US1808664A - Internal combustion engine - Google Patents

Internal combustion engine Download PDF

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Publication number
US1808664A
US1808664A US437167A US43716730A US1808664A US 1808664 A US1808664 A US 1808664A US 437167 A US437167 A US 437167A US 43716730 A US43716730 A US 43716730A US 1808664 A US1808664 A US 1808664A
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Prior art keywords
disk
engine
shaft
cylinders
piston
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Expired - Lifetime
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US437167A
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Koschka Frank
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Koschka Frank
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/28Engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder or within essentially coaxial cylinders
    • F02B75/282Engines with two or more pistons reciprocating within same cylinder or within essentially coaxial cylinders the pistons having equal strokes
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/26Engines with cylinder axes coaxial with, or parallel or inclined to, main-shaft axis; Engines with cylinder axes arranged substantially tangentially to a circle centred on main-shaft axis
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/02Engines characterised by their cycles, e.g. six-stroke
    • F02B2075/022Engines characterised by their cycles, e.g. six-stroke having less than six strokes per cycle
    • F02B2075/025Engines characterised by their cycles, e.g. six-stroke having less than six strokes per cycle two
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B3/00Engines characterised by air compression and subsequent fuel addition
    • F02B3/06Engines characterised by air compression and subsequent fuel addition with compression ignition

Description

Z EM June 2, 1931.

F. KOSCHKA 1,808,664

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Max ch 19,.1930 3 ShGtS-ShQGt l I fkH/VK [(050264 INYENTOR ATTORNEY June 2, 1931.

F. KOSCHKA INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed March 19, 1950 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR W0 BY W O ATTOR NEY WITNESS:

June 2,1931. scH 1,808,664

' INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed March 19, 1930 3 Sheets-Sheet s Patented June 2, 1931 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE INTERNAL QOMBUSTION ENGINE Application filed March 19, 1930. Serial No. 437,167.

This invention relates to improvements in internal combustion engines and more particularly to an improvement in engines of the Diesel type and the invention has as its general object to provide an engine of this type which will operate with maximum efficiency and develop maximum power with a low consumption of fuel.

The engine embodying the invention is of the two-cycle type and the invention has as a further object to provide such an arrangement of the engine cylinders and pistons and the means provided for transmitting power from the pistons to the engine shaft, as to provide for equilibrium in the operation of the engine and the transmission of power therefrom.

This invention also consists in certain other features of construction and in the combination and arrangement of the several parts to be hereinafter more fully. described, illustrated in the accompanying drawings, and specifically pointed out in the appended claims, it being understood of course that minor changes may be made so long as they fall withinthe scope of the claims.

In describing my invention in detail, reference will be had to the accompanying drawings, wherein like characters denote like or corresponding parts throughout the several views, and in which Figure 1 is a vertical, diametric sectional view of the engine.

Figure 2 is a view taken substantially on the line 22 of Figure 1 looking in the direction indicated by the arrows.

Figure 3 is a fragmentary sectional view taken substantially on the line 33 of Figure 1 looking in the direction indicated by the arrows.

Figure 4 is a diametric sectional view through one of the power transmitting inclined cam disks of the engine.

Figure 5 is a similar view through the annular disk which is associated with the disk shown in Figure 4:.

Figure 6 is a similar view illustrating the disks of Figures 4 and 5 assembled.

The casin of the engine is indicated in general by t e numeral 1 and embodies the cylinder blocks indicated by the numeral 2 and the casing further comprises two hollow heads 3 which are secured to the opposite ends of the main or intermediate section 1. The section 1 will embody four cylinders indi- 55 cated by the numeral 4: and these cylinders are preferably provided with water jackets and each cylinder is further formed in its outer side with a port 8 through which the 55 motive fluid may be introduced by any suitable means and from any suitable source of supply which is not shown as this constitutes no part of the present invention. The piston heads are to be reciprocated in opposite di rections away from each other under the influence of the exploded charge delivered into the cylinders and the opposing ends of the cylinder heads of each pair are formed with relatively small recesses 9 and, when the pistons of each pair are brought to position with the adjacent ends of their heads in the substantially abutting relation shown at the right in Figure 1, these recesses 9 are brought into registration to provide a pre-ignition chamber 30 and a passageway 10 which leads laterally from the recesses and establishes communication between the pre-ignition chamber and the main combustion chamber which is indicated by the numeral 11 and which is provided by recesses 12 which are formed in the opposing ends ofthe piston heads. Each cylinder is formed with exhaust ports 13 which are located at that end of each cylinderopposite the end at which the air intake ports 7 are located and the walls of the cylinders are formed with air manifolds 14 communieating with the air ports 7 and with exhaust manifolds 15 which communicate with the exhaust ports 13. The shaft of the engine is indicated by the numeral 16 and is mounted in roller bearings 17 provided axially of the heads 3 of the cylinder casing, collars 18 being threaded onto the shaft and-bearing against the inner sides of the respective heads so as to prevent longitudinal displacement of the shaft. Mounted upon the shaft 16 within each head 3 of the engine casin is a cam disk 19, the hub of which, indicate by the numeral 20, may be keyed or otherwise secured as at 21 to provide for rotation of the shaft 16 through rotation of the cam disks and, in order to relieve the shaft of torsional strains, brace rods 22 are arranged about the shaft between each of the cylinders 4 and the said shaft and these rods have reduced threaded ends 23 which are fitted through openings 24 formed in the disks 19, the outer face of -each.disk being recessed as at 25 to accommodate nuts 26 which are threaded onto the reduced ends of the said rods 22, and the ends of these rods are cut at an an le as indicated by the numeral 27 so that they may squarely abut at their ends against the relatively adjacent sides of the two heads between which they extend, notwithstanding the opposite inclination or opposite disposition of the two disks.

The inclined cam disk is shown in detail in Figure 4 and it will be observed by reference to this figure and to Figure l as well as Figure 6 that the disk is dished in its inner side as indicated by the numeral 28 and its periphery is formed with a shallow ball race 29. Likewise the portion of the hub which PI'OJBCtS from this sideof the disk is disposed at an angle of inclination to the axis of the bore in the hub in which the shaft 16 is fitted and is exteriorly threaded as indicated by the numeral 30.

Assembled with each disk 19 is an annular thrust disk 31 which is provided centrally with an opening 32 which is of a diameter to adapt it to fit over the enlarged portion of the hub of the disk 19 and the inner side of the disk 1s dished as indicated by the numeral 33 and the disk is provided with an outstanding clrcumferential flange 34 which is provided with a ball race 35 which matches with the ball race 29 in the periphery of the inclined cam dlsk 19, anti-friction balls 36 being arranged in the races. A ring 37 is threaded onto the threaded portion 30 of the hub of the disk 19 and is formed with a ball race 38 which opposses a ball race 39 formed in the lnner side of the thrust disk 31, bearing balls 40 being arranged in the matching recesses. In this manner the shaft and the inclined cam disks 19 are mounted for rotation with re spect to the respective thrust disk.

Each piston head 6 is preferably of hollow form as shown in Figure 1 and the remote ends of the two piston heads of each pair are open as indicated by the numeral 41 and the opposite end of each piston is closed as indicated by the numeral 42 and a web 43 is cast integral with the closed end 42 and extends diametrically within the piston head and is provided at its end which is located within the respective opening 41 with a semispherical bearing seat 44 and a pin 45 is mounted at its ends in the seat and a'short piston rod 46 is provided at its inner end spherical head 48 and this head is seated in a circumferential groove 49 formed in the inner side of the dished portion of the thrust disk 33 and a bearing block 50 is mounted by means of a screw 51 which is fitted therethrough, upon the inner face of the thrust disk and is formed with an approximately semispherical recess 52 which constitutes a seat for that side of the spherical end 48 of the piston rod opposite the side which is seated in the groove 49. A boss 53 is formed upon the inner side of the disk 31 opposite each piston rod 46 and has a transverse opening 54 therein, and a stem 55 is pivotally mounted at one end as at 56 in a recess formed in the side of the piston rod and is slidably fitted through the said opening 54, the movement of the piston rod about its pin 45 and the movement of its head 48 between the bearing block and the wall of the groove 49, in this manner being steadied.

The opening 41 in the top of eachupper piston head is to permit the entrance of air into the piston head to cool the same and preferably an annular baifie 57 is provided upon the bearing seat 44 to extend over the opening 41 in spaced relation thereto. The lower end of'each lower piston head is also provided with an opening to accommodate the respective bearing seat 44 and a conical shield 58 is provided upon the said bearing head and prevents oil entering the lower piston head and through the opening therein.

The hereinabove described construction admits of considerable modification without departing from the invention; therefore, it is the wish not to be limited to the precise arrangements shown and described, which are, as aforesaid, by way of illustration merely. In other words, the scope of protection contemplated is to be taken solely from the appended claims, interpreted as broadly as is consistent with the prior art.

What I claim is 1. In an engine of the class described, a plurality of cylinders symmetrically arranged about a common axis, apair of pistons workbracing rods arranged about the shaft and secured at their ends to the cam disks.

2. In an engine of the class described, a plurality of cylinders symmetrically arranged about a common axis, a pair of pistons working in each cylinder, each cylinder having a port for admitting an explosive mixture between the pistons to efiect reciprocation thereof in opposite directions, the head of each upper piston being hollow and having an opening in its'upper end for the admission of air into the head to cool the same, and a bafile mounted in spaced relation to the opening, a shaft mounted concentric to the cylinders, oppositely inclined cam disks fixed upon the shaft at the opposite ends of the cylinders, an annular thrust disk rotatable with respect to each cam disk, and operative connection between each piston and the respective thrust disk.

3. In an engine of the class described, a plurality of cylinders symmetrically arranged about a common axis, a pair of pistons working in each cylinder, each cylinder having a port for admitting an explosive mixture between the pistons to efi'ect reciprocation thereof in opposite directions, the head of each lower piston being hollow and having an opening at its lower end, and an annular shield surrounding said opening, a shaft mounted concentric to the cylinders, oppositely inclined cam disks fixed upon the shaft at the opposite ends of the cylinders, an annular thrust disk rotatable with respect to each cam disk, and operative connection between each piston and the respective thrust 7 disk.

In testimony whereof I hereby aflix my signature.

FRANK KOSCHKA.

US437167A 1930-03-19 1930-03-19 Internal combustion engine Expired - Lifetime US1808664A (en)

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Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2456164A (en) * 1944-04-05 1948-12-14 Youhouse Joseph Combined internal-combustion and turbine engine
US2672095A (en) * 1949-08-06 1954-03-16 Siam High-pressure hydraulic pump
US3240127A (en) * 1962-11-10 1966-03-15 Daimler Benz Ag Multi-piston internal combustion engine
DE1293783B (en) * 1962-09-10 1969-04-30 Papst Hermann Swashplate engine for reciprocating internal combustion engines
US4129102A (en) * 1975-02-21 1978-12-12 Lely Cornelis V D Opposed piston engine
US4523549A (en) * 1984-03-21 1985-06-18 Lacy James W Internal combustion engine
WO1999014492A1 (en) * 1997-09-15 1999-03-25 INA Wälzlager Schaeffler oHG Oscillating bearing
US20110271932A1 (en) * 2010-04-27 2011-11-10 Achates Power, Inc. Combustion chamber constructions for opposed-piston engines
US20120073541A1 (en) * 2010-08-16 2012-03-29 Achates Power, Inc. Fuel injection spray patterns for opposed-piston engines
US20130213342A1 (en) * 2010-04-27 2013-08-22 Achates Power, Inc. Piston Crown Bowls Defining Combustion Chamber Constructions In Opposed-Piston Engines
US20140014063A1 (en) * 2010-04-27 2014-01-16 Achates Power, Inc. Swirl-Conserving Combustion Chamber Construction For Opposed-Piston Engines
US8935998B1 (en) * 2013-09-16 2015-01-20 Achates Power, Inc. Compac, ported cylinder construction for an opposed-piston engine
US9211797B2 (en) 2013-11-07 2015-12-15 Achates Power, Inc. Combustion chamber construction with dual mixing regions for opposed-piston engines
US9309807B2 (en) 2011-05-18 2016-04-12 Achates Power, Inc. Combustion chamber constructions for opposed-piston engines
US10422272B2 (en) 2015-11-04 2019-09-24 Achates Power, Inc. Compact ported cylinder construction for an opposed-piston engine

Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2456164A (en) * 1944-04-05 1948-12-14 Youhouse Joseph Combined internal-combustion and turbine engine
US2672095A (en) * 1949-08-06 1954-03-16 Siam High-pressure hydraulic pump
DE1293783B (en) * 1962-09-10 1969-04-30 Papst Hermann Swashplate engine for reciprocating internal combustion engines
US3240127A (en) * 1962-11-10 1966-03-15 Daimler Benz Ag Multi-piston internal combustion engine
US4129102A (en) * 1975-02-21 1978-12-12 Lely Cornelis V D Opposed piston engine
US4523549A (en) * 1984-03-21 1985-06-18 Lacy James W Internal combustion engine
WO1999014492A1 (en) * 1997-09-15 1999-03-25 INA Wälzlager Schaeffler oHG Oscillating bearing
DE19881342C1 (en) * 1997-09-15 2001-07-12 Schaeffler Waelzlager Ohg Swashplate bearing for plunger pump
US6357336B1 (en) 1997-09-15 2002-03-19 Ina Walzlager Schaeffler Ohg Oscillating bearing
US9512779B2 (en) * 2010-04-27 2016-12-06 Achates Power, Inc. Swirl-conserving combustion chamber construction for opposed-piston engines
US10180115B2 (en) * 2010-04-27 2019-01-15 Achates Power, Inc. Piston crown bowls defining combustion chamber constructions in opposed-piston engines
US20110271932A1 (en) * 2010-04-27 2011-11-10 Achates Power, Inc. Combustion chamber constructions for opposed-piston engines
US20140014063A1 (en) * 2010-04-27 2014-01-16 Achates Power, Inc. Swirl-Conserving Combustion Chamber Construction For Opposed-Piston Engines
US8800528B2 (en) * 2010-04-27 2014-08-12 Achates Power, Inc. Combustion chamber constructions for opposed-piston engines
US9593627B2 (en) * 2010-04-27 2017-03-14 Achates Power, Inc. Combustion chamber constructions for opposed-piston engines
US20150013649A1 (en) * 2010-04-27 2015-01-15 Achates Power, Inc. Combustion Chamber Constructions For Opposed-Piston Engines
US20130213342A1 (en) * 2010-04-27 2013-08-22 Achates Power, Inc. Piston Crown Bowls Defining Combustion Chamber Constructions In Opposed-Piston Engines
US8820294B2 (en) * 2010-08-16 2014-09-02 Achates Power, Inc. Fuel injection spray patterns for opposed-piston engines
US20120073541A1 (en) * 2010-08-16 2012-03-29 Achates Power, Inc. Fuel injection spray patterns for opposed-piston engines
US9309807B2 (en) 2011-05-18 2016-04-12 Achates Power, Inc. Combustion chamber constructions for opposed-piston engines
US8935998B1 (en) * 2013-09-16 2015-01-20 Achates Power, Inc. Compac, ported cylinder construction for an opposed-piston engine
US9211797B2 (en) 2013-11-07 2015-12-15 Achates Power, Inc. Combustion chamber construction with dual mixing regions for opposed-piston engines
US10422272B2 (en) 2015-11-04 2019-09-24 Achates Power, Inc. Compact ported cylinder construction for an opposed-piston engine

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