly for an electrosurical instrument
US6358273B1 (en) 1999-04-09 2002-03-19 Oratec Inventions, Inc. Soft tissue heating apparatus with independent, cooperative heating sources
US6379350B1 (en) 1999-10-05 2002-04-30 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Surgical instrument for ablation and aspiration
US6391028B1 (en) 1997-02-12 2002-05-21 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Probe with distally orientated concave curve for arthroscopic surgery
US6461357B1 (en) 1997-02-12 2002-10-08 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Electrode for electrosurgical ablation of tissue
US20030060818A1 (en) * 1999-04-21 2003-03-27 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method and apparatus for controlling a temperature-controlled probe
US6544260B1 (en) 1996-08-20 2003-04-08 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method for treating tissue in arthroscopic environment using precooling and apparatus for same
US6565561B1 (en) 1996-06-20 2003-05-20 Cyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6645203B2 (en) 1997-02-12 2003-11-11 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Surgical instrument with off-axis electrode
US6695839B2 (en) 2001-02-08 2004-02-24 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method and apparatus for treatment of disrupted articular cartilage
US6712813B2 (en) * 2001-09-13 2004-03-30 Alan G. Ellman RF probe for electrosurgical instrument
US6780180B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2004-08-24 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6997941B2 (en) 1996-08-13 2006-02-14 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method and apparatus for treating annular fissures in intervertebral discs
US7226447B2 (en) 2004-06-23 2007-06-05 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Electrosurgical generator
US20080004619A1 (en) * 2006-06-28 2008-01-03 Synergetics Usa, Inc. Electrosurgical bipolar instrument
USRE40863E1 (en) * 1992-04-23 2009-07-21 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Apparatus and method for sealing vascular punctures
US7655003B2 (en) 2005-06-22 2010-02-02 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Electrosurgical power control
WO2012142448A1 (en) 2011-04-14 2012-10-18 Galil Medical Inc. Method of cauterization with a cryoprobe
US8366706B2 (en) 2007-08-15 2013-02-05 Cardiodex, Ltd. Systems and methods for puncture closure
US8372072B2 (en) 2003-02-04 2013-02-12 Cardiodex Ltd. Methods and apparatus for hemostasis following arterial catheterization
US8435236B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2013-05-07 Cardiodex, Ltd. Techniques for heat-treating varicose veins
US9023042B1 (en) * 2009-09-09 2015-05-05 Keith Huron Bipolar electrosurgical coagulator
US9844407B2 (en) 2012-12-27 2017-12-19 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Bipolar sphincterotome

Cited By (78)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2458601A (en) * 1944-03-24 1949-01-11 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Method of and apparatus for measuring pressure
US3831607A (en) * 1973-02-10 1974-08-27 H Lindemann Electrocoagulation grasping forceps for tube sterilization by means of bipolar high frequency heat radiation
US3920021A (en) * 1973-05-16 1975-11-18 Siegfried Hiltebrandt Coagulating devices
US3901242A (en) * 1974-05-30 1975-08-26 Storz Endoskop Gmbh Electric surgical instrument
US3970088A (en) * 1974-08-28 1976-07-20 Valleylab, Inc. Electrosurgical devices having sesquipolar electrode structures incorporated therein
US3987795A (en) * 1974-08-28 1976-10-26 Valleylab, Inc. Electrosurgical devices having sesquipolar electrode structures incorporated therein
FR2450099A1 (en) * 1978-11-16 1980-09-26 Corning Glass Works Surgical cutting instrument
WO1981003272A1 (en) * 1980-05-13 1981-11-26 American Hospital Supply Corp A multipolar electrosurgical device
WO1981003271A1 (en) * 1980-05-13 1981-11-26 American Hospital Supply Corp A multipolar electrosurgical device
US4532924A (en) * 1980-05-13 1985-08-06 American Hospital Supply Corporation Multipolar electrosurgical device and method
US4674499A (en) * 1980-12-08 1987-06-23 Pao David S C Coaxial bipolar probe
US4805616A (en) * 1980-12-08 1989-02-21 Pao David S C Bipolar probes for ophthalmic surgery and methods of performing anterior capsulotomy
US4476862A (en) * 1980-12-08 1984-10-16 Pao David S C Method of scleral marking
US4548207A (en) * 1982-11-17 1985-10-22 Mentor O & O, Inc. Disposable coagulator
US4765331A (en) * 1987-02-10 1988-08-23 Circon Corporation Electrosurgical device with treatment arc of less than 360 degrees
US5290285A (en) * 1992-04-23 1994-03-01 Kirwan Surgical Products, Inc. Electrocautery device having two electrically active areas of the terminal end spaced from each other
US6063085A (en) * 1992-04-23 2000-05-16 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for sealing vascular punctures
US5810810A (en) * 1992-04-23 1998-09-22 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for sealing vascular punctures
US5507744A (en) * 1992-04-23 1996-04-16 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Apparatus and method for sealing vascular punctures
USRE40863E1 (en) * 1992-04-23 2009-07-21 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Apparatus and method for sealing vascular punctures
US5383876A (en) * 1992-11-13 1995-01-24 American Cardiac Ablation Co., Inc. Fluid cooled electrosurgical probe for cutting and cauterizing tissue
US5437662A (en) * 1992-11-13 1995-08-01 American Cardiac Ablation Co., Inc. Fluid cooled electrosurgical cauterization system
WO1994010924A1 (en) * 1992-11-13 1994-05-26 American Cardiac Ablation Co., Inc. Fluid cooled electrosurgical probe
US5342357A (en) * 1992-11-13 1994-08-30 American Cardiac Ablation Co., Inc. Fluid cooled electrosurgical cauterization system
US6174308B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2001-01-16 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6364877B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2002-04-02 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6004319A (en) * 1995-06-23 1999-12-21 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6306134B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2001-10-23 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6416509B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2002-07-09 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6027501A (en) * 1995-06-23 2000-02-22 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6056746A (en) * 1995-06-23 2000-05-02 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6780180B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2004-08-24 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6261286B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2001-07-17 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6293942B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2001-09-25 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator method
GB2308981A (en) * 1996-01-09 1997-07-16 Gyrus Medical Ltd An electrosurgical instrument
US6234178B1 (en) 1996-01-09 2001-05-22 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6090106A (en) * 1996-01-09 2000-07-18 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
EP1344498B1 (en) * 1996-01-09 2005-11-09 Gyrus Medical Limited An electrosurgical instrument
US6015406A (en) * 1996-01-09 2000-01-18 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6013076A (en) * 1996-01-09 2000-01-11 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
WO1997024994A1 (en) * 1996-01-09 1997-07-17 Gyrus Medical Limited An underwater electrosurgical instrument
US6210405B1 (en) 1996-06-20 2001-04-03 Gyrus Medical Limited Under water treatment
US6565561B1 (en) 1996-06-20 2003-05-20 Cyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US5944715A (en) * 1996-06-20 1999-08-31 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6482202B1 (en) 1996-06-20 2002-11-19 Gyrus Medical Limited Under water treatment
US6997941B2 (en) 1996-08-13 2006-02-14 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method and apparatus for treating annular fissures in intervertebral discs
US7282061B2 (en) 1996-08-13 2007-10-16 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method of treating intervertebral disc
US8187312B2 (en) 1996-08-13 2012-05-29 Neurotherm, Inc. Method for treating intervertebral disc
US7400930B2 (en) 1996-08-13 2008-07-15 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method for treating intervertebral discs
US20080091252A1 (en) * 1996-08-13 2008-04-17 Oratec Interventions, Inc., A California Corporation Method for treating intervertebral disc
US8226697B2 (en) 1996-08-13 2012-07-24 Neurotherm, Inc. Method for treating intervertebral disc
US7267683B2 (en) 1996-08-13 2007-09-11 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method for treating intervertebral discs
US6544260B1 (en) 1996-08-20 2003-04-08 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method for treating tissue in arthroscopic environment using precooling and apparatus for same
US6093186A (en) * 1996-12-20 2000-07-25 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6461357B1 (en) 1997-02-12 2002-10-08 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Electrode for electrosurgical ablation of tissue
US6391028B1 (en) 1997-02-12 2002-05-21 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Probe with distally orientated concave curve for arthroscopic surgery
US6645203B2 (en) 1997-02-12 2003-11-11 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Surgical instrument with off-axis electrode
US5938658A (en) * 1997-12-02 1999-08-17 Tu; Hosheng Device and methods for treating canker sores by RF ablation
US6277114B1 (en) 1998-04-03 2001-08-21 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrode assembly for an electrosurical instrument
US6358273B1 (en) 1999-04-09 2002-03-19 Oratec Inventions, Inc. Soft tissue heating apparatus with independent, cooperative heating sources
US6939346B2 (en) 1999-04-21 2005-09-06 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method and apparatus for controlling a temperature-controlled probe
US20030060818A1 (en) * 1999-04-21 2003-03-27 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method and apparatus for controlling a temperature-controlled probe
US6379350B1 (en) 1999-10-05 2002-04-30 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Surgical instrument for ablation and aspiration
US6695839B2 (en) 2001-02-08 2004-02-24 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method and apparatus for treatment of disrupted articular cartilage
US6712813B2 (en) * 2001-09-13 2004-03-30 Alan G. Ellman RF probe for electrosurgical instrument
US8372072B2 (en) 2003-02-04 2013-02-12 Cardiodex Ltd. Methods and apparatus for hemostasis following arterial catheterization
US7226447B2 (en) 2004-06-23 2007-06-05 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Electrosurgical generator
US8435236B2 (en) 2004-11-22 2013-05-07 Cardiodex, Ltd. Techniques for heat-treating varicose veins
US8603082B2 (en) 2005-06-22 2013-12-10 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Electrosurgical power control
US20100121317A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2010-05-13 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Electrosurgical Power Control
US7655003B2 (en) 2005-06-22 2010-02-02 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Electrosurgical power control
US8348934B2 (en) 2005-06-22 2013-01-08 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Electrosurgical power control
US8052675B2 (en) 2005-06-22 2011-11-08 Smith & Nephew, Inc. Electrosurgical power control
US20080004619A1 (en) * 2006-06-28 2008-01-03 Synergetics Usa, Inc. Electrosurgical bipolar instrument
US8366706B2 (en) 2007-08-15 2013-02-05 Cardiodex, Ltd. Systems and methods for puncture closure
US9023042B1 (en) * 2009-09-09 2015-05-05 Keith Huron Bipolar electrosurgical coagulator
WO2012142448A1 (en) 2011-04-14 2012-10-18 Galil Medical Inc. Method of cauterization with a cryoprobe
US9844407B2 (en) 2012-12-27 2017-12-19 Cook Medical Technologies Llc Bipolar sphincterotome

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