US1875267A - Umberto savoja - Google Patents

Umberto savoja Download PDF

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US1875267A
US1875267A US1875267DA US1875267A US 1875267 A US1875267 A US 1875267A US 1875267D A US1875267D A US 1875267DA US 1875267 A US1875267 A US 1875267A
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aeroplane
machine
position
vertical
propeller
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C29/00Aircraft capable of landing or taking-off vertically
    • B64C29/0008Aircraft capable of landing or taking-off vertically having its flight directional axis horizontal when grounded
    • B64C29/0016Aircraft capable of landing or taking-off vertically having its flight directional axis horizontal when grounded the lift during taking-off being created by free or ducted propellers or by blowers
    • B64C29/0033Aircraft capable of landing or taking-off vertically having its flight directional axis horizontal when grounded the lift during taking-off being created by free or ducted propellers or by blowers the propellers being tiltable relative to the fuselage

Description

Allg. 30, 1932. U SAVOJA AEROPLlANE Filed March 2.6, 1931 5 Sheets-Sheet l Fig` 2 U.SAVOJA Aug. 30, 1932.

AEROPLANE Filed March 26, 19251 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Aug. 30, 1932. 11s/WOM 1,875,267

AEROPLANE I Filed Maron' 26. 1951 5 Sheets-sheet 5 Patented Aug. 30,1932

UNITED STATES PATENT oFFlcE UMBERTOl SAVOIA, F TURIN, ITALY, .ASSIGII'OIR T0 FIAT SOCIET ANONIMA, 0F

` TURIN, ITALY .AEBOPLANE Application led Iarch 26, 1931, Serial No. 525,551, and :ln Italy April 16, 1930.

The drawbacks deriving from the high value of the minimum speeds necessary to keep up the weight of aeroplanes are well known; said speeds require for starting and landing a large and flat ground free from obstacles of any kind or a large quiet water surface.4 For this reason the launching and alighting places and consequently. the range of use of flying machines are necessarily limrw'ited, the journeys being bound to said places.

This is a drawback of the aeroplane as com'- pared with the helicopter that is in a condition to start and land by ascending and descending vertically even in places of very 415 small area.

It has been proposed to free the aeroplane from such bonds and to enable it t0 ascend and de scengdvertically like a helicopter, while remaining capable of travelling horizontally or on even keel in ordinary flight conditions. Several suggestions have been made as how to reach this purpose, but they all were of no avail as drawbacks of various kinds were con" nected therewith. It has been proposed to utilize the air blast from the propellers or propeller slip stream for causing the aeroplane to rise off the ground by producing on an auxiliary suitably designed and arranged surface astrong vertical component exceedingthe weight of the flying machine. This method has the fdrawback that it requires auxiliary lifting surfaces which cannot be adapted to work also as sustaining surfaces during the horizontal flight, so that the usual wings and sometimes also pushing screws other than .those ensuring the vertical lift must be used .in combination. therewith.

It has been proposed furtler to arrange the same wing serving for the horizontal Hight to work also as supporting surface durmg rising by suitably varying its inclination and by making it of a suitable design. However, a small wing area only is implnged upon by machine of the usual size and power so that it becomes necessary, in order to cause the `full winglarea to assist efficiently in rising the machine-to distribute the engine power 5 to 'an adequate number of propellers capable the airblast from the propellers in a flying` of acting by their slip stream upon practically the full wing surface area.

A third method consists in causing the same screw to work both as lifting screw for ascending and as pushing screw for the hori'- 55 zontal flight.

It has been suggested to carry out this method byv employing propellers the axis whereof can be tilted in a vertical plane and is therefore capable `of assuming two posio tions at right angles, a pushing and a sustaining one this method, however, not only meets with great mechanical difficulties, but also causes the blast from the propellers to react all or inA part on the top side of the wings,

thus considerably reducing their efficiency.

In order to carry out the principle set forth above, the flying machine should be capable of being tilted back with the propeller shaft `in a vertical or almost vertical position for the purpose of ascending and descendin vertically or tail-rst like a helicopter an ywith the propeller shaft horizontal or almost horizontal for the flight on even keel, as well as for starting and landing in the manner of aeroplanes. This will require two landing frames arranged practically in two planes approximatively orthogonal to each other and the propeller shall be of adequate size in order to work eiiiciently as sustaining screw, which so implies that the screw shall have a larger diameter so that the engine shaft must be kept at a high level from the ground and the aeroplane must be of considerable height. The flying machines of this type should be provided with control means which enable them to go over, while they are up in the air, from a position with horizontal propeller axis to one with vertical propeller axis, and vice Tlus lnventlon concerns improvements 1n the flying machines of the type set forth above, which are capable of ascending and descending vertically like a helicopter and of travelling horizontally like an aeroplane, and its object is more particularly to improve the machines of the third above mentioned type in which thepropeller works alternatively as supporting and as pushing member, incorporating therein the advantages deriving 1.00

from the utilization of the propeller`- slip stream in order to obtain from a suitable surface an adequate vertical component for the ascent of the machine. This invention does not employ for the object in view a special auxiliary surface, as referred to in the rst instance, but it makes use of the same wing area working as supporting surface in hori-` zontal flight, and does not require the whole vertical component to'be supplied by this area, the same being vlargely obtained from the propeller itself by arranging it with strongly inclined axis, so that it works as supporting screw, the' vertical thrust whereof is u summed up with that of the suitably arranged wing surfaces.

This 'invention does not require any special type of aeroplane, but merely utilizes the existing types which are suitably modified for 9 the novel method of ght.

The .attainment of the desired result` is made practically possible by the circumstances which-shall be explained hereinafter.

In ordinary constructions, as now in use,

* and whatever be the 4specific power (horse power per ton of weight) afforded by the aeroplane, there will always be a screw pro peller diameter at which the propeller ab. 'sorbing the normal engine poweris capable 3 of developing with standing flying machine a pushing thrust equal to the aeroplane weight and therefore of working as a helicopter lifting screw, when it is arranged with vertical axis. While the small specific powu ers (from 100 to 200, horse power per ton) require propeller diameters inadmissible in aeroplanes and allowable only in a helicopter, the higher specific powers nowadays attained by manufacturers together with the use of 40 reducing gears employed in connection with the latest engines, enable screw Propellers to be employed which work as lifting-.screws and are of a diameter such as is practically inadmissible in an aeroplane of correct design. By way of example, with aeroplanes of 400 L horse power per ton developed by engines provided with reducing gears, one screw propeller only having a diameter of less than 5 four meters or two screw propellers having a diameter of less than three meters are suilicient for sustaining the aeroplane weight; in the casevof specic powers of 500 horse power per ton one screw propeller having a diameter slightly above three meters or two screw propellers having a diameter slightly above two meters will be sufficient.

An aeroplane of this type is thus'in a condition to have its weight balanced by the screw propeller thrust and therefore of being kept up immovable in mid air like a helicopter, sustained by the mereaction of the screw propeller when vthe nose of the machine is turned upwardly. A

It is not actually necessary for the flying machine to be lifted upward until the propeller axis assumes a vertical position, since under the action of the air blast on the winged surface, an inclination of the machine at which the resultant of the screw propeller thrust and of the aerodynamic actionon the winged surface is directed vertically, i. e. an inclination slightly exceeding 65, will actually be sutlicient.

The invention now consists essentially .in the combination, in'an aeroplane, of a screw propeller or of two screw propellers havingl an adequate diameter for supplying wit standing machine and in combination with the usual winged surfaces athrust equal to or greater than t e weight of the machine, this latter being provided with means enabling its starting and alighting in a substantially upright position, while 'allowing launchlng andA ali hting also in the position correspond-N ing to orizontal iiight with the same features and properties of an aeroplane of the usual type.

It is understood that this aeroplane shall be provided with stabilizin and control members of construction an arrangement such that they can work also in a horizontal flight position, as well as with devices adapted to annul the reaction couple of the propellers when working with standing flying machine.

The accompanying drawings show4 diagrammatically by way of example some con- \structional forms of the aeroplane according to this invention.

Figures 1, 2 and 3 show in side, plan and front view, respectively, a first construction of -the aeroplane with fixed intermediate frame in the position of ilighton even keel. 3 I

Figure 4 is a side view of the same machine in its vertical flight position. l

Figure 5 is a side view of a second construction differing from the former through the rectilinear shape of the body of the aeroplane and through the use of a fixed skid in lieu of the intermediate frame.

Figure 6 is a side view of a modication of Figure 5. e

Figures 7 and 8 are a side and a plan view, respectively of a further construction in which the body is made of two portions hinged together, the position. taken by the fuselage rear portion when the aeroplane is about to rise vertically of the ground being shown in dash and dot lines.

Figures 9, 10 and 11 show details of the hinge connecting the aeroplane body with the rear fuselage portion.

, The'same reference characters denote similar parts throughout the figures of the drawings.

1 denotes the body of the flying machine, 2 the engine which is provided with a reducing gear, 3 the screw propeller. This latter is made of a large diameter for meeting the above explained requirements. 4 denotes the winged surface 5 the usual landing frame for the horizontal 'ght; 6the intermediate landing frame or skid for the vertical Hight; 7 the tail skid used both in horizontal and in vertical landing; 8 the ailerons which are made larger in the portionxwhich is arranged in the propeller slip stream; 9 the elevator flaps; 10 the vertical rudders, 11 the cock-pit, 12 the controls and 13 the tail.

As is clearly shown on the drawings, inthe construction of Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4 the tail is shorter than usual and cambered upwardly to permit of the rudders to remain in the propeller slip stream and of the Hying machine to start and land both in the position of horizontal Hight appearing in Fig. 1 and in the position of vertical Hight appearing in Fig. 4.

In the construction of Fig. 5 the body is again shorter than usual, but its axis is rectilinear and the elevator Haps are supported by a larger vertical keel 34.

Fixed skids are'employed in lieu of the wheels 6 of the intermediate frame. In this construction also, the starting and landing position corresponds with the vertical Hight position.

In these Hgures the position of the plane on which the Hying machine rests at vertical starting and landing is denoted by the line In the construction shown in Fig. 6, these two postions no longer correspond, as in this case the launching and alighting position is\ less erected than that of vertical Hight in order to allow of a greater length of the machine.

In this construction the Hying machine is bound, on starting, to complete its erection in order to take the Hight position and on landing it touches the ground first by its tail skid and tilts then forward until the intermediate skid reaches the ground.

Figure 7 is a side view and Fig. 8 is a plan view of a construction in which the double landing position is obtained by an intermediate articulated joint of theA fuselage between the body 1 and the tail 13, the two positions of this latterwith respect to the body of the Hying machine being indicated in full and in dash and dot lines, respectively, while the planes on which themachine rests on the ground are denoted by the lines XX and XX, respectively. 4

VThe joint is shown in detail in Fi ures 9,

.10 and 11, in' which it is drawn in p an and .ing machine is brought approximatively to right angles to this latter.

the hinge, in which the axes of the body of the aeroplane and of the tail are in alignment is shown in Fig. 10, and as it appears from this figur the rods 15 and 15 are in this case in contact; the open hinge position, y

in which the axes of the body of the aeroplane and of the tail are at approximatively right angles, is shown in Figure 11 andin this case the rods 16, 16" are in contact with each other.

In the closed position according-to lFigure 10, the ends of the rods 16 16" are connect-- ed together by means of two intermediate connecting rods 17' 17 hinged together at 18; these intermediate rods are tilted inwardly on opening of the hinge as shown in Fig. 11. As shown in Fig.' 8, the ends of the rods 15 15 are held together in the closed hinge position by a h ook 19 operated by a rod 20, which is lifted to the position shown 1n Fig. 11upon-opening of the hinge.

The body 1 and the -tail 13 are further connected together by the springs 21, one end of which is attached' to a Hxed point 22 of the tail framework, while theother end is attached to a slide 23 movable in a guide groove -24. In this motion the slide remains constantly connected to a rod 25 hinged to the crank 26, the position of which is controlled by the rod 27 through suitable controls within the pilots reach. The two positions of the movable slide 23 and 23 are such that 'in one of them the action of the tail weight slightly prevails over the spring action, ywhile in theother position it is the spring action that slightly prevails. The l position 23 corresponds to landing with prevailing spring, and the vposition 23 corresponds to starting with prevailing tail weight. v

It will be understood that the particular construction of the Hying machine as well as its peculiar working put special requirements to its manufacture, iirst of all a wing shape implying the smallest displacement of the point of application of the sustaining resultant; a considerable width exceeding that usually adopted of the ailerons and of the steadying surfaces; adoption, in case of need, of vertical kcels for annulling thc propeller reaction couple in vertical Hight; separation, if necessary, of the horizontal Hight wings from those in the propeller slip stream; use of a screw propeller capable of supplying the thrust necessary for the verti-.

cal ascent and affording a good efficiency at maximum speed of horizontal Hight. It`

may be necessary to adopt a variable pitch propeller in orderto meet both these iastmentioned requirements. When two propel- '1ers are employed, they can both be driven by the same engine arranged with transverse axis, the two propellers being connected therewith by bevel gears provided at the ends of the engine axis.

The aeroplane described above works as follows:

The machine starts in the vertical Hight position with engine going full swing and rises vertically; when it has adequately risen, it tilts forward and goes over gradually to the Hight on even keel. All the stabilizing members are controlled in this period as in an ordinary aeroplane. The lifting thrust 'of the propeller becomes a pulling thrust,

momentum of the machine rapidly decreases,

the nose of the, machine is turned-upwards until the inclination corresponding to the maximum lift power (about 14) is reached;

Having thus attained the minimum speed and the maximum reaction of the air on the winged surface, the pilot again clutches in the engine and sharply tilts back the machine to elevate its forward end up to 40. The machine thusrapidly overcomes the loss in lift power which takes place when the wings are between 14. and 40. In this new position, the wings effect a braking action and the horizontal speed falls lower down until, by further lifting forward the machine and bringing the propeller thrust to a maximum, the horizontal speed is brought to nought and the machine is set for vertical Hight.

It is obvious that the constructions illustrated on thel'drawings are to be regarded merely as examples; the aeroplane may be' a monoplane instead of a biplane, it may have twopropellers co-axial to each other or with parallel axes rotating in opposite directions and it may generally adopt any improvements and forms as are used in the usual aeroplanes .intended for horizontal Hight.

comprising, `in combination with propellers 'and wings capable to generate with a stationary Hying'machine a vertical thrust greater than theA weight of the aeroplane, a fuselage angularly bent so as to carry the tail upward, a fname at the front portion of the fuselage, alt/ail skid at Ithe rear portion of the fuselage and an intermediate fixed supporting member arranged in such manner that by acting in combination with the bent tail it permits two landing positions, one withhorizontal axis or nearly horizontal'axis of they Hying machine and the other in which said axis is strongly inclined to the horizontal axis.

2. Aeroplane capable of ascending and descending vertically and of Hying horizontally comprising in combination with propellers and wings capable of generating with a stationary Hying machine a vertical thrust greater than the weight of the aeroplane, a fuselage bent to form an angle so as to carry the tail upwards, a frame at the front portion of said fuselage, a tail skidat the rear portion of said fuselage and an intermediate fixed frame arranged in such manner as to co-operate with the front frame for permitting landing and launching in a substantially horizontal position and with the tail skid for permitting landing and launching in a position with an -axis strongly inclined to the horizontal axis.

3. Aeroplane capable of ascending and descending vertically and of Hying horizontally comprislng ,in combination with propellers and wings capable of generating with a stationary Hying machine a vertical thrust greater than the aeroplane weight, a fuselage y bent to form an angle so as to carry the tail upwards, a frame at the front portion of the fuselage, a tail skid at the rear portion of said fuselage'and a double intermediate sln'd fast with `said frame 'and arranged in such manner as to cooperate with said frame for alighting and launchin -with horizontal axis and with said tail skld for 'alighting and launching with strongly Ainclined axis, respectively.

4. Aeroplane capable of ascending and descending vertically and of Hying horizontally, comprising in combination with propellers and wings capable of generating with a stationary Hying machine a vertical thrust greater thanthe aeroplane weight, a fuselage consisting of two foldable sections so as to carry the tail upwards, 'a hinge between said sections comprising a spring fixed by one end to a point of the -fuselage structure and by its other end to a movable slide, a guide for Said slide fixed to the aeroplane body, said slide being brought by the vpilot at will through a suitable transmission into two different positions, in one of which, corresponding t'o the landing position, the action of the spring on the tail slightly prevails over the the spring action, a frame fixed to the front portion of the fuselage, a. skid. fixed to the rear section of the fuselage and an intermediate frame fixed to the rst mentioned frame and arranged in such manner as to co-operate with the front frame for permitting Alanding in a substantiall horizontal position, an with the tail ski for permitting launching in a. substantially vertical position.

In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my invention, I have si ned m name.

UV'MERT SAVOJA.

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2440003A (en) * 1945-06-12 1948-04-20 Glenn H Bowlus Helicopter and airplane sustained aircraft
US2622826A (en) * 1946-06-27 1952-12-23 Gen Electric Helicopter-airplane
US2678783A (en) * 1940-04-15 1954-05-18 Myers George Francis Convertible aircraft
US2994492A (en) * 1954-07-30 1961-08-01 Dobson Convertiplane, and method of operating an aircraft
US3089667A (en) * 1959-05-02 1963-05-14 Junkers Flugzeng Und Motorenwe Jet aircraft for short take-off and landing distances
US3326498A (en) * 1965-03-29 1967-06-20 Corning Gerald Zero field length aircraft
WO1994016942A1 (en) * 1993-01-22 1994-08-04 Freewing Aircraft Corporation Stol/vtol free wing aircraft with articulated tail boom
USRE36487E (en) * 1989-02-09 2000-01-11 Freewing Aerial Robotics Corporation Airplane with variable-incidence wing
US20050173593A1 (en) * 2004-02-09 2005-08-11 Reynolds Ross S. Forward pivoted full flying control tail boom
US20150021430A1 (en) * 2012-02-15 2015-01-22 Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation System, apparatus and method for long endurance vertical takeoff and landing vehicle

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2678783A (en) * 1940-04-15 1954-05-18 Myers George Francis Convertible aircraft
US2440003A (en) * 1945-06-12 1948-04-20 Glenn H Bowlus Helicopter and airplane sustained aircraft
US2622826A (en) * 1946-06-27 1952-12-23 Gen Electric Helicopter-airplane
US2994492A (en) * 1954-07-30 1961-08-01 Dobson Convertiplane, and method of operating an aircraft
US3089667A (en) * 1959-05-02 1963-05-14 Junkers Flugzeng Und Motorenwe Jet aircraft for short take-off and landing distances
US3326498A (en) * 1965-03-29 1967-06-20 Corning Gerald Zero field length aircraft
USRE36487E (en) * 1989-02-09 2000-01-11 Freewing Aerial Robotics Corporation Airplane with variable-incidence wing
WO1994016942A1 (en) * 1993-01-22 1994-08-04 Freewing Aircraft Corporation Stol/vtol free wing aircraft with articulated tail boom
US20050173593A1 (en) * 2004-02-09 2005-08-11 Reynolds Ross S. Forward pivoted full flying control tail boom
US20060022086A1 (en) * 2004-02-09 2006-02-02 Reynolds Ross S Forward pivoted full flying control tail boom
US7111810B2 (en) 2004-02-09 2006-09-26 Northrop Grumman Corporation Forward pivoted full flying control tail boom
US7516921B2 (en) 2004-02-09 2009-04-14 Northrop Grumman Corporation Forward pivoted full flying control tail boom
US20150021430A1 (en) * 2012-02-15 2015-01-22 Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation System, apparatus and method for long endurance vertical takeoff and landing vehicle
US9540101B2 (en) 2012-02-15 2017-01-10 Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation System, apparatus and method for long endurance vertical takeoff and landing vehicle
US9682774B2 (en) 2012-02-15 2017-06-20 Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation System, apparatus and method for long endurance vertical takeoff and landing vehicle

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