US1762121A - Hydraulic machine - Google Patents

Hydraulic machine Download PDF

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Publication number
US1762121A
US1762121A US257806A US25780628A US1762121A US 1762121 A US1762121 A US 1762121A US 257806 A US257806 A US 257806A US 25780628 A US25780628 A US 25780628A US 1762121 A US1762121 A US 1762121A
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Prior art keywords
casing
speed ring
spiral
ring
sections
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Expired - Lifetime
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US257806A
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Gross Emil
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Allis Chalmers Corp
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Allis Chalmers Corp
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Priority to US257806A priority Critical patent/US1762121A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03BMACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS
    • F03B3/00Machines or engines of reaction type; Parts or details peculiar thereto
    • F03B3/16Stators
    • F03B3/18Stator blades; Guide conduits or vanes, e.g. adjustable
    • F03B3/186Spiral or volute casings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03BMACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS
    • F03B3/00Machines or engines of reaction type; Parts or details peculiar thereto
    • F03B3/16Stators
    • F03B3/18Stator blades; Guide conduits or vanes, e.g. adjustable
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/20Hydro energy
    • Y02E10/22Conventional, e.g. with dams, turbines and waterwheels
    • Y02E10/223Turbines or waterwheels, e.g. details of the rotor

Description

1 June 3,1930. 4 E. GROSS 1,762,121

HYDRAULIC MACHINE Filed .Feb. 29, 1928 z sheets-sheet June 3, 1930.

GROSS HYDRAULIC MACHINE 2 Sheets-Sheet .2

Filed Feb. 29, 1928 Patented June 3, 1930 V UNITED 5512 .132.s

PATENT OFFICE- EMIL (moss, or WAUWATOSA,.WISCO1\TSII\T, assreivon'ro ALLrs-cHALMEns MANU- H 'FAGTU'RING COMPANY, or MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN, A CORPORATION OE-.DELA

WARE

HYDRAULIC ivmcnmn Application filed February 29, 1928. Serial No. 257,806.

This invention relates in general to improvements in hydraulic machines, and relates more specifically to improvements in the construction of fluid guiding casings and speed rings for hydraulic turbines or the like. I

An object of the invention is to provide improved fluid conducting structure for hydraulic machines, which will effectively in guidethe fluid with least disturbance, and

which may be readily manufactured and assembled. Another object of the invention is tofprovide an improved speed ring'structure for hydraulic turbines which will fa cilitate attachment of a spiral casing thereto, and which will effectively guide the fluid with a' whirl toward the turbine rotor. A further object of the invent-ion is to provide a combined speed ringand casing structure a0 for hydraulic turbineswherein shock and eddies are positively eliminated, and which may be constructed with minimum difficulty. A further object of the invention is to provide an inletstructure for reaction type hydraulic turbines, wherein uniform delivery of fluid to all portions of the turbine rotor is insured. These and'iother objects and advantages attained by the present invention will appear from'the following description.

A clear. conception of an embodiment of the invention and of the manneroffconstructing and of operating devices in accordance with the improvement, maybe had by referring to the drawings accompanying and forming a part of this specification'in which like reference characters designatethe same.

Fig. 2 is a side elevationof the speed ring shown in Fig. 1.' V

Fig. 3 is a transverse section through a V sheet metal spiral casing and the cooperating I Fig. 12

' of Fig 1.

annular inwardly directeddelivery opening speed ring, the section being taken along'the line III'I'II"of Fig. 1. i '1 Fig. 4 is another section through the sheet metalspiral casing and speed ring, the section being'taken along the line IV-I V of 5 Fig. 5 is still another section through the sheet' metal spiral casing and speed ring, the section being taken along the line VV x The spiral casing and speed ring specificallyillustrated in the drawings is especially applicable to hydraulic turbines of the reaction typewherein the fluid admitted to the rotor advances progressively through aspi ral casing, a speed ring, an annular series of art, and only the spiral inlet casing and the speed ring forming the subject of themesent invention, havebeen illustrated. b

V The improved speed ring comprises a plu-' rality of'sections 2, 3 each consisting of laterally spaced inwardly converging side walls interconnected by means of a series of fixed gu de vanes 4 which are directed tangentiallywith respect to tlieinterior of the ring.

The side walls and vanes of-each section of the speed ring are cast integral, and the speed ring sections cooperate to provide an surroundingthe axis of the ring and adapt v "ed to receive the water from the spiral casf ing' pastthe guide van'es 4. and to deliver the same past the usual adjustable guide vanes to the rotor. The guide vanes 4 are of progressively-decreasing transverse cross section advancing about the speed ring.' The. inner edges 9 of the speed ring sections are "formed for attachment of other turbine parts thereto, the flow controlling adjustable guide vanes usually provided to direct the water to the runner being ordinarily attached to the speed ring at the surfaces 9. The outer edges of the speed ring walls are provided with surfaces 10 which gradually approach each other in the direction of advancement of the water about the speed ring, these surfaces 10, however, being of substantially uniform width throughout their lengths. The speed ring sections 2, 3 are also provided with laterally projecting integral ears or lugs 11 whereby the sections may be firmly united. The section 2 of the speed ring is additionally provided with an integral inlet portion 8 adapted for direct attachment to the pipe line which conducts water to the turbine, and is further provided with an integral wall 5, and with a smaller vane 6 formed integral with the side walls of the section 2 and providing a final discharge portion for the spiral.

; The supply casing which forms a spiral conduit 13 is composed of series ofinterconnected sheet metalsectlons 12 having substantially circular transversecross-sectional area decreasing progressively about the axis a of the speed ring in the direction of advancement of the fluid. The sheet metal sections 12 have their inner edges spaced apart to provide a discharge opening communicating with the speed ring as shown in Figs. 3, 4 and 5, and these inner edges of the casing sections are rigidly attached to the speed ring walls at the surfaces lOby welding, riveting or. otherwise. The edges of the sheet metal sections 12 by virtue of the location of the attaching surfaces 10, gradually approach each other advancing about the spiral, thereby permitting maintenance of the circular cross-section throughout without great difficulty. The final delivery end of the spiral casing is attached directly to the portion 7 of the speed ring, this end of the spiral casing being likewise maintainedsubstantially circular in transverse cross-section.

During normal use of the device, the water is admitted to the spiral conduit 13 at the largest end thereof and proceeds about the axis of the speed ring in an obvious and well known manner. During this progress about the speedring, portions of the water are constantly delivered inwardly past the stationary vanes 4 and through the delivery opening of the speed ring, to theturbine rotor. By

virtue of'the gradually-decreasing cross-sectional area of the conduit 13, andalso by virtue of the gradually decreasing cross-sectional area of the guide vanes 4, the distribution of the fluid and the delivery thereof about the axis of the speed ring, is maintained substantially uniform throughout.

By forming the speed ring with gradually approaching surfaces 10 the transverse crosssection of the spiral casing 12 may readily be maintained substantially circular throughout, thereby facilitating construction of the sheet metal casing. The formation of the attaching surfaces 10 at the inner portions of the speed ring walls also facilitates attachment of the sheet metal casing sections to the speed ring and provides a smooth conduit for conducting the vvater from the conduit 13 through the speed ring. The attaching surfaces '10 need not be accurately machined prior to attachment of the sheet metal thereto, and these surfaces by virtue of their location 011 the inner sides of the speed ring walls, also assist in resisting bulging of the casing due to internal pressure. The gradual reduction in cross-sectional area of the speed ring vanes 4. also insures uniform and smooth distribution of the flow. By formingthe final discharge portion of the spiral casing and the inlet portion thereof inte ral with the speed ring, manufacture of the casing is also facilitated and a rigid final structure results. The

ting convenient attachment of the ends of the sheet metal sections 12 having circular cross section, thereto, the warping being of such a nature that the surfaces are tangent to the ad o1n1ng sheet metal casing sections at all points along the spiral. The speed ring may obviously be constructed of any vnumber of sections in order to facilitate transportation of large units, and in the case of small units, the speed ring may be formed of a single piece.

It should be understood that it is not desired to limitthe invention to the exact details of construction and operation herein shown and described for various modifications within the scope of the claims may occur to persons skilled in the art.

It is claimed and desired tosecure by Letters Patent:

1. In a hydraulic machine, aspeed ring comprising side walls having fluid guiding surfaces of gradually diminishing width forming an annular delivery opening directed toward the axis of the ring, and a spiral casing surrounding said ring and having inner edge portions connected to said walls adjoining said surfaces, said edge portions being disposed progressively nearer to said opening advancing in the direction of, flow of the fluid through said casing.

2. In a hydraulic machine, a speed ring comprising side walls having fluid guiding surfaces of gradually diminishing width forming an annular delivery opening of uniform width directed toward the axis of the ring, and a spiral inlet casing surrounding said ring and having edge portions secured to said walls, said edge portions at the inlet portion of said casing being disposed farther from said opening than at successive points along said casing proceeding in the direction of flow of fluid therethrough.

3. In a hydraulic machine," a speed ring comprising inwardlyconverging side walls having 'fiuid guiding surfaces of gradually casing extending about an axis, and aspeedring disposed within and secured to said casdiminishing width forming an annular inwardly directed delivery opening'of uniform width, and a spiral inlet casing of substantially circular transverse cross-section throughput having oppositely disposed'edge portions secured to the outer edges of said ring, said edge portions progressively approaching each other as they advance about the spiral. A p

4. In a hydraulic machine, a sectional speed ring comprising sections each consisting of inwardly converging side walls having fluid guiding surfaces of gradually diminishing ing, said speed ringcomprising side walls and vanesrigidly uniting said walls, andan integral portion ofsaid ring forming integral inlet and discharge portions of said casing, said casing having substantially circular transverse cross-sectional area at the points of attachment thereof to said speed ring ad joining said inlet and discharge portions.

In testimony whereof, the signature of the a v inventor is affixed hereto.

. EMIL GROSS.

width and a plurality of guide vanes rigidly uniting said surfaces, said sections cooperating to form an annular delivery opening directed toward the interior of said ring, and a spiral inlet casing surrounding said ring and comprising interconnected sections having oppositely disposed edge portions secured to the outer edges of said walls adjoining said surfaces, said edge port-ions gradually approaching each other as they advance about said spiral.

5. In a hydraulic machine, a speed ring comprising a plurality of sections each con sisting of inwardly converging side walls having fluid guiding surfaces of gradually diminishing width and at least one vane formed integral with said walls atsaid surfaces, said sections cooperating to form an annular inwardly directed delivery opening,

' and a sectional spiral inlet casing surrounding said ring, the sections of said'casing'having substantially circular transverse crosssect1on and being provided with edge portions disposed on opposite sides-of said delivery opening, the edge portions of said casing sections near the inlet of said casing being disposed farther apart than at other portions of said casing advancing about the spiral.

6. In a hydraulic machine, a sheetrmetal spiral inlet casing disposed about an axis, 1 and a speed ring secured to the inner edges of said casing and forming an annular delivery opening directed toward said axis, said speed ring comprising inwardly converging side walls and a series of vanes of progressively decreasing cross-sectional area advancing around the spiral.

7. In a hydraulic machine, a spiral inlet casing extending around an axis and comprising sheet metal sections of substantially circular transverse cross-section, said casing having opposite edge portions spaced apart to provide an opening directed toward said axis, and a speed ring comprising side walls 7 secured to said edges and vanes integrally uniting said side walls, said vanes being directed inwardly toward said axis and being of progressively decreasing cross-sectional area advancing around the'spiral.

8. In a hydraulic machine, a splral inlet

US257806A 1928-02-29 1928-02-29 Hydraulic machine Expired - Lifetime US1762121A (en)

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4135853A (en) * 1976-03-30 1979-01-23 Aktiebolaget Karlstads Mekaniska Werkstad Stay ring for the spiral casing of a rotary hydraulic machine
EP0037432A2 (en) * 1980-04-07 1981-10-14 Guy F. Atkinson Company Flow-adjusted hydraulic rotary machine
WO1999015789A1 (en) * 1997-09-24 1999-04-01 Voith Hydro Gmbh & Co. Kg System of moving blades for turbo-machine, in particular hydraulic turbine
WO2003098032A2 (en) * 2002-05-16 2003-11-27 Va Tech Hydro Gmbh & Co Spiral pertaining to a turbo-machine
US20040253097A1 (en) * 2003-06-11 2004-12-16 Kao David T. Hydropowered turbine system
WO2012110197A1 (en) * 2011-02-16 2012-08-23 Voith Patent Gmbh Hydraulic turbomachine
CN103328813A (en) * 2010-12-17 2013-09-25 安德里茨水电有限公司 Spiral casing of a turbomachine, and method for producing a spiral casing of a turbomachine
CN107269446A (en) * 2016-04-07 2017-10-20 张援朝 Scroll casing type fluid power-generation drive device

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4135853A (en) * 1976-03-30 1979-01-23 Aktiebolaget Karlstads Mekaniska Werkstad Stay ring for the spiral casing of a rotary hydraulic machine
EP0037432A2 (en) * 1980-04-07 1981-10-14 Guy F. Atkinson Company Flow-adjusted hydraulic rotary machine
US4355953A (en) * 1980-04-07 1982-10-26 Guy F. Atkinson Company Flow-adjusted hydraulic rotary machine
EP0037432B1 (en) * 1980-04-07 1984-10-03 Guy F. Atkinson Company Flow-adjusted hydraulic rotary machine
WO1999015789A1 (en) * 1997-09-24 1999-04-01 Voith Hydro Gmbh & Co. Kg System of moving blades for turbo-machine, in particular hydraulic turbine
WO2003098032A3 (en) * 2002-05-16 2004-10-21 Josef-Michael Sugg Spiral pertaining to a turbo-machine
WO2003098032A2 (en) * 2002-05-16 2003-11-27 Va Tech Hydro Gmbh & Co Spiral pertaining to a turbo-machine
US7318700B2 (en) 2002-05-16 2008-01-15 Va Tech Hydro Gmbh Spiral pertaining to a turbo-machine
US20050169751A1 (en) * 2002-05-16 2005-08-04 Va Tech Hydro Gmbh & Co. Spiral pertaining to a turbo-machine
US20040253097A1 (en) * 2003-06-11 2004-12-16 Kao David T. Hydropowered turbine system
CN103328813A (en) * 2010-12-17 2013-09-25 安德里茨水电有限公司 Spiral casing of a turbomachine, and method for producing a spiral casing of a turbomachine
WO2012110197A1 (en) * 2011-02-16 2012-08-23 Voith Patent Gmbh Hydraulic turbomachine
CN107269446A (en) * 2016-04-07 2017-10-20 张援朝 Scroll casing type fluid power-generation drive device

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