US1844319A - Means for producing radio waves - Google Patents

Means for producing radio waves Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US1844319A
US1844319A US394952A US39495229A US1844319A US 1844319 A US1844319 A US 1844319A US 394952 A US394952 A US 394952A US 39495229 A US39495229 A US 39495229A US 1844319 A US1844319 A US 1844319A
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
stem
grid
plate
tube
electrons
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US394952A
Inventor
Hatt Emil
Original Assignee
Hatt Emil
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Hatt Emil filed Critical Hatt Emil
Priority to US394952A priority Critical patent/US1844319A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of US1844319A publication Critical patent/US1844319A/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Images

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J25/00Transit-time tubes, e.g. klystrons, travelling-wave tubes, magnetrons
    • H01J25/68Tubes specially designed to act as oscillator with positive grid and retarding field, e.g. for Barkhausen-Kurz oscillators
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J19/00Details of vacuum tubes of the types covered by group H01J21/00
    • H01J19/42Mounting, supporting, spacing, or insulating of electrodes or of electrode assemblies
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2893/00Discharge tubes and lamps
    • H01J2893/0001Electrodes and electrode systems suitable for discharge tubes or lamps
    • H01J2893/0002Construction arrangements of electrode systems

Description

Feb. 9, 1932. E. HATT MEANS FOR PRODUCING RADIO WAVES Filed Sept. 25, 1929 3 Sheets-Sheet Feb. 9, 1932. E. HATT MEANS FOR PRODUCING RADIO WAVES Filed Sept. 25. 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 nw urlll lll y In flufeni}. Z 721] Feb. 9, 1932.
E. HATT 1,844,319
MEANS FOR PRODUCING RADIO WAVES Filed Sept. 25, 1929 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Imfe n13; Jim? 1 1277 Patented Feb. 9, 1932 UNITED STATES am mar, 01 amrwoon, mnvors mamas r013. raonuome mm wavrs Application iiled September 25, 1929 Serial R0. 884,952.
This invention relates to improvements in methods of and means for producing radio waves and the like and it consists of the matters hereinafter described and more articularly pointed out in the appended clanns.
Under certain methods of producing radio waves, audions are employed in a circuit to generate an oscillating current. Where such an audion is employed to produce electro- 1 magnetic waves of a given wave length or frequency, the same is controlled by devices in the circuit. However, the loss in such a circuit is very high and the efliciency is impaired in proportion.
The primary object of the present invention is to provide an improved means for producing oscillation or electromagnetic waves without the aid or necessity of an extraneous oscillating circuit whereby circuit loss is reduced and eificiency is increased.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved apparatus for producing electromagnetic waves of ultra short length as for example those ranging from one half a meter down to a millimeter and less and, with a corresponding higher frequency and increased energy.
Still a further objectof the invention is to provide a novel means in the form of a valve or tube for producing oscillations in the nature of radio waves or the like of short length without the necessity of employing an exterior oscillating circuit.
In the drawings Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a valve or tube embodying the preferred form of my,
irlgention for producing radio waves and the Figs. 2-3 and 4 respectively are perspective views of elements employed in the tube of Fig. 1 and which will be more fully referred to later. I
Fig. 5 is a sectional perspective view illustratingthe manner of mounting the several elements of my improved tube upon the associated supporting stem.
Fig. 6 is a longitudinal vertical sectional viiw through the supporting stem of the tu c.
Fig. 7 is a detail perspective viewv of the base portion of the supporting stem'and illustrates the manner of securing or anchorin certain conductor terminals and associate supporting members therein.
F1 8 is a view illustratingthe circuit assoclated with the several parts of the tube.
Fig. 9 is a horizontal sectional view through the improved tube as taken on the line 99 of Fig. 1. a
Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic detail view on an enlarged scale and which will be more fully referred to later.
Referring now in detail to the construction of the valve or tube illustrated in Figs. 1 to 7 and Fig. 9 of the accom anyin drawings, which represent the pre erred orm of valve or tube, the same includes an upright, tubular stem 1 of glass made up of a to or supporting section 2 and a bottom or ase section '3. The stem section 2 has a rounded closed top end 4 and a flan ed bottom end 5 and near said bottom en is formed an annular enlargement or shoulder 6. In the rounded top end of the top section is fused a depending tubular member 7 in which is sealed a conductor 8.
The base section '3 includes a radial top flange 9 which is fused to the flanged bottom end of the section 2 and sealed between said flanges in the fusin thereof is a plurality of radially extendlng arms 10-11- 121314-15 and 16 respectively, each having an upturned end. Some of said arms constitute conductor terminals and others merely constitute associated sup elements mounted on the top extenslon of the stem as will later appear. Those arms constituting conductor terminalsextend down through the base section of the stem which has fused to it the bottom end of the glass body 17 of the tube as a whole, which body is exhausted and sealed at the top by the tip 18. Supported upon the top section of the stem is an electrode 19, which constitutes the plate element of the tube. This plate element which functions'as a negative anode is tubular in form and is of a diameter greater than that of the stem. Its ends are reduced in diameter so that its bottom end rests upon the shoulder 6 and its top end engages about port for .35
with the terminal 13 in the stem.
Surrounding the plate but radially spaced therefrom is a second electrode which constitutes the positive in or or primary grid 21 of the tube. Said grid comprises four upright supporting rods or members 22 which are bent inwardly at their top ends to be secured to a ring 23 to snugly engage about the top section of the stem a short distance above the top end of the plate 19. Upon said supporting rods is helically wound a wire 24 of any suitable material. The bottom ends of two of the supporting members are secured to two substantially oppositely disposed terminals 11 and 15 respectively. The terminal 15 in this instance is a dead one and the terminal 11 is a live one whereby current is conducted to the grid.
25 indicates a third electrode which constitutes the heating element or cathode of the tube and said element surrounds but is radially spaced from the inner or primary grid 21. This heating element which is best shown in Fig. 4 is in the form of a cylinder of substantially fine mesh wire screen 26. The wire of the screen may be of any suitable filament material but I find that thoriated tungsten is usable for the purpose. The top and bottom ends of said mesh material are bound by and secured in suitable rigidifying rings 27 and 28 respectively. Fixed to they bottom ring is a pair of relatively stiff conductors 29 and 30 respectively which are secured to the arms 14 and 16 respectively in the stem, the former of which is a live terminal and the latter of which is a supporting member. Fixed to the top ring 27 is a plurality of inwardly converging members 27 that support a metallic sleeve 27 adapted to engage in the depending tubular part 7 at the top end of the stem and said sleeve is electrically connected to the conductor 8 in said depending tubular part 7 by a flexible pig tail like conductor 27. Such'a conductor accommodates the relative movement between the heating element and conductor 8 due to expansion and contraction of said element in the heating and cooling thereof.
Such a heating element with a mesh like filament is advantageous because it provides a. greater filament surface area which is foraminou's for the passage of electrons therethrou'gh. Again such a mesh insures a universal emission of electrons in every conceivable direction because said electrons when emitted begin their flight in directions radial to each and. every filament wire in the mesh.
. Instead of employing thoriated tungsten in the wire of the mesh or screen alone, I may employ plat-mum indium wire as a base core and coat the same with a suitable oxide compound of barium or calcium, etc. Another advantage ained in making the cathode in the form of a wire mesh is that the several wires reinforce each other to provide a strong rigid light weight cathode wherein said wires are secured against mechanical vibration which induces field disturbances. Again such a cathode is free to expand equally and will not warp but will maintain its true and original state.
Surroundin the heating element but radially spaced therefrom is another electrode which constitutes a negative outer or secondary grid 31. Said grid which is substantially of the same structure as the grid 21 comprises a plurality of upright supporting members 32 upon which is helically wound a wire 33 of any suitable material. The top ends of the supporting members converge inwardly to be fixed to a ring 34 which engages the stem above the like ring of the first mentioned grid. The bottom ends of two of said supporting members 32 are secured to the terminals 10 and 12 respectively, the former being a live terminal and the latter being a dead one with a purpose of assisting in supporting said grid.
The live terminals 101113 and 14 as well as the conductor Spass down through the bottom section of the stem for attachment to suitable contacts in the insulated base of the tube which is not illustrated here.
When the four elements are mounted on the stem as described, the stem is inserted in a tube blank which is fused at its bottom end to the base and is then exhausted through the tip 18 which is thereafter sealed.
In Fig. 8 I have illustrated diagrammatically the various elements of the tube in circuit and for convenience in illustration there is shown a source of energy or current supply for each element. Thus there are shown batteries 3536-37 and 38 respectively associated with the plate 19, grid 21, heater 25 and grid 31 in the order mentioned.
The positive and negative conductors 14 and 8 respectively for the he: ting element 25 are connected to the ends of the battery 37. In the conductor 8 is provided a rheostat 40 for controlling the current supply for said heating element. The conductor 20 of the plate 19 is connected to the negative side of its associated battery 35 by means of a potentiometer 41 interposed between the opposite sides of said battery, the positive side of which is connected to the like side of the heating element battery 37. The conductor 11 of the inner or primary grid is connected to the positive side of its associated battery 36 by means ofa potentiometer 42. The negative side of the battery is connected up to the positive side of the heating element battery 37 The conductor 32 of the outer or secondary grid is connected to the negative side of its associated batter 38 by means of a potentiometer 43 and t e positive side of said battery is connected to the positive side of the heating. element battery. The various conductors includethe usual current indicating instruments as shown. I
When the heating element is energized 1t functions as an electronic radiator or emitter.
' With,a' positive potential on the grid 21 an 1.
emitted y the heating element when enerefiect is roduced which draws the electrons plate because of the electrostatic'field set up 15 y-s'aid id. In this impelled movement or flight oi zlectrons they acquire kinetic energy. As the eltctrons pass through the grid they appro'achor enter a negative electrostatic field adjacent the plate and are repelled. v
If the plate be at a sufliciently high positive potential with respect to the heating filament, the kinetic energy of the swiftly moving electrons would be converted into heat b collision with said plate, and this woul result merely in heating up the plate with a possible destruction of the same. In my improved tube wherein a negative potential is impressed upon the plate, the imparted energy of the moving electrons is converted into electromagnetic waves or radiations by reason of their motion being retarded by said negative electrostatic field formed by the plate which is opposing or repelling the moving charge of electrons before they can reach and impinge against the plate and this action is best illustrated in Fig. 10.
When the electrons are retarded in their motion or flight, they give up part of their kinetic energy in the form of radiation. However, as the electrons are repelled by the electrostatic field adjacent the plate, the retarded motion of electrons is transferred to the space charge set up about the heater and in the space between the two grids.
These electrons in said space are thus efl'ected and become disturbed in their motion, acting through the meshes of the heater where a second opposing electrostatic field as set up by the outer grid acting against them and the disturbed electrons are thus again retarded and upon repetition sustained radiations or oscillations are produced as the heater gives ofi a continuous flow or source of electrons.
To further explain the electronic action, it is evident that in order to accelerate an electron, work must be done upon it and ifcthc.
electron is retarded in its motion, it must give up a part of its kinetic energy. If the. inertia of an electron is wholly electromagnetic the work in accelerating it is work done on lines of force. Supposing then a charge of electrons with its lines of force, moves through space with uniform veloicity. If said charge is suddenly retarded the ends of the lines of force thereoef be jerked backwards so to speak. In accordance with the characteristics of lines of force the kinks or reversals created at the end of eachline will not be transmitted along the entire line instantaneously but "will be propa ated along the line with a finite velocity su antially that of ii ht. These or reversals in said lines .0 force are those parts'thereof wherein the electrons are retarded and the electro and magnetic forces associated with such lines are strai ht parts of said lines.
en an electrostatic disturbance passes over an electron moving with uniform velocity the electro and magnetic fields associated with it will be modified b the intense fields in the disturbance aud t is modification is propagated to the center of the moving electron along lines of forces constituting it. The result is a change or reversal in the motion of the electron. It is therefore apparent that the energy of a moving electron is transformed into radiation energy and this transformation take place when the electron is retarded or accelerated.
more intense than those'associated with the From the above it is apparent that the heating element functions as an electronic radiator and the electrons given ofi thereby pass in to the vicinity of an electrical field, negative in character and this results in arresting the movement of the flying electrons causing them to give up a part of their stored or kinetic energy and this energy constitutes the short wave desired.
It, is also apparent that the length of the waves produced may be changed or varied without departing from the spirit of the invention by changing the spacing between the various elements andby providing an ap plied voltage which is in proportion to the charge of electrons liberated or emitted by the heating element.
While in describing the invention, I have referred in detail to the form, arrangement and construction of the several parts of the tube, the same is to be considered merely as illustrative so that I do not wish to be limited thereto except as may be specifically set forth in the appended claims.
Lolaim as my invention 1. A radio wave producing tube embodying therein a hollow stem, a tubular plate member surrounding said stem and engaged at its ends only upon said stem, an electron emittor spaced from the plate member and grid members one on each side of the emittor with one ofsaid grid members disposed be v v tween said electron emittor and said plate.
2. A radio wave producing tube comprising a tubular supporting stem, a cylindrical plate surrounding the stem and engaged only at its ends thereon, a cylindrical electron emittor and cylindrical devices for forming negative and positive electrostatic fields, all mounted concentrically u on said stem with one, of said last mentione devices disposed between the plate and emittor' and the other one disposed outside and surround- 5 ing the emittor.
3. A radio wave producing tube embodying therein, a supporting stem, a plate surrounding said stem and engaged at its ends therewith but spaced therefrom between said ends, a grid, an electron emittor and a second grid, all cylindrical in form and disposed" the :one within the other in radially spaced relation, in the order mentioned and meansincluded in both grids and'the emittor engaging the stem in manner spacing said. elements from the top of said stem and supporting them from the bottom of said stem.
4. A radio wave producing tube embodying therein, a supporting stem, a plate surrounding said stem, and engaged at its ends therewith but spaced therefrom between said ends, a grid, an electron emittor and a second grid, all cylindrical in form and disposed the one within the other in radially spaced relation in the order mentioned, supporting members including conductors fixed insaid stem, means connecting one end of each grid and the emittor to sai'd'supporting member and means formed at the top end of each grid and the radiator and engaging the stem to hold said grids and emittor in spaced relation with respect to the stem.
5. A radio wave producing tube embodying therein, a tubular supporting stem having an annular shoulder thereon and a radial flange below said shoulder, supporting members fixed in and extending outwardly beyond said flange, a tubularplate member on said stem and seating upon said shoulder, a heating element and grid elements of tubular form disposed concentrically. about and spaced from said plate member, means on the bottom ends of said heating and grid elements secured to said supporting members fixed in said flange and means on the other ends of said heater and grid elements engaging the stem for holding them in relatively spaced relation.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, this 20th day of September, 1929.
US394952A 1929-09-25 1929-09-25 Means for producing radio waves Expired - Lifetime US1844319A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US394952A US1844319A (en) 1929-09-25 1929-09-25 Means for producing radio waves

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US394952A US1844319A (en) 1929-09-25 1929-09-25 Means for producing radio waves

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US1844319A true US1844319A (en) 1932-02-09

Family

ID=23561059

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US394952A Expired - Lifetime US1844319A (en) 1929-09-25 1929-09-25 Means for producing radio waves

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US1844319A (en)

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2429243A (en) * 1942-06-18 1947-10-21 Sperry Gyroscope Co Inc High-frequency tube structure
US2452069A (en) * 1945-12-29 1948-10-26 Raytheon Mfg Co Grid structure
US2454564A (en) * 1947-04-08 1948-11-23 Gen Electric Ionization-type vacuum gauge
US2459283A (en) * 1944-04-13 1949-01-18 Westinghouse Electric Corp Positive grid oscillator
US2653272A (en) * 1945-03-15 1953-09-22 Gen Electric Ultrahigh-frequency generator
US2719935A (en) * 1951-02-05 1955-10-04 Siemens Ag Electronic discharge device having a wire mesh element to control the electron flow
US2795726A (en) * 1950-01-16 1957-06-11 Siemens Ag Screen-mesh electrode for electrical discharge tubes
US2843784A (en) * 1955-05-26 1958-07-15 Sylvania Electric Prod Support for stacked electrode assembly
US2892120A (en) * 1954-10-22 1959-06-23 Gen Electric Cathode structure
US2946915A (en) * 1954-07-21 1960-07-26 Gen Electric Grid construction
US3227912A (en) * 1960-11-04 1966-01-04 Siemens Ag Semi-indirectly heated electron tube cathode

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2429243A (en) * 1942-06-18 1947-10-21 Sperry Gyroscope Co Inc High-frequency tube structure
US2459283A (en) * 1944-04-13 1949-01-18 Westinghouse Electric Corp Positive grid oscillator
US2653272A (en) * 1945-03-15 1953-09-22 Gen Electric Ultrahigh-frequency generator
US2452069A (en) * 1945-12-29 1948-10-26 Raytheon Mfg Co Grid structure
US2454564A (en) * 1947-04-08 1948-11-23 Gen Electric Ionization-type vacuum gauge
US2795726A (en) * 1950-01-16 1957-06-11 Siemens Ag Screen-mesh electrode for electrical discharge tubes
US2719935A (en) * 1951-02-05 1955-10-04 Siemens Ag Electronic discharge device having a wire mesh element to control the electron flow
US2946915A (en) * 1954-07-21 1960-07-26 Gen Electric Grid construction
US2892120A (en) * 1954-10-22 1959-06-23 Gen Electric Cathode structure
US2843784A (en) * 1955-05-26 1958-07-15 Sylvania Electric Prod Support for stacked electrode assembly
US3227912A (en) * 1960-11-04 1966-01-04 Siemens Ag Semi-indirectly heated electron tube cathode

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US2311520A (en) Coupling loop
US2259690A (en) High frequency radio apparatus
US2240183A (en) Electric discharge device
USRE22389E (en) Electron beam concentrating
US3530497A (en) Apparatus for generating fusion reactions
US2144222A (en) Electron discharge device
US2353742A (en) High-frequency apparatus
US2741718A (en) High frequency apparatus
US2652513A (en) Microwave amplifier
US2409222A (en) Electron discharge device
US2632130A (en) High current density beam tube
US2103362A (en) Ultrahigh frequency magnetron oscillator
USRE22795E (en) High-frequency tube structure
US2402184A (en) Ultra high frequency electronic device contained within wave guides
US2241976A (en) High frequency apparatus
US2531972A (en) Ultra short wave transmitting tube
US2115521A (en) Magnetron
US3432721A (en) Beam plasma high frequency wave generating system
US2250698A (en) Magnetron
US2207846A (en) Electronic discharge device
JP2007066694A (en) X-ray tube
US2200023A (en) Ultra-high-frequency oscillation apparatus
US2298949A (en) Radial form ultra-high frequency tube
US2216170A (en) Ultra high frequency oscillator
US2247077A (en) High frequency electronic apparatus