US1642915A - Method and apparatus for x-ray work - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for x-ray work Download PDF


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US1642915A US477905A US47790521A US1642915A US 1642915 A US1642915 A US 1642915A US 477905 A US477905 A US 477905A US 47790521 A US47790521 A US 47790521A US 1642915 A US1642915 A US 1642915A
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Matthew B Adrian
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    • G01N23/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation, e.g. X-rays or neutrons, not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00
    • G01N23/02Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation, e.g. X-rays or neutrons, not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00 by transmitting the radiation through the material
    • G01N23/04Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation, e.g. X-rays or neutrons, not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00 by transmitting the radiation through the material and forming images of the material
    • G01N23/043Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation, e.g. X-rays or neutrons, not covered by groups G01N3/00 – G01N17/00, G01N21/00 or G01N22/00 by transmitting the radiation through the material and forming images of the material using fluoroscopic examination, with visual observation or video transmission of fluoroscopic images


5 Sheets-Sheet 1 sept.' 2o, 1927.
M.l B. ADRIAN METHOD AND AEPARATUS FOR X-RAY WORK Filed June 16, 1921- HGLJ Se t. l 19 p 20 27 M. B. ADRIAN METHOD JAN) APPARATUS FOR X-RAY WORK 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 flviled June le, 1921 i @al arromers.
Sept. 20; 1927.
1 1,642,915 M. B. ADRIAN METHOD AND APPARATUS' Fon x-RAY worm Filed June 1e, 1921 5 Sheetsshet 5 Se t.
.P 2.0 1.927 M. B. ADRIAN METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR X-RAY WOK Filed June le; 1921 5 sheefs'sheet 4 l INVENTog. M EY' Y 1,642,915 'sept' 20, A v l v M' B. ADRIAN 'METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR x-RAY woRK Filed June 16, 1921 5 Sheds-Sheet 5 qc i,
P16211'V I to providea machine in Patented Sept. 20, 17927.
MATTHEW B. ADRIAN, or yiviimvAnxnn, Wisconsin, A'ssrGNoRToiTHr-i ADRIAN oon- PoRATIoiv, rive., or` MILWAUKEEYWISCONSIN, A
vApplication filedJnne 16, 1921i Serial No; 477,905.
. This invention relates to a method and apparatus for conducting Xeray examinations.I and is particularly directed toa method for examining the `foot of a patient and to a mae chine for effecting such examination.
It is well known that Vinthe radiographic yexamination, of the lfeet ot .patients thaty the results osuch examinationsare usually un.- satisfactory as they merely examine the foot in its unloaded or free condition. There has" been a long 'felt want for a machine `(by which it ispossible to Aexamine the foot of a patient not only in the unloaded condition or free from the weight oit the body, but also whilethe toot is active in sustaining its share of the weight of the body. It is alsok obvious f that it is imperative, or a properly conducted examination', to provide a machine for the above outlined purposes by which it is possible to examine theoot Vfrom any: one Aof a great number of angles, that is to say, look throughthe foot directly downwardly and also sidewise through the ootso asto examine the articulation ory association of the bones of the toot whilethey arecsustaining the weight of the patient...v It is :therefore a primary object ofthis inventionto provide an X-ray ,machinel which will ulllfvthe above outlined requirements:4
-A Objects ot' this inventionl are to provide ain X-ray machine or-,examining-the foot of a patient either encased in orree of'slioes;
whichthe examination of vthe toot/is madevvhile such ,toot is .under lthe normal tresses iinposedthereon,
Jthat istosay, while the lfootfis supporting yits part of the weightof the patient; to pro` k'vide a machine lin which ...the .examination may be continuouslyl conducted while'lthe weight is shifted or variedso.astoaccurately 1 ascertain the relative positioning ot y Ithe bcnes and joints of the or unit'oiinvpressure; and togprovdefsuch a machine so arranged that both the rpatient Vand operatorniay simultaneously examine the foot so that detects reelyffdiscussed during the examination. .n
x Further objects are to.,V provide anv Xray the'foot ot a-fpatientmachine for' examining- H iii-whichy Provision is. made OBzVle-Wmg' the .nbonesot the toot at several didereiitangles ',wvhereby is machine in which provision is made ifor rolployed to ex'ainiinethe ootfo av patientv kany.
`mirrors vmachine` lfor examining ootlunderfvarying patients varying heights; 'means whereby cupsmayfbe ma1ntained,` as for example,by
foot looking directly down thereon and also to examine Qthe arch ofthe foot by looking horiz ontally across the foot or through the f foot in either direction; and to provide such Y al machine arranged to allow this examination without necessitating changing the position of either the` operator or ofi the paftient. f
Further obj ects` are to 4provide an LX.ray
machine for examining the Jfoot ot apatient :inl-which provision is made-for pointing out and indicatingupon the fluorescent screen .thedefecta or. various points that itis desiredto call 'to theattention of the patient;
'to provide such.api'nachine` arranged ltor eitheririuoroscopic inspection or for lthe production of permanent pilates; and to lprovide sucha machine so organized that unskilled operators may use it without dangerof any kind andwith absolute assurance of the resultsj:
Further objects areto provide` anX-ray tating the tubeso thatl onek tube niay be enione 'not a plurality ot angles gto provide a 's eriessot 'mirrors Vso arranged that they will cooperate lwitli the *tubeA inly any one-of itsmany pqsitions and directthe visible rays vtoa; suitablelocation for both ythe pa-v tient andthe operator; and to provide such afinachine ,so organiZedt-hat the cooperation oi theniirrors and :of theltube is assured and isv automatic j vwhile. still vvpermitting manual control ofeither the ltube oro the at the iwill'of the operator. Y
L'Further `objects are to provide an X-ray ,the Jfoot ofthe patient vin which eyejlpieces or eye cups are provided for lthey 'operator `and. for the] patient,y and if desi'ied,forv an additionalobserver tolprovide Imeans for adjusting the height of the' eye` pieces to accommodate andto provide a sanitary 'condition 'of eye providing removableV sanitary:` cups soV that atteruone use' thereof'the cups maythen beA .discarded anda new cupgrgd new Set Ofc-ups substituted. Y Y
th r objects iare .togv provide a method from "fieri examining" thefeetef a retient either while said toot is bare or while it is encased within a. shoe; to provide a method for conducting such examination while the toot is loaded, that is to say, bearing,l weight; and to provide a method tor examining the articulation olf the bones ot the feet while the weight of the body is thrown upon the balls ot the l'eet.
An embodiment ot' the invention is shown in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. l is a side elevation ot the apparatus.
Fig. 2 is an end elevation thereof.
Fig. 8 is an end elevation ol the apparatus with the upper hood removed.
Fig. ll is a plan view oit' the structure shown in Fig.
Fig. 5 is a. side elevation ot' the structure shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. ti is a detail ot' the sanitary eye cup.
Fig. 7 is an end view of a further torni ot' the invention showingl a portion ot the cabinet removed to illustrate the interior construction.
Fig. 8 is a side elevation ot the device shown in Figi. 7.
Figure E) is a diagrammatic end view showing` the positions that the mirrors, tube, and the particuhir screen then in use, occupy, and also showing the path ot the X-rays and of the visible or light rays.
Fi gure l0 is a plan view of one of the mirrors detached.
Figure ll is a fragmentary view showing one ot the spring catches in the position it occupies when it eo-operates with the supporting lever ot' the tube.
The device comprises a. boxlilte structure having; a permanent base portion and a removable top or hood l. The base portion is composed ot side members 2 and 3 and a pair ot'` top members et and 5 arranged at differentl levels as may be seen from Figs. l and 5 so as to provide steps for the oncoming patient. The top #i which is at the higher level has eut out portions adjacent its front, leaving a central tongue G which extends to the front of the machine and is `secured thereto. This tongue is the portion of the apparatus upon which the patient places his toot during the examination. i The X-ray tube is adjustably mounted so that it may be positioned beneath `this panel or tongue G in a manner hereinafter to be described.
The removable top or hood l is composed ot side members 7 which converge towards theirupper portion and with a pair ot slanting rear members 8 and a slantinpr liront member il. It is to be noted from an inspection ol Figs. l, et and 5 that the rear portion ot the hood has a cut out formation which is secured by an upright panel l() which extends 'from the rear upper edge ot the slanting; piece 1l to the plane ot the men'ibers S. It will further be noted that the slanting hood compels the patient to lean forward while he inspects his feet., thereby placing weight di reetly upon the balls ot the feet and causingv the bones to assume the relative positions they normally occupy when sustaining the weight ot the body. lriangular side portionsl 'I2 join this upright panel and the rear portion -s S and complete this portion o-t' the hood. The top ot the hood is formed oll u slanlinp.` substantially recangular top member l5- which is provided with openingsl ll and l5 adapted to receive eye pieces. It desired, shutters may be resiliently and slidably mounted beneath the top portion l?) and may be pulled out when it is desired to use either ot' the peep holes, such sluittera beine alapted to close the unused peep holes and thereby keep the interior oitI the hood relatively darlt. The hood is provided with a rectangular bo.\:- like structure lli which opens into the hood and is open at its upper end. A sin'iilar slightly larger boxlilte member lT telescopes the portion lll. Suitable lduidingl rods 1S, extending' upwardly upon opposite sides trom the base portion and corre iponding telescopic members lO extendinp` downwardly 'from the upper portion and provided with thumb nuts 20. are adapted to lock the adjustable members in the desired position. The upper member 17 has a rectangular closed top 2l. which is provided with au eye piece Q2 through which the patientmay look. The width ot the boxlilte lstructure is such that the patient may loolt either downwardly or to opposite sides ot' the hood portion and see the reflection in the particular mirror in use.
In order to provide proper ventilai'zion 'tor the appz'iratus, the base portion is provided with openings 23 upon oppositesides. lfhese openings conimunicate with a blackened box Ql which is provided with a series ot blackened baille plates 2:3 adapted to allow circulation ot air but prevent the pase-rage of light therethrough.
The location of the generatina` apparatus and of the control apparatus n'iay conveniently be as follows. It direct current is turnished, a converter 2G may conveniently be positioned beneath the floor portion 5. The main transformer Q". electrically connected thereto and supplying the tube with high tension current7 may be located beneath the lioor portion f1. A relatively small transformer 2S may be located adjacent the main transformer and may supply the filament current oli the Coolidge tube. Upon the front of the apparatus. a` main switch arm Q9 extends outwardly therefrom and controls the main or supply circuit tor the entire apparatus. A starting rheostat arm 3() extends through an arcuate slot 3l and controls the converter 2G. A rheostat knob 53:2 controls the current supplied the filament ot the Coolidge tube and may be provided with a pointer adapted to, indicateupon a suitablefscale 84 the milliamperes flowing inthe filament circuit for the particular setting of the rheostat.` y f One of the sanitary eye pieces previously mentioned is illustrated insection in' Fig. 6.
It comprises abase portion 35 provided with suitable apertures 36 whereby it may be secured adjacent theapliiropriatev opening. *It is'providedwith a groove 37'into which vthe contracted portion of a sanitary eye cup 38 is adapted to be slipped. 'It is understood j that these cups 38 `may Vbe discarded after one use and a new cupv readily inserted withinthe slot.37. In thismanner, the patients have no Vhesitancy in placing their faces in contact A; foot'switcli`39 may beconnected by suitable flexible conductors 40, carried in' a cable, for instance, with the primary circuit in the -main transformer 27 land-may thereby control the operation otthe X-rayytube., The
electrical connectionsof this machine are dis-y l rI his arm is adapt'edto be locked in any one of the Vthree main positions ,3 byl means or spring catclies and niay further bej locked in any intermediate position by mea-nsot the set screw 46. A.These `c`atches45fm`ay-nbe vseen y,noted that a plurality of these catches, which consist'otI afsp'ringpressed plunger andany operating external knob," f may :be provided about the tace of the front portion of the machine. `It is -'.ob`vious thatf these" lcatches may' feo-operate with 'the V tube`v` supporting lever'42'for 47, (depending upon which modi- "lication isin use), and may 'thereforevhold the? tube in. any one of several positions' ofk ."adjustment. It is alsotofbe iioteclfthatI `an-V other manner of'loclring theftube-inlthese various positions of adjustment ymay be secured by means of the set screw46 which passes thru and is vthreaded"to a stationary portion of the machine andbears atits lower end upon the shaiil`43 of tlie'operating crank 44 in an obvious andgwellffknown manner.y The outer portionf of fthe v*arm provided with a horizontal part 47 upon wlificha 4box 48V is mounted; Within fthis bor' A48 a pair of supports 49 yc'zarry the"lea1dfglarss casing 50 Rvithin `wliicli`-^thetubef`41'is' mounted', the
with the cups'while the'examinationvis in. progress.
substituted for the fluorescent slides; examining. the footvwith Vthe tube in the posilead glass `'casingfof course being provided Y `with a cutout or open portion lto allow thefree passage' oftheX-'rays The box 48l is providedwiththeventilators 52. and 53 similar to the ventilators `previously described but of small size. The box is preferably painted with lead paint throughout its -entire-portion'eXcept for a relatively small circular area directly over the opening 51 of the-lead glass shield 50. Spring reels 53 resilient-ly liold-the conductors 54 in taut condition whileallowing motion of the tube with corresponding unreeling of the conductors; These conductors supply the filament `current andl also connect one side of the high tension transformer 27. The other conductor 55 which yconnects the other end of the -tube with the hightension.transformer circuit is resiliently heldtaut by means of the spring reel 56 locatediipon the floor ofrthe compartment Aandadjacent the other end of `,the tube sofas '.tosecure adequate. spacing for theiiigli tension leads.
Theinner walls 57 and158 of the bottom porti-on, which extends upwardly7 a material distance ff'rcm the floor, portion 4,' are `provided with guide waysfwithin which slide in the floor portiony 4. These screens are adapted to car1y,:when desired, suitable plates-for radiographic work, or additional slidesy ior carrying suitable plates maylbe 4or tion -shown infFig. 5 a iluorescent screen is "removably carried by. the panel 11. This fluorescent screenis, of course, suitably pro- 'tcctedandis carried upon kthe'upper side of 'the fluorescentY screens 59 `and 60,*such screens 'f being:v adapted to be withdrawn rearwardlyv andl sliding in the grooves 61 and 62 formed -,thepanel unless such panel is made V'of n'ia- Y ,terial*transparent to the* 'visible` rays. 'Another way: of -mounting this ,fluorescent lscreenwouldbe to substitute it for: the panel all. andezallowfthe tscreen. to thereby replace ,siichfpanelef lt is, of course, understood that theseiuorescent#screens. are suitably protected and mounted 1 z A Zpair, ofv mirrors "63 and 64 are arranged l within the kbase portion` and-are hingedly mounted at .65 andf66 adjacent opposite fsid'es thereof@ rlfhese*mirrors are normally supported at'about '45 by any -suitable means', iaslrforexample, adjusting screws .67
and 68,' and are 4provided upon their'under f surface'fwithcam members 69 and 70,vre
ispectively, of insulating material. .,lVhen the -tube is rotatedby theoperatingv crank144 into'y 'the right or .left-hand position, one'of fwhiefl'i is indicatedV in ITig.V 2, its housing ,or
Ipartsx48 Contact with the corresponding cam member 69er 70 and kelevate the correspondinc'fmirror ,asindijcated in Fig. 2'sotl`iatfthe lmirror is movedi'eut ot theway of the tube andi allowsl thetub'e to. be positioned directly in line with the. toot of the patient and opjiosite `the other or active mirror. It any other angular adjustment of the tube is desired, it may be secured by locking the shaft 43 by means ol the set screw tti and corresponding-ly adjusting the mirrors by the adjustinnh screws G7 and GS.
In order to indicate the various detects or points to the patient, a universally mounted pointer 7l is provided and extends through the top portion 13 ot the hood or upper portion ot the cabinet. It is provided with a handle 7&2 by which the operator may indicate upon the mirrors or upon the protecting,- member ot the central fluorescent screen the various points that he wishes to call the lraitientis attention to. In this manner, a very rapid examination may be made and the patient and operator my discuss with certainty the various defects illustrated. For examjiile. any particular point may be indicated by the operator without necessitating the removal of either the operators or patieuts face from the corresponding' eye cup.
Figs. 7 and 8 showing the .modified torni will now be described. The construction. except as indicated, is substantiallyY similar to that previously described. In this modified forni, the tube is housed within the protectingbox 73 which in turn is carried upon the pivotally mounted lever 74, such lever being,f operated from the crank shaft 7 5 in the manner previously described. This lever 74e has, homwer, au extended portion 7G upon the opposite side of the crank shaft 75 from that occupied by the portion 74. This extension 7b' carries a fluorescent screen and protecting member or plate holder.l either or both of which may be removably mount,- ed. This fluorescent screen and protecting sheath is indicated at 77. It will be seen that as the tube is rotated about the crank sha-tt 75 that the screen will correspondingly rotate. This construction maintains the screen and tube upon opposite sides of the object to beexamined at all times. The mirrors 7S and 79 are duplicates in construction and position of the mirrors (i3 and G-Lt previously described.
ln this modified form. the cabinet and accessories are substantially the same as the previously described construction, with, however, the following main exceptions` namely, the front panel S() is substantially vertical so as to allow room for the extension 7 (S and 'for the outer portion of the fluorescent screen and protectingr sheath. The cabinet further modified in that the portion which is recessed to receive the toot consists simply ot an extended tapered housing composed of the top member 81 and the side members S2. This housing;r is closed throughout except for its outer rear end through which the toot of the patient is inserted. In this manner,
a free, unobstructed path is allowed for the fluorescent screen and tube to rotate about this housing for the patients toot.
lf desired, plate holders maybe arranged upon the upper member 8l and upon the sides Si?. T hese plate holders are preferably removable, and, during a fluoroscopic examination ot the foot are preferably completely removed from the machine. As pointed out above, however, in place of these plate holders ay single plate holder may replace the fluorescent screen or may be adapted t'or mountingr beneath such fhuirescent screen. The plate holders may be substantially similar to the screen holders, except that the plates are removably held. in the holders in any well known manner.
In all ot the forms of' the invention, the mirrors 63 and 64 or 7S and 79, (depending upon which modification is considered),`- are provided with cam shaped bottom portions. This is clearly illustrated in F injures 2 and 9 tor the first modification.` and in Figure 7 for the second. Upon reterrinar to Figure 9 it will be seen that when the tube is rocked to the left, for instance the cam member 69, it. will contact with the then upper outer corner of the tube box. rlhis will raise the mirror G3 from its normal. position, and will move it out of the way of the tube. At the same time the tube comes in line. with the screen upon the opposite side oit the coinpartment for the toot and inline with the mirror Gel. The path ot the X-ays is indicated at a-a, and it will be seen that such rays pass outwardly and thru any object that is interposed between the tube and the screen finally impinging upon the screen. The screen becomes luminous and emits visible rays. These visible rays pass outwardly and strike the mirror (il from which they are rellected upwardly along slanting lines until they arrive at the eye ot the observer. The path of the visible rays is indicated at bin Figure 9. Also the-se rays are indicated by dotand dash lines in Figures l, 4, 7 and 8. l
This form is particularly adapted for examining the foot at any desired angle as the screen is always accurately positioned diaminetrically opposite the tube. The adj listingn screws or other adjustingr means 83 and 8l may be manipulated to cause the mirrors to assume the proper angle to assur-e the reflection of the image to a point adjacent the eye cups.
It is of course understood that both the hood and bottom portion ot the cabinet may be suitably lined with lead, may be point-ed with a lead point,lor otherwise treated to prevent the outward passage of any harmful rays.
It will thus be seen that an X-ray apparatus has been provided by which the examination of the patients` foot` may be readily and eficaciously conducted by unskilled operators. It Will also be seen that the machine or apparatus is practically fool-proof and may be placed in any store, for instance, Where'tlie men who operate the machine are not skilled in X-ray Work.
` It will also be seen that either the fluoro-l cabinet, a fluorescent screen adapted tobe energizedby the rays from said tube, a series of mirrors for reflecting the visible rays to the upper portion of said cabinet, and a Series of members through which a patient and an operator may look.
2. An X-ray apparatus comprising a cabinet, a panel upon which the patient may place his foot and allow such foot to bear itsV share of the Weight ofthe body, an X- ray tube positioned WithinY said cabinet,
means for holding said'tube in any one of a plurality of positions about said foot, a
fluorescent screen adapted to cooperate with said tube, and a series of mirrors for conducting the Visible rays tothe upper portion of said cabinet whereby either the patient or the operator may iiuoroscopically eX- amine the foot. v
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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2857523A (en) * 1955-06-16 1958-10-21 Corso Leonard Fluoroscopic device
US20090003531A1 (en) * 2006-06-07 2009-01-01 Oliver Fleig Medical upright positioning device and system

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2857523A (en) * 1955-06-16 1958-10-21 Corso Leonard Fluoroscopic device
US20090003531A1 (en) * 2006-06-07 2009-01-01 Oliver Fleig Medical upright positioning device and system
US7686509B2 (en) * 2006-06-07 2010-03-30 Brainlab Ag Medical upright positioning device and system

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