US1722979A - Expression device - Google Patents

Expression device Download PDF


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US1722979A US1722979DA US1722979A US 1722979 A US1722979 A US 1722979A US 1722979D A US1722979D A US 1722979DA US 1722979 A US1722979 A US 1722979A
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    • G10C3/00Details or accessories
    • G10C3/02Cases
    • G10F1/00Automatic musical instruments
    • G10F1/02Pianofortes with keyboard


EXPRESS ION DEVICE Original Filed May 26, 19125 2 Sheets-Sheet l HIIHJQLUHIHHIIIHHIUMHHi lHHIHIIHHH jnarawr y 30, 1929 J. H. HAMMOND, JR 1,722,979
EXPRESSION DEVICE Original Filed May 26, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 '1' 14f ff! .9
fiia enw zi zag} the bellows 26, the other end of the stem being'slidablvfinoimted in a bracket 37 carriedon' the base of the casing 31 and positioned within the chamber 32. The chamber 32 is in communication by meansof a pipe 38 with a source of suction, such as a blower 39, operated by a suitable motor 40 of conventional construction. The bellows 26 thus controls thevalve port 34 and regulates the amount of suction in the pipe 25, to a predetermined degree. The predetermined suction in the pipe 25 may be varied by changing the tension on the springs 33.
-For automatically operating the instruhie'nt th'ere is provided a tracker 'bar having a plura'lityof holes arranged in alignment. Spaced apart'from the tracker bar are "two rollholdin'g' devices 51 and 52 upon *wh ich'there may be'mounted' roll spools 53,
for a paper roll suchas 55, which is periorated in a predetermined manner in accordance with the music to'be played. The perforations inthroll'fifiare such that when a note in the, musical scale is to be sounded, a'perfor'ation'in the roll is'broug'ht into registry with thetra'cker bar holewhich h'as'been assigned to the *respective 'note of the musical scale. Each of'the note holes of the tracker bar 50 communicates with a pipe such as '56and thus to the respective striking pneumatic so that when the roll uncovers the perforation therein, the striking pneumatic 19 is actuated 'to operate the hammer action and thusjto-sou-nd the respective note. Additional perforations are provided near each edge of the paperroll 55 for the control of'expression. The'arrangernent of holes may beinan desired manner, that shown'being such thatthe note holes are intermediatethe modulating holes. The bass expression holes, preferably "positioned near the left hand edge of the't'racker bar 50 as seen in Figure 2, communicate'by means of pipes 57 with the bass modulating 'mechanism 22 and the treble expression holes preferab'lyj'riear the righthand edge of the trade er bar 'cominunicate by means of pipes 58 with the treble modulating mechanism 23. Th'us'the expression mechanisms 22 and 23 may be'automat'ically' controlled in a predetermi-ned "manner according to the perforations in paper roll. Expression mechanisms'22 and 23 are of a form well-known in the art and'may he of the'type set forth in'Patents 1,444,832 and 1,359,040 to J. H. Dickinson. "The particular construction, however, forms'no part of the present inven tion and will not be set forth in detail herein. "It will be seen that the suction in the bass stack 20 isvaried in accordance with the expression to be imparted to the bass notes of 'them'usic, while the suction in the treble :stack 21varie s in accordance with the expressionim'parted to the treble notes of the music. Such variations in suction in the which includes a conventional collapsible bellows. The bellows of the pneumatic 61 is operatively'connectedby means of a shaft 62 to one end of 'a balanced lever 63, which is pivotally mounted upon a bracket 64 secured to the frame of the piano, The other end of the leverf63 is pivotally connected'to a'prima'ry slide valvegmember 65 (seeFig- 'ure 5) which reciprocates; in avalve casing 66 and which is provided with a valve port, 67 in an intermediate portion thereof and with two oppositely disposed passages 68, 69. The valve port, 67 -is in communication by way'of a valve'inlet chamber. 70 with an ancillary feed. pipe {communicating througha crossifeed pipe 72 with the suetion feed pipe' 2 5 secondary-slide valve member is'positioned immediately adja cent the primary slide valveme'mber'fifi and is arranged to reciprocate independently,
thereof and within the valvecasing 66. The
'secondaryslide valve inember 73 is provided with two. spaced ports 74, '75 separatedby a partition '7fi .""The normal position of the slide valve members 35 and 73 ;is as shown in Figure 5 of the drawing with the primary slide valve port 67 opposite to and closed by the partition 76 ofthe secondary slide valve member. The passagef68 is at atmospheric lower passage 69 is alsoat atmospheric'pres sure and is normally in communicatioii with the lower secondary valve port 7 5. The 'uppressure and is normally in communication with the upper secondary valve'p'ort'M. The
per valve port 74 communicates with a conducting pipe 76' and thus in turn with the upper portion 77 of a double bellows 78, the lower portion 79 of which is similarly in communication by way of a conducting pipe 80 with thelower secondary valve port- 75.
The bracket 6 is provided with an offset lug or ear 81 through which is threaded an adj usting thumb screw 82. A retractile spring .83 is fastened between an end'of the adj ust- 'ingthumb screw 82 and a movable portion of the pivoted lever 63 for restoring the lever 63 and the primary slide member 65 to a predetermined position. The tension of the spring 83 may be varied as desired by regulating the thumb screw 82. 'The double I bellows 78 is rigidly mounted on the bracket.-
64 near the bass .end of the piano and includes a central'member or lever 90, the posit-ion of which is-determined by the conjoint action of the two halves 77, 79 of the bellows. The outer end of the lever 90 is 'con'nected'by mea-ns'of a' link 91' to the seconda'ry'sli'de' valve jniem'ber 7-3.
FA "similai' mecha-nisrn for the treble end "of the 'pia'n'o is provided, comprising a conducting pa's'sageIGO of 'r'elatively'small cross sectional areaxwhich isled from the treble stack 21to anaccor'dion pneumatic 161 which {includes 'a' conventional "collapsible bellows. The bellows ofthe -pneumatic 161: is operatively connected by means-of a 'sha-ft 162 to one' 'end of' a ballanced lever 163,-wvh'ieh is pi 'votally mdunted "upon ti bracket 164 secured 'to' the franie pfthe-piano; The other end of 'the le'ver 163 i's p ivota,llyconnected to a primar slide valve member 1G5'correspondv as 148 off-set with respect t'o tliie pivotal rnounting of the respective closure and 5 pivotally connected by means of 'alink 149130 a ingeo the" primary sli'de valve unenjiber previously I described and illustrated in Figure' 5 which reei'proeates in a valve c asing 166 an l which provided withavalve port {W -in an intermediate 1 portion the eof and with two-oppositely disposed;passages 68, 69, as illustrated irr F-i'g'ur 55 The valve 1 port fi'z i's-linfkommuiiication by w'a'yofavalve -inlet--' ch'afmber with the ancillary feed pipe 71 communicating?through the "cross feed-pipe 72 with the 'suction'feed pipe 25. The construction of-the' treble casing, 166 is in" all respects 'siinilar'tothat of "the bass easing 661M111; thed'escription already given will,-itis thought, "suflice for" both. The upper valve -port 74 jco'mmuni'cate's with a conducting pipe 1'76' a nd* thus 'tofthe upper 'p'ortion'f 177 of 2; "double: bellows 178, the low'e'r' portion- 179 of "which issimilarly in communication by-w'a'y of 'a; conducting pipe 180 with the lower secondary valve port 75.
The br'acket 164' is 'provided w'ith an ofi'setlug "or 'ear" 181 "having jan' adjusting thumb screw182." A retractile='*spring 183 is fas tamed between an end of the adjusting thumb sc'rew "182*a'nd a movable p'or tiori of the pivoted lever' 163"f0r "restoring t-he'lever 163 and the'priin'ary slide/member 164 associated therewith to predetermined positionl The tension of the springmay be "aried as desired 'by regulating the thumb screw 182. The double bellows 178 isrigidly mounted on the bracket 164' near the treble end of the piano and includes a central member or lever 190, the positionof which is determined by the conjoint action of the two halves 177,
179 o'ffithe'bellows. "The outer end of the lever 190 is'con'nected by means of a, link 19.1 to the secondary slide valve-member 173.
Withinthe casinglO of'thepiano there is provided a casing 140 {formedof su'bstzintially soundproof material andcomprising an upper w zill l41 arranged in a plane pan allel to thestrings" 11, 12, '13, a lower wall 142 ina; plane parallel thereto and oppositely disposed'bf the strings, and "intermediate boundary walls 143, 144. 'Tlie upper and lower walls"141,'"142are provided wit-h'controllable apertures and 'in the plane of the upper wa11l*'1'41," there-'i'sprovided pluoperating floating arm orlever 150. Simila-rly in the plane'of the lower wall 142 there is provided a plurality of tone modulators including closures 151, 152, 153, each pivoted upon its longitudinal axes in the plane of the wall 14250 as to rotate'with respect thereto.
-Ea'ch closure is providedwit-ha lug such lower operating floating arnror lever-154 iv end of the lever o ft-he bassjbell owsj- 78. Similarlythe' treble {ends of the rods 15 0 and 154 are pi\' otally='connectedto a 've'rtical operating shaft 157" whichj is' mounted bearings iii the walls 141,142 so asto'reciproca-te verti ally a'n'd *the l ower-en'd of the shaft 157 is connected by means of aj-link to the outer end of thelev'er 190 of the treble 'VVhen-the lever 90 o'fjfthe bass bellows is in its uppermostposition 'so that the shaft -1'55 and the bass ends-of the arms l ofl'and 154 are in the extreme;- raised 5 position ftho closures 147 -and 153*a-pproxi1nate thereto are in their closed positions. As the double bellows is'actuated to lower the-respective vertical {shaft the closures become more widely opened, the-open position being-indicated at the treble end'of Figure'3 wherein the double bellows 178 -i's-=shown in its'actuated position withthe' lever 1 90 and the shaft 157 of the treble end of the instrumentin lowered position. i'
\ In operations aper strip 5 5 having perforations corresponding to music is placed upon the roll holders and'the roll spools"53, 54am rotated so as to bring successive parts of'the paper 'strip into' regi stry with the holes ofthe't-rack'er ba'r'50. 'Certainofthe holes controlthe suction in the groups'of tracker bar tubes '5758 s0 as to actuate-the modulators 22-, 23 respectively, andthusto modify th'esuction inthest-a cks"20,21. "By
changing the amount of suction in; 'tlie 't'wo stacks the prQper-jdegr'ee of emphasi's'can be given to the mi'isioas may be 'desi j dfpo reproduce the playin of-an*artist. It w1ll 76 into regist be noted that the treble modulating device 23 is controlled in accordance with the expression to be given to the notes to be played at the treble end'of the musical scale, while the bass modulating mechanism. 22 is controlled in accordance with the expression to be given to the notesat the ba& end of the musical scale and that the two modulating mechanisms 22 and 23 may be independently operated to cause variations in the amount of suction in the stacks 21 and 20. ,The variations in suction in thetreble stack 21 are communicated to the pneumatic 161 thus causing this pneumatic totake .up a position depending upon. the amount of suction in thestack 21. The normal position-of the pneumatic/r161 and the lever' 163 associated therewithrmay be determined-by suitable adj ustment of the retractile spring 183 and the lever 163 will .takeup aposition depending upon the strengthofsuction in the stack21 relative to. thei-tension on the springe183. As the lever 163 moves in a clockwise directionthe Iprimary valve member 165 is moved downwardly thus connecting the suction pipe 71to the pipe lO and collapsing the lower portion 179 of the treble bellowsl78 to move the shaft 157 downwardly, until the secondary valveimember 173 brings thepartition with the valve port 67, thus shuttingv oif t e suction from the pipe 71. It is-evident therefore that the lever 190 will follow the motion, of the arm 163 and that the position of the ,lever 190 and the rod 157 operatively connected therewith is determinedby thestren'gth of suction in the stack 21. Similarly the position of the bass rod 155 isrdetermined' by. mechanism, which has hereinbeforebeen described in detail, .by the staengthof suction in the bass. stack 20 and therefore'depending upon the strength with which thenotesattherbassiend of the instrument will be struck. Thus-the ends of the rods 150 and 152 will take up positions depending upon the strengthwithwhich the notes at the respective ends of the instrument are being struck [and grading off from one end to theothenj Thus the volume of ,sound emitted from the instrument at different parts thereof is modulated uniformly with; respect to the emphasis being given to the corresponding jnotesof the instrument. and producing particularly attractive tone shading and novel musical effects. 1
-The invention upon which this application is based is broader than the specific embodiment shown and described for the purpose of illustrating at least one of. the ways in which it may be employed. The scope. of the invention is therefore to be understood as not being limited by the present 'specific description. I intend no limitations other than those imposed by the claims What I claim 1 In a musical instrument of the percussive type, therombination-withstrings for producing musical sounds, of acasing having apertures, .a plurality of closures for each of said apertures, said andclosures being formed of asubstantiallysonndproof materiaLand. means for actuating the closures of'each group to-a different degree with respect to the remaining closures of therespeotive group.
2.111 a musical instrument ofthepercus sive type, the combination withstrings for producing notes of the .musical-.-scale,;:0f a casing having apertures, a plurality Df-gClQ- sures for each ofsaid apertures ands-er; ranged in a determined relation with respect toj'said strings, said casing and closures-Ebeing formed of a substantially sound .proof material, means forvariably actuating said istrings to produce musical-sound and means for-variablyactuating the closures of each group vto a idifi'erent degree with respect to the remaining closures, of-thei respective group and proportionally to the variationsii'n actuation of said strings): I i '3. In a musical instrument, thecombination with tuned strings, hammers positioned to make strikingeontact with said strings to produce musical sounds, of .acasing surrounding said strings andhammers, said casing having apertures, a-plurality of closures for each ofsa-id apertures, and-operatmembers for actuating fthe closurescof each group toadifierent degree with; respect to the remaining 'closurescf the; respective p" 1 '::I .4; In a musical instrument, aplurality'of tuned strings; for producing musical sounds arranged in ,theordenof their sequence in the musical scale, .a casing, having apertures,
a plurality of closures for ;eachof said apertures, said apertured casing-surrounding said strings, a floating levergforadjustably positioning the ,closuresto jvary the effective emission of sound frorn the-casing, a shaft for each end of said lever and pivotally connected thereto, and uneans for independently. operating the shafts; i
5. In a musical instrumenga plurality of tuned strings arranged in the orderof their sequence in the musical scalggacasing; enclosing said strings and having apertures for the control of the emission of sound therefrom, a closure for one of said casing apertures positionedproximate to the treble strings, an additional closure for saidaperlure proximate to the pass strings, .a percussive action for each of-the notes f the musical scale fonf'causing vibrationof the strings tuned to the respective note, means for actuating said bass closure to a degree proportional to the force of actuation applied to the bass percussive means.
6. In a musical instrument, a plurality of tuned strings arranged in the order of their sequence in the musical scale, a substantially soundproof casing enclosing said strings and having apertures for the emission of sound therefrom, a plurality of closures for each of said casing apertures positioned proxi mate to the treble strings, the intermediate strings and the bass strings respectively, a percussive action for each of the notes of the musical scale for causing vibration of the strings tuned to the respective note, means arranged for actuation of said percussive mechanism with different degrees of force, means for opening each of said closures of each group to a different degree proportional to the force of actuation applied to the percussive means associated with the part of the musical scale with which. the respective closure is associated.
7. In a musical instrument of the percussive type, the combination with tuned elements for producing musical sounds by percussion, of a casing having apertures, a plurality of closures for each of said apertures, and means for actuating the closures to a difierent degree with respect to the remaining closures of the respective group.
8. In a musical instrument of the percussive type, the combination with automatic roll playing mechanism for actuatin said instrument to produce music, of a casing having apertures, a plurality of closures for each of said apertures arranged in a determined relation With respect to the musical scale, means for modifying the amplitudes of musical sound, and means controlled by said modifying means for variably actuating the closures of each group to a different degree with respect to the remaining closures of the respective group.
Signed at New York city, in the county of New York and State of New York this th day of May A. D. 1925.
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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4324164A (en) * 1977-12-30 1982-04-13 Charles Monte Tone changing means for percussion instruments

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4324164A (en) * 1977-12-30 1982-04-13 Charles Monte Tone changing means for percussion instruments

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