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US1903803A - Catalyst for oxidizing carbon monoxide in exhaust gases - Google Patents

Catalyst for oxidizing carbon monoxide in exhaust gases Download PDF

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US1903803A
US1903803A US55932931A US1903803A US 1903803 A US1903803 A US 1903803A US 55932931 A US55932931 A US 55932931A US 1903803 A US1903803 A US 1903803A
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chamber
air
exhaust
gases
combustion
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Maurice E Barker
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Maurice E Barker
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/08Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous
    • F01N3/10Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust
    • F01N3/24Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust characterised by constructional aspects of converting apparatus
    • F01N3/30Arrangements for supply of additional air
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/92Chemical or biological purification of waste gases of engine exhaust gases
    • B01D53/94Chemical or biological purification of waste gases of engine exhaust gases by catalytic processes
    • B01D53/944Simultaneously removing carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons or carbon making use of oxidation catalysts
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J23/00Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00
    • B01J23/70Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of the iron group metals or copper
    • B01J23/76Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of the iron group metals or copper combined with metals, oxides or hydroxides provided for in groups B01J23/02 - B01J23/36
    • B01J23/84Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J21/00 of the iron group metals or copper combined with metals, oxides or hydroxides provided for in groups B01J23/02 - B01J23/36 with arsenic, antimony, bismuth, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, polonium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, technetium or rhenium
    • B01J23/889Manganese, technetium or rhenium
    • B01J23/8892Manganese
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/08Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous
    • F01N3/10Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust
    • F01N3/18Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust characterised by methods of operation; Control
    • F01N3/22Control of additional air supply only, e.g. using by-passes or variable air pump drives
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/08Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous
    • F01N3/10Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust
    • F01N3/24Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust characterised by constructional aspects of converting apparatus
    • F01N3/30Arrangements for supply of additional air
    • F01N3/32Arrangements for supply of additional air using air pump
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N13/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus characterised by constructional features ; Exhaust or silencing apparatus, or parts thereof, having pertinent characteristics not provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F01N1/00 - F01N5/00, F01N9/00, F01N11/00
    • F01N13/14Exhaust or silencing apparatus characterised by constructional features ; Exhaust or silencing apparatus, or parts thereof, having pertinent characteristics not provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F01N1/00 - F01N5/00, F01N9/00, F01N11/00 having thermal insulation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2230/00Combination of silencers and other devices
    • F01N2230/04Catalytic converters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2250/00Combinations of different methods of purification
    • F01N2250/04Combinations of different methods of purification afterburning and catalytic conversion
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2270/00Mixing air with exhaust gases
    • F01N2270/04Mixing air with exhaust gases for afterburning
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2470/00Structure or shape of gas passages, pipes or tubes
    • F01N2470/14Plurality of outlet tubes, e.g. in parallel or with different length
    • Y02A50/2341
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/20Exhaust after-treatment

Description

M. E. BARKER CATALYST FOR OXIDIZING CARBON MONOXIDE IN EXHAUST GASES April 18, 1933.

Original Filed June 4, 1926 32 8+ am at mwafi 2 59B 0 Patented Apr. 18, 1933 PATENT OFFICE MAURICE E. BARKER, OF EDGEWOOD, MARYLAND CATALYST I'OB OXIDIZING CARBON MONOXIDE IN EXHAUST GASES Original. application flied June 4, 1926, Serial No. 113,830. Patent No. 1,855,165. Divided and thil Serial No. 559,329.

(GRANTED UNDER m ACT 01' IABOH 3, 1883, AS AMENDED APRIL 80, 1928; 370 0. G. 757) This invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes without the payment to me of any royalty thereon.

5 This is a division of my Patent No. 1,855,165, filed June 4, 1926 for apparatus and process for mufliing and purifying exhaust gases.

This invention relates to an apparatus and n process for mufiiing and purifying exhaust gases.

An object of this invention is to provide a new process for eliminating toxic gases in the exhaust of internal combustion engines.

Another object of the invention is to provide a catalyst to aid in rendering harmless the toxic gases of the exhaust of interna combustion engines. An object of this invention is the produczation of an apparatus for the reduction of smoke and poisonous gas content of the exhaust gases from internal combustion ennes.

Another object of this invention is the production of an apparatus for the reduction of smoke and the purification of poisonous gas content of the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine by the introduc-v tion of air into the exhaust line of the engine.

Another object of this invention is the production of an apparatus for the reduction of smoke and the purification of the poisonous gas content of the exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine by the introduction of air into the exhaust line ofthe engine in the presence of a suitable catalyst.

Another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus for eliminating smoke and purifying gases from the exhaust of internal combustion engines and to. effectively muflle and release the gases into the atmosphere without undue noise.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus for efl'ectively eliminating smoke and poisonous gas from the exhaust of an internal combustlon engine by the in'ection of air under low linear velocity into t e exhaust line of the engine, to mix with the exhaust ases which are under high to pressure and big -veloc ty.

With these and other objects in view which may be incident to my improvements, the invention consists in the parts and combinatlons to be hereinafter set forth and claimed, with the understanding that the several necessary elements compris ng my invention, may be varied in construction, proportions and arrangement, without departing from the sp1rit and scope of the appended claims.

In order to make my invention more clearly understood, I have shown in the accompanying drawing means for carrying the same into practical effect, without limiting the improvements in their useful applications to the particular constructions, which for the purpose of explanation, have been made the subject of illustration. 1

In the drawing forming specification Fig. 1 is a side elevation illustrating my device as applied to an internal combustion en ine.

ig. 2 is a crosssectional view.

Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view partly broken away and Fig. 49 is an enlarged sectional view of the muflier, the expansion chamber and a fragment of the combustion catalytic chamber and tubes.

Referring by numerals to the drawing, 1 represents an internal combustion engine which may be of any type. Geared to the engine in any suitable manner is an air blower 2, which may also be of any type. The engine is provided with the usual exhaust line a part of this 3, -preferably jacketed to retain the heat of the exhaust gases. The exhaust line 3, terminates in a lateral position as indicated at 4. Secured to and extending from the air blower 2 is an air line 5, the end of which is adjacent to and parallel with the end 4 of the exhaust line. This structure may be modified or varied according to the type of en 'ne and air blower employed.

ounted upon the exhaust and air lines is a cap 6, having inlet ports 7 and 8 provided with elongated sleeves 9 and 10 and a flange 11 provided with internal threads 12. The sleeves 9 and 10 receive the ends of the exhaust and air lines in a slip joint connec- 100 tion. It may be found desirable to otherwise connect the air line to insure against leakage.

A nozzle 13 is threaded or otherwise secured to the cap 6. This nozzle comprises a cylindrical section or housing having arranged therein an elongated chamber 14 com municating with the air inlet port 7. The air inlet port 7 is provided with a check valve 15 hinged upon the cap 6 and normally bearing against an inclined seat 16. The elongated chamber 14 is provided with a plurality of ports 17 opening into the nozzle. The ports 17 are arranged in spaced relation to each other throughout the length of the chamber. Mounted upon the chamber adj acent to each port is a bafile plate 18. The baflie plates 18 are curved or bent toward the discharge end of the nozzle. An additional bafiie plate 19 is mounted upon the forward end of the chamber 14 near the discharge end of the nozzle. The baflie plate 19 is likewise curved or bent toward the discharge end of the nozzle. The baflle plates 18 and 19 serve a two-fold function in that they cause the discharged gases from the exhaust line to create a suction, when passing through the nozzle under hi h velocity, to draw a necessary quantity 0 air from the air chamber 14. These baflle plates also function as back pressure stops to prevent the exhaust gases from entering the air chamber. The pressure of air in the air chamber is maintained unde low linear velocity, the valve 15 preventing back pressure.

There may be instances wherein it would be found desirable or where conditions may warrant a greater supply of air than would be drawn from the air chamber, in which a r is admitted through the valve 15 normally under low linear velocity. In such cases, the air pressure may be increased through the medium of the air blower, which may be regulated for any pressure desired. Thus the supply of air may be increased or decreased at will and regulated or set to supply: the desired or required quantity.

itted upon the discharge end of the nozzle is an elongated frusto-conical housing 20. The cross sectional diameter of the housing 20 is slightly increased from its slip joint connect-ion with the nozzle throughout its length, the object of which is to prevent the building up of back pressure.

Mounted within the housing 20 is a combustion chamber 21. The combustion chamber 21 is frusto-conical in form so as to fit within the housing 20. This combustion chamber 21 is so positioned and mounted within the housing as to form between itself and the wall of the housing 20 an air space to more effectually retain the heat from the discharged gases in the chamber. The position of the combustion chamber is such within the housing as to provide a space between its end adjacent to the nozzle to form a mixing chamber 22. A similar space is provided at its discharge end for an expansion chamber 23.

The combustion chamber 21 is provided at each end with a plurality of radial supports 24, radiating from a common center. These supports are provided with aligned apertures 25 for the reception of catalytic tubes 26, which may be secured therein in any desirable manner. The ends of the radial supports project through apertures 27 in the wall of the combustion chamber. The apertures 27 have counter sunk portions in which heads are formed upon the supports for effectually securing the supports in a rigid position. The ends of a number of the supports are extended to function as spacers 28 and are provided with means 29 for retaining the chamber within the housing in spaced relation, though other means of mounting the chamber may be employed.

Threaded or otherwise secured to the exhaust end of the housing 20 is a cap 30 provided with a plurality of apertures 31 arranged in close assembly. Mounted in the apertures 31 are tubes 32. The tubes 32 vary in length as clearly shown in Figs. 1 and 4. These tubes 32 communicate directly with the expansion chamber and owing to their variation in length, interfere and divide the noise incident to the discharge to effectively function as a mufiier.

The combustion chamber 21 formed of the catalytic tubes 26 is constructed of an alloy composed of 25 per cent manganese, 10 per cent lead and 65 per cent copper. It is to be understood, however, that these proportions may be varied. The chamber after having been completely assembled and preparatory to mounting the same with the housing, is placed in an oven and heated. Air is expelled from the oven and replaced by oxygen and the heating continued until a heavy coating of oxide is formed on all of the exposed surfaces.

The exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine contain carbon monoxide and smoke due to an insufficiency of oxygen in the air mixed with the petroleum or other vapor used as a fuel. A part of the fuel vapor also escapes in the exhaust. These exhaust gases enter the nozzle 13 under high pressure and high velocity causing, by their ,contact with the bafiies 18, a suction action through the ports 17 upon the air in the chamber 14. The chamber 14 is supplied with air from the blower 2 and to insure against back pressure, a check valve 15 is employed.

The air supplied to the chamber is taken therefrom and mixed with the exhaust gases at atmospheric pressure and under lower linear velocity. Back fires are eliminated by reason of the injection of the air in small quantities through a number of ports arranged in the line of travel of the exhaust gases. In some instances, it may be found desirable to inject the air with force. In such instances, this may be accomplished by the adjustment of the blower.

The exhaust gases and the air mixed therewith passes from the nozzle 13 into the mix-. ing c amber 22 from thence into the combustion chamber 21 where complete oxidation takes place, the same being promoted by the catalyst. Upon the exhaust gases mixed with air entering the combustion chamber and coming in contactwith the catalyst, the various oxides would be reduced part of the time and at other times the oxide would be built up according to the amount of oxygen or carbon monoxide present. Thus the catalist is regenerative and thereby preserved. ccordingly, under such conditions the carbon monoxide is completely oxidized at all times before leaving the combustion chamber. Upon being discharged from the com- -bustion chamber, the discharge enters the exlpansion chamber 23 from whence it is re e ased throulgh tubes of varying length in the muffler. his arrangement of tubes effectively divides and deadens the noise incident to the discharge.

While I have shown and described the preferred embodiment of my invention, I wish it to be understood that I do not confine myself to the precise details of construction -herein set forth, by way of illustration,

as it is apparent that many changes and I variations may be made therein, by those skilled in the art, without departing from 'the spirit of the invention, or exceeding the sco of the ap nded claims. 1 3- 1. A catalyst for promoting the oxidation of carbon monoxide comprising an alloy of lead, man nese and copper having an oxidized su ace for exposure to the carbon monoxide.

2. A catalyst for promoting the oxidation of carbon monoxide comprising an allo of substantially 25% manganese, 10% sad, and 65% copper, havi oxidized surfaces for exposure to the car 11 monoxide.

3. A catalyst for promoting the oxidation of carbon monoxide comprising an alloy of copper, lead and manganese, having a surface coating for exposure to carbon monoxide of oxides of the metals forming the aln testimony whereof I aflix my a ature. MAURICE E. BAR %ER.

US1903803A 1926-06-04 1931-08-25 Catalyst for oxidizing carbon monoxide in exhaust gases Expired - Lifetime US1903803A (en)

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US1855165A US1855165A (en) 1926-06-04 1926-06-04 Apparatus and process for muffling and purifying exhaust gases
US1903803A US1903803A (en) 1926-06-04 1931-08-25 Catalyst for oxidizing carbon monoxide in exhaust gases

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Cited By (18)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2436970A (en) * 1944-12-28 1948-03-02 Standard Oil Dev Co Ferrous metal supported zinc oxide bismuth oxide catalyst
US2679724A (en) * 1950-01-16 1954-06-01 Edmund S Pomykala Exhaust gas purifier
US2750680A (en) * 1952-08-02 1956-06-19 Oxy Catalyst Inc Method for treating materials
US2995200A (en) * 1959-10-23 1961-08-08 Seifert Vernon Exhaust muffler for engines
US3109510A (en) * 1959-08-11 1963-11-05 Muffler Corp Of America Exhaust muffler
US3209532A (en) * 1963-04-01 1965-10-05 Morris Afterburner and muffler device
DE1242052B (en) * 1958-07-29 1967-06-08 Wilfried Liphardt Afterburner and filtering device for the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines
US3370419A (en) * 1965-06-11 1968-02-27 Ketzer Paul Augustin Albert Device for purification of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines
US3447630A (en) * 1967-09-27 1969-06-03 Tuttle Inc Exhaust gas muffler with multiple outlet tubes
US3449907A (en) * 1967-05-18 1969-06-17 Clare C Miley Engine silencer and smoke elimination system
US3642094A (en) * 1969-11-26 1972-02-15 Raymond W Yancey Muffler construction
US3712065A (en) * 1970-12-04 1973-01-23 Clevepak Corp Antipollution exhaust system for an internal combustion engine
US3884836A (en) * 1972-02-16 1975-05-20 Siemens Ag Composition for catalytic decomposition of hydrogen
US6991043B1 (en) * 2004-08-19 2006-01-31 Ting-Yuan Chen Pneumatic tool
US20080060351A1 (en) * 2006-09-07 2008-03-13 Kenneth Pawson Serviceable exhaust aftertreatment assembly and method
US20110197853A1 (en) * 2010-02-15 2011-08-18 Denso Corporation Waste heat controller
WO2012048314A1 (en) * 2010-10-08 2012-04-12 Pinnacle Engines, Inc. Sound attenuation device and method for a combustion engine
US20120090298A1 (en) * 2010-10-08 2012-04-19 Cleeves James M Engine combustion condition and emission controls

Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2436970A (en) * 1944-12-28 1948-03-02 Standard Oil Dev Co Ferrous metal supported zinc oxide bismuth oxide catalyst
US2679724A (en) * 1950-01-16 1954-06-01 Edmund S Pomykala Exhaust gas purifier
US2750680A (en) * 1952-08-02 1956-06-19 Oxy Catalyst Inc Method for treating materials
DE1242052B (en) * 1958-07-29 1967-06-08 Wilfried Liphardt Afterburner and filtering device for the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines
US3109510A (en) * 1959-08-11 1963-11-05 Muffler Corp Of America Exhaust muffler
US2995200A (en) * 1959-10-23 1961-08-08 Seifert Vernon Exhaust muffler for engines
US3209532A (en) * 1963-04-01 1965-10-05 Morris Afterburner and muffler device
US3370419A (en) * 1965-06-11 1968-02-27 Ketzer Paul Augustin Albert Device for purification of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines
US3449907A (en) * 1967-05-18 1969-06-17 Clare C Miley Engine silencer and smoke elimination system
US3447630A (en) * 1967-09-27 1969-06-03 Tuttle Inc Exhaust gas muffler with multiple outlet tubes
US3642094A (en) * 1969-11-26 1972-02-15 Raymond W Yancey Muffler construction
US3712065A (en) * 1970-12-04 1973-01-23 Clevepak Corp Antipollution exhaust system for an internal combustion engine
US3884836A (en) * 1972-02-16 1975-05-20 Siemens Ag Composition for catalytic decomposition of hydrogen
US6991043B1 (en) * 2004-08-19 2006-01-31 Ting-Yuan Chen Pneumatic tool
US20060196685A1 (en) * 2004-08-19 2006-09-07 Ting-Yuan Chen Pneumatic tool
US7191849B2 (en) 2004-08-19 2007-03-20 Hyphone Machine Industry Co., Ltd. Pneumatic tool
US20080060351A1 (en) * 2006-09-07 2008-03-13 Kenneth Pawson Serviceable exhaust aftertreatment assembly and method
US7550024B2 (en) * 2006-09-07 2009-06-23 Cummins Filtration Ip, Inc. Serviceable exhaust aftertreatment assembly and method
US20110197853A1 (en) * 2010-02-15 2011-08-18 Denso Corporation Waste heat controller
US9863393B2 (en) * 2010-02-15 2018-01-09 Denso Corporation Waste heat controller
WO2012048314A1 (en) * 2010-10-08 2012-04-12 Pinnacle Engines, Inc. Sound attenuation device and method for a combustion engine
US20120090298A1 (en) * 2010-10-08 2012-04-19 Cleeves James M Engine combustion condition and emission controls
CN103403308A (en) * 2010-10-08 2013-11-20 品纳科动力有限公司 Sound attenuation device and method for a combustion engine

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