US1817432A - Meter - Google Patents

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US1817432A US174806A US17480627A US1817432A US 1817432 A US1817432 A US 1817432A US 174806 A US174806 A US 174806A US 17480627 A US17480627 A US 17480627A US 1817432 A US1817432 A US 1817432A
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Donald J Angus
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Donald J Angus
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    • G01R13/00Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms
    • G01R13/04Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms for producing permanent records
    • G01R13/06Modifications for recording transient disturbances, e.g. by starting or accelerating a recording medium


Aug 4, 1931. D. J. ANGUS METER Filed March l2, 1927 MINI# [gays a/vjfrnrr 7.?

Syvum/1101 00A/HL D .Zi/vas,

Patented vAug. 4, 1931 UNITED STATES' DONALD J. ANGUS, F INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA IETEB Application med latch 12. 1927. Serial lo. 174,806.

In the ordinary operation of graphic meters, an entirely adequate record may be obtained on a slow-moving chart; for the variation from second to second and even from minute to minute, are ordinarily of comparatively slight import.

In emergencies, however,'especially in the larger electric supply systems 1n which many stations and generators are connected, what happens from second to second, or even in fractions of seconds, becomes extremely important; and the things which happen in the very beginnin of the emergency, and especially` during t e first small raction of the first second, are often ofthe eatest importance. The detail of such appenin which occur in a few seconds is complete y lost in the record on the ordinary slow'mov.

ing chart; and it is information regarding 90 such detail, and especially re arding the detail of the hap nings of the rst fraction of the (llirst second? that is frequently most desire f In my prior Patents No. 1,545,07 8, of July 7, 1925, and No. 1,598,595, of September 7, 1926, Iv have described graphic meters in which the chart ordinarily operates at a desired` slow .s ed; butin which upon the occurrence o an emergenc the chart starts at once to operate at a pre etermined higher speed, to give in minute detail the record of what occurs during the emergency. The apparatus shown in those two patents is very e ective.

In the specific apparatus shown in those two patents, however, the high-speed driving mechanism is an electric motor, with suitable connections between it andthe chart as set forth in those atents; and such electric motor is desirab y in continuous operation, although its driving connection to the chart isnormally inoperative save when an emergency occurs. In yorder to ensure that the chart will operate at the desired high speed upon the occurrence of the emergency, regardless of what may happen in the system of which the chart is making the record, it is desirable to have a separate source a of current supply for such electric motor. 5 This is often mconvenient, and the continuous operation ofthe motor is also sometimes undesirable.

My present invention is a specific embodiment of the broad inventions covered in the aforesaid two patents, with certain added advantages. It is the object of my present invention to obtain the advantages of the devices described in said two patents, and yet to avoid the necessity for such a separate constantly running motor, or even of an electric motorv of any sort, for drivin the chart at the high speed; and to provi e instead a spring-motor or similar mechanical motor, which is thrown into operation upon the occurrence of an emergency, attains full speed in an exceedingly ysmall fraction of a second, and operates ata uniform speed for the occurrence of the emer ency and 4desirably until the end of some integral number of deiinite'time-periods (such as seconds) from the inception of the emergency.

It is a further object to provide an effective critical-speed governor which serves to maintain the motor at the desired uniform speed; which governing device is' desirably adjustable or an critical speed, within limits, and serveseyectively to maintain the high-speed motor quite accurately at that speed.v It is a still further object to effect a change from low speed to hi h speed, asin my aforesaidprior Patent o. 1,598,595 of September 7, 1926, not onl in minimum time so that the chart will be moving at the high speed very early in the first second of the emergency, but with: out ossibility' of interrupting the highspee drive and destroyi the high-speed record until the desired pre etermined movement at high speed has been accomplished.

The accom anying drawings illustrate my invention: ig. 1 is a semi-diagrammatic view of a meter chart with both the normal or low-speed driving mechanism and an emergency or high-s ee arran d in accor ance with a preferred em iment of my invention and applied to an electrical distribution system, the vadriving mechanism rious gears being shown diagrammatically as mere disks, for simplicity, although necessarily they are toothed to get the desired ernor, the view bein a section transverse to the rock shaft whic carries the governor n mechanism and' to the shaft which carries the eccentric which operates such overnor; and Fig. 3 is a fragmentary detai of the stopcontrol mechanism of the hiG'h-s d drive showing such high-speed drive in stopped position.

The chart may be the chart of any graphic meter; and usually has longitudinal lines 11 indicating values of the uantities to be measured and' transverse ines 12, usuall arcs, indicating time. The record is ma e by moving the chart beneath a n 13, which makes a graph on the chart. 'ghe chart 10 is shown as suitably driven b a roller 14 on the shaft 15; which roller has radial] projecting pins 16 for meshing with holes l; along the ed es of the chart. After passing the roller 1 the chart 'is wound up on a wind-up roll 19. The details of how the chart is driven from the shaft 15, how the wind-up roll 19 is operated, and how the pen 13 is operated under the control of the conditions to which the meter is responsive, may be anything desired, de nding upon the type of meter used an the thing which the meter is to record. As shown, the meter is assumed to be an electric meter, associated in any suitable way with a supply circuit 18; but it is not necessary to my invention that the meter be an electric meter, or that it be associated in any particular way with the supply-circuit 18 if it is an electric meter.

The shaft 15, which is the shaft for the chart 10, has two mechanisms. One of these is the no driving mechanism, for operating the chart 10 at low speed; and may consist of a conventional clock-work mechanism, indicated by a gear 20, driving a gear 21 loose on the shaft but associated with such shaft by a suitable clutch which will permit the clutch 15 and roller 14 to move forward at high speed without corres ding high-speed movement of the gear 1. Such clutch ma pawl-and-ratchet overrunning clutch shown in my aforesaid prior Patent No. 1,545,078, of Jul 7, 1925, although that or any other suitab e form of overrunning clutch may be used, the form I now refer is that shown in my other aforesai prior Patent No. 1,598,595, of September- 7, 1926, wherein there is a simple friction clutch 22 of which the friction is suciently t not to let the clutch sli when the drive of the shaft 15 is from t e gear 21 at low seed but suiciently small to let the clutch ip when the high-speed drive is in operation. The nature of the normal driving mechanism is immaterial, and the clock-work mechanism y hi h-Speed drivi mechanism take any suitable form; but instead of the g ng shown as a awl 26 carried by a disk 27 l fixed on the s aft and en ging a ratchet wheel 28 fixed on the shai;l 15 so far as rotative movement is concerned. The shaft 25 is connected to a shaft 30 by a pair of gears 31 and 32; which may be of any desired gear ratio, and which may be removed to permit the substitution of other gears having different gear ratios, to get any desired s d relation between the shafts and 25. 'Filis interchangeability of gearing between the two shafts 30 and 25 is a desirable feature, although not at all essential to my invention.

The shaft 30 receives power from one or more spring motors 33 and 34, here shown as two in number to give greater wer than can be obtained from one. ese s ring-motors are energy-storing devices.

he spring motor or motors have driving rs 35 which mesh with a pinion 36 on an intermediate shaft 37, which in turn carries a gear 38 which meshes with a pinion 39 on the shaft 30. Thus the power from the s ring motors 33 and 34 may be transmitted troughthegearing35-36 theshaft37, the gearing 38-39, the shaft 30, the gearingI 32-31, the shaft 25, the'ov clutch 2711-26-28, tgl the shaft 15 hfloil-l drivthe c art at speed; at w 'c time tllig clutch 22 Shilling to permit such highspeed movement of the chart. The spring motors are wound up, to store energy in their sprin in any convenient way, common in spring motors.

Under ordinary conditions, however, this is ineffective merely stored in e chart 10 is driven and at rest, with ene the spring motors; and t by a low-speed driving bythe gear 20, with suitable overrunning at the overrunning clutch 27-26-28. Further, when the high-speed driving mechanism is renderedeective, it operatea at substantially uniform s desirably at a speed which is some defmultiple of the speed of the low-speed rive.

To this end, I provide a stop mechanism and a govern mechanism. In the form shown, the shuiit 30 carries a gear 40 in addition to the r 32rand pinion 39; and the gear 40 mes es with a\pinion 41 on a.



mechanism denoted ,a stop gear 47.

them, such as fiber.

shaft 42, which in turn also carries a gear 43 meshing with a pinion 44 on a shaft 45. This shaft 45 thus moves at comparatively high speed. The shaft 45 carries, in addition to the pinion 44, an eccentric 46 and The eccentric 46 operates the governor,

'which controls the speed of the `shaft 30; and the stop-gear 47 co-o rates with stop mechanism which normalg holds stationary the shaft 45, and there y all the shafts 37, 30, 42, and-45 which are operated by the spring motors 33 and 34.

The governor mechanism which I use is, so far as I am aware, new in itself. It comprises a rock shaft 50 whichy carries a fork 51 embracing the eccentric46; so that by the rotation of the shaft 45 and the co-action of the eccentric 46 with the two fingers of the fork 51, the rock shaft 50 is ra idly oscillated. The fork 50 is part of a rame 52 which rocks with such fork 51 aboutthe axis of the rock shaft 50. Indeed, the rock shaft 50 need notitself roc if desired, but may merely form a support for the rocking frame 52.) From the two opposite sides of the frame 52, two leaf springs 53 roject oppositely from the fork 51, an at their outer ends approach near each other with a block 54 of friction material between -A bolt 55 passes throu h this block 54 of friction material andv t rough the ends Aof l the two leaf springs 53, and is provided at its two ends with a head 56 and a nut 57. A coiled spring 58 surrounds the bolt 55 and is located between thev head 56 and the adjacent leaf-spring 53. The spring 58 is a-compresvsion spring, whose stress may be ad'usted by adjusting the nut 57 on the bo t 55; and it acts to press'the ends of the two leafsprings 53 against the block 54 of friction material. Between the nut 57 and the adjacent leaf-s ring 56 is an eccentricall mounted was er 59; desirably with-alloc washer 60 between it and the nut 57. The eccentrically mounted washer 59 is Adesirably thin around the bolt 55; but in its farthest projecting part is made thicker, as indicated at 61, to provide a wei ht somethixg like a pendulum wei ht. T is thickene ,portion may have a s ot 62, for receiving a screw-driver blade by which the washer 59 may be adjusted around the bolt 55 to vary the distance between the center of gravity of such weighted eccentric washer 59 and the axis of the rock shaft 50. This,

lin effect, varies the pendulum-length of the' device as a whole, and controls its normal periodicit or natural period bof vibration.

In hig -speed operation, the governor mechanism is rocked back and forth about the axis of the rock-shaft 50. As the speed rises from zero, or rest, the governor mechanism swings as a substantially rigid body has until a critical speed is approached, with substantially yno s ippiiig lbetween the ends of the leaf-springs 53 and the friction block 54. t As that critical speed-or natural period of vibration of the leaf-springs' 53 and the wei ht at their outer ends-is approache the amplitude of the throw of such weight and the adjacent .ends lof the springs 53 increases rapidl This makes it necessary for the leaf-springs 53 to bend, and for their ends to slip relativel -to veach other on the friction-block l54. T 'is bending and slipping consumes energy, inV a quantity depending on the nature ofk the surfaces of the friction material 54 and of the leaf-springs 53, on the pressure of the compression spring 58, and on the amplitude which such throw attains. More energy is also consumed in the various bearing surfaces, as at the eccentric 46, because of the increased amplitude and the resultant increased pressure on `such bearing surfaces.

.As the amplitude rises, the consumption of energy also rises, until it equals the excess energy developed by the spring-motors 33 and 34 over that required to drive the chart. Since ythere is then no more energy available, this effectively limits the speed of the various shafts 37, 30, 42,'and 45, and so effectively prevents them from exceeding the speed which is the critical speed to which the governing device is responsive. That critical speed can be adjusted, within limits, by turning ther eccentrically mounted weigheteed washer 59 rabout: thel bolt 55. It

n found convenient to make the high speed some definite multiple of the low s d. Perhaps the most convenient relation is with the high-speed drive 3,600 times as fast as the'low-speed drive because that makes the hour rulings onthe chart serve as second rulings during the high-speed drive, `so that lthev rulings serve to divide the chart off into seconds during the record- 'in of the emerglency conditions.

e stop mec anism comprises a rock sleeve mounted on a supporting pin or shaft 66. The rock sleeve 65 has three projecting arms-a stop arm 67, a control arm 68, and an operating arm 69.' The stop arm 67 and the controlarm 68 have a stop finger 67 and a control finger 68 at their respective outer; ehds.

The stop finger 67 at the outer end of the stop arm 67 co-operates with the lstop gear 47; so that when such stop finger moves into position between two teethl of the stop ear 47, it stops the high-speed kmechanism rom further movement.

The lcontrol finger 68 at the outer end of the control arm 68 co-operates with two disks 70 and 71 carried by the shaft 72 of one of the spring motors 33 and 34-here the shaft of the spring motor 33-f-to make certain that when an emergency occurs theY ion iis

high-speed ,drive will not only into operation but will continue in operation for a predetermined time, and that the record of an emergenc of very short duration will not be lost. he disk 71 is fixed on the shaft 72, while the disk is rotatably loose on such shaft. The two disks 70 and 71 are interconnected by a spring 73, which tends to hold the two disks in a definite relative position, but permits a slight relative rotative movement between them. l

The two disks 70 and 71 have notches 74 and respectivel desirably ratchet notches with a radia wall at one end and an inclined wall at the other; and the two disks are desirablv reversel the shaft 72, so that one o them has its radial wall and the other its oblique wallas the leading end-wall with relation to the direction of rotation-which is counter-clockwise in Figs. 1 and 3. As shown, the radial edge of the notch 75 is in advance, while the inclined edge of the notch 74 is in advance. The spring 73 tends'to hold the two disks 70 and 7l in position so that the notch 74 is slightly displaced forward from the notch 75 in the direction of rotation, with no' overlap between the two notches. However, the loose disk 70 may be rotated relatively to the disk 71 to cause the two notches 74 and 75 to overlap slightly; in which position the control finger 68 notches and thus permit the stop finger 67 to enter between two teeth of the stop gear 47 to stop the high-speed mechanism; but unless the control finger 68 can enter its notches, the sto finger 67 is clear of the sto gear 47, an the high-speed mechanism is ree to rotate. This latter condition exists when the control finger 68 is riding on the unnotched portion of the periphery of the disks 70 and 71. Y

When the high-s d mechanism is in stopped position, with the stop finger 67 between two teeth of the stop gear 47 and the control linger 68 in the then partiall overlappi notches 74'and 75, as is indlcated in ig. 3, the sp 73 is under stress. When by any meins the control r 68 is lifted out an 75, which means that at the the stop finger 67 stop gear 47 to let the mechanism start, the stressed s rx 73 immediately snaps the loose disk 70 slightly forward to displace the notch 74 from radially'below the control nger 88'; so that such `finger cannot re-enter the notches. Such re-entry cannot take lace until the shaft 72 has made a comp ete rotation- 360-for during that time the control finger 68 rides on the unnotched portion of the disks 70 and 71.

As the end of such complete rotation is approached the control linger 68 catches same time mounted on may enter the of the notches 74- in response to any desired Ait is fixed on the shaft 72, continues its forward rotation, stressing the s and in a short time causing the sti notch 75 to overla slightly the now stationary notch 74. en a suiicient overlapping occurs, the control er 68 drops into the two notches, and at t e same time the stop finger 67 drops between two teeth of the stop gear 47 and sto s the high-speed driving mechanism. If t e emergency is not over, however, when a complete rotaring 73, l-moving tion of the shaft 72 has been made, said -shaft 72 makes another rotation before the high-speed driving mechanism is stopped.

One revolution of the shaft 7 2 corresponds to a definite length of movement of the chart 10. Conveniently this definite length of movement is equivalent to a normal or low-speed movement of twent -four hours, so that when the high-speed diiving mechanism stops and the low-speed. driving il resumed t e low-speed record starts at substantially the same time of day at which it had been interrupted for the interim of high-speed drive, and thus the accuracy of the normal chart-record is substantially not disturbed by the inter osition therein of an emergency high-spec record.

The operating arm 68 is loosely connected to the armature of an electro-magnet 81; and has a tendency tomove away from such magnet, as by a eaf spring 82 between it and the magnet, to move the stop linger 67 and control finger 68 into their stopping positions between the teeth of the stop r 47 and in the notches of the disks 70 an 71 respectively. When the magnet 81 is energized, it moves the armature 80 against such spring, and lifts the sto linger 67 clear oil' the stop gear 47 and) moves the control linger 68 clear of the notches 74 and 75, to permit the high-speed drive to start.

The electro-magnet 81 may be energized conditions. I

shall not attempt to enumerate the vari' ous conditions to which it may res nd. In the illustrations shown, it is supp 'ed from a suitable source of current 83, and is controlled by an overload relay 84 and a novoltage relay 85 suitably associated with the main supply-circuit 18 tc respond to current and ,voltage conditions therein. With these relays, the electro-magnet 81 is energized to cause the high-speed operation of the chart 10 upon the occurrence of an overload on the circuit 18 or upon failure of the lll voltage of such circuit. These conditions, however, are merely shown as examples of the emergency conditions which may produce olperation of the high-speed drive.

So ong as such an emergency does not occur, the chart is driven at low speed by the low-s eed driving mechanism 20, with overrunning at the clutch 27-26-28. When an emergency occurs, however, such as an overload or no voltage, the ma net 81 is energized and rocks the rock s eeve 65 to disengage the stop finger 67 and control iinger 68 from the notches in which up to then they have been received. Immediately the spring 73 snaps the loose disk 70 forward, so that the control finger l68 cannot re-enter the notches 74 and 75 because they no longer overlap. This prevents an abortive attempt at starting the high-speed mechanism in case the emergency is of exceedin ly short duration, for otherwise the recor of such a short emergency might be lost on the chart.

Upon the aforesaid rocking of the rock sleeve when the emergency occurs, the springmotors 33 and 34 at once start the high-speed driving mechanismdinto operation; and this starts the chart forward at high speed within a very small fraction of a second from the be inning of the emergency. The high s ee drive of the chart is at a uniform spee controlled by the critical-speed overnor on the rock shaft 50.

The hig -speed operation continues for at least one revolution of the shaft 72, and then st s if the emergency is over'by that time. owever, if at the end of an comtplete revolution of the shaft 72, whet er the rst or some subsequent revolution, the emergency still continues, the high speed continues for the least one more revolution of such shaft 72. When the emergency ceases, the spring 82 moves 'the armatureBO away from the magnet 81, and tries to return the sto finger 67 into en agement with the teet of the stop gear 4 However, such engagement cannot occur save at the end of va complete'rotation of the shaft 72 from its starting point, for at'other times the control finger 68 rides` on the unnotched portions of the peripheries of the disks 70 and 71 and thus the stop linger 67 is held out of engaging position. In that case, the next time the notch 74 comes to the control fi r 68 after-the emergency has ceased, suc control finger 68 enga s the rear radial wall of such notch, and t ereby stops the loose disk 70 from rotation, thus causing the still-advancing notch 75 to overlap the now stationary notch 74 and permitting the control finger 68 to drop into such notches when they overla sufficiently, and thus to permit the stop nger 67 to drop into a notch between two teeth of the stop gear 47. Thereupon the high-speed drive comes to an end,y and the low-speeddriveresumes its action in drivin the chart 10.`

I claim as my invention 1. In a graphic meter having a chart, a marking device 'for the chart, and a lo w speed driving mechanism for normally driving the chart, the combination of a highspeed driving mechanism for driving the c art at high speed, said high-speed driving mechanism being normally at rest and including a device in whichv energy isstored and means controlled b the occurrence o an emergency for starting said high-speed driving mechanism into operation to utilize itleeored energy to drive the chart at high s 2. In a graphic meter having a chart, a marking device forthe chart, and a lowspeed driving mechanism for normally driving the chart, the combination of. a highspeed driving mechanism for drivi the c art at high s eed, said high-speed driving mechanism inc uding a device 1n which energy is stored, a sto -mechanism for stoppin said high-spec driving mechanism, sai stopping mechanism being normally operative to hold the high-speed mechanism at rest, and means operable upon the occurrence of an emergency for releasing said sto ping mechanism and thereby causing the hig -speed driving mechanism to utilize its .stored energy to drive the chart. at high speed.

3. In' a graphic meter having a chart and a marking device for the chart, the combination of a driving mechanism for driving the the chart, said driving mechanism being normally at rest and including a device in y which energy is stored, and means controlled by the occurrence of an emergency for starting said driving mechanism into operation to utilize its stored energy to drive the chart.

4. In a graphic meter having a chart and a marking device for the chart, the combination of a drivi mechanism for driving the chart, said driving mechanismv including a device in which energy is stored, a stopmechanism for stopping said driving mechanism, said stopping mechanismI being normally operative to hold the mechanism at rest, and means operable upon the occurrence of an emergency for releasing said stopping mechanism and thereby caus' the drivin mechanism to utilize its sto energy to rive the chart.

5. In -a device for controlling movement of the chart of a graphic meter, a driving mechanism, said driving mechamsm including a device in which energy is stored, a stop-mechanism for stopping said driving mechanism, said stopping mechanism being normally o rative to hold the mechanism at rest, an means operable upon the occurrence of an emergency for re easing said izo stopping mechanism and thereby causil the drivin mechanism to utilize its Stor energy to rive the chart.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand at Indianapolis, Indiana, this 7th day of March, A. D. one thorusand nine hundred and twenty seven.


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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2423479A (en) * 1941-12-01 1947-07-08 Brown Instr Co Measuring, recording, and controlling apparatus
US2539832A (en) * 1942-10-26 1951-01-30 Claude M Hathaway Apparatus for producing oscillographic records
US2690951A (en) * 1948-11-12 1954-10-05 Leeds & Northrup Co Automatic take-up for reversible chart drive
US3031250A (en) * 1958-11-17 1962-04-24 Hellige & Co Gmbh F Continuously operable recording apparatus

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2423479A (en) * 1941-12-01 1947-07-08 Brown Instr Co Measuring, recording, and controlling apparatus
US2539832A (en) * 1942-10-26 1951-01-30 Claude M Hathaway Apparatus for producing oscillographic records
US2690951A (en) * 1948-11-12 1954-10-05 Leeds & Northrup Co Automatic take-up for reversible chart drive
US3031250A (en) * 1958-11-17 1962-04-24 Hellige & Co Gmbh F Continuously operable recording apparatus

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