US1704736A - Railway-traffic-controlling apparatus and electrical apparatus suitable for use therein - Google Patents

Railway-traffic-controlling apparatus and electrical apparatus suitable for use therein Download PDF

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US1704736A
US1704736A US67136823A US1704736A US 1704736 A US1704736 A US 1704736A US 67136823 A US67136823 A US 67136823A US 1704736 A US1704736 A US 1704736A
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relay
current
energized
contact
point
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Paul H Geiger
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Hitachi Rail STS USA Inc
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Union Switch and Signal Inc
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61LGUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC
    • B61L23/00Control, warning, or like safety means along the route or between vehicles or vehicle trains
    • B61L23/08Control, warning, or like safety means along the route or between vehicles or vehicle trains for controlling traffic in one direction only
    • B61L23/14Control, warning, or like safety means along the route or between vehicles or vehicle trains for controlling traffic in one direction only automatically operated
    • B61L23/16Track circuits specially adapted for section blocking
    • B61L23/165Track circuits specially adapted for section blocking using rectified alternating current

Description

March 12, 1929. 1,704,736
P. H. GEIGER RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROLLING APPARATUS AND ELECTRICAL APPARATUS SUITABLE FOR USE THEREIN Original Filed Oct. 29, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet l wO M E. w fr Fig 4 a 1 K a a 3 E1 P #T f jl m,
March 12, 1929.
P. H. GEIGER RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROLLING APPARATUS AND ELECTRICAL APPARATUS SUITABLE FOR USE THEREIN Original Filed Oct. 29, 1923 2 Sheets-Sheet INVENTOBZ supplied with current from a battery 9 Patented Mar. 12, 1929.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
PAUL H. GEIGER, OF SWISSVALE, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO THE UNION SWITCH &
SIGNAL COMPANY, OF SWISSVALE, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORATION OF PENN SYLVANIA.
RAILWAY-'1RAFFIC-CONTROLLING APPARATUS AND ELECTRICAL APPARATUS SUIT- ABLE FOR USE THEREIN.
Application filed October 29, 1923. Serial No. 671,368.
My invention relates to electrical apparatus, and particularly to railway traflic controlling apparatus suitable for use therein.
I will describe several forms of apparatus embodying 1n y invention, and will then point out the novel features thereofin the claim.
In the accompanying drawings, Fig. 1 is a diagralnnmt ic view showing one form of electrical apparatusembodying my invention. Figs. 2 and 3 are views showing modifications of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1 and also embodying my invention. Fig. 4 is a view showing one form of railway traffic controlling system based on the combination shown in Fig. 1 and also embodying my invention.
Figs. 5 and 6 are views showing railway traffic controlling systems based on the combination shown in Fig. 3 and also embodying my invention.
Similarreferencc characters refer tosimilar parts in each of the several views.
Referring first to Fig. 1, the apparatus in the form here shown comprises two windings 2 and 3 connected in multiple andreversibly through a pole-ehanger. 8. Associatedwith winding 2 is a device A- which constitutes means for permitting current flowing in one Y direction but not in the other to pass through the winding 2. This device A is a uni-directional current-carrying device or asymmetric unit, and it may, for example, be similar to the units shown in an application filed by L. O. Grondahl and-F. H. Nicholson on the 7th day of March, 1922, Serial No. 541,7 33. This particular typeof asymmetric unitisnot essential'to my invention, however, itbeing'understood that any unit or device which willtrans mit more current flowing in one direction than in the other, will serve the purpose. The direction of high conductivity in the device A is indicated by the arrow. A similar asymmetric unit A is associated with the winding 3. As here shown, each of these units A and A is connected in series with the associated winding, and these units are so arranged that current flowing in one direction is permitted to pass freely through winding 2, but not through winding 3, whereas current flowing in the other direction is permitted to pass through winding 3 but not windin 2.
Interposed. between the windings 2 an 3 and controlled thereby, is an armature con.-
-which, as illustrated, is open. Assumi position wherein contact 45 is closed..
When winding 3 is energized and winding 2 1s de-energized or energlzed less strongly than winding 3, contact member 4 is swung to the right so that contact 4-6 is closed. W'hen, however, winding 2 is energized and winding 3 is tie-energized or energized less strongly than winding 2, the contact member 4 1s swung to the left, so that contact 47 becomes closed.
It will be seen from the foregoing that when pole-changer 8 occupies one position so that current of one polarity is supplied to the windings 2 and 3, armature contact 4 is swungin'one direction, whereas when polechanger 8 occupies its other position so that current of the other polarity is supplied to the windings, armature contact 4 occu'pies its other extreme position. The apparatus constitutes, therefore, means responsive to reversals of-current without the necessity for a permanentmagnet or other polarizing medium. 7
Referring now to Fig. 2, the apparatus shown in this view is similar to that shown in Fig. 1, except that the two windings 2 and 3 with their mutually controlled contact member 4 are replaced by two relays 10 and 11 provided respectively with contacts 12 and 17. When pole-changer 8 is in one extreme position relay 10 is energized and relay 11 de-encrgized, whereas when pole-changer 8 is in the other extreme position relay 11. will be energized and relay 10 will be de-energized.
In Fig. 2 I have shown means. for at times supplying alternating current instead of direct current to the relays 10 and 11, this alternating current being obtained from the secondary of a transformer 14, the primary of which is connected with a source of alternating current not shown in the drawing. The secondary of transformer 14 may be connected wit-h the relays 10 and 11 by a switch }113, t is switch to be closed and pole-changer 8 p aced in the intermediate position wherein battery 9 is disconnected from the rest of the apparatus, it will be seen that alternating current will be supplied to the relays 10 and 11. Duriug one-half of each cycle the asymmetric unit A will permit current to flow freely through relay 1t), and during the other half of each cycle the asymmetric unit A will permit current to flow freely through relay 11, so that both relays will then be energized. It will be seen, therefore, that in the arrangement of apparatus shown in Fig. 2, one relay 1() or the other relayl l. or both relays will he energized according as direct eurreut of one polarity or direct current-of the other polarity or alternating current is supplied to these relays.
Referring now to Fig. 3. the two relays 10 and 11 are connected in series instead of multipleas in the preceding views. Relay 10 is provided with a shunt including an asynimetric unit. A, whereas relay 11 is provided with a shunt including an asymmetric unit A. These units are op 'iositely disposed, so that current of one polarity but. not the other is forced to flow through relay 1(),whereas current of the second polarity but not the first is forced to flow through relay 11. In the arrangement shown in the drawing, relay 10 is provided with an additional asymmetric unit A which freely passes the current which is forced by unit A to flow through relay 10, but opposes the passage of the flow of current of the other polarity in relay 10. Relay 11 is similarly provided with an additional unit A' which freely passes a current that is forced by unit A to flow through the relay 11 but opposes the passage of current of the other polarity.
As shown in the drawing, the lower terminal of battery 9 is positive, so that with the pole-changer 8 in the position shown, current will flow through asymmetric unit A, relay 10, asymmetric unit VA, and pole changer 8 to battery 9, so that relay 10 is energized and relay 11 is de-energized. When pole-changer 8 is reversed, current will flow from battery 9, through the pole-changer. then through relay 11, unit A, unit A, and pole-changer 8 to battery 9, so that relay 11 will be energized and relay 10 will be deenergized. When pole-changer 8 is placed in an intermediate position and circuit controller 13 is closed, alternating current will be supplied to the relays, so that relay 10 will be energized durin one-half of each cycle and relay 11 will e energized during the other half of each cycle, with the result that both relays will be closed.
In Fig. 3, it will be observed that relay 10 is provided with a shunt path including units A and A, which path offers a low resistance to current induced therein by the decay of flux in the relay core when the relay becomes (lo-energized. It follows that when the relay becomes de-energized this path retards the decay of flux in the relay core and so retards the opening of armature contact 12. In other words, this path gives the relay 9. slew-releasing characteristic, and so has the same effectas a closed conductor around the core of the relay. The same thing is true of the path in shunt to relay 11 including units A and A The same thing is also true of the relays 10 and 11 in Fig. 2 except that in this view the resistance of the shunt path for each relay is relatively high because the path includes the other relay, and so the period of retardation is reduced. In Fig. l each winding 2 and 3 is provided with a shunt path including the other winding and the units A and A, but the etlect in this view is to quickly return armature 4 to it'siuiddle position when pole-changer 8 is moved to its middle position. because the current induced in the shunt path by the winding last energized serves to energize the other winding for a short interval of time.
Referring again to Fig. 2, and assuming that the pole changer 8 is open and switch 123 closed, when the upper horizontal wire is positive with respect to the lower, the
current supplied to relay 11 through asymmetric unit A causes a potential drop in the seeondai'y of transformer 14. This potential drop reduces the electromotive force between the two horizontal wires and therefore relures the potential drop across asymmetric unit A. As a result the current flowing through unit A in its high resistance direction and relay 1() is considerably reduced. Similarly, when the lower horizontal wire is positive with respect to the upper wire, the current supplied to relay 10 causes a potential drop in the secondary of transformer 14 which reduces the current then flowing through unit A and relay 11. The result of this is that the current through either relay 10 or 11 in the'undesired direction is held down to a relatively low value, and so a maximum of useful power is supplied to the load comprising these relays. In other words, the
rectifier A in series with relay 11 prevents the supply of an abnormal voltage to rectifier A, and vice versa. In Fig. 3, when the upper horizontal wire is positive with respect to the lower,- current is supplied to relay 11 through units A and A, and when the polarity of the electromotive force is reversed the potential across relay 11 and unit A is shunted by unit A, thereby preventing an abnormal current in the undersired direction through relay 11. In both Figs. 2 and 3, then, the current through an asymmetric unit in its high resistance direction is diminished by preventing an abnormal rise of voltage atthe terminals of the unit, and this results in a net increase of useful uni-directional current for a given output circuit including a load and an asymmetric unit without increasing the voltage applied to the circuit. v
Referring now to Fig. 4, the reference characters 15 and 15 designate the track ltit) I It) rails of a railway along which traflic normally moves in the direction indicated by the arrows, which rails are divided by insulated joints 16 into a plurality of successive sections D-E, E-F. etc. Located adjacent the entrance endof each section is a pair of windings 2 and 3 connected in multiple across the rails of the section, an asynunetric unit A being included in series with winding 2, and an asymmetric unit A in series with winding 3. These windings mutually control a contact member 4 as in Fig. 1. Current is reversibly supplied to the rails of each section adjacent the exit end of the section by means of a battery designated 9 with a suitable exponent and a polechauger designated 8 with a suitable exponent, which pole-changer may be operated by any suitable means not shown in the drawing. In order to simplify the description of the apparatus, I will term the windings 2 and 3, the associated asymmetric cells A and A. and the contact member 4. a relay device. Each relay device controls a signal designated by the reference character S with an exponent corresponding to the location, each of which signals in the form here shown comprises three electric lamps G, Y and R. These lamps are arranged to pro ject beams of green, yellow and red light. respectively, and when lighted they indr'ate respectively, proceed, caution and stop. The proceed lamp G is provided with a circuit which passes from terminal B of a suitable source of current, through contact 47 of the associated relay device to terminal C of the same source of current. Caution lamp Y is similarly controlled by contact 4-6, and the stop lamp R is similarly controlled by contact 45 of the associated relay device.
As shown in the drawing, the section immediately to the right of point F is occupied by a train W. so that both of the windings 2 and 3 of the relay device at point 1 are deenergized. Contact 45 being closed. signal S indicates stop. Pole-changer 8 is in such position that the upper rail in section EF is positive, so that winding 3 of the relay device at point E is energized. Contact 46 of this device is accordingly closed, so that signal S indicates caution. Pole-changer 8 is in such position that the lower rail 15 of section DE is positix e, whereby winding 2 of the relay device at point D is energized and winding 3 of this device is de-energized. Contact 47 of this relay device is accordingly closed, so that signal S indicates proceed. \Vhen the train W passes out of the section immediately to the right of point F, sig nal S will change to the caution indication and pole-changer 8 will then be reversed, so that signal S will change to the proceed indication.
Referring now to Fig. 5, I have here shown a four-indication signaling system using the arrangement of relays and asymmetric units shown in Fig. 3. That is to say, two relays 10 and 11 are connected in series across the rails at the entrance end of each track section, and associated with these relays are four units A. A, A and A so arranged that current flowing in one direction energizes one relay, whereas current flowing in the other direction energizes the other relay.
Each of the signals in the arrangement here shown is of the two-arm semaphore type. and each signal is controlled by the associated relays 1t) and 11 in the following manner: \Vhen both relays are (lo-energized (see signal S) both semaphore arms 25 and 26 are in the horizontal position indicating stop. When relay 11 is energized and relay 10 is de-energized (see signal S a cantion indication circuit is closed for scum-- phore arm 25, which circuit passes from terminal B of a suitable source 0t. current through contact 21 of relay 11 and operating mechanism of semaphore 25 to terminal C of the same source of current. The signal then indicates proceed prepared to stop at next signal. When relay 10 is energized and relay ll de-encrgized (see signal S the caution indication circuit for semaphore arm 25 passes from terminal B, through contact 18 of relay 10, and the semaphore arm operating mechanism to terminal C. A circuit for semaphore arm 26 is also closed. which circuit passes from terminal B, through back contact 17 of relay 11. contact 12 of relay l0 and the operating mechanism of arm 26 to terminal C. The signal then indicates proceed with caution. \Vhen both relays 10 and l] are energized (see signal S) the circuit for semaphore. arm 26 is open at back contact 17 of relay 11 but the caution circuit for semaphore arm 25 is still closed at contact 18 of relay 10. The proceed circuit for arm 25 is also closed, which circuit passes from terminal B through contact 19 of relay 10, contact 22 of relay 11, and the operating mechanism of arm 25 to terminal C. Semaphore arm 25 is then in vertical position so that the signal indicates proceed.
As shown in the drawing, the section immediately to the right of point H is occupied by a train W, so that both relays 10 and 11 at point H are ole-energized, with the result that signal S indicates stop. Current is now supplied to the rails of section FH from the secondary of the transformer 29, the primary of which is constantly supplied with alternating signaling current from a generator J through the medium of a transmission line 30. The circuit for section Fll is from the left-hand terminal of the secondary of transformer 29, through wire 31, the rail 15, and from rail 15, through reactance 24, wires 32 and 33, asymmetric unit A, back point of contact 23 of relay 11 and back point of contact 20 of relay 10 to the right-hand terminal of the secondary of transformer 29.
Asyunnetric unit A is so connected in this circuit that current can flow from the righthand terminal of the transformer secondary to the left-hand terminal but not in the other direction, and, consequently, relay 11 at point F is energized and relay at the same point is (lo-energized. The circuit for supplying current to the rails of section Il'lF is the same a the circuit for section F-H, except that the current for section E-F passes through asymmetric unit A and the front point of contact 22%, instead of through unit A and the hack point of contact 23. Consequently. at point F the current can flow from the left haud terminal of the secondary of transformer29* to the right-hand terminal but not in the other direction. The result of this is that at point E relay 10 is energized and relay 11 is (lo-energized. The circuit for suplying current to the rails of section D-E passes from the secondary of transformer 2!), through wire 31, the rail 15*, and from rail 15 through reactance 24, wires 32 and 31, and the front point of contact of relay 10 to the secondary of transformer 29 It follows that alternating current is supplied to the rails of section D-E so that both relays 10 and 11 are energized. Alternating current will accordingly be supplied to the section to the left of point D because relay 10 at point D is energized.
\Vhen the train \V passes out of the section to the right of point H, relay 11 at point H will become energized, so that at point F relay 11 will become de-energzed and relay 10 will become energized. Both relays 10 and 11 at point E will then become energized, so that signals S will then give a proceed indication.
Referring now to Fig. 6, the apparatus here shown is similar to that shown in Fig. 5, except that the signaling system is of the threeindication type. That is to say, each signal S is adapted to indicate stop, caution and proceed, and, as here shown, each of these signals is of the one'arm semaphore type. Each signal is provided with a caution indication circuit including contact 12 of the associated relay 10, and with a proceed indication circuit including contact 17 of the associated relay 11. It follows that each signal will indicate caution when relay 10 is energized. proceed, when relay 11 is energized, and stop when both of these relays are deenergized.
As shown in the drawing, the section immediately to the right of point F is occupied by a train W, so that both relays 10 and 11 at point F are de-energized, with the result that signal F indicates stop. The rails of section EF are now supplied with current which passes from terminal B of a suitable source, through back contact 22 of relay 11, back contact 19 of relay 10 to lower rail 15*, and from upper rail 15, through back contact 18 of relay 10, back contact 21 of relay 11 to terminal C of the same source. This current is in such direction as to energize relay 1O atpoint E but not relay 11 at the same point. Signal S accordingly indicates caution, and current is supplied to the rails of section DE from terminal B, through front contact 20 of relay 10 to the upper rail 15,
and from the lower rail 15 through front contact 27 of relay 10 to terminal C of the same source. This current flows in such direction that at point D relay 11 is energized and relay 10 is de-energized. Signal S accordingly indicates proceed, and the supply of current to the rails of the section to the left of point D is as follows: from terminal 1"), through front contact 23 of relay 11 to 'rail 15, and from rail 15", through front contact 28 of relay 11 to terminal C. This current flows in the same directions as that supplied to section DE, so that at the next point to the left of point D relay 11 will be energized and relay 10 de-energized.
Although I have herein shown and described only a few forms of apparatus embodying my invention, it is understood that various changes and modifications may be made therein within thescope of the appended claim without 'departing'from the spirit and scope of'my invention.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:
In combination, two windings, asymmetric units associated with said windings for permitting currents of one polarity-but not of the other to flow through one winding and for permitting current of the second polarity but not of the first to flow through the second winding, means for supplying direct current of one polarity or the other to said windings to selectively energize one winding or the other, and means for supplying alternating current to said windings to energize both windings.
In testimony whereof I aflix my signature.
PAUL H; GEIGER.
US67136823 1923-10-29 1923-10-29 Railway-traffic-controlling apparatus and electrical apparatus suitable for use therein Expired - Lifetime US1704736A (en)

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2423119A (en) * 1943-11-08 1947-07-01 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Hydrophone selecting system
US2428028A (en) * 1941-05-28 1947-09-30 Int Standard Electric Corp Electrical signaling system
US2512639A (en) * 1944-01-05 1950-06-27 Int Standard Electric Corp Control or signaling system
US2584856A (en) * 1946-12-31 1952-02-05 Warren Webster & Co Electromagnetic system
US2613254A (en) * 1949-05-11 1952-10-07 Westinghouse Brake & Signal Electric relay
US2639415A (en) * 1948-10-27 1953-05-19 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Indicator selecting and lock-in circuit
US2679640A (en) * 1949-06-22 1954-05-25 John A Dondero Remote valve control and position indicator system
US2703532A (en) * 1949-02-23 1955-03-08 Phillips Petroleum Co Electromechanical gas lift valve and control system therefor
US2924813A (en) * 1956-03-06 1960-02-09 Gates Radio Company Remote control system
US2996613A (en) * 1956-03-06 1961-08-15 Itt Detector circuit
US3400667A (en) * 1965-07-13 1968-09-10 Marx & Co Louis Lap counter

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2428028A (en) * 1941-05-28 1947-09-30 Int Standard Electric Corp Electrical signaling system
US2423119A (en) * 1943-11-08 1947-07-01 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Hydrophone selecting system
US2512639A (en) * 1944-01-05 1950-06-27 Int Standard Electric Corp Control or signaling system
US2584856A (en) * 1946-12-31 1952-02-05 Warren Webster & Co Electromagnetic system
US2639415A (en) * 1948-10-27 1953-05-19 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Indicator selecting and lock-in circuit
US2703532A (en) * 1949-02-23 1955-03-08 Phillips Petroleum Co Electromechanical gas lift valve and control system therefor
US2613254A (en) * 1949-05-11 1952-10-07 Westinghouse Brake & Signal Electric relay
US2679640A (en) * 1949-06-22 1954-05-25 John A Dondero Remote valve control and position indicator system
US2924813A (en) * 1956-03-06 1960-02-09 Gates Radio Company Remote control system
US2996613A (en) * 1956-03-06 1961-08-15 Itt Detector circuit
US3400667A (en) * 1965-07-13 1968-09-10 Marx & Co Louis Lap counter

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