US1864027A - Pressure fluid tool - Google Patents

Pressure fluid tool Download PDF

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Publication number
US1864027A
US1864027A US563202A US56320231A US1864027A US 1864027 A US1864027 A US 1864027A US 563202 A US563202 A US 563202A US 56320231 A US56320231 A US 56320231A US 1864027 A US1864027 A US 1864027A
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Prior art keywords
runner
fluid
casing
tool
pressure
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US563202A
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Pedersen Axel
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Madison Kipp Corp
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Madison Kipp Corp
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Priority to US563202A priority Critical patent/US1864027A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B23/00Portable grinding machines, e.g. hand-guided; Accessories therefor
    • B24B23/02Portable grinding machines, e.g. hand-guided; Accessories therefor with rotating grinding tools; Accessories therefor
    • B24B23/026Fluid driven
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S415/00Rotary kinetic fluid motors or pumps
    • Y10S415/904Tool drive turbine, e.g. dental drill

Description

June,21, 1932. A. PEDERsEN 1,864,027
PRESSURE FLUID TOOL Filed Sept. 16, 1931 Zmnentor xef fe iersen Gttomegs.
Patented .lelie 21, 1932 UNITEDQSTATES PATENT 4 o1-"Fica AXEL PEDERSEN, OF MADISON, WISCONSIN, AssICfNoIil To MADISON- Kur CORPORATION,
or MADISON, WISCONSIN, ACORPORATION or WISCONSIN l rREsstmE FLUID TOOL 'i Applicatien mea-september 16,1931. ser1a1No.5ss,2o2.
The resent invention ertains to tools and particu arly to -thoseof t e pressure-fluid operated type,`wherein use is made of a turbine rotor.
It is the purpose of the invention to provide an extremely durable tool adapted for continuous and eiicient service over long periods of time. Primarily the improvements relate .to the design ofthe rotor and itsl arrangement in the tool body, so that maximum driving power is .imparted to the'rotor rly the .pressure Huid operating thereon.
hus, 'greater speed of the rotor-operated parts is obtained with -noincrease in fluid pressure, or lower fluid pressure may be used to roduce any desired speed of operation. v ther objects and advantages of" the in vention will appear from the ldetailed description given below when read in connection witht e accompanying drawing, where 1n,- f
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section of one form of Huid-pressure operated tool embodyin the invention.
i 2 a section on line 2`l-2 of Fig. 1, showing t e arrangement of the pressure-fluid inlet ports;
its relation to the casing; Fig. 4 a section on. line 1 -4 ofFig. 1, disclosing the manner in'which the rotor` shaft and its inner bearing are supported' inthe as applied to a pressure-Huid Operated tool of the general type covered by the pending apr i plications of John R. Hoffman, Serial No.
419,417, filed January 8,1930, and Serial Nogtop fengagesone end ofY groove 34 and 10 Fi 3 a section on line 3 3 OfjF-ig. 1',show ing t e construction ofthe turbine runner and.
548,245,1i1ed Jul 1, 1931: No claim is made herein to such eatures of construction and operation of the tool as are covered by these applications, but only to the improvements hereinafter pointed out.
As shown, the grindercomprises a tool casing 9 made up' of a head portion 10 and a barrel portion 11. The head portion l0 terminates in a beaded end 12 threaded interiorly at 13. The outer end of barrel 11 also is enlarged to form a smaller head portion l4- terminating in a beaded end`15. f
Interiorly of head portion 10, and. preferably formed integrally therewith, are a plurality of inwardly projecting, radial ribs16, 65 the ribs being located at'the juncture of the head portion 10 and barrel 11. The smaller head portion 14 also is formed with a similar set of radial ribs 17, the purpose of these' two sets of ribs being to receive and properl support in axial alinement certain rotor sha t bearings as explained hereinafter. A plug-.type closure member 18 is threaded into the open end of head portion 10, inward movementof the closure bein limited by engagement of its face 19 wit an annular shoulder 20 formed On the inside ofthe casing. The closure is provided with an axial bore 21 which connects at itsforward end with a plurality of radial ducts 22 terminatin in ports23 on the face 19 of closure 18.
Otatably mounted in bore 21 is a, res-` 'sure-iu id control valve 24 provided wit an adjusting knob 25. Valve 24 has. an axial passa e 26 thereinwhich opens at one end into the forward portion 27 of bore 21. At its rear end, passage 26 cpens laterally for registry with a pressure- 29 in duct 28 provides `or the support of a suitable air strainer 30. A nipple 31, to which, a suitable hose 32 is attached, isthreaded into the outer end of duct 28. A set screw33 projects into bore 21 of closure 18 as shown in 1 and 8, and coacts 'with a cross groove 34 in valve 24. to preyent removal of the valve and to limit rotary movement thereof in both directions. i When knob 25 occupies the position shown,
sov
uid inlet duct 28 when the tool is to be o erated. A shoulder inlet duct 28 is in direct communication with rner 36, is mounted for rotation within the tool casing 9. Runner 36 is formed on one face with a plurality of radial'buckets 37 extendingrbetween inner andouter flanges or rims 38, 39, the buckets 37 bein operatively related to outlet ports 23 in c osure 18, as shown in Figs. 1 and 8.
The important feature of the present in- .vention, as stated, is the improved design of the turbine runner and its arrangement within the casing, so as to obtain maximum drivin power from the pressure i'luid used. In or er to utilize fully the velocity and pressure of the compressed iuid ejected from ports 23 into buckets 37, the operating clearance between the Outer rim 39 of the runner and face 19 of closure 1,8 is reduced to a minimum. In practice, a clearance of 0.010 to 0.015 inches has been found to give the best results. The clearance between the inner flange 38 of the runner and the face of closure 18 also is reduced similarly, thereby aidling further in the efficient operation of the too With this arrangement, the pressure fluid acting on the runner is prevented by inner flange 38 from' escaping inwardly towards the axis of the runner, but, after exhausting j substantially all of its kinetic energy in actuating the runner, escapes between outer flange 39 and the face of closure 18. The restricted, annular exhaust passage formed by these parts tends to choke off or retard the flow of fluid from between the runner 36 and the opposed face of closure 18. As a consequence, the pressure fluid is retained between the rims 38, 39 for a longer period, and full and complete usc is made of its velocity head to operate the runner.
It will be noted that in the described construction the pressure liuid is fed to runner 36 at equi-spaced points from ports 23; also that the Huid, after acting on the runner, escapes uniformly about the periphery thereof. Furthermore, there are no exhaust ports located between the operating face of the runner and closure 18. Hence, steady operation of the runner, because of the completely balanced action of the Huid thereon, is a fea' ture of the tool.
` Shaft 35 is rotatably mounted in a pair of antiffriction bearings 40, 41. Only one o'f in ribs 16. Similarly, balls 46 of outer bearing 41 coact with'races 47, 48, thelatter being sug orted in notches`49 in ribs 17.
aft 35 is split at its outer end and thread- -ed to receive a nut, thereby forming a chuck or tool-holding socket 50. It is also flattened at 51 to receive a wrenchv when a tool element is being clam ed in the chuck. l
In order to ubricate bearings 40, 41 properly, shaft 35 is formed with a lubricant-receiving -chamber 52 extending throughout its length. A rear set of radial ducts 53 and a front set of similar ducts 54 lead from chamber 52 into the interior of ball bearings 40, 4l, respectively, so as to supply oil thereto from chamber 52 as a result of the centrifuga-l 'force acting upon 'the lubricant when the tool is in operation. Lubricant is supplied to the passage 52 from the front end of shaft 35 inside of the chuck 50.
It is essential, Ibecause of the high speed of operation of this tool, that adequate provision be made to cool the bearings and also that the pressure fluid be excluded entirely from them so as to prevent the lubricant from being blown away. For this reason, both the front and rear'bearings 40, 41 are protected by air deiecting washers 55, 56. Each washer 55 fits around the outside. of the ball bearing and, in conjunction with an inner washer 57, forms an annular space to receive a felt packing 58. Each washer 56 is drawn out centrally at 59 to lit snugly about lshaft 35 and prevent escape of lubricant from thebearing. Pressure fluid also is prevented from entering Afront bearing 4l by an annular air deflector 60 fixed on shaft 35 just to thc rear of this bearing. With this arrangement, the exhaust fluid is deflected outwardly from ,bearing 41 and escapes between the bearing' and casing 9 to the atmosphere through the spaces between ribs 17.
The rear end of lubricant chamber 52 is closed by a rivet 61 driven therein so that its A loci nut 63 is mounted on screw 62. It
will be obvious that by proper manipulation of screw 62 and lock nut 63 any desired adjustment between ,the thrust bearing andv shaft 35 may be elfected.
The operation of the tool will be described now. Assuming that a quantity of oil has been placed in chamber 52, a source of pressure fluid connected to hose 32, and that a -tool element, such as a mounted grinding wheel, has been secured` in chuck 50, whenv valve 24 is moved to the position of Fig. 1,
ner, it escapes around the outer flange or rim 39 into the chamber in head 10. The exhaust fluid then passes into cooling Contact with the exterior of rear bearing 40 and between ribs 16. Here the fluid is divided into a number of small streams which pass through barrel 9 and into intimate cooling contact with shaft 35. Deflector 60 and outer bearing 41 then are effectively cooled by the fluid as it passes around these parts to the atmosphere..
The exhaust fluid completely encloses both bearings-40 and 41, and shaft 35 in a cool- In escaping adjacent chuck 50, the exhaust fluid blows away any chips or dust produced by the cutting tool.
In the described construction, it is clear that adjustment of the rotor maybe varied readily to give proper operating clearances. Thus play and vibration are reduced to a minimum and operation of the tool is extremely quiet. The particular manner in which 'the exhaust fluid is released from the tool renders unnecessary the provision of a special mullling device. The strin nt requirements of extremel `high spee operation are adequately ta en care of by the special bearing constructions for the rotor and the provision for their positivelubrication. These features ensure a. device which practice has shown is lcapable of eflicent and reliable operation over long periods .of time.
While the improved rotor 36 and its ar-h rangement in the casin have been illustrated and specifically escribed with reference to a'certain type of tool, the invention is applicable to'tools of other types, and may be used for various similar purposes. For instance, its use has been found highly eicient as the operating means for the fluid distributing valve of tools'of the type shown in the application of John R. Hoffman, Serial No. 512,446, filed January 30,1931.
Although the preferred embodiment of the invention is herein shown and described,
it will be obvious that changes may be made in the details thereof without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention,
except as the same may be limited by the Y appended claims.
What is claimed is 1. The combination in a fluid-operated tool of a casing one wall of which is pro-v vided with a pressure fluid inlet port, said wall having no fluid outlet; a turbine runner mounted for rotation in said casing with one face thereof opposed to said casing wall; a series of buckets arranged on said face of vthe runner in operative relation to the inlet port;- and an annular flange on said face of the runner around the series of buckets, the clearance between said flange and said wall being onlysuflicient to permit operation of the runner and affording .the sole avenue of escape for pressure fluid operating on the runner. i
2. The combination in a fluid-operated tool of a casing one wall of which is provided with a pressure fluid inlet port, said Wall having n`o fluid outlet; a turbine runner mounted for rotation in said casing with one face thereof opposed to said casin wall; a series of buckets arranged on said ace of the runner in operative relation to the inlet port; and an annular flange on said face of the runner around the series of buckets, the clearance between said flange and said wall being substantially 0.010 to 0.015 inches and affording the sole avenue of escape for pressure fluid operating on the runner.
3. In a fluid-operated tool, the combination ofa casing one wallof which is provided with a pressure fluid inlet, said wall having no fluid outlet; and a turbine runner mounted for rotation in said casing with one face thereof opposing said wallof the casing, the runner 'being provided on said face with buckets and annular flanges closing the inner and outer ends of the buckets, there being only sufficient space between said flanges and said casing wall to permit operation ofthe runner. and said space affording the sole avenue of escape for exhaust fluid from the runner.
4. The combination in a fluid-operated tool, of a casing rovided with a fluid inlet in one wall there and a fluid outlet,said casingwall having no fluid outlet; and a turbine runner mounted for rotation in said casing with one face thereof in closely opposed, parallel relation to said wall of. the casing, the runner being provided on said face with buckets located opposite said fluidv inlet and with inner and outer annular flanges closing the ends of the buckets, said flanges being spaced only sufficiently from said casing wall to per- ;mit o eration of the runner and the clearance in a wall thereof, said wall having no iiuid outlet; and a balanced turbine -runner mounted for rotation in said casing with one face of the runner opposing said wall, the runner being provided on said face with buckets located Aopposite the iiuid inlet and with an annular iiange closing the outer ends of the I buckets, the space between said flange and name to this specification.
said casing wall being only sufficient to provide operating clearance for the runner and affording the sole avenue of escape for exhaust fluid from the runner.
6. In a pneumatically-operated grinder the combination of a casing provided with fluid inlets in a wall thereof and a fiuid outlet, said casing wall having no fluid outlet; a. grinder shaft mounted for rotation in the casing; a turbine runner xed to `said shaft with one face of the runner disposed parallel to said wall of the casing, the runner being formed on said face with an annular series of buckets disposed in operative relation to the iiuid inlets and with inner and outer ianges closing the ends of the buckets, the space between said flanges and casing wallbeing only sufficient to provide operating clearance for the runner and affording the sole passage for escape of exhaust fluid from the runner to the fluid outlet.
7 In a pressure-Huid operated tool, the combination of a casing having a fluid outlet and a wall provided with a iiuid inlet; a rotor in said casing comprising a shaft and a runner thereon provided on its operating face with a series of buckets and inner and outer langesclosing the ends of said buckets, said buckets being disposed in operative relation to the fluid inlet and said flanges spaced fromA said casing wall only suiiciently to permit free rotation of the runner, the space between said Wall and the outer ange affording the sole avenue of escape for exhaust fluid from the runner; a pair of ball bearings in which the rotor shaft is mounted, said bearings being located in line with the exhaust Huid from the runner to cool the bearings; lubricating means for the bearings; .means for preventing exhaust luid from forcing lubricant from the bearings; and means for controlling the supply of pressure Huid to the fluid inlet.
In testimony whereof I have signed my AXEL PEDERSENL
US563202A 1931-09-16 1931-09-16 Pressure fluid tool Expired - Lifetime US1864027A (en)

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2422735A (en) * 1944-02-16 1947-06-24 Guardia Louis E La Automatic cleaning means for filters
US2648939A (en) * 1947-10-18 1953-08-18 Vulcan Tool Company Pneumatic grinder
US2692752A (en) * 1950-09-22 1954-10-26 Heiss Irving Piping clean-out tool
US2761256A (en) * 1954-12-08 1956-09-04 Gen Motors Corp Work device
US2893688A (en) * 1956-07-02 1959-07-07 Bellows Electric Sign Corp Fluid power motor valve
US2991926A (en) * 1954-12-29 1961-07-11 United Aircraft Corp Combined fan and turbine
US3049738A (en) * 1959-06-30 1962-08-21 Woodall Duckham Constr Co Ltd Coke oven ascension pipe decarbonising device
US3151423A (en) * 1962-08-13 1964-10-06 Harry R Beckman Apparatus for grinding valves, valve seats, and cylinder ridges
US3603045A (en) * 1968-04-01 1971-09-07 Mary C Harter Machine tool
US4695223A (en) * 1985-04-04 1987-09-22 Leybold-Heraeus Gmbh Turbomolecular vacuum pump with a rotor and at least one antifriction bearing
US20050254937A1 (en) * 2004-05-11 2005-11-17 The Boeing Company High speed machining device

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2422735A (en) * 1944-02-16 1947-06-24 Guardia Louis E La Automatic cleaning means for filters
US2648939A (en) * 1947-10-18 1953-08-18 Vulcan Tool Company Pneumatic grinder
US2692752A (en) * 1950-09-22 1954-10-26 Heiss Irving Piping clean-out tool
US2761256A (en) * 1954-12-08 1956-09-04 Gen Motors Corp Work device
US2991926A (en) * 1954-12-29 1961-07-11 United Aircraft Corp Combined fan and turbine
US2893688A (en) * 1956-07-02 1959-07-07 Bellows Electric Sign Corp Fluid power motor valve
US3049738A (en) * 1959-06-30 1962-08-21 Woodall Duckham Constr Co Ltd Coke oven ascension pipe decarbonising device
US3151423A (en) * 1962-08-13 1964-10-06 Harry R Beckman Apparatus for grinding valves, valve seats, and cylinder ridges
US3603045A (en) * 1968-04-01 1971-09-07 Mary C Harter Machine tool
US4695223A (en) * 1985-04-04 1987-09-22 Leybold-Heraeus Gmbh Turbomolecular vacuum pump with a rotor and at least one antifriction bearing
US20050254937A1 (en) * 2004-05-11 2005-11-17 The Boeing Company High speed machining device
US7192248B2 (en) * 2004-05-11 2007-03-20 The Boeing Company High speed machining device

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