US1762343A - Retaining wall - Google Patents

Retaining wall Download PDF

Info

Publication number
US1762343A
US1762343A US7523525A US1762343A US 1762343 A US1762343 A US 1762343A US 7523525 A US7523525 A US 7523525A US 1762343 A US1762343 A US 1762343A
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
wall
earth
tension
members
fill
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
Inventor
Munster Andreas
Original Assignee
Munster Andreas
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D29/00Independent underground or underwater structures; Retaining walls
    • E02D29/02Retaining or protecting walls
    • E02D29/0225Retaining or protecting walls comprising retention means in the backfill
    • E02D29/0233Retaining or protecting walls comprising retention means in the backfill the retention means being anchors
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D29/00Independent underground or underwater structures; Retaining walls
    • E02D29/02Retaining or protecting walls
    • E02D29/0225Retaining or protecting walls comprising retention means in the backfill
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D29/00Independent underground or underwater structures; Retaining walls
    • E02D29/02Retaining or protecting walls
    • E02D29/0225Retaining or protecting walls comprising retention means in the backfill
    • E02D29/0241Retaining or protecting walls comprising retention means in the backfill the retention means being reinforced earth elements

Description

.June 10, 1 930. T R 1,762,343

RETAINING WALL Filed D430. 14, 1925 lNVENTOR ghareas 7 70/7560 ATTORNEY Patented June 10, 1930 PATENT OFFICE ANDREAS MUNSTER, OF SEATTLE, WASHINGTON RETAINING WALL Application filed December 14,- 1925.

This invention relates to improvements in retaining walls and more particularly to a method of constructing retaining walls which are, for the greater part, earth fills.

Explanatory to the invention, I will state here that it has been satisfactorily demonstrated that an ordinary earth fill, consisting of earth, sand, gravel and a certain percentage of clay placed behind a retaining wall has certain properties in commonwith masonry although in different degrees, and that by utilizing these properties it is practicable to construct a retaining wall of the earth fill itself.

I In view ofthe above, it is an object of this invention to provide a method of and means whereby an earth fill may be so unified that it will serve in the same capacity as the ordinary gravity masonry wall.

. More specifically stated, the invention resides in the provision of a retaining wall embodying a thin face wall as a retainer for one side of an earth fill and to which a plurality of tension members, having anchor plates fixed thereto, are attached and extended into the earth fill in such manner that the body of earth contained within the face wall and anchor plates farthest therefrom will act as a unit to resist overturning due to pressure of the earth filling back of the mass thus unified essentially in the same manner as a masonry retaining wall of the gravity type.

Other objects of the invention reside in the various details of construction which permits settling of the tension members with the earth fill without causing disconnection from' the surface wall and which provides for a reduction of pressure in the proper proportion under the rear portion of the unified fill.

In accomplishing these and other objects of the invention, I have provided the improved details of construction, the preferred forms of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein- I Figure 1 is a transverse vertical section of a retaining wall constructed in accordance with details of the present invention.

. Figure 2 is an enlarged, sectional detail taken substantiallyon the line 2-2 in. Fig ure 1.

Serial No. 75,235.

Figure 3 is a vertical section taken on line 3-3 in Figure 2.

Referring more in detail to the several views of the drawings 1 designates a vertical retaining wall or face plate provided as a retainer for the outer side of the earth fill which is designatedat 2. This wall 1 is made sufiiciently strong to resist incidental pressure of earth in the fill but need not be anchored at the base in any way for the purpose of resisting a tendency to overturn due to the pressure of the earth back of that embodied in the wall itself. A footing, as designated at 3, may be provided if necessary or desired to prevent the wall from settlingto any appreciable extent due to its weight and the downward drag of the earth bearing against it.

Secured to the inner face of the wall 1 and extended back into the earth fill in a downwardly inclined position, are tension members 4 each provided at spaced apart intervals along its length with anchor plates 5. The tension members are provided in sufiicient members and are gradually shortened in length from the base toward the top of the fill so that the earth prism composed within the face wall 1 and the anchor plates 5 at the inner ends of tension members will be unified and will act as a unit to resist being oversirable that the tension members have a sliding connection with the wall which will permit the points of connection to shift downwardly in accordance with the rate or amount to which the fill settles. Several methods of construction may be used to permit this but a preferred construction is shown in Figures 1 and 2 wherein 1O designates ribs that are formed vertically on the inner face of wall 1 with flanged outer edges 11. Where the retaining wall is of concrete construction the ribs 10 and flanges 11 would be formed as an integral part of the wall.

The tension members 4 used in the present construction, compose paired beams 12 and 12 disposed in parallel relation and extended at their forward ends between adjacent ribs 10 on the face wall and havecross bars 13 fixed transversely thereto with their, ends disposed within the flanges 11 on ribs 10 to thus anchor the tensionmembers to the wall but permitting these ends to slide downwardly between the ribs, as the earth settles, without breaking their holding connection with the wall. V

Secured to the beams 1212 at spaced intervals toward their inner ends are cleats 14 to which transverse anchor plates 15'are fixed. These anchor plates are provided in sufficient number that the tension members can not be pulled forwardly and so that they will serve also to prevent any sliding or shearing of earth within the earth prism thusunified by the wall and tension members.

It is readily apparent that with the tension members provided in sufficient number and located at proper distances apart both vertically and horizontally, a unified earth prism will be provided that will be subject to and will'take the same kind of stresses and induce the same kind of variation in foundation pressure as the ordinary gravity retaining wall of masonry and the same principles which govern the general dimensions of masonry walls should-be applied to the to prevent sliding and to give a comparatively small reduction in foundation pressure at the back and the tension members should be given sufiicient section and attached anchor plates sutficient area to resist the pressureon the particular area of the face plate which they serve.

' It is to be understood that various kinds of tension memberscould be used and various kinds of anchor plates may be employed. ,Also that the manner-ofattaching the tension members to the retaining wall is immaterial so long as'it' is secure and-permits a vertical adjustment of the connection in accordance with the settlement of'earth in the un fied earthp'r'is'm. 1 The-construction here shown is'suitable where wooden beams are used'in making'up the tension fmembe'rs and v-it-hfas been found thatwooden beams and V lumber when properly treated with creosote The present arrangement of tension mempresent construction provides that the ten- ,sion members have no fixed connection" at their inner end but are provided in suficient number and in such relation that they together serve as a means of unifying or solidifying an otherwise loose and incoherent mass.

W hilein the other instance, there is no intention of unifying the earth fill but simply to provide a holding connection between a retaining wall and a fixed object which, as a rule is located at considerable distance back of the wall.

The present construction may be made at a great saving as compared to the cost of a masonry wall and with less work and in a much quicker time.;

, Having thus described my invention, what I claim asnew thereinfand desire to secure by Letters-Patent, is:

1. A retaining wall comprising a face plate, an earth fill supported against the face plate, tension members having ends slidably attached to the face plate to permit relative movement vertically without disconnection and extended substantiallyhorizontally into the fill and anchor members fixed at intervals to the tension members; said tension and anchor members being provided in sufiicient number and at such relation that they act to unify theearth of the fill to function as a substantially solid mass. 1

'2. A retaining wall comprising a face plate, an earth fill supported against the face plate, tension members having ends slid- -ably attached to the face plate to permit relative movement vertically without disconnection and extended substantially horizontally into the fill and anchor members fixed at intervals to the tension members; said'tension members being extended inwardly. and inclined'downwardly and provided in sufficient number and with sufficient anchors so as tounify the earth of the fill and to exert an uplift that will reduce the pressure'of the lower inner portion'of the fill.

3. A retaining wall comprising a face plate, an earth'fill supported "by the plate,

tension members secured to the plate and extended into the fill, and anchor plates fixed at intervals to the tension memebrs'; said tension members being gradually increased in length from the top toward the base of- 'the fill and provided in sufiicient'number and relation with sufii'cient anchor plates that together with the face plate they serve to unify the earth prism between the plate and anchor plates atthe inner ends ofthe'tension members to'functi'on as a substantially solid mass.

4, A wall of the character described comprisinga retaining-plate or wall having'vertical ribs formed on 'its' inner face with flanged outer edges, an earth fill supported against the inner face of the wall, tension members comprising beams joined in parallel relation with their innerends disposed between adjacent'ribs of the 'wall, cross bars fixed to the inner ends of the beams with their ends retained for vertical slidable movement between the ribs and Within the flanges thereon, and anchor plates being in suffieient numher and relation so as to unify the earth fill to function as a substantially solid mass.

Signed at Seattle, King County, Washington, this 28th day of October, 1925 ANDREAS MUN STER.

US1762343A 1925-12-14 1925-12-14 Retaining wall Expired - Lifetime US1762343A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US1762343A US1762343A (en) 1925-12-14 1925-12-14 Retaining wall

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US1762343A US1762343A (en) 1925-12-14 1925-12-14 Retaining wall

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
US1762343A true US1762343A (en) 1930-06-10

Family

ID=22124402

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US1762343A Expired - Lifetime US1762343A (en) 1925-12-14 1925-12-14 Retaining wall

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) US1762343A (en)

Cited By (46)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3421326A (en) * 1963-03-27 1969-01-14 Vidal Henri C Constructional works
US3638435A (en) * 1970-04-01 1972-02-01 Edward E Mason Method for the construction of a retaining wall
US3686873A (en) * 1969-08-14 1972-08-29 Henri C Vidal Constructional works
FR2228900A1 (en) * 1973-05-08 1974-12-06 Sadler Wilfried
USRE28977E (en) * 1970-04-01 1976-09-28 Shotcrete Engineering, Ltd. Method for the construction of a retaining wall
US4045965A (en) * 1975-06-26 1977-09-06 Vidal Henri C Quay structure
US4324508A (en) * 1980-01-09 1982-04-13 Hilfiker Pipe Co. Retaining and reinforcement system method and apparatus for earthen formations
US4343572A (en) * 1980-03-12 1982-08-10 Hilfiker Pipe Co. Apparatus and method for anchoring the rigid face of a retaining structure for an earthen formation
US4564316A (en) * 1982-11-08 1986-01-14 Hunziker Kenneth J Face panel system
US4643618A (en) * 1985-02-11 1987-02-17 Hilfiker Pipe Co. Soil reinforced cantilever wall
US4834584A (en) * 1987-11-06 1989-05-30 Hilfiker William K Dual swiggle reinforcement system
US4960349A (en) * 1988-12-05 1990-10-02 Nicolon Corporation Woven geotextile grid
US4968186A (en) * 1990-02-22 1990-11-06 Tricon Precast, Inc. Mechanically stabilized earth system and method of making same
US5028172A (en) * 1986-01-15 1991-07-02 Tensa-Crete Inc. Retaining wall structure
US5064313A (en) * 1990-05-25 1991-11-12 Rothbury Investments Limited Embankment reinforcing structures
US5091247A (en) * 1988-12-05 1992-02-25 Nicolon Corporation Woven geotextile grid
US5156495A (en) * 1978-10-16 1992-10-20 P. L. G. Research Limited Plastic material mesh structure
US5222836A (en) * 1992-07-29 1993-06-29 Lakdas Nanayakkara Passive resistive retaining wall structure
US5259704A (en) * 1990-11-08 1993-11-09 Tricon Precast, Inc. Mechanically stabilized earth system and method of making same
US5364206A (en) * 1993-09-29 1994-11-15 Marienfeld Mark L Soil stabilization system
US5370480A (en) * 1992-11-16 1994-12-06 Quaney; Patrick E. Interlocked gridwork for retaining walls, and the like
US5372461A (en) * 1992-07-29 1994-12-13 Nanayakkara; Lakdas Passive resistive retaining wall structure
US5395185A (en) * 1993-11-22 1995-03-07 Schnabel Foundation Company Method of temporarily shoring and permanently facing and excavated slope with a retaining wall
WO1995006784A1 (en) * 1993-08-30 1995-03-09 The Reinforced Earth Company Earthen work with wire mesh facing
US5407303A (en) * 1992-04-02 1995-04-18 Manns; Jose E. R. Reinforced soil structures of reinforced earth type
US5419659A (en) * 1978-10-16 1995-05-30 P.L.G. Research Limited Plastic material mesh structure
US5456554A (en) * 1994-01-07 1995-10-10 Colorado Transportation Institute Independently adjustable facing panels for mechanically stabilized earth wall
US5474405A (en) * 1993-03-31 1995-12-12 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Low elevation wall construction
US5487623A (en) * 1993-03-31 1996-01-30 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Modular block retaining wall construction and components
EP0707117A1 (en) * 1993-03-31 1996-04-17 The Reinforced Earth Company Modular block retaining wall construction and components
US5522682A (en) * 1994-03-02 1996-06-04 The Tensar Corporation Modular wall block system and grid connection device for use therewith
US5551810A (en) * 1994-06-08 1996-09-03 Schnabel Foundation Company Retaining wall with an outer face and method of forming the same
US5577866A (en) * 1993-08-30 1996-11-26 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri Vidal Earthen work with wire mesh facing
US5588784A (en) * 1995-06-07 1996-12-31 Schnabel Foundation Company Soil or rock nail wall with outer face and method of constructing the same
US5797706A (en) * 1993-06-24 1998-08-25 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri Vidal Earth structures
US5807030A (en) * 1993-03-31 1998-09-15 The Reinforced Earth Company Stabilizing elements for mechanically stabilized earthen structure
US5860771A (en) * 1997-04-02 1999-01-19 Atlantic Precast Concrete Inc. Retaining wall/tie-back/anchor assembly
US5951209A (en) * 1996-11-25 1999-09-14 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Earthen work with wire mesh facing
US20060101770A1 (en) * 2004-11-12 2006-05-18 Price Brian A Extended width retaining wall block
US20060110222A1 (en) * 2004-11-12 2006-05-25 Price Brian A Extended width retaining wall block
US20060179780A1 (en) * 2004-11-12 2006-08-17 Price Brian A Extended width retaining wall block
US20090071094A1 (en) * 2007-09-18 2009-03-19 Franklin Dale Boxberger Construction and design method
US20090285640A1 (en) * 2008-05-16 2009-11-19 Hilfiker William K Method for constructing a mechanically stabilized earthen embankment using semi-extensible steel soil reinforcements
US20110058904A1 (en) * 2008-04-08 2011-03-10 Terre Armee Internationale Stabilizing Reinforcement For Use In Reinforced Soil Works
US8584408B1 (en) * 2011-07-01 2013-11-19 ARM Group, Inc. Panel mounting system for berms, solar energy farm using the system, and method of installing the system
US9011048B2 (en) 2008-05-16 2015-04-21 William K. Hilfiker Method for constructing a mechanically stabilized earthen embankment using semi-extensible steel soil reinforcements

Cited By (56)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3421326A (en) * 1963-03-27 1969-01-14 Vidal Henri C Constructional works
US3686873A (en) * 1969-08-14 1972-08-29 Henri C Vidal Constructional works
US3638435A (en) * 1970-04-01 1972-02-01 Edward E Mason Method for the construction of a retaining wall
USRE28977E (en) * 1970-04-01 1976-09-28 Shotcrete Engineering, Ltd. Method for the construction of a retaining wall
FR2228900A1 (en) * 1973-05-08 1974-12-06 Sadler Wilfried
US4045965A (en) * 1975-06-26 1977-09-06 Vidal Henri C Quay structure
US5419659A (en) * 1978-10-16 1995-05-30 P.L.G. Research Limited Plastic material mesh structure
US5156495A (en) * 1978-10-16 1992-10-20 P. L. G. Research Limited Plastic material mesh structure
US4324508A (en) * 1980-01-09 1982-04-13 Hilfiker Pipe Co. Retaining and reinforcement system method and apparatus for earthen formations
US4343572A (en) * 1980-03-12 1982-08-10 Hilfiker Pipe Co. Apparatus and method for anchoring the rigid face of a retaining structure for an earthen formation
US4564316A (en) * 1982-11-08 1986-01-14 Hunziker Kenneth J Face panel system
US4643618A (en) * 1985-02-11 1987-02-17 Hilfiker Pipe Co. Soil reinforced cantilever wall
US5028172A (en) * 1986-01-15 1991-07-02 Tensa-Crete Inc. Retaining wall structure
US4834584A (en) * 1987-11-06 1989-05-30 Hilfiker William K Dual swiggle reinforcement system
US4960349A (en) * 1988-12-05 1990-10-02 Nicolon Corporation Woven geotextile grid
US5091247A (en) * 1988-12-05 1992-02-25 Nicolon Corporation Woven geotextile grid
US4968186A (en) * 1990-02-22 1990-11-06 Tricon Precast, Inc. Mechanically stabilized earth system and method of making same
US5064313A (en) * 1990-05-25 1991-11-12 Rothbury Investments Limited Embankment reinforcing structures
US5259704A (en) * 1990-11-08 1993-11-09 Tricon Precast, Inc. Mechanically stabilized earth system and method of making same
US5407303A (en) * 1992-04-02 1995-04-18 Manns; Jose E. R. Reinforced soil structures of reinforced earth type
US5222836A (en) * 1992-07-29 1993-06-29 Lakdas Nanayakkara Passive resistive retaining wall structure
US5372461A (en) * 1992-07-29 1994-12-13 Nanayakkara; Lakdas Passive resistive retaining wall structure
US5370480A (en) * 1992-11-16 1994-12-06 Quaney; Patrick E. Interlocked gridwork for retaining walls, and the like
US5642968A (en) * 1993-03-31 1997-07-01 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Modular block retaining wall construction and components
EP0707117A1 (en) * 1993-03-31 1996-04-17 The Reinforced Earth Company Modular block retaining wall construction and components
US5807030A (en) * 1993-03-31 1998-09-15 The Reinforced Earth Company Stabilizing elements for mechanically stabilized earthen structure
US5507599A (en) * 1993-03-31 1996-04-16 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Modular block retaining wall construction and components
US5474405A (en) * 1993-03-31 1995-12-12 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Low elevation wall construction
US5487623A (en) * 1993-03-31 1996-01-30 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Modular block retaining wall construction and components
US5797706A (en) * 1993-06-24 1998-08-25 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri Vidal Earth structures
US5494379A (en) * 1993-08-30 1996-02-27 The Reinforced Earth Company Earthen work with wire mesh facing
WO1995006784A1 (en) * 1993-08-30 1995-03-09 The Reinforced Earth Company Earthen work with wire mesh facing
US5577866A (en) * 1993-08-30 1996-11-26 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri Vidal Earthen work with wire mesh facing
US5730559A (en) * 1993-08-30 1998-03-24 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Earthen work with wire mesh facing
US5364206A (en) * 1993-09-29 1994-11-15 Marienfeld Mark L Soil stabilization system
US5395185A (en) * 1993-11-22 1995-03-07 Schnabel Foundation Company Method of temporarily shoring and permanently facing and excavated slope with a retaining wall
US5456554A (en) * 1994-01-07 1995-10-10 Colorado Transportation Institute Independently adjustable facing panels for mechanically stabilized earth wall
US5522682A (en) * 1994-03-02 1996-06-04 The Tensar Corporation Modular wall block system and grid connection device for use therewith
US5551810A (en) * 1994-06-08 1996-09-03 Schnabel Foundation Company Retaining wall with an outer face and method of forming the same
US5588784A (en) * 1995-06-07 1996-12-31 Schnabel Foundation Company Soil or rock nail wall with outer face and method of constructing the same
US5951209A (en) * 1996-11-25 1999-09-14 Societe Civile Des Brevets Henri C. Vidal Earthen work with wire mesh facing
US5860771A (en) * 1997-04-02 1999-01-19 Atlantic Precast Concrete Inc. Retaining wall/tie-back/anchor assembly
US7396190B2 (en) 2004-11-12 2008-07-08 Mortarless Technologies, Llc Extended width retaining wall block
US20060110222A1 (en) * 2004-11-12 2006-05-25 Price Brian A Extended width retaining wall block
US20060179780A1 (en) * 2004-11-12 2006-08-17 Price Brian A Extended width retaining wall block
US20070144099A1 (en) * 2004-11-12 2007-06-28 Rockwood Retaining Walls Inc. Extended width retaining wall block
US7367752B2 (en) 2004-11-12 2008-05-06 Mortarless Technologies, Llc Extended width retaining wall block
US20060101770A1 (en) * 2004-11-12 2006-05-18 Price Brian A Extended width retaining wall block
US7497646B2 (en) 2004-11-12 2009-03-03 Mortarless Technologies Llc Extended width retaining wall block
US7828497B2 (en) 2007-09-18 2010-11-09 Franklin Dale Boxberger Construction and design method
US20090071094A1 (en) * 2007-09-18 2009-03-19 Franklin Dale Boxberger Construction and design method
US20110058904A1 (en) * 2008-04-08 2011-03-10 Terre Armee Internationale Stabilizing Reinforcement For Use In Reinforced Soil Works
US9011048B2 (en) 2008-05-16 2015-04-21 William K. Hilfiker Method for constructing a mechanically stabilized earthen embankment using semi-extensible steel soil reinforcements
US20090285640A1 (en) * 2008-05-16 2009-11-19 Hilfiker William K Method for constructing a mechanically stabilized earthen embankment using semi-extensible steel soil reinforcements
US8079782B1 (en) 2008-05-16 2011-12-20 Hilfiker William K Semi-extensible steel soil reinforcements for mechanically stabilized embankments
US8584408B1 (en) * 2011-07-01 2013-11-19 ARM Group, Inc. Panel mounting system for berms, solar energy farm using the system, and method of installing the system

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3691776A (en) Expansive base pile construction
US4426176A (en) L-Shaped concrete block and method for constructing a retaining wall by such L-shaped concrete blocks
US3226935A (en) Retaining wall and method of constructing same
US3877236A (en) Crib block and structure
US1993291A (en) Retaining wall
US4050254A (en) Modular structures, retaining wall system, and method of construction
US4728225A (en) Method of rehabilitating a waterfront bulkhead
US5131791A (en) Retaining wall system
US4521138A (en) Building blocks
US2094167A (en) Revetment
US2074483A (en) Veneering construction
US2197960A (en) Cribbing
US1943800A (en) Sectional wall and method of erecting it
US1733790A (en) Concrete cribbing
US3802204A (en) Retaining wall and method for construction of the same
US2794375A (en) Sectional curb for parking lots and the like
US4473978A (en) Pollutant storage system
US2078069A (en) Building veneer construction
US1778574A (en) Retaining wall
US3999392A (en) Method of constructing a wall for supporting earth
US2014116A (en) Breakwater construction
US3890751A (en) Post hole block
US4290716A (en) Platform resting on the bottom of a body of water, and method of manufacturing the same
US1489428A (en) Breakwater
US3782125A (en) Earth shoring apparatus