US1772916A - Heating apparatus - Google Patents

Heating apparatus Download PDF

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US1772916A
US1772916A US77477A US7747725A US1772916A US 1772916 A US1772916 A US 1772916A US 77477 A US77477 A US 77477A US 7747725 A US7747725 A US 7747725A US 1772916 A US1772916 A US 1772916A
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bell
heating
space
fluid
water
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US77477A
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Schwab Gustav
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Schwab Gustav
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H1/00Water heaters having heat generating means, e.g. boiler, flow- heater, water-storage heater
    • F24H1/22Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water storage heaters, e.g. water-heaters for central heating
    • F24H1/24Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water storage heaters, e.g. water-heaters for central heating with water mantle surrounding the combustion chamber or chambers
    • F24H1/26Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water storage heaters, e.g. water-heaters for central heating with water mantle surrounding the combustion chamber or chambers the water mantle forming an integral body
    • F24H1/263Water heaters other than continuous-flow or water storage heaters, e.g. water-heaters for central heating with water mantle surrounding the combustion chamber or chambers the water mantle forming an integral body with a dry-wall combustion chamber

Description

G. SCHWAB Aug. 12, 1930.

HEATING APPARATUS Original Filed Dec. 24, 1925 INVENTOR.

Patented Aug. 12, 1930 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE HEATING APPARATUS Application filed December 24, 1925, SerialNo. 77,477. Renewed February 8, 1929.

This invention is an instantaneous heating course, be of substantially the same cross sectional area as the inlet and outlet pipes of the heater and generally are larger to compensate for relatively large friction losses. Ittherefore follows that, when the heating operation starts, it is necessary to heat up a relatively large body of water before hot v water can be continuously supplied. The tube and chamber heaters heretofore referred to are all open to the same objection, the storage of water invariably being of a sufliciently great quantity to appreciably retard the initial flow of hot water.

With these and other considerations in mind, the object of the present invention is, primarily,'to provide a truly instantaneous heater, i. e., one wherein the capacity to supply hot gas or liquid will immediately follow the application of heat.

I have discovered that this result can be f obtained by passing the fluid to be heated through an annular space in an axial direction and so proportioning said space that its cross sectional area will, inthe main, be substantially the same as the cross sectional area of the pipe through which the heated fluid is discharged from said space. In practice, the annular heating space is formed within the hollow wall of a bell-like structure which is both internally and externally heated, thehottest combustion gases striking thethe fluid or medium to becontainer holdin heated at the point of discharge of such fluld or medium. This arran ement provides relatively greatsuperficial eating surfaces between which the fluid to be heated is contained in substantiallythe form of a film. As a result, the heating of the fluid is instantaneous.

Another object of the invention is to provide efiicient means for supplying and controlling the application of heat to the bell: like structure. In carrying out this phase of the invention, the bell is housed within a suitable casing which is closed except for an opening admitting the fuel burner and secondary combustion air, the admission of which latter may be made regulatable by a shutter arrangement. A refractory or metal mantle or sleeve is secured in the bottom opening, forming a combustion chamber for the heating fuel, which, in most cases, will be any available fuel gas, which refractory or metal mantle or sleeve extends into the interior of the bell.

When the burner is in operation, the mantle becomes highly heated, so that complete combustion of the fuel may take place as no chilling action of the gas can take place during theprocess of combustion proper. The 7 fuel becomes fully oxidized within the mantle and bell, and the hot' waste products of combustion pass beneath the lower edge of the bell and upwardly around its exterior to be discharged through the outlet to a suitable stack, or otherwise disposed of in such manner so that the remaining heating energy of the OE gases may be usefully employed. The supply of fuel is preferably automatically controlled by a thermostatic regulator acted upon by the outgoing heated fluid. A uniform heating is thereby rendered possible.

The apparatus is thus rendered thoroughly eflicient for the carrying out of its intended functions.

Features of the invention, other than those t adverted to, will be apparent from the hereinafter detailed description and claims, when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

The accompanying drawing illustrates a practical embodiment of the invention, but the construction therein shown is to be understood as illustrative, only, and not as defining me the limits of the inventlon. ll

Figure 1 is a central section of heating apparatus embodying the present invention.

Figure 2 is a section on the line 22 of Figure 1.

Referring to the drawings, 1 designates a suitable casing provided at the center of its bottom with an opening 2. Mounted in the opening 2 and extending a short distance into the casing is a tubular sleeve 3 to the upper portion of which is secured a laterally extending spider 4. The spider carries at its periphery an annular channel 5, which forms a support for a bell-like member 6. I The belllike member seats in the channel 5. It may be constructed of any suitable material provided that its wall is hollow to form within said wall a heating space 7. An inlet pipe 8 leads into the space 7 near the lower edge of the bell and an outlet pipe 9 leads out of the upper portion of said space, the flow capacity of the outlet pipe being desirably sub stantially the same as that of the space 7. The fluid to be heated enters the heating space through the pipe 8 and leaves it through the pipe 9 and it will be noted that the latter pipe is of somewhat larger cross sect-ion than the former in order to provide against back pressure and friction losses and to take care of expansion of the fluid during heating.

In the horizontal plane of the pipe 8, the inner and outer walls of the space 7 are bulged slightly to form a header 10 and the fluid fed through the pipe 8 enters this header and passes upwardly through the space 7 to be discharged through the pipe 9.

That portion of the space 7 above the header 10 is desirably of annular shape having a flow capacity substantially equal to the flow capacity of the outlet pipe 9. Since the outlet pipe 9 is not unduly large, it becomes apparent that the space 7 is relatively constricted, so constricted in fact that fluid pass ing through said space is substantially filmed, and it is thus susceptible to a most eflicient heating particularly if heat for this purpose is applied to both the exterior and interior of the bell. The [source of heat consists in a burner 11 which extends into the sleeve 3 and is supplied with either liquid or gaseous fuel, through pipe 12. For the purpose of illustration, the gas burner is shown in the drawings.

Seated on top of the sleeve 3 is a mantle 14 of refractory or metal material, this mantle being coaxial with the sleeve 3 and extending well up into the bell. With this arrangement, it will be apparent that fuelissuing from the burner and ignited in the mantle will result in a flame flowing upward- 1y through the mantle and this flame will, in practice, heat the mantle to a state of incandescence. The injection action of the flame in the mantle will serve to draw air into the bottom of the mantle through the sleeve 3 and said air will oxidize the fuel to produce complete combustion. The flame issuing from the top of the mantle enters directly into the interior of the bell and is deflected downwardly through the bell around the outside of the mantle and passes under the lower edge of the bell and upwardly around the exterior thereof. The waste products of combustion leave the casing through the outlet 13 at the top thereof and may desirably be directed to asuitable stack.

During the chemical process of combustion, the combustible fuel does not come into contact with cool surfaces, so that the likelihood of unburned gases reaching the stack with the waste products of combustion is practically nil. The hottest point of burning is at the top of the interior of the bell adjacent the point of discharge of the fluid being heated and for this reason the discharge portion of the header or dome thereof might be termed a squeezer dome, since here the fluid to be heated may be caused to pass through a minimum area even through a slightly reduced area from the area of the annular film space while being subjected to the most intense heat application; the cross sectional area of the dome, taken normal to the direction of water flow is so reduced that the flow capacity of the dome portion is substantially the same as that of the annular body portion of the heating chamber.

As hereinbefore stated, the products of combustion pass downwardly inside of the bell thus applying during such downward passage a counter current system with respect to the medium to be heated with correspondingly high heating efliciency and during the subsequent upward passage of the waste products exteriorly of the bell. The

heat therein contained is utilized to further heat the medium in said bell. In practice, the casing 1 is preferably insulated at 16 for the purpose of reducing heat losses by radiation to a practical minimum.

Importance is attached to the outward bulging of the walls ofthe space 7 as seen in Figure 1 as at 10. The water is fed in in the form of a thin film to areservoir formed by thisbulge in the walls of the jacket. This annular reservoir receives the cold water and stores it sufliciently to temper the heat of the jacket at all times, so that'it can never be sufliciently overheated to cause an explosion or tearing apart of the materials. Further- 'more, this water which is at all times contained in the annular bulge, is fed in the form of a thin film from the point of lowest heat progressively to the point of greatest heat and it therefore follows that the heating is progressive, constant, and eflicient and there is no counter flow of cooling liquid such as would be present if this expansible bulge were not present. By so bulging the walls of the jacket and positioning this bulge below the lower edge, there is more or less of an elastic thermostatic control device 15, the operating unit 15 of which extends into the outlet pipe 9. Any suitable control unit may be employed in this connection, but in any event, it will so regulate the feed of fuel as to produce substantially uniformheating.

The heating apparatus of-this invention may be employed to heat either liquids or gases, it being understood, however, that relative sizes or dimensions of the parts would of course be proportioned for the particular medium to be operated upon, as will be apparent to those skilled in the art.

Modifications of the invention will appear to those skilled in the art and the invention is therefore to be understood as fully commensurate with the appended claims.

Having thus fully described the invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. A fluid heating apparatus embodying a double walled bell, the inner and outer walls of which are closely spaced apart at both the sides and top of the bell to form an intermediate fluid heating space for fluid, an annular bulged portion extending about the bell adjacent the open lower end thereof and providing for expansion and contraction, an inlet leading into said bulged portion, and an outlet at the apex of the bell and a casing enveloping the said bell and spaced therefrom,

the flow capacity of the fluid space being substantially equal to the flow capacity of the V outlet, and means'for directing a hot blast of incandescent fuel into the interior of the bell through the open bottom thereof to impinge fuel thence out through the bell and over the outer surface thereof, whereby the fluid assing between the inner and outer walls 0 the bell is squeezed through a minimum permissible area at the apex of the bell and there subj ected to the most intense heat application.

2. In an instantaneous water heater, in combination, a pair of domelike shell members placed one around the other. to define a jacket in which the water is heated, means for introducing water at the lower end of the jacket, and a discharge conduit leading from the apex of the dome of the jacket to carry off the heated water, the cross sectional areas of the discharge conduit and the jacket being so proportioned that the flow ca acity of the discharge conduit is substantia y equal to the flow capacity of the jacket.

expansion and contraction due to temperature variations. 7

4. In an instantaneous water heater, in combination, a pair of shell-like members having cylindrical body portions placed one around the other to provide a water space of substantially uniform cross-section in the body portion, means for introducing water near the bottom of said "body portion, each member bein provided with a domelike top wall, means or discharging water from the apex of the dome, such top walls being'situated so close together that the cross-section taken normal to the direction of water flow of the dome portion of the water circulating space is less than the cross-section taken normal to the direction of water flow of the body portion of the water circulating space, the

dome portion havin substantially the same flow capacity as the 0d portion.

In testimony whereo I have signed the foregoing specification.

GUSTAV SCHWA'B.

US77477A 1925-12-24 1925-12-24 Heating apparatus Expired - Lifetime US1772916A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2524843A (en) * 1948-09-10 1950-10-10 Wilmer L Slifer Hot-air heating system
DE1177789B (en) * 1959-10-28 1964-09-10 Waldner Kg H Oil-fired air heater

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2524843A (en) * 1948-09-10 1950-10-10 Wilmer L Slifer Hot-air heating system
DE1177789B (en) * 1959-10-28 1964-09-10 Waldner Kg H Oil-fired air heater

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