US1784866A - Method of strain-hardening steel - Google Patents

Method of strain-hardening steel Download PDF

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Publication number
US1784866A
US1784866A US177878A US17787827A US1784866A US 1784866 A US1784866 A US 1784866A US 177878 A US177878 A US 177878A US 17787827 A US17787827 A US 17787827A US 1784866 A US1784866 A US 1784866A
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tool
metal
hardening
casting
hardness
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US177878A
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Frank A Fahrenwald
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AMERICAN MANGANESE STEEL Co
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AMERICAN MANGANESE STEEL CO
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D7/00Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by deformation
    • C21D7/02Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by deformation by cold working
    • C21D7/04Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by deformation by cold working of the surface
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S29/00Metal working
    • Y10S29/049Work hardening with other step
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/47Burnishing
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/49636Process for making bearing or component thereof
    • Y10T29/49703Sealing
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/49Method of mechanical manufacture
    • Y10T29/4998Combined manufacture including applying or shaping of fluent material
    • Y10T29/49988Metal casting
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12458All metal or with adjacent metals having composition, density, or hardness gradient

Description

Dec. 1, 1930. v F. A. Fm-RENw/MLD EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE EE EL Patented Dec. 16, 1930 UNITED STATES PATENT' OFFICE FRANK FAHRENWALD, OF GHICAGO, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOR TO AMERICAN MANGA- NESE S'I'EEL COMPANY, vOF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, .A CORPORATION OF MAINE METHOD OF STRAIN-HARDENING STEEL Application flled March 24, 1927. Serial No. 177,87'8.
This invention relates to an improved method of hardening portions of steel castings, for instance, manganese steel C astlngs, to increase their resistance to abrasion and deformation under stresses encountered in service, and particularly to hardeni-ng by localized cold working of the metal.
It is well known that most metals and alloys can be hardened by cold working, such method having been successfully employed from earliest times; and the property 111 metals of taking on hardness under cold Working, to-wit by deforming the metal at a temperature below that`at which spontaneous recrystallization takes place, is usefully employed in many industrial Operations of today. It even occurs as an objectionable incident to some industrial Operations and involves frequent heating of the metal to annealing temperature as a means of maintaining sufiicient softness to prevent rupture of the metal during progressive deformation or v in the treatments such as rolling, forging, and
the like. Use of the cold working process in hardening `manganese steel castings, and particularly by the hammering or pressing Operation and with the effect of ncreasing the resistance of the castings to abrasion and other stresses, has also long been known.
A number of theories have been advanced v to explain why metals and alloys harden when cold worked. One of these assumes the transformation of soft austenite to relatively harder martensite; another is that. it results from the formation of amorphous metal at the planes of fiow; and still another is that the result is due to breaking down of the original crystal space lattice, withI interruption of fiow planes. But, inasmuch as no claim is herein made to the abstract.
idea of hardening manganese steel castings by the cold working process, the exact explanation of the phenomenon becomes unimportant.
VVhat I have discovered is that induced hardening of manganese steel is proportional to thedegree of actual plastic deformation with respect to space lattice, or to distortion, or to number of flow planes produced per unit volume, and that so-called densifying by static pressure or impact of whatever degree, has no real efl'ect in producing hardness. I have also found that the customary methods, as employed to date, such as pressing large areas of a cast-ing or merely hammering relatively large surfaces, besides being relatively inefective, introduce flaws into the treated casting chiefly in theform of shear cracks, because of the propagation of flow over too large areas. And as corollary to this, I have found that intensive working of quite small areas produces hardness to a degree impossible in large sections without at'the same time rupturing the entire mass. Eiforts heretofore expended in attempts to peen harden surfaces of manganese steel castings have comprised simple hammering over large flat surfaces in a manner to produce small indentations, or the pressing or pounding of relatively large pads, elevated areas covering the entire section which it was desired to harden. In this manexisting as single ner, surfaces have been produced with a skin hardness of around 350 to 400 Brinell. But nearly always castings so treated sufl'er va spalling or flaking of the pressed areas, due to shear cracks produced by the'extreme pressure and excessive local shear flow induced in the casting at the boundaries of pressure areas.
These objections have been overcome by the procedure described and more broadly claimed in my application Serial No. 154,644, as well as the procedure described and more specifically claimed in my application Serial No. 154,645; butI have discovered that for some uses, deep seated hardening of wear resisting surfaces may be developed still -more -satisfactorily by a procedurev which involves the development, in the mass of metal to be 1 hardened, of an area of depressions such as will be formed by forcing deeply into the heat-treated casting, preferably while cold,
a round-ended tool of relatively small diamtool together with a sectional view of a work` peated application of the tool at properly spaced intervals; in other words, to develop a deep scated hardening efiect over a desired area, it is neeessary to repeat the impression of the round-ended tool a sufiicient number of times, always maintaining an interval of spacing between the depres'sions which is properly related to the diameter of the tool and the depth of the depression produced thereby, and by so doing the entire area will become kneaded in a manner peculiarly suited to induce severe distortion and resultant great hardness.
The depth of the depressions and preferably the diameter of the tool which is pressed into the metal, will depend upon the thickness of the casting at the point of treatment, .and the spacing of the indentations will, in turn, depend upon the diameter of the tool and the depth of its imprint. For instance, if a easting not less than two inches thick be pressed with a tool having an approximately hemispherical end, the curvature of which is on a half inch radius, and the depth of the depression be less than this radius, I have established by experiment that the hardness of the casting can be raised from an initial Brinell hardness of 200 to a hardness of 535 Brinell, which is far above any figure ever reached by previously known hammering or pressing Operations. The spacing of the depressions will depend upon the reach of the depression in its plastic deformation, but I prefer to keep the spacing'well within such limit when it is desired to develop hardness throughout the area of the treated region. For instance, the depressions may be given a spacing on some lines measuring from center to center a distance equal to twice the diameter of the pressing tool, and on other lines may be much closer together.
' By way of illustrating a specific application of the invention, reference will be had to the accompanying drawing, in which- Figure 1 is an elevational view of a work piece used in the process of development of a field of depressions.
Figure 2 is a top plan view of the workpiece of Figure 1; and
Figure 3 represents, in section perpendicular to the plane of the hardened surface, a fragment of the work-piece.
A represents a plunger of a hydraulic press. and B a depressing tool appropriate for the procedure herein described. C represents a work-piece that is being treated by the tool B in accordance with the present invention, C' indicating the original level of the surface being treated; C2 a series of depressions made by the tool B; and 03 the annular ridges or crests developed around the tool by the plastic flow of the metal displaced in forming the depressions.
In many cases a umformly' roughened surface such as would result from the process herein described is of material value' in the finished article, for instance, to increase grinding effect or to prevent slippage. But 1f lt be objectionable to have for the surface of the work-piece C the crater-like indentations and their defining rims resulting from the hardening method herein described, the condition may be relieved by grinding the surface of the work-piece to any extcnt, even to the extent of producing a level surface, as Suggested in Figure 3; and even with the removal of unevenness, the range of plastic flow and deformation will still exist well below the resultant surface, as Suggested by dotted flow lines (14 in Figure 3.
The verb to press used in its various forms in this specification is to be interpreted With its usual engineering significance'and is not to be confused with the verb to hammer, the effect of which is essentially percussive, extremely local in its application, and largely resisted by inertia of metal surrounding the point of impact, and is therefore difl'erent from the influence of pressure of a selected tool to which areas of the treated metal adjacent the actual area of contact can respond by flowing.
An important advantage arising from this method resides in the deep seated'hardening effect induced as a result of a flow of the metal, plastically, in every direction from the rounded tool. In the method herein described, as well as in that described in my copending applications herein identified, distortion of the casting as a whole is avoided by imposing pressure or impact on individual areas small enough to insure confinement of the shear flow to small areas by the elastie Strength of the surrounding metal.
I claim:
1. The process of producingwork hardened manganese steel castings, characterized by the step of pressing into the heat treated casting, while the casting is cool, and atspaced intervals, a tool with a rounded end.
2. The process of producing work hardened manganese steel castings, characterized by the step of pressing into the working surface of the casting at intervals, a rounded end tool, the radius of rounding of the tool. end
thickness of the casting at the pointof treatment, the depth of depression being less than said radius, and the metal being cool at the time of said treatment.
Signed at Chicago, Illinois, this 14th day of March, 1927. p
FRANK A. FAHRENWVALD.
,being not greater than one fourth of the
US177878A 1927-03-24 1927-03-24 Method of strain-hardening steel Expired - Lifetime US1784866A (en)

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Cited By (45)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2436928A (en) * 1944-09-02 1948-03-02 Thompson Prod Inc Method of and apparatus for making poppet valves
US2440963A (en) * 1945-03-06 1948-05-04 Richard W Luce Method of making molds
US2491677A (en) * 1943-09-27 1949-12-20 Borg Warner Grit blasting of rotor housings
US2505197A (en) * 1943-12-24 1950-04-25 Borg Warner Pump housing
US2517497A (en) * 1947-03-31 1950-08-01 Link Belt Co Method of increasing the fatigue strength of chain links
US2519588A (en) * 1943-12-24 1950-08-22 Borg Warner Pump housing
US2626454A (en) * 1950-04-13 1953-01-27 Charles A Richardson Inc Method of making baseball shoe cleats
US2648895A (en) * 1946-03-19 1953-08-18 Lincoln K Davis Prestressing structural members
US2652811A (en) * 1949-02-25 1953-09-22 Hans P Beche Power hammer for swaging steel
US2744309A (en) * 1950-12-20 1956-05-08 Thompson Prod Inc Method of making ball studs
US2765682A (en) * 1951-12-06 1956-10-09 Grote Mfg Co Inc Improved method of making embossing rolls
US2766517A (en) * 1952-06-02 1956-10-16 Acf Ind Inc Treatment of welded structures
US2775911A (en) * 1951-11-14 1957-01-01 Grote Mfg Co Inc Method of embossing a metal roll
US2810191A (en) * 1956-06-25 1957-10-22 Hanna Engineering Works Method of prestressing metal plates
US2834231A (en) * 1952-10-24 1958-05-13 John T Gruetzner Three-dimensional optical die making method and device
US2888846A (en) * 1956-02-15 1959-06-02 Renault Cold-hammering device
US2945405A (en) * 1955-02-22 1960-07-19 Motor Specialties Ltd Apparatus for expanding metals with curved surfaces such as pistons
US3014274A (en) * 1957-07-22 1961-12-26 United Aircraft Corp Method of improving metal surfaces
US3017697A (en) * 1953-06-11 1962-01-23 Tadeusz W Wlodek Methods for differential plastic deformation of metal and other plastic materials
US3022968A (en) * 1959-03-05 1962-02-27 Frog Switch & Mfg Co Railway frog
US3045321A (en) * 1955-04-15 1962-07-24 Buckbee Mears Co Abrading devices and method of making them
US3114071A (en) * 1960-03-21 1963-12-10 Westinghouse Electric Corp Electron discharge device having improved electrode support
US3139670A (en) * 1961-06-19 1964-07-07 Peter D George Process for making a dashpot assembly
US3141051A (en) * 1960-09-14 1964-07-14 Elm Coated Fabrics Company Inc Method and apparatus for preparing special surface finishes
US3145455A (en) * 1961-07-10 1964-08-25 Automatic Switch Co Method of producing electric contact fingers
US3166835A (en) * 1962-09-06 1965-01-26 Gen Motors Corp Method of manufacture of cast valve rocker arms
US3180011A (en) * 1960-09-01 1965-04-27 Olin Mathieson Hollow article manufacture by fluid pressure
US3249990A (en) * 1962-05-02 1966-05-10 Schlage Lock Co Method of making a door knob
US3793911A (en) * 1972-10-02 1974-02-26 Western Electric Co Extrusion die and method for making the same
EP0154802A1 (en) * 1984-02-07 1985-09-18 Alsthom Percussion tool
US4797327A (en) * 1985-04-06 1989-01-10 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Surface treated metal member, preparation method thereof and photoconductive member by use thereof
US5771729A (en) * 1997-06-30 1998-06-30 General Electric Company Precision deep peening with mechanical indicator
US6067701A (en) * 1996-09-25 2000-05-30 Biomet, Inc. Method for forming a work hardened modular component connector
DE19907827A1 (en) * 1999-02-24 2000-08-31 Abb Patent Gmbh Roughening workpiece surface involves roughening beneath liquid coating using compressed air needle device with needles with conical free surfaces facing workpiece surface
DE10022277A1 (en) * 2000-05-09 2001-11-29 Hochgeschurz Kellberg Franz Engine with minor turbulence producing structure has recesses in cylinder head, valves and piston surface
US6415486B1 (en) * 2000-03-01 2002-07-09 Surface Technology Holdings, Ltd. Method and apparatus for providing a residual stress distribution in the surface of a part
WO2003008845A1 (en) * 2001-07-17 2003-01-30 Man B & W Diesel A/S Machine with at least one sliding surface and method for the production of a sliding surface
US20030085257A1 (en) * 2001-11-02 2003-05-08 The Boeing Company Apparatus and method for forming weld joints having compressive residual stress patterns
US6622570B1 (en) 2000-03-01 2003-09-23 Surface Technology Holdings Ltd. Method for reducing tensile stress zones in the surface of a part
US20070033980A1 (en) * 2005-08-09 2007-02-15 Toshihiko Nishimura Crack-propagation preventing structure, method for preventing crack propagation, crack-propagation preventing apparatus, and method for producing skin panel for aircraft
US20070234772A1 (en) * 2006-04-07 2007-10-11 Prevey Paul S Iii Surface treatment apparatus and method
US20080038141A1 (en) * 2001-05-01 2008-02-14 Cadle Terry M Surface densification of powder metal bearing caps
US20080292443A1 (en) * 2004-07-15 2008-11-27 Tetsuro Nose Boom and Arm Member of Construction Machine Excellent in Weld Zone Fatigue Strength and Method of Improvement of Its Fatigue Strength
US20140255620A1 (en) * 2013-03-06 2014-09-11 Rolls-Royce Corporation Sonic grain refinement of laser deposits
US9789582B2 (en) 2012-07-05 2017-10-17 Surface Technology Holdings Ltd. Method and compression apparatus for introducing residual compression into a component having a regular or an irregular shaped surface

Cited By (52)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2491677A (en) * 1943-09-27 1949-12-20 Borg Warner Grit blasting of rotor housings
US2505197A (en) * 1943-12-24 1950-04-25 Borg Warner Pump housing
US2519588A (en) * 1943-12-24 1950-08-22 Borg Warner Pump housing
US2436928A (en) * 1944-09-02 1948-03-02 Thompson Prod Inc Method of and apparatus for making poppet valves
US2440963A (en) * 1945-03-06 1948-05-04 Richard W Luce Method of making molds
US2648895A (en) * 1946-03-19 1953-08-18 Lincoln K Davis Prestressing structural members
US2517497A (en) * 1947-03-31 1950-08-01 Link Belt Co Method of increasing the fatigue strength of chain links
US2652811A (en) * 1949-02-25 1953-09-22 Hans P Beche Power hammer for swaging steel
US2626454A (en) * 1950-04-13 1953-01-27 Charles A Richardson Inc Method of making baseball shoe cleats
US2744309A (en) * 1950-12-20 1956-05-08 Thompson Prod Inc Method of making ball studs
US2775911A (en) * 1951-11-14 1957-01-01 Grote Mfg Co Inc Method of embossing a metal roll
US2765682A (en) * 1951-12-06 1956-10-09 Grote Mfg Co Inc Improved method of making embossing rolls
US2766517A (en) * 1952-06-02 1956-10-16 Acf Ind Inc Treatment of welded structures
US2834231A (en) * 1952-10-24 1958-05-13 John T Gruetzner Three-dimensional optical die making method and device
US3017697A (en) * 1953-06-11 1962-01-23 Tadeusz W Wlodek Methods for differential plastic deformation of metal and other plastic materials
US2945405A (en) * 1955-02-22 1960-07-19 Motor Specialties Ltd Apparatus for expanding metals with curved surfaces such as pistons
US3045321A (en) * 1955-04-15 1962-07-24 Buckbee Mears Co Abrading devices and method of making them
US2888846A (en) * 1956-02-15 1959-06-02 Renault Cold-hammering device
US2810191A (en) * 1956-06-25 1957-10-22 Hanna Engineering Works Method of prestressing metal plates
US3014274A (en) * 1957-07-22 1961-12-26 United Aircraft Corp Method of improving metal surfaces
US3022968A (en) * 1959-03-05 1962-02-27 Frog Switch & Mfg Co Railway frog
US3114071A (en) * 1960-03-21 1963-12-10 Westinghouse Electric Corp Electron discharge device having improved electrode support
US3180011A (en) * 1960-09-01 1965-04-27 Olin Mathieson Hollow article manufacture by fluid pressure
US3141051A (en) * 1960-09-14 1964-07-14 Elm Coated Fabrics Company Inc Method and apparatus for preparing special surface finishes
US3139670A (en) * 1961-06-19 1964-07-07 Peter D George Process for making a dashpot assembly
US3145455A (en) * 1961-07-10 1964-08-25 Automatic Switch Co Method of producing electric contact fingers
US3249990A (en) * 1962-05-02 1966-05-10 Schlage Lock Co Method of making a door knob
US3166835A (en) * 1962-09-06 1965-01-26 Gen Motors Corp Method of manufacture of cast valve rocker arms
US3793911A (en) * 1972-10-02 1974-02-26 Western Electric Co Extrusion die and method for making the same
EP0154802A1 (en) * 1984-02-07 1985-09-18 Alsthom Percussion tool
US4608853A (en) * 1984-02-07 1986-09-02 Alsthom-Atlantique Percussion apparatus
US4797327A (en) * 1985-04-06 1989-01-10 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Surface treated metal member, preparation method thereof and photoconductive member by use thereof
US6067701A (en) * 1996-09-25 2000-05-30 Biomet, Inc. Method for forming a work hardened modular component connector
US5771729A (en) * 1997-06-30 1998-06-30 General Electric Company Precision deep peening with mechanical indicator
DE19907827A1 (en) * 1999-02-24 2000-08-31 Abb Patent Gmbh Roughening workpiece surface involves roughening beneath liquid coating using compressed air needle device with needles with conical free surfaces facing workpiece surface
US6415486B1 (en) * 2000-03-01 2002-07-09 Surface Technology Holdings, Ltd. Method and apparatus for providing a residual stress distribution in the surface of a part
US6622570B1 (en) 2000-03-01 2003-09-23 Surface Technology Holdings Ltd. Method for reducing tensile stress zones in the surface of a part
DE10022277A1 (en) * 2000-05-09 2001-11-29 Hochgeschurz Kellberg Franz Engine with minor turbulence producing structure has recesses in cylinder head, valves and piston surface
US20080038141A1 (en) * 2001-05-01 2008-02-14 Cadle Terry M Surface densification of powder metal bearing caps
US7987569B2 (en) * 2001-05-01 2011-08-02 Gkn Sinter Metals, Llc Method of surface densification of a powder metal component
DE10134736A1 (en) * 2001-07-17 2003-02-13 Man B&W Diesel A/S, Copenhagen Sv Machine with at least one sliding surface and method for producing a sliding surface
DE10134736C2 (en) * 2001-07-17 2003-10-09 Man B&W Diesel A/S, Copenhagen Sv Large machine with at least one sliding surface and method for producing a sliding surface
WO2003008845A1 (en) * 2001-07-17 2003-01-30 Man B & W Diesel A/S Machine with at least one sliding surface and method for the production of a sliding surface
US6926970B2 (en) 2001-11-02 2005-08-09 The Boeing Company Apparatus and method for forming weld joints having compressive residual stress patterns
US20030085257A1 (en) * 2001-11-02 2003-05-08 The Boeing Company Apparatus and method for forming weld joints having compressive residual stress patterns
US8146794B2 (en) * 2004-07-15 2012-04-03 Nippon Steel Corporation Boom and arm member of construction machine excellent in weld zone fatigue strength and method of improvement of its fatigue strength
US20080292443A1 (en) * 2004-07-15 2008-11-27 Tetsuro Nose Boom and Arm Member of Construction Machine Excellent in Weld Zone Fatigue Strength and Method of Improvement of Its Fatigue Strength
US20070033980A1 (en) * 2005-08-09 2007-02-15 Toshihiko Nishimura Crack-propagation preventing structure, method for preventing crack propagation, crack-propagation preventing apparatus, and method for producing skin panel for aircraft
US20070234772A1 (en) * 2006-04-07 2007-10-11 Prevey Paul S Iii Surface treatment apparatus and method
US7600404B2 (en) 2006-04-07 2009-10-13 Surface Technology Holdings, Ltd. Surface treatment apparatus and method
US9789582B2 (en) 2012-07-05 2017-10-17 Surface Technology Holdings Ltd. Method and compression apparatus for introducing residual compression into a component having a regular or an irregular shaped surface
US20140255620A1 (en) * 2013-03-06 2014-09-11 Rolls-Royce Corporation Sonic grain refinement of laser deposits

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