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Publication number
US1675967A
US1675967A US17560327A US1675967A US 1675967 A US1675967 A US 1675967A US 17560327 A US17560327 A US 17560327A US 1675967 A US1675967 A US 1675967A
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Prior art keywords
box
passage
light
sight
test
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Emil C Zitkowski
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Emil C Zitkowski
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/17Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated
    • G01N21/25Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands
    • G01N21/29Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands using visual detection
    • G01N21/293Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands using visual detection with colour charts, graduated scales or turrets

Description

July 3, 1928.

- 1,675,967 E. C. ZITKOWSKI COMPARATOR Filed March 15, 1927 I 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Patented July 3, 1928.

UNITED STATES PATENT QFFICE.

0. ZITKOWS KI, OF SAN FERNANDO, IEIEIIJIIPIPINIE ISLANDS.

oouraaaroa.

Application filed March 15, 1927. Serial No. 175,603.

. taining the hydrogen ion concentration of sugar solutions is based on the knowledge that certain substances are indicative of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of sugar soluascertained.

tions to which they are added by changes in color.

By providing a series of solutions ofthe indicator, of different color-strengths and comparing them as standards, separately with the unknown solution, the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the latter is readily Various appliances the work of making the comparisons, require careful study on the part of the observer to correctly ascertain the identity of colors be-' tween the standards and the unknown solu-' tion, and it is an object of the present invention to provide an instrument so constructed that the two colors subject to com parison can be seen at the same time without shifting the eyes from one to another.

Another object is to provide an instrument of the above described character in which the several standards are readily moved into the line of vision for selective comparison with the solution under. examination and still further objects of the invention reside in details of construction and a novel arrangement of parts as will be fully brought out in the course of the following descrip tion.

AI l embodiment of the invention has been illustrated in the accompanying drawings in the several views of which. like parts are similarly designated and in which:

Figure 1 represents a plan view of the 1mproved comparator,

Figure 2 a fragmentary transverse sec tion along the line 2-2 Figure 1, drawn to an enlarged scale, 1

Figure 3, a front-elevation of the 1nstrument looking in the direction ofgthe arrow' A in Figure 1, part of the standards-wage zine having been omitted for lack of space,

Figure 5, a longitudinal section of the indevised to facilitate strument in a vertical planeindicated by the l1ne 44 in Figure 1,

F1gure 5,'an enlarged section through a portlon of the standards-magazine, as on the 11ne 55 Figure 1.

F1gure 6, a fragmentary plan view of the sight-tube of the instrument, showing a modification in the construction thereof, and

Figure 7, a plan view of the instrument,

10 mounted at the forward end of the base.

The observation-box consists of a' body having a cylindrical bore 12 flaring atits rear end to an opening 13 of larger diameter in the front of the lamp-housing, which may be covered by a pane of opal glass 14. 1 Extending transversely through the sightbox is a slide-Way 15 of trapezoidal section for the standards-carrier hereinafter to-"be described, and forward of the slide-way are two pockets 16 which extend vertically through the bore of thebody at opposite sides of the vertical plane of the axis thereof. The two pockets are divided from eachother by a thin artition 17 extending in the vertical axial p ane above-"referred to and they. are each provided with a l eaf spring-18 for the purpose of pressing test-tubes 1nser'ted in the pockets tightly against the partition? Forward of the pockets, the bore 12 is closed by a pane of o'pal lass 19 inserted in a groove of the bodyo the box and at the front end of the box and in connection with the forward end of the bore thereof is a flaring eye-piece 20 of sufiicient width to accommodate both eyes of the observer.

The standards-carrier, hereinbefore' re- .1 5 ferred to' rovides a magazine for a plurality of test-tn es arranged inputs for comparison with the test-tubes in the pockets of the relatively stationary 'elementof the instrus ment.' The carrier is, composed of a,.ba r21- 1 of wood or other suitable'material provided with a. number of equidistantly spapedtrans- 24 press verse bores 22 ads ted'to separately register with the bore 0 the box 7.

Thin partitions 23 bisecting the bores of the carrier are adapted to register with the 17 or the box, pockets 24 for test- 1 place any oneof its transverse ores in a Test-tub merit with the bore of the box. v

order to facilitate insertion of the partitions. 17, and the opal glass. 19, the box 7 may repeat insections as indicated in the drawings;

aving thus described the "preferred constructlonj'of the comparator its operation is as -fol1ows:--

been indicated in broken lines, are laced servation box and are springs pressed tightl against-the respective partitions between. t e pockets to preventin the pockets of the ma azine and t e ohthe passageof light outside the tubes. One or the test-tubes in the stationary element is supplied-with a quantity of the unknown solution and the other with a mixture of the solution and the indicative or colorin' agent.

Of the several pairs'of test-tubes in t e slidbeing varied in the difierentairs so as totest-tubes 1 consecu instrument.

part of the 0 sea The standard 7 through t-hesli" ing carrier one tube'in each pair is filled with distilied waterand the other with a solution of theindicator in water, the quan-.

tity of the indicator. used in the solution provide a graded scale of co or-variation's.

By looking into the eye-piece of the instrument after'the lamp has been lighted, the observer sees in the circular field of the bore 12'both colors divided in the center of the field by-za black line producedbythe alined partitions 17 and 23.. Both colors are thus seen at the-same time in the field of the bore, and the half-shade efiect producedby the opal glass 19 permits of comparingthecolorsfiat opposite sides of the lineaccuratel "and; out elfiort on the J tively 'mto reg ster w th thetest-tubes of the box Tuntilthe colors seen to beidentical,

at opposite sides 'of' the fdivisionline are The in i;,'pr0p0ft10n the indicator 7 inthe test-tubesof the magazine provides the meansr-to ascertain the hydrogen ion test-tubes of the stationary eljem'en Who the colors inl the testtubeshre'dit ficult to distinguish as for example when tholblue is used as an indicator, the testrier may be formed at opposite sides of the adjoiningly as in the 26 which in the'drawings have ymeans of the ferent' forms may .nioved lengthwise. to'bring. its --pairs of' test-tubes divide aera e tubes in the si ht-box 7 and the sliding car- 7 urther separated from each other by the use of two spaced partitions 28 as illustrated in Figure 6. The operator looking into the eyepiece or the instrument the field of vision, which enables him to compare each color with the white zone and thereby distinguish between the colors with greater accuracy than if they were placed first described form of the invention. In the modified construction shown in Figure 7, the carrier 27 is of annular form and moves in a circular path through the the comparater is particularly usefuljwhere standards than could be assembled on a straight carrier without impracticable increase in the length thereof.

Othervariations inthe construction of the instrument may beresorted to within the will see awhite zone between two color-s in so slide-way of the'sight-box. This form of it is required to employ a larger number or I I solutions, it may be efiectively employed "as a colorimeter in otherindustrles.

Round test-tubes as shown 'in'the drawings" are preferable by reason of their low-[cost and easy manipulation but it is-evident that square test-tubes or be used if so desired. Having thus described my invention, what ll claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. In an instrument of the character described, a sight-box having a light passage and pockets for test-tubes, divided'by apartition dividing the field of the passage, and a 'carrier movable across the passa e and having pockets for test-tubes, divi edby partitions, the partitions being so disposed in the carrier that they register respectively with that of the sight box in the travel of the carrier across the passage.

2. In an instrument of the character *described, a sight-box having a light passage and pockets for test-tubes, divided by a partition dividing thefield of the passage,'.an piece at an end. of the passage, an opal glass closurevforthe passage between ahe epiece and the pocket, and sterner move he by partitions adapted to 7 across the passage and having pockets ,for"

star with that of the sight-boxo .{In an instrument of arder movab e across the passage and av-' angfpoehets" for test-tubes, divided by parti tions adapted of the K he characterde; scribed, a siht-box having a light passage concentrationof the sugarlsolutionin the 1 test-tubesof other dif-- 'andpockets or test-tubes, divided by apar 'tiiin dividin the field of the v. a

. in the pockets against the respective partitions.

4. In an instrument of the character described, a sight-box having a light passage, a partition dividing the field of the passage, test-tubes at opposite sides of the partition, a movable carrier having light passages adapted to separately register with the passage of the sight box, partitions in the light passages of the carrier adapted to aline with the partition of the sight-box, and test-tubes on the carrier at opposite sides of thepartitions.

5. In an instrument of the character described, a sight-box having a light passage, a partition dividing the field of the passage, test-tubes at opposite sides of the partition, a movable carrier having light passages adapted to separately register with the passage of the sight-box, partitions in the light passages of the carrier adaptedto aline with the partition of the sight-box, test-tubes on the carrier at opposite sides of the partitions,

and means for the light-proof contact of the test-tubes with the partitions.

6. In an instrument of the character described, a sight-box having a light. passage, a partition dividing the-field thereof, testtubes at opposite sides of the partition, a movable carrier having light passages adapted to separately register with the light passage of the sight-box, and test-tubes in the passages of the carrier, adapted to register with the test-tubes on the sight-box.

' 7. In an instrument of the character dev scribed a sight-box having a light passage,

a partition dividing the field of the light passage and composed of spaced members, a movable carrier having light-passages adapted to separately register with the light passage of the sight-box, and partitions in the passages of the carrier each composed of two membersadapted for alinement with those of the sight-box, the sight-box and the carrier having'pockets for test-tubes at opposite sides of their partitions.

8. In an instrument of the character described, a slight-box having a light passage, a partition dividing-the field of the light passage and composed of spaced members,

and a movable carrier having light passages adapted to separately register with the light passage of the sight-box, the sight-box and the. carrier having pockets for test-tubes at opposite sides of their partitions.

9. In an instrument. of thecharacter described, a sight-box having a light passage an eyeiece at an end of the passage, a partition ividing the field of the passage, an opal glass closure for the passage between the eye-piece and the partition, and testtubes at opposite sides of the partition, a movable carrier having light pamages adapted to register with the passage of the sight-box, and test-tubes in the passages of the carrier adapted to register with the testtubes of the sight-box.

10. In an instrument of the character de scribed, a sight-box havin a light passage, pockets for test-tubes divi ed by a partition dividing the field of the passage, and a slideway transverse of the passage, a carrier in the slide-way having pockets for test-tubes divided by partitions adapted to aline with the partition of the sight-box and test-tubes in the pockets.

11. An instrument of the character described, comprising a lamp-housing having an opening, a sight-box having a light passage alined with the opening and a slideway transverse of the passage, a partition dividing the field of the light passage, an opal glass closure for the light passage be.

'tween the forward end of the passage and the partition, a carrier in the slide-way having light passages adapted to register with that of the sight-box, and partitions in the light passages of the carrier adapted for alinement with the partition of the sight-box, the sight-box and the carrier having pockets for the test-tubes at opposite sides of their partitions.

12. An instrument of the character described comprising a lamp-housing having an opening, an opal glass closure for the opening, a sight-box having a light passage ahned with the opening and a slide-way transverse of the passage, a partition dividing the field of the light-passage, an opal glass closure for the light passage, between the forward end of the passage and the partition, a carrier in the slide-way having light passages adapted to register with that of the sight-box, and partitions in the light passages of the carrier adapted for alinement with the partition of the sight-box. the sight-box and the carrier having ockets :Eor test-tubes at opposite sides 0 their partitions.

In testimony whereof I have afiixed my signature.

EMIL c. zrrKowsKI.

US1675967A 1927-03-15 1927-03-15 Comparator Expired - Lifetime US1675967A (en)

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2427790A (en) * 1945-01-10 1947-09-23 David A Korman Light beam comparator
US2489723A (en) * 1947-02-27 1949-11-29 Wallace & Tiernan Inc Color comparator having a holder for reversing samples
US3090993A (en) * 1959-08-26 1963-05-28 Standard Oil Co Comparison instrument
US3101232A (en) * 1960-03-23 1963-08-20 Foremost Dairies Inc Photographic recording apparatus
US3176577A (en) * 1962-05-02 1965-04-06 Gomer S Frank Visual color comparator having a rotatable color keyed standard
US3229565A (en) * 1961-10-19 1966-01-18 Silvestri Achille Optical colorimetric comparison device
US3619072A (en) * 1969-03-24 1971-11-09 Mobil Oil Corp Fluid sample cell with quick purging means
US3695770A (en) * 1970-07-13 1972-10-03 Charles R Granger Method and apparatus for demonstrating photometric procedures
US5057275A (en) * 1988-09-16 1991-10-15 Exocell, Inc. Analytic reader device

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2427790A (en) * 1945-01-10 1947-09-23 David A Korman Light beam comparator
US2489723A (en) * 1947-02-27 1949-11-29 Wallace & Tiernan Inc Color comparator having a holder for reversing samples
US3090993A (en) * 1959-08-26 1963-05-28 Standard Oil Co Comparison instrument
US3101232A (en) * 1960-03-23 1963-08-20 Foremost Dairies Inc Photographic recording apparatus
US3229565A (en) * 1961-10-19 1966-01-18 Silvestri Achille Optical colorimetric comparison device
US3176577A (en) * 1962-05-02 1965-04-06 Gomer S Frank Visual color comparator having a rotatable color keyed standard
US3619072A (en) * 1969-03-24 1971-11-09 Mobil Oil Corp Fluid sample cell with quick purging means
US3695770A (en) * 1970-07-13 1972-10-03 Charles R Granger Method and apparatus for demonstrating photometric procedures
US5057275A (en) * 1988-09-16 1991-10-15 Exocell, Inc. Analytic reader device

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