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US1644476A - Method of constructing underground tunnels - Google Patents

Method of constructing underground tunnels Download PDF


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US1644476A US1750625A US1644476A US 1644476 A US1644476 A US 1644476A US 1750625 A US1750625 A US 1750625A US 1644476 A US1644476 A US 1644476A
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John J Kennedy
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John J Kennedy
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    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/12Temporary supports for use during building; Accessories




Filed March 25, 1925 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented @M1921 s, VI@Li-'rsa1fr o Fries JOHN J. KENNEDY, or NEW' YORK, N. Y'. v lannion oF oon'srnuofrme UNDERGROUND 'nu-itimite, v

Ap'piieationfle-d March 23,1325: semina insee.;`

This invention relatesto"a[methodtoffcon-` In impmiygd niethodfofeonstifuethg .-35 structing underground .tunnels offconcrete."undergroundtunnels, I .eut small, longitu` 1 or otherz similar material in transverse asv 'dinal openings, support@ thek topot'eaeh of Well as longitudinal Sections Contemporaine-the openings, form, and hgn'ishfK hlne'ret'e 5 Vously With the digging thereof, Withrtlie obeaoh section of the tunnelWhieh is toA `loe Vject in view of providingV proeedures and ffbuilt in Kits opening",v until the transverse no arrangements wherehyonly a suflic'zient openf section offthearch'is completed to 'thefldor ing-is made toreceive a formand its sup-li-ne. 4 1 ,f y o port into which form the Huid ,or` plastic` A, practical ernbodinientof inyinyention is Vv concrete is pouredljor deposited:- i represented in the aec'or'npa'nying drawings,

Another object is to-provide'v a method in`` injvhi'ch e, vo5

which .the lpreliminary structure, minimizesl Fig `l represents a perspective v'iev'v otfiny the' materials used, tlierebyeffecting y.,aIl. improved `methods',of, tunnel eoitistinotion,` reconomy in labor andl cost otproductlon. Shoivlng a. transverse section ofthe tunnel.

Y Another object is to providef'aJ method in Fig@ 2frepresent's4v avertio'alf longitudinal which the preliminary structures maybe seotionftakeninthe plane oftheline Ile-,II 70 easily handled to accomplish speedyereetion "of Fig. l 1 looking .the direction of'fth'e With the maximumassurance ofsafety. e arrows.V

It has previously beenthe custom in,- tun-1.2,@A Fig. Srepresfents ay detailyertieal section nel building to removeorclear thematerial taken in the plane ofthe linefIII-I'I of to forma-n opening substantially the Width Fig`,`2, lookingintliedirection of the larrows, 75 andheight Adesired-and',to the level of the and e .l 5 Q ,d proposed floorofthetunnel. s e qligl. 45 rep esente amodified form of Moreover to overcome this and, other .double tunnel construction; Y g ditliculties toa great eXtenta large amount ReferringtoFligslto Srinelusifye ofthe` e of matter, in excess of, that necessary for theY draivingsin cons'truf'stingV thel tunnel leyfrny ,80 tunnel proper, must be removed-toaccomimproved method, I lirst remove "s uieient modate temporary shieldsV `for theworlrmen materia.l, such as stones,rocks',o ifeaitlnetcg` employed inthegexcavation- Which istore-o` tojformja longitudinalopeningotsuchsize Y oeive the side Walls etcpof the tunnel. vVhile ",asWillperinitthewvorkmenftofoarry on the 'l ,removing the matter,V such, as rock, stones, 4 furtherdoperations. QIthenproceedto tem.- y85l I ',etm, the excavators-.are placed in great porlarilyvloc'ate longitudinal fwallwplgtgs `de-- vdanger owing-to the tact that the root ot noted by:1,. `2 uponoppositasidesjfof the thev opening isunsup'p'orted and, iii-order to, open1ng; which ,Wall-A plates Serve 'asVV ailoase guard against cave 'ins etc. ahgreatquan. to receive ,legs` 3'Whiehsupporttransversely A Vtity of ytiinloer mustvbezused for shoringthe Y disposed 'cap beams 4.' These cap loeains'fare .D0 froof-andside 'Wallsroi the opening. arrangeehin oloseprox'imityto leach' other'v When the forms for lining' they tunnel andservetmholdfthe yf1oo;foi:`theopening Vproperi With coorete arefplaced in position,`v from. caving iunior falling upon ,thevvorl'rinen 40 certain portions ot" thepreliminary. shoring employed yinthe,opening. Ater v1t-hej.roof l t must be removed from timeto time4 and rehas been supported, theopeninglniayheex- -95 Y ,placedk after the,'eoneretejformfhasl become tended downwardlytoftheprposedffloor f y hard and dry, vThisfprocedure;not only ref. line orito,apredeterminedjlevel andvertical. -quire's considerable amount. ofinaterals t0;v pOStS. 5l lflflay;befereotedto shoreftliel` `Wall y 45 erect theznecessaystructures jlout,V italso e plates 711,2 Uponarriving at the predeter e, i

consumes alvasltaniount 'of timeasyvelll as mined levehl novipp rqiieeedf,tozvereetL afbent 5100 L- requiring avgreat number of skillfulworkor truss-,upon {Whjgn'l 7151.0 @egim .Qmiei-grual f men to complete, the operation.. A L i y Y "Furthermore, the'eo'ininonpra'ctice intun'- form-comprises'a eurvedfhottomf, radiallyv nel building ijs-tov irst form the benchor side. d-gpoggegA Sid@ Wallsjl, 'and/4a vertieal' 'end 'Y Wells theme' the upper yivallsparld Crown 'of wall ;.11f;jfaS--G1early Shown-11.1, Fig'sf and 3: 10.5 the areh, ,andflfastly the key to the arch is The-bottom] of the .ferm-,maf 'built O'f 1 formed hetvveen Y the-,@pppsitely disposed laggingand spaced. a `predete dlndirg.v t

,wang mining they crow-n ,,tancebeleivthefrensveCaribe.

for the keylseguqn e (arrange-umd, This A i `bl ttom 7 restsupon a pluralityof arch pieces V125' arranged at intervals throughout its length.y `The Aarch"pieces 12 are secured to n fbypostsrl of the bent. These posts are *.rigidlyheldY in place by vtransverse cross braces-17, 18, estacas-19, and' rby. lons-f tudinal tie beams V20,. 21V. v Y 'mf `:[11 `Order to lock'fthefke'y"section 6, fboth transversely Yand'longitudinelly to the/ad- 'itl'..celllkeySClOIEV I,y PVd Cah fxthesidewalls; e,V 9;.0f. thsfarm with s longi- -wenn.sueawhieh ab. develops .a longip l tudinal freoessjinthe sides of the key sec- ],transve'rse rib '2,4 arranged to ',orm ya Vrecess i 25 .frjcoactingwith the adjacentkey-secr.l

p y tion. ,".AfterA thev formljhas. been'lOClted in cretein any well known or c approved man:` fner, and vvhen the concrete is harzdfand. dry,

i the operation of `removing thematerial ad-v 'ientth newly. "Constructed ker'setioh :iS vicontinued As the' material -is'removed from y .key-section Withitslongitudinal"recess.

1 .,stmtiohfend .supperted iii. *anyv Well` knowh" arrang'edjtocact withv the"v bottornf 7,1 of.A the L' 4', have illus.`

'ai 1 leggasi ,wai 132' and uieapwpaesi alla the ,1

y p K jmined excavation. vlongitudinal stringers 13 mounted on cap beams 14, supported from the Hoor-plates 15` Lcavation.

,phen s Huedwifh liquidar. plastic. @0n-r fthesidjelofthe lkey lsectiomlinser'ta series l longitudinal crown 'bars 26 vvhichkrare'v ,"'held inplace by .Y struts 1 27 carriedby A'the preventthe roof of Vthe,opening from falling'v ;Wl1enffthe desired opening f ha'sibeen. exca-v Ky-formV .is removed to expose they Vsidfcfoi the ance belowA the* crown bars and;

fkeyfsetbli" 6. "'Ihej'liquidV or plastic 'concrete jisfdepos y d inthe lastnamed formandfr prof-1 sesame "s.bythe'lohgitdihalirecess 1.23nd

fhsthesis*similarly n thev material, after* elsif @pixma im( ll'le" abov description:

From the abovedescription taken in connection With the drawings, it will `beevident .thatfthe methodnof construction is extremely simple andeconomical the cost oi' material an'dlabor. ,Furthermore, the method may Well be carried out vby relatively 'un-V As'li'illjed "labor, "the shoring forming at all Vtimes .a.maX1mum assurance of safety against the'caving in-o'f the roof of the eX- Vj'I.contemplate that various changes may `be resorted to in the form, construction and arrangement of the several parts. used in carrying out the method, Without departingl from. th'efs'pirit and scope of my invention; hence, vI- do not Wish to limitY mysel strictly to the formherein shown anddescribed, eX

.cept asthey maybe included inthe claims.

l1. .They method of:` constructing under- J ground .tunnels comprising, cutting a `longitudinal opening, progressively inserting a series of transversely arranged cap beams in vcloseproximityto each othervto support 'the top of said opening, locating a longitu .i dinal form a predetermineddistance Abelow Y said series yof 'cap beams, `and iilling the .form and embedding the cap beams' in concrete j to construct;y the ,key of the, tunnel.

ground tunnels comprising,L cutting 'a longiclose'proximity Vto each other to support theY top of saidvv opening, locating a longitudinal 'l form` aVV predetermined 'distance below: said .n n seriesgof `capbefams, filling the'rriform and V105 embedding the N,cap Ybeams in concrete to.v construct the lkeyvofthe tunnel, cu'tting a sec-g ond Opening'adjaoent one fend "0fV hBCaP Vprogressively inserting' a serie's of longitul dinally arranged crown loa-rs'V to support the *top off said lastnameduopening, positioning a forma ypredetern'nined distance belovv 4said.

lseries .of crownV lbars adjacent ythe 'longituf dina-l formed key,and filling the form tothe..

bottom (of 'the crown bars VWith Vconcrete to .f

constructy theforownof the' tunnel.v I

y A Y I The "method"'ofjlconstructingfunden. tedfad,oubleltunnel,fan the method of vground.tunnelscomprising, cutting a longi-k y 1 tudinalfopening," lprogressively 'inserting aV series `-'of transversely 1arranged`*cap' beams n. f

vin `4elosefproXimityI tojeach other" tov supportA of Vsaidfilled form-, progressively inserting a series of longitudinally arranged crown crete to construct the crow-n of the tunnel;y bars to' support the top of each of the last on opposite sides of the key. v named openings, positioning a form' a pre- InA testimony, that I claim the foregoing 10 determined distance below each of said Series as my invention, I havesigned my name'this 5 of. crown bars adjacent each longitudinal 20th day of March, 1925.`

side of the formed key, and filling the forms f to the bottom of the crown bars With conn* Y JOHN J. A

US1644476A 1925-03-23 1925-03-23 Method of constructing underground tunnels Expired - Lifetime US1644476A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3186071A (en) * 1962-07-16 1965-06-01 Gordon W Hueschen Apparatus for erecting a self-supporting building and the like
US4150910A (en) * 1977-08-19 1979-04-24 Promon Engenharia Sa Construction of underground galleries

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3186071A (en) * 1962-07-16 1965-06-01 Gordon W Hueschen Apparatus for erecting a self-supporting building and the like
US4150910A (en) * 1977-08-19 1979-04-24 Promon Engenharia Sa Construction of underground galleries

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