US1935471A - Production of stereoscopic pictures - Google Patents

Production of stereoscopic pictures Download PDF

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Publication number
US1935471A
US1935471A US47360730A US1935471A US 1935471 A US1935471 A US 1935471A US 47360730 A US47360730 A US 47360730A US 1935471 A US1935471 A US 1935471A
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screen
image
vertically
horizontally
rays
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Clarence W Kanolt
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Clarence W Kanolt
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B35/00Stereoscopic photography

Description

Nv. 14, 1933. c. w. KANOLT PRODUCTION OF STEREGSCOPIC PICTURES Filed Aug. 7, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet l NOV. 14, 1933. C, w, KANOLT 1,935,471

PRODUCTION OF STEREOSCOPIC PICTURES Filed Aug., '7, 195C) 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 NOV. 14, 1933.' C; w, KANQLT 1,935,471'

PRODUCTION OF STEREOSCOPIC PICTURES Filed Aug. 7, 195o 5 sheets-sheet s l 25 V22 @QQ .SZQQQLQ @WMM gi @i @I Patented Nov. 14, 1933 y UNITED STATES QPATENT OFFICE PnonUc'rIoN oF 's'rEnEoscoPlc rrc'rUnEs Clarence W. Kanolt, New York, N. Y.

Application August 7, 1930. Serial No. 473,607

16 Claims. (Cl. 95-18) 'This invention relates to an improvement in graphic plate 4 is a screen 5 which is opaque the production of stereoscopic pictures. except for a large number of small transparent The methods now being used for making openings or areas 6', as shown in Figs. 2, 3 and stereoscopic pictures by the use of lined screens 4, or perforations 6 as shown in Fig. 1. These 5 produce pictures which present different aspects perforations should be sufficiently small and nu- 60 as the angle of view is changed in a horizontal merous that when the finished picture is viewed direction. This renders them stereoscopic bethrough its viewing screen, the assemblage of cause the observers eyes are separated horizonopenings, each of which appears merely as a point tally and see slightly different views. of light sufliciently small that only a beam of 10 'I'he present invention has for its purpose the light passes therethrough, forms an image pos- 65 production of pictures which present different sessing a useful degree of clearness.

aspects of an object when viewed -from dif- The openings in the screen usually vary between ferent vertical angles as well as from different forty and two hundred per square inch. These horizontal angles. openings are greatly exaggerated in the drawings,

l5` The production of changing aspects with chang'- although they may be of the approximate size 70 ing vertical angles has many uses, as for the shown in Fig. 11, in which a small portion of the production of pictures in which it is desired to screen 5 is illustrated with the perforations 6 present aspects of an object from as many diftherein. ferent points of view as possible, for example, for An image of the object to be photographed is scientific or educational purposes when it may be formed on the screen 5 through the lens 3. The 75 desired to picture an anatomical or geological part of this image that falls on a single transparspecimen or a geometrical model. ent dot or hole 6 of the screen is formed by rays The method will also help in giving reality to that are transmitted by all parts of the lens 3. the appearance of stereoscopic pictures used for As these rays pass through the dot and fall on the ordinary purposes. When one approaches a photographic plate 4, they spread out and sepa- 80 stereoscopic picture, his angular viewing position rate into rays of light which come from different usually changes somewhat in a vertical direction. parts of the lens rand therefore correspond to Thus, if a stereoscopic picture is set below the slightly different views of the object l. These level of the eye, as one approaches, he views it rays from one dot or hole 6 from one of the spots from increasing vertical angles, that is, he looks of light 7 shown in dotted lines on the plate 4. 85 down upon it more than when he viewed it from If the photographic plate 4 is developed, forma distance. Areal object would present changing ing a negative, and from this negative, a posiaspects from this cause. The lack of such a tive is printed, this positive may be viewed by change in an ordinary stereoscopic picture deplacing a screen like the screen 5 slightly spaced tracts somewhat from its appearance of reality. behind it and registered with it. The combina- 90 In the accompanying drawings: tion of positive and screen when viewed by trans- Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic perspective View showmitted light will present a stereoscopic effect and ing one form of the present invention; will present different aspects as the viewing angle Figs. 2, 3 and 4 are face views of slightly difis changed either horizontally or vertically. ferent forms of screens; The distance between the camera screen 5 and 95 Fig. 5 is a face view of another form of screen; the photographic plate 4 should be adjusted so Fig. 6 is an edge view thereof showing an opaque that adjacent spots of light 7 on the plate will be screen applied thereto; very nearly, but not quite, in contact with each Figs. 7, 8, 9 and 10 are diagrammatic views of other at their boundaries. slightly different arrangements from that shown In Fig. l, the transparent dots or holes in the 10o in Fig. 1; and screen are arranged in regular rows. In Figs. 2 Fig. 11 is a partial face view of one of the and 3 are other forms of screens, in which the screens. dots or areas 6 are also arranged in regular rows In Fig. 1, the Object 130 be DhOtOgl'aDhed iS deSigbut in different patterns. In Fig. 3, the areas are nated by the numeral 1. 'Ihe camera is shown in arranged closer together vertically than hori- 105 dotted lines as at 2 and has the usual shutter. zontally. Such a screen may be used when The relatively large lens is shown at 3, while a changes of aspect are not to be shown through as photographic plate or the like is designated by great a range vertically as horizontally. In Fig. the numeral 4. 4, the dots or areas 6' are arranged irregularly.

Spaced a slight distance in front of the photo- Instead of using an opaque screen having trans- 110 parentdotsorperforationaasinli'igaito4,a screenmaybeemployedcarryingalargenumber ofverysxnalllenses,suchasmaybeformed bysoshapingapieceoftransparentmaterial, s'.xchasce1luloid,astoformalargenumberof 5 smalleonvexareasonitssurface. Suchascreen isshownatainFig.5withthelensesdesignated by the numeral 9. The advantage of this set of lenses over the screen shown in Fig. l with the perforationsisthateachofthelensesiiwillbet- 1 ter separate the light um: :aus upon a mm the y rays that come from different parts of the large lens 3.

In Pig. 6, the screen 8 has associated therewith an opaque screen 10 carrying transparent portions 11 opposite the lenses 9 or opposite the centrai part of these lenses. The advantage of this form of screen is that it employs only the parts of the lenses 9 at which their optical qualities are good and screens oil the surfaces between the lenses and, if desired, the outer margins of the lenses, where they may be imperfect in form- The opaque screen 10 may be represented merely by a filling of ink or other opaque material between the lenses il.

A further modification of the invention is shown in Fig. 7, in which the object to be photographed is designated by the numeral l2, one or more concave mirrors at 13 and a camera at 14. A screen is shown at 15 corresponding to the screen 8 carrying on its surface convex portions 16 but having reflecting surfaces. These may be formed of white metal. These mirror surfaces i6 separate rays of light that reach them at different vertical angles as well as those at different horizontal angles. The portions of the surface between the convex reiiecting areas i6 should be blackened to prevent them from reflecting light.

In 'the device shown in Fig. 8, the object to be photographed is designated by the numeral iff' and one or more concave members at 18 with a camera at 19. A screen is shown at 20 consistingofalensortmnsparentbodycarryingonits surface small depressions 2l which individually as small concave lenses. These depressions or lenses separate the rays of light that reach them at diierent vertical angles as well as those at dlierent horizontal angles. The parts of the surfacebetweenthesmalllensesshouldberendered opaque.

The mirror 15 and the lens 20 constituting the screens may be rendered convex both vertically and horizontally, as set forth in my copending application Serial No. 462,006, illed June 18, 1930, now Patent No. 1,882,648, granted October 1l., 1932.

In Fig. '1, there is no surface which receives the composite image directly, but it isreproduced byalensofthecameralionthesurfaceofa photographic plate.

InFig.9isafurthermodiiicationoftheinvention, in which the object to be photographed is shown at 22 with the concave mirror 23 and a camera 24. Arranged between the camera 24 andthemirror23isascreen25whichmaybe smilartothescrems5or8,andthisscreen25 issolocatedastoreceivetheimageoftheobject22formedbythemirror23. At26isshown a translucent screen of ground glass or similar materialsolocatedastoreceivethecompote imageformedbythescreeniiandthiscompositeimageonthetranslueentscreenispresented to the camera 24 for photographing.

Amodiiicationofthelightfocusingmeansis inPlg.i0.inwhichthelens3ofPlg.i replaced aeoncavemirroriiitoiorman imageofanobjectandtopresentsaidimage aphotogrlphicsuriace throughascreen Smwhichmaybeotthecharacterofthescreen ororthelike.

Thepositivepicturemadeiromanegativeprojecteduponascreen. Theviewing screento be used in viewing the positive picture may be similartoanyofthescreensabovedescribed and be provided with perforations, lenses or the like, as dcribed above with reference to the photographing 0I the 1111888- Perforations or lenses should be the same size and in the same arrangement as in the photographicscreen,unlessthepicturehasbeenen` larged or reduced relative to the original negative, in which event the viewing screen should beenlargedorreducedtothesameratio. It may be desirable to make the spacing of the elements, which has the perforations or lenses or the like of the viewing screen, very slightly different from the spacing of the corresponding elements of the positive by such an amount that when an observer is at a suitable distance from the picture, he may see each element of the pomtive in registry with the corresponding element of the screen which is spaced slightly from the positive. 1f the spacing of the two are exactly the same, this condition would be realized only when the picture was viewed from a great distance.

ThesmalllensesSoiFigsS and 6,the1enses 25 of Pig. 9, the lenses 2l o! Fig. 8, and the reectors 16 of Pig. 'i may be arranged in various ways, as for example, those illustrated for the dots or perforations in Figs. l, 2, 3, 4 and 11.

I claim:

1. In a device for the production of stereoscopic pictures, the combination of image forming means, and an assemblage of a relatively large number of small elements distributed 120 throughout the image formed by said means and separating the light forming the image into the rays which come from diierent parts both vertically and horizontally of said image forming means, which rays correspond to diiierent aspects 125 both vertically and horizontally of the object photographed.

2. In an apparatus for the production of stereoscopic pictures, the combination of light focusing means, a screen having an assemblage of a large number of relatively small elements distributed throughout the image formed by said light focusing means, each of said elements being adapted to separate the light forming the part of the image that is coincident with it into the rays which come from different parts both vertically and horizontally oi' said light focusing means, which rays correspond to different aspects both vertically and horizontally of the object photographed.

3. Inanapparatusfortheproductionofstereoscopic pictures, the combination of light focusing means, a screen having an assemblage oi a large number of relatively small elements distributed throughout the image formed by said light focusing means, each od said elements being adaptedtoseparatethelightformingthepart oftheimagethatiscoincidentwithitintothe rays which come from dilerent parts both verticallyandhorimntallyof saidlight focusing150 means, which rays correspond to different aspects both vertically and horizontally ot the object photographed,said elements being suiliciently small and numerous that when a nished picture ls viewed through a viewing screen, this assemblage of elements forms an image possessing a useful degree of clearness.

4. In an apparatus for the production of stereoscopic pictures, the combination of light focusing means, a screen having an assemblage of a large number of relatively small elements distributed throughout the image formed by said light focusing means each of said elements being approximately the size of a point of light and adapted to separate the light forming a part of the image that is coincident with it into the rays which come from different parts both vertically and horizontally of said light focusing means, which rays correspond to diierent aspects both vertically and horizontally of the object photographed.

5. In an apparatus for the production of stereoscopic pictures, the combination of light focusing means, a screen having an assemblage of a large number of relatively small elements distributed throughout the image formed by said light focusing means, each of said elements being approximately the size of a point of light and adapted to separate the light forming a part of the image that is coincident with it into the rays which comes from different parts both vertically and horizontally of said light focusing means, which rays correspond to different aspects both vertically and horizontally of the object photographed, and a surface to receive the composite image formed by the assemblage of elements.

6. In an apparatus for producing stereoscopic pictures, the combination of image forming means, and a screen having a large number ci relatively small transparent areas therein and distributed throughout the image formed by said means, each of said transparent areas being adapted to separate the light forming the part of the image that is coincident with it into the rays which come from different parts both vertically and horizontally of said image forming means, which rays correspond to diierent aspects both vertically and horizontally of the object photographed.

7. In an apparatus for the production of stereoscopic pictures, the combination oi image forming means, and a screen having an assemblage of a large number of relatively small lenses therein and distributed throughout the image formed by said means, each of said lenses being adapted to separate the light forming the part of the irnage that is coincident with it into the rays which come from different parts both vertically and horizontally of said image forming means, which rays correspond to different aspects both vertically and horizontally oi the object photographed.

8. In an apparatus for the production of stereoscopic pictures, the combination of image forming means, and a screen having an assemblage of a large number of relatively small lenses therein and distributed throughout the image formed by said means, each of said lenses being adapted to separate the light forming the part of the image that is coincident with it into the rays which come from diilcerent parts both vertically and horizontally of said image forming means, which rays correspond to different aspects both vertically and horizontally of the object photographed, and a surface adapted to receive the composite image so formed.

9. In an apparatus for the production of stereoscopic pictures, the combination of a reflector for forming an image of an object, photographic means for photographing the object presented by said reflector, and a screen having an assemblage of a large number of relatively small elements distributed throughout the image formed by the reflector, each of said elements being approximately the size of a point of light to separate the light forming the part of the image that is coincident with it into the rays which come from different parts both vertically and horizontally of said reflector, which rays correspond to different aspects both vertically and horizontally of the object photographed.

lo. In an apparatus for the production of stereoscopic pictures, the combination of image forming means, and a screen having an assemblage of a large number of relatively small reectors and distributed throughout the image formed by said means, each of said reflectors being adapted to separate the light forming the part of the image that is coincident with it into the rays which come from different parts both vertically and horizontally of said image forming means, Which rays correspond to different aspects both vertically and horizontally of the object photographed.

il. In an apparatus for the production o! stereoscopic pictures, the combination of a reiector arranged to form an image of an object, means for photographing the object presented by said reflector, and a screen having an assemblage of a large number of relatively small elements distributed approximately throughout the image Yformed by the reflector, to separate the light forming the part or this image that is coincident with it into the rays which come from diiierent parts both vertically and horizontally or" said reflector.

l2. In an apparatus -for the production ci stereoscopic pictures, the combination of a reflector arranged to form an image of an object, means for photographing the object presented by said reflector, and a screen having an assemblage oi a large number of relatively smali elements distributed approximately throughout the image formed by the reflector, to separate the light forming the part of this image that is coincident with it into the rays which 'come rom different parts both vertically and horizontally oi said reflector, which rays correspond to different aspects both vertically and horizontally of the object photographed.

i3. In a device for the production of stereoscopic pictures, the combination or" image forming means, and a screen having an assemblage oi a relatively large number of small elements distributed over the area thereof both vertically and horizontally and arranged to be distributed approximately throughout the image formed by the image forming means and separating the light forming the image into the rays which come from diierent parts both vertically and horizontally of the image forming means.

le. In a device for the production oi stereoscopic pictures, the combination of image forniing means, and a screen having an assemblage of a relatively large number of small elements distributed over the area thereof both vertically and horizontally and arranged to be distributed approximately throughout the image formed by the image forming means and separating the Ill . K light forming the image into the rays which come from different parts both vertically and horizontally of the image iforming means, which rays correspond to different aspects both vertically and horizontally'oi.' the object photographed.

l5. In a device for the production or stereoscopic pictures, the combination of image forming means, and a screen having an assemblage of a relatively large number of small transparent areas distributed over the area thereof and separated both vertically and horizontally and arranged to be distributed approximately throughout the image formed by the image forming means and to separate the light forming the image into the rays coming from different parts both vertically and horizontally of the image forming means.

16. In apparatus for the production of stereoscopic pictures, image forming means and a screen having an assemblage of a relatively large number of small elements distributed over the area thereof both vertically and horizontally and arranged to be distributed approximately throughout the image formed by the image forming means and separating the light forming the image into the rays which come from dierent parts both vertically and horizontally` o! the image forming means, in combination with a viewing screen placed behind the picture thus produced when subjected to transmitted light and having elements therein corresponding with the elements of the first-mentioned screen and registered with the picture areas formed thereby.

CLARENCE W. KANOLT.

US1935471A 1930-08-07 1930-08-07 Production of stereoscopic pictures Expired - Lifetime US1935471A (en)

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Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2501258A (en) * 1944-03-29 1950-03-21 Reliephographie Soc Pour L Exp Optical image device having lenticular elements
US2550350A (en) * 1948-07-08 1951-04-24 Henson West Lens screen to produce stereoscopic effects
US2573242A (en) * 1946-05-15 1951-10-30 Reliephographie Soc Pour L Exp Static apparatus for relief photography
US2622472A (en) * 1946-05-25 1952-12-23 Reliephographie Soc Pour L Exp Apparatus for relief and movement photography
US2689502A (en) * 1949-02-16 1954-09-21 Waldemar A Ayres Method of making stereoscopic pictures
US2693734A (en) * 1950-08-25 1954-11-09 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Optical system for card translators
US2724312A (en) * 1952-05-07 1955-11-22 John T Gruetzner Means for obtaining three-dimensional photography
US2803178A (en) * 1953-08-28 1957-08-20 Time Inc Shutter mechanism for photocomposing apparatus
US2888007A (en) * 1955-03-25 1959-05-26 Tabor Harry Zvi Windows for admitting solar radiation
US3014403A (en) * 1953-12-28 1961-12-26 John W Alofs Photographic and projection system and process
US3076395A (en) * 1959-06-09 1963-02-05 Cuvier Pierre Frederic Apparatus for producing a photograph having a relief effect
US3099195A (en) * 1960-02-29 1963-07-30 Goodbar Isaac Camera with lenticulated mask
US3173332A (en) * 1963-03-25 1965-03-16 Fma Inc Backlit projection screen
US3183775A (en) * 1962-09-10 1965-05-18 Fma Inc Backlit projection screen
US3267826A (en) * 1963-03-04 1966-08-23 Browning Iben Photographic recording and reproduction method and apparatus
US3387547A (en) * 1967-06-30 1968-06-11 Acroflex Lab Inc Multiplex still-frame camera
US3683773A (en) * 1968-07-26 1972-08-15 Dudley Optical Lab Inc Stereoscopic photography
US3734618A (en) * 1970-08-24 1973-05-22 Dudley Optical Labor Inc Method of making stereoscopic photographs
US3852524A (en) * 1968-07-22 1974-12-03 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Stereoscopic television system
US4128324A (en) * 1975-12-12 1978-12-05 Alfred Seeger Three-dimensional photography using incoherent light
US4132468A (en) * 1976-06-21 1979-01-02 Dimensional Development Corp. Projection apparatus for stereoscopic pictures
EP1956410A3 (en) * 2007-02-06 2009-04-01 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Apparatus and method for acquiring 4D light field of scene
US20090207389A1 (en) * 2006-03-21 2009-08-20 Roberts David E Active mask variable data integral imaging system and method

Cited By (24)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2501258A (en) * 1944-03-29 1950-03-21 Reliephographie Soc Pour L Exp Optical image device having lenticular elements
US2573242A (en) * 1946-05-15 1951-10-30 Reliephographie Soc Pour L Exp Static apparatus for relief photography
US2622472A (en) * 1946-05-25 1952-12-23 Reliephographie Soc Pour L Exp Apparatus for relief and movement photography
US2550350A (en) * 1948-07-08 1951-04-24 Henson West Lens screen to produce stereoscopic effects
US2689502A (en) * 1949-02-16 1954-09-21 Waldemar A Ayres Method of making stereoscopic pictures
US2693734A (en) * 1950-08-25 1954-11-09 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Optical system for card translators
US2724312A (en) * 1952-05-07 1955-11-22 John T Gruetzner Means for obtaining three-dimensional photography
US2803178A (en) * 1953-08-28 1957-08-20 Time Inc Shutter mechanism for photocomposing apparatus
US3014403A (en) * 1953-12-28 1961-12-26 John W Alofs Photographic and projection system and process
US2888007A (en) * 1955-03-25 1959-05-26 Tabor Harry Zvi Windows for admitting solar radiation
US3076395A (en) * 1959-06-09 1963-02-05 Cuvier Pierre Frederic Apparatus for producing a photograph having a relief effect
US3099195A (en) * 1960-02-29 1963-07-30 Goodbar Isaac Camera with lenticulated mask
US3183775A (en) * 1962-09-10 1965-05-18 Fma Inc Backlit projection screen
US3267826A (en) * 1963-03-04 1966-08-23 Browning Iben Photographic recording and reproduction method and apparatus
US3173332A (en) * 1963-03-25 1965-03-16 Fma Inc Backlit projection screen
US3387547A (en) * 1967-06-30 1968-06-11 Acroflex Lab Inc Multiplex still-frame camera
US3852524A (en) * 1968-07-22 1974-12-03 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Stereoscopic television system
US3683773A (en) * 1968-07-26 1972-08-15 Dudley Optical Lab Inc Stereoscopic photography
US3734618A (en) * 1970-08-24 1973-05-22 Dudley Optical Labor Inc Method of making stereoscopic photographs
US4128324A (en) * 1975-12-12 1978-12-05 Alfred Seeger Three-dimensional photography using incoherent light
US4132468A (en) * 1976-06-21 1979-01-02 Dimensional Development Corp. Projection apparatus for stereoscopic pictures
US20090207389A1 (en) * 2006-03-21 2009-08-20 Roberts David E Active mask variable data integral imaging system and method
US8547524B2 (en) 2006-03-21 2013-10-01 Lau Consulting, Inc. Active mask variable data integral imaging system and method
EP1956410A3 (en) * 2007-02-06 2009-04-01 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Apparatus and method for acquiring 4D light field of scene

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