US1912582A - Composite photography - Google Patents

Composite photography Download PDF

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Publication number
US1912582A
US1912582A US48994730A US1912582A US 1912582 A US1912582 A US 1912582A US 48994730 A US48994730 A US 48994730A US 1912582 A US1912582 A US 1912582A
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film
scene
color
positive
negative
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William V D Kelley
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William Wallace Kelley
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03BAPPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03B15/00Special procedures for taking photographs; Apparatus therefor
    • G03B15/08Trick photography

Description

Patented June 6, 1933 v UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE WILLIAM V. -D. KELLE LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, ASSIGNOR OF ONE-HALF TO WILLIAM WALLACE KELLEY, OF LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA COMPOSITE PHOTOGRAPHY Application filed October 20, 1930. Serial No. 489,947.

In this specification, and the accompanying drawing, I shall describe and show a preferred form of my invention, and specifically mention certain of its more important objects. I do not limit myself to the forms disclosed, since various changes and adaptations nifies the art of combining two or more photographs into one. By means" of this art it is possible to produce many types of unusual pictures, such as putting an action scene that is photographed in Hollywood into a back ground scene photographed in Paris or New York. It also permits of making action pictures without hazard to the performers, as in the case of fire scenes or snow slides.

The general objects of my invention include 1 overcoming many of the difficulties and objectionable features involved in the practice of the hitherto known methods of composite photography. Among these difficulties may be mentioned; the necessity for preparing the background shot first; the inconvenience and impracticability of making negatives in daylight where color backgrounds are to be used; and the great expense. that frequently is involved in holding actorsin idleness while the background shot is being prepared.

More specifically stated, the principal objects of my invention include; first, to provide a processof-composite photography that requires no hand working of the photographic material; second, to eliminate any necessity for special cameras in such a process; third,-

to make it easily possible to use the same foreground sccne over again, in case the first background scene proves to be unsatisfactory, and in this way to avoid such expenses as having to recall actors; and, fourth, to improve the general practice of making composite photographs. Other objects and advantages of myinvention will become apparcut to those skilled-in the art to which it relates, upon a study of the following specification.

My objects are attained in the manner described below, and as illustrated in the accompanyin g diagramatic drawing, in which 1- Figure 1 represents a foreground or action scene, in front of a plain background that is uniformly colored red;

Figure 2 is a negative photograph of the above, taken on apanchromatic emulsion:

Figure 3 is a negative of this same scene, taken on an emulsion that is blind to red;

Figure 4 is a positive print from the negative of Fig. 2;

Figure 5 is a positive print from the negative of Fig. 3; 1

Figure 6 represents the positive film shown in Fig. 5, after it has been bleached and color treated, so that the exposed portions have been dyed blue and the unexposed portions dyed red;

Figure 7 is a positive film of a background scene, into which the foreground scene of Fig. 1 is to be inserted, the background scene being printed on alternate frames with clear unexposed frames 'therebetween I Figure 8 illustrates, diagrammatically, the first step in producing the desired composite negative of the foreground scene in front of the background scene;

Figure 9 illustrates the final completed composite negative;

Figure 10 shows the final composite positive, printed from the negative of Fig. 9;

Figure 11 illustrates an alternative method of preparing the positive background film for thepurpose of the process, so asto avoid the necessity for using the double length film shown in Fig. 7;

Figure 12 illustrates a step inanother alternative process that is specific to my invention, whereby a different type of negative of-the foreground scene may be made to take the place of the film illustrated in Fig. 2; and

. blue and the unexposed portions dyed red.

Similar reference numerals refer to similar parts throughout the several views. Various areas of the figures have been surface-shaded to indicate color values.

In the practice of my invention it is to be noted, first, that if a director desires to produce an action scene as if it was photographed before a background at a distant location, it is not necessary to send the actors to such location, nor even to prepare the background scene in advance. A camera is set up, the actors are summoned, and exposures of the action are made in front of a suitable screen. The resulting negatives may then be put away until the final background scene is ready, or until it is convenient to combine the two scenes into a composite picture. This may be done at any time thereafter.

The first step in my improved process therefore consists in making a pair of negatives of the action or foreground scene, in front of a plain uniformly colored screen. In these two negatives the foreground is identically the same in each, but the background of one of the negativesis clear and in the other it is exposed or black. A preferred way of-accomplishing this result is to expose the negatives superimposed, the action being taken in front of a plain red screen, to which one of the negative emulsions is sensitive, and to which the other emulsion is blind. By utilizing the well known film pack idea employed by Du Hauron, Bastini, and others, this step may be readily accomplished.

In practice the action or foreground scene usually will embrace various colors, as well as whites and blacks. When such a scene is photographed, the result will be a distribution of whites, blacks, and black and white color-values, ranging from white to dense black. For the sake of simplicity we may properly consider in this discussion, only the extremes of the actinic values of the scene; it being obvious and well understood that a process of this kind, that is adapted for correctly representing the extremes, will also correctly represent the intermediate actinic values of the subjects photographed.

Let'us assume that the foreground scene is represented diagrammatically by the subdivided rectangle 15 of'Fig. 1, of which the area 16 is white and the area 17 is black. This scene is photographed on the two superimposed emulsions described, in front of a plain screen 18 that is uniformly colored red. This foreground scene and its background screen, are set up for photographing as indicated diagrammatically in Fig. 1, the surface shadings in the figure indicating the respective color-values mentioned.

After development, the panchromatic negative emulsion that was exposed to the above scene, will appear as in Fig. 2, and I will call this Negative A. The blind to red negative emulsion, after development, will appear as in Fig. 3, and I will call this Negatives A and B are then printed, in

Negative B.

superimposed registering positions, on a double sidedfilm, i. e., a film having a transparent base and an'emulsion on each side. The results of these printings will appear as in Figs. 4 and 5, and I will call these prints Positive C and Positive D respectively.

The next step in my process is to bleach and color Positive D, as in the manner described in my U. S. Patent 1,830,468, issued November 3, 1931. By this treatment the parts of the emulsion that were exposed become bleached and hardened, and they are then given a blue color; and the unexposed portions are left soft and then colored with a red dye that doesnot attach itself to the hard blue-dyed portions. The result of this treatment is as indicated in Fig. 6, and I will call this Positive E. red dyed area is indicated at 19,- and the remainder of the film is colored blue.

It is to be understood that the bleaching and coloring treatment just described is allowed to affect only Positive D, so as to trans form it into Positive E. Positive G, which is in registering position on the other side of the double coated film, is left unbleached and uncolored. This double sided film, with Positives C and E thereon in opposed registering positions, furnishes the means for putting the foreground scene it represents into a final background scene, for the production of the desired composite result.

The next step in the process is to make a positive of the final background scene on a double length film, the picture frames being alternated with clear frames between. This is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 7, wherein the objects in the final background are indicated at 20, and I will call this result Film F. This film is made in such a manner as' to be suitable for making a dupe negative therefrom. It is left unbleached and uncolored.

With the above films prepared as described, they may be combined to secure a composite result, so that the action scene will appear in front of the background scene, in the manner now to be describgd.

For the production of the final composite picture negative, a panchromatic emulsion is used. Each frame of this is first printed through a blue color-filter, and through Positives G, E, and a picture frame of Film F, superimposed in registering positions. The blue light will freely pass through the blue colored portions of Positive E, but it will be completely blocked by the red colored portion 19 thereof. It will also be blocked "by black area 21 of Positive C. After such print ing, the frames of the emulsion would appear as in Fig. 8 if they were developed, but

to the foreground of Fig. 1, completely unexposed.

The next step in the process consists in advancing Film F one frame, while leaving Positives C and E, and thepanchromatic emulsion behind them,.in the same position they were before. The same frame of the emulsion is then printed through a red colorfilter, through Positives C,-E superimposed, and through a clear frame 23 of Film F. The red light will freely 1ipass the red colored portion 19 of Positive but will be completely blocked by the blue colored portions thereof. The panchromatic emulsion may now be developed, and it will appear as in Fig. 9 which I will call Negative H.

Negative H is the final composite negative result sought. When printed it will give the positive composite picture indicated in Fig. 10, wherein the foreground scene of Fig. 1

is combined with the background scene of.

Fig. 7; without any effects of fringing, double printing, or phantoms, I will call this final result Positive J i It will be readily seen by those conversant with this art, that my improved process of composite photography is susceptible of many variations of detail in the various steps involved, without departing from the scope of the invention. Certain of these variation will now be described.

Instead of preparing background Film F with picture frames alternating with clear frames, we may make use of a positive background film prepared as indicated in Fig. 11, without skip frames. The figures 24 of this background scene are colored red, by any of the well known means for doing this. I will call this film Positive K. Although the use of this film, in place of Film F, avoids the necessity for a double length film, and does not require that it shall be advanced one frame between the successive printings of Negative H, it does require coloring. Otherwise it is used in the same way as Film F. The panchromatic negative emulsion is printed first by blue light through Positives C. E, and K,producing the exposure result of Negative G; and then the emulsion is again printed by red light without movingI the films, producing the result of Negative In all of the steps of my process the complementary colors may be used in a reverse sense to that described. That is, blues may be used in place of reds, if reds are used in place of blues. Also the screen 18 of Fig. 1 may be of any plain actinic color; provided that the emulsion of Negative B blind to that color, and that the emulsion of Negative A is sensitive to it.

A further variation of my process is to use a plain white screen in place of that shown at 18 in Fig. 1, illuminating the forc ground only with red light that does not fall upon the screen, andilluminating the screen itself onl with white or blue light. There are well nown ways of accomplishing this.

In such a case the panchromatic negative will be the same as Negative A; and the ortho negative, that is blind to red, will appear after development as in Fig. 12. I will call this Negative. L. The latter is bleached and color-treated by such processes as those mentioned, so as to produce the colored film shown in Fig. 13, which I have designated Film M. In this film the area 25 is red, and the rest is blue. For exposing the final composite negative in this case Positives (l and M are superposed in registering positionsover either Positive Film F or Positive K, and the panchromatic emulsion is exposed first through a blue color-filter and then through a red color-filt-er. these respective exposures will be the same as indicated in Negative G and Negative H, just as in the former procedure described.

In the use of my process many other variations will occur to those familiar with the art involved, and many possibilities for controlling and modifying the final results will suggest themselves. Among such controls may be mentioned the use of emulsions of selected rapidity, emulsions of selected color sensitivity, exposure timing, and the employment of color screens of graded color-values. Thus, if care and skill are used, the process is capable of producing very perfect results.

In the foregoing description it has been shown how the extremes of actinic \jalues in the action and background scenes are perfectly taken care of. The intermediate actinic values will take care of themselves as already stated. Thus when half-tones in the emulsions are subjected to bleaching and dyecoloring in the process, varying proportions of the red and blue dyes will attach to these parts in accordance with the density of exposure. To attempt a detailed explanation of the effects of intermediate actinic values in the subjects photographed would entail a very lengthy and complicated description. This appears to be entirely unnecessary in view of the common knowledge of experienced persons that such effects are proportional to the actinic values involved. Thus if the extremes of actinic values are properly cared for, as in the manner described, the intermediate actinic'values will take care of themselves. Having thus fully described my invention, I claim:

1. Composite photography comprising;

photographing a foreground scene in front of a plain screen by a method adapted to produce a pair of postive films that are identical except as to variations in exposure due to color-selection, one of the films showing the foreground scene and such portions of the screen only as are not blocked off by said scene, and the other film showing the fore- The results of ground scene only; coloring the exposed portions of the first said film one color, and the unexposed portions a complemental color; and exposing a panchromatic film through said colored and uncolored positives in superimposed registering positions, successively to light of said respective colors; the last said exposures being made through a film carrying a positive background picture, in amannerto prevent double printing of saidbackground throughtheforeground scene.

2. Composite photography comprising; photographing a foreground scene in front of a plain screen by a color-selection method, to produce a pair of positive films that are identical except as to variations in exposure, one of the films showing the foreground scene and such portions of the screen only as are not silhouetted by said scene, and the other film showing the foreground scene only; coloring the exposed portions of the first said film one color, and the unexposed portions a complemental color; and exposing a panchromatic film through said colored and uncolored positives in superimposed registering positions, successively to light of said respective colors; one only of the last said exposures being made through a background picture.

3. Composite photography comprising; photographing a foreground scene in front of a plain screen by a color-selection method, to produce a pair of positive films that are identical except as to variationsin expos ure, one of the films showing the foreground scene and such portions of the screen only as are not silhouetted by said scene, and the other film showing the foreground scene only; coloring the exposed portions of the first said film one color, and the unexposed portions a complemental color; and exposing a panchromatic film through said colored and uncolored positives in superimposed registering positions, successively to light of said respec t'ive colors; the last said exposures being made through a film carrying a background picture in alternate frames spaced by clear frames, and the last said film being shifted by the extent of one frame between said successive exposures.

4. Composite photography comprising; photographing a foreground scene in front of a plain screen by a color-selection method, to produce a pair of positive films, one of the films showing such portions of the foreground scene as are of the same color as the screen and such portions of the screen only as are not silhouetted by difi'erently colored portions of the foreground, and the other film showing only such portions of the foreground as are of different color from the screen; coloring the exposed portions of the first said film one color, and the unexposed portions a complemental color; and exposing a panchromatic film through said colored and uncolored positives in superimposed registering positions, sucessively to light of said respective colors; one only of the last said exposures being made through a positive background picture.

5. Composite photography comprising; photographing a foreground scene in front of a plain screen, to produce a pair of positive films that are identical except as to variations in exposure, one of the films showing the foreground scene and such portions of the screen only as are not silhouetted by said scene, and the other film showing the foreground scene only; coloring the exposed portions of the first said film one color, and the unexposed portions a complemental color; and exposing a panchromatic film through said colored and uncolored positives in superimposed registering positions, successively to light of said respective colors; the last said exposures being made through a positive background picture, in which the exposed portions are colored-the same as the unexposed portions of the first said colored positive.

(5. Composite photography comprising; photographing a foreground scene in front of a plain colored screen upon a pair of films, one of which is panchromatic, and the other being blind to the color of the screen, to produce a pair of negatives'that are identical except as to variation in exposure resulting from their color-selection characteristics; producing a positive print from each of said negatives; bleaching the exposed portions of the print from the orthochromatic negative, and coloring its exposed and unexposed portions complementary colors; and exposing a panchromatic film through, said colored and uncolored positives in superimposed registering positions, successively to li ht of said respective colors; one only of t e last said exposures being made through a positive background picture.

7. Composite photograph comprising; photographing by a color-selection method, a. foreground scene that is illuminated by light of one color and in front of a plain screen that is illuminated by light of a complemental color, to produce a pair of positive films that are identical except as to variations in exposure resulting from the use of the color-selection method, one of the films showing the foreground scene and such portions of the screen only as are not silhouetted by said scene, and the other film showing the foreground scene only; coloring the exposed portions of the first said film

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2591428A (en) * 1950-01-20 1952-04-01 Mclean H Harris Selective color display projection apparatus
US2654969A (en) * 1950-07-28 1953-10-13 Baker Perkins Ltd Feeding of sheets to multiroll laundry ironing machines
US20060274188A1 (en) * 2005-06-03 2006-12-07 Cedar Crest Partners, Inc. Multi-dimensional imaging system and method
US20060290887A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2006-12-28 Cedar Crest Partners, Inc. System and method for increasing efficiency and quality for exposing images on celluloid or other photo sensitive material
US20070035542A1 (en) * 2005-07-27 2007-02-15 Mediapod Llc System, apparatus, and method for capturing and screening visual images for multi-dimensional display
US20070037102A1 (en) * 2005-07-22 2007-02-15 Mediapod Llc System, apparatus, and method for increasing media storage capacity
WO2007035193A2 (en) * 2005-06-21 2007-03-29 Mediapod Llc System and method for increasing efficiency and quality for exposing images on celluloid or other photo sensitive material
US20070122029A1 (en) * 2005-07-06 2007-05-31 Cedar Crest Partners, Inc. System and method for capturing visual data and non-visual data for multi-dimensional image display
US20070127909A1 (en) * 2005-08-25 2007-06-07 Craig Mowry System and apparatus for increasing quality and efficiency of film capture and methods of use thereof
US20070177022A1 (en) * 2005-11-22 2007-08-02 Mediapod Llc Composite Media Recording Element and Imaging System and Method of Use Thereof
US20070181686A1 (en) * 2005-10-16 2007-08-09 Mediapod Llc Apparatus, system and method for increasing quality of digital image capture

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2591428A (en) * 1950-01-20 1952-04-01 Mclean H Harris Selective color display projection apparatus
US2654969A (en) * 1950-07-28 1953-10-13 Baker Perkins Ltd Feeding of sheets to multiroll laundry ironing machines
US20060274188A1 (en) * 2005-06-03 2006-12-07 Cedar Crest Partners, Inc. Multi-dimensional imaging system and method
US8599297B2 (en) 2005-06-03 2013-12-03 Cedar Crest Partners Inc. Multi-dimensional imaging system and method
US8194168B2 (en) 2005-06-03 2012-06-05 Mediapod Llc Multi-dimensional imaging system and method
WO2007035193A3 (en) * 2005-06-21 2009-04-16 Mediapod Llc System and method for increasing efficiency and quality for exposing images on celluloid or other photo sensitive material
WO2007035193A2 (en) * 2005-06-21 2007-03-29 Mediapod Llc System and method for increasing efficiency and quality for exposing images on celluloid or other photo sensitive material
US9167154B2 (en) 2005-06-21 2015-10-20 Cedar Crest Partners Inc. System and apparatus for increasing quality and efficiency of film capture and methods of use thereof
US7801440B2 (en) 2005-06-22 2010-09-21 Craig Mowry System and method for digital film simulation
US20060290887A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2006-12-28 Cedar Crest Partners, Inc. System and method for increasing efficiency and quality for exposing images on celluloid or other photo sensitive material
US20070002478A1 (en) * 2005-06-22 2007-01-04 Cedar Crest Partners, Inc. System and method for digital film simulation
US20070122029A1 (en) * 2005-07-06 2007-05-31 Cedar Crest Partners, Inc. System and method for capturing visual data and non-visual data for multi-dimensional image display
US20070037102A1 (en) * 2005-07-22 2007-02-15 Mediapod Llc System, apparatus, and method for increasing media storage capacity
US20070035542A1 (en) * 2005-07-27 2007-02-15 Mediapod Llc System, apparatus, and method for capturing and screening visual images for multi-dimensional display
US20090195664A1 (en) * 2005-08-25 2009-08-06 Mediapod Llc System and apparatus for increasing quality and efficiency of film capture and methods of use thereof
US20070127909A1 (en) * 2005-08-25 2007-06-07 Craig Mowry System and apparatus for increasing quality and efficiency of film capture and methods of use thereof
US8767080B2 (en) 2005-08-25 2014-07-01 Cedar Crest Partners Inc. System and apparatus for increasing quality and efficiency of film capture and methods of use thereof
US20070181686A1 (en) * 2005-10-16 2007-08-09 Mediapod Llc Apparatus, system and method for increasing quality of digital image capture
US7864211B2 (en) 2005-10-16 2011-01-04 Mowry Craig P Apparatus, system and method for increasing quality of digital image capture
US20070177022A1 (en) * 2005-11-22 2007-08-02 Mediapod Llc Composite Media Recording Element and Imaging System and Method of Use Thereof
US20070160360A1 (en) * 2005-12-15 2007-07-12 Mediapod Llc System and Apparatus for Increasing Quality and Efficiency of Film Capture and Methods of Use Thereof
US8319884B2 (en) 2005-12-15 2012-11-27 Mediapod Llc System and apparatus for increasing quality and efficiency of film capture and methods of use thereof

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